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A patent ensures that an inventor is able to profit from his or her invention by preventing others from making, using, selling, or importing it without consent. Once the patent expires, the invention is free for the public to use without paying you. If you meet certain requirements, you may wish to extend your patent.Take advantage of this opportunity to have extra time added to your patent term and keep your invention out of the public domain longer.
Determine the status of your patent. The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) keeps a website database of patent information. Access the USPTO database to check on your patent status. If you can’t find all the information you are looking for in the text-based display, then look at the patent image in PDF format.
Know what kind of patent you have. In the US, 2 main types of patents are given: utility patents or design patents. Utility patents cover the function of an invention and design patents protect the way an invention looks. Utility patents generally last 20 years, while design patents last 14 years or 15 years for those filed on or after May 13, 2015. There are also 20 year long plant patents for inventors who asexually reproduce a newly discovered or invented variety of plant.
Find out if you qualify. Patent extensions are sometimes granted if there are government regulatory delays or if newer laws extend the length of a patent. Sometimes, with very strong justification, you can try to get Congress to pass a bill to extend your patent. If you fall into one of these categories, then you may be able to get your patent extended.
Be aware that extensions may not be an option. For most inventions, the given term for your patent will stand. Recognize that you may not be able to extend your patent for this particular invention. Focus, instead, on developing a new invention that you can then get a new patent for.
Get a term adjustment. If you filed your patent after May 29, 2000 and your patent was delayed because the USPTO was taking longer than normal to process the paperwork, you may be eligible to file for an extension. The extension will cover the time lost from your patent term for the delay. The length of the extension you are approved for will depend on the delay time frame, but will not be longer than 5 years.
Increase your original patent term. If you were initially granted less time than later legislation allows, you may be eligible to request an extension on your patent for the newer patent term. Under the Uruguay Rounds Agreements Act, utility patents granted before June of 1995 may be given an extension to 20 years instead of the original 17 years. This does not apply to design patents.
Get an extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act. A patent term restoration under the Hatch-Waxman Act is sometimes given to those who qualify.This applies to those whose products or processes, such as medications, medical devices, food and color additives, require testing and approval by the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) before they can be marketed. The period of time that you were unable to sell your product because you were awaiting FDA approval may be restored as an extension to the original patent. 
File for an extension with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). All application forms for patent extensions can be found on the USPTO website: here for applications filed before September 16, 2012 and here for those filed after this time frame. Know that there are filing fees associated with this application.The process for filing for the extension depends upon which reason for extension the patent falls under.
- Generally, the application for extension must be in writing, include the identifying information for the patent, information about why the applicant is entitled to an extension, relevant dates to determine the length of the extension, copies of the patent documents, etc.
- Be sure to check with the USPTO for the exact amount of the fee (around $1,000) and the proper procedure for requesting the extension for your case.
Wait to hear back from the USPTO. It can take up to several months for the USPTO to process your request. As with any government process, patience is best. If you are eligible and have a good reason for an extension, then there’s a chance you could be approved so waiting is worth it.
Request an administrative hearing. If your extension request is denied, you have the right to appeal your denied request. Appeal forms can be found on the USPTO website: here for applications filed before September 16, 2012 and here for those filed after this time frame. Reasons for denial include defects in the paperwork you submitted to the USPTO asking for the extension and your invention being ineligible for extension. File an appeal and address any of the issues that your extension was denied in your written appeal.
- The appeals process begins with your Notice of Appeal and fee payment. It will continue through various steps until it reaches the Patent Trial and Appeal Board. The board will make a decision on your case and complete the appeals process.
Meet with an intellectual property lawyer. It could be very beneficial to consult with an attorney to review your options, especially if your request is denied. Your lawyer may be able to offer suggestions and ways to supplement your application. Filing for a patent extension can be complex and your lawyer can ensure that it is done correctly.
Be realistic. This is the least common form of attempting to extend a patent. Congress may not grant your request unless you have very convincing evidence for doing so. You also may need strong support from the community or a special interest group with persuasive lobbyists on your side.
- Congress extended the copyright of works to 95 years over the original 75 in 1998. This was due mainly to influential corporations like the Walt Disney Company lobbying for the modification. Keep the kind of influence you may require in mind when you decide to send a bill requesting a patent extension through Congress on your behalf.
Find a representative. Do some research on representatives in your area or someone you think would want to sponsor you in extending your patent. You will need to convince him or her that there is a very important reason you must extend your patent. It is best if they have a record of supporting the type of invention you have or are connected in some way to that field.
- Only a member of Congress can propose private legislation to the legislative body.
Draft a bill. It’s a good idea to do as much of the legwork as possible before approaching your representative. Your bill should be written in legal language and go over the reasons your patent should be granted an extension. You can check existing bills on the Congress website to get an idea what a bill looks like. It might be helpful to consult with a patent attorney when you’re writing this as legalese can be difficult to master.
- Create a preamble. This is an introduction and general overview about your patent, the date it will expire and an explanation of why you need an extension on your patent.
- Write up a body clause. This is the meat of your biIl and contains clauses that show what action needs to be taken—in this case, you want your patent to be extended.
- Finish with an enactment clause. This tells when you want the bill to take effect. This will be the day your patent is due to expire.
- Know that bills which need to take effect in 90 days or less will need 2/3 majority vote, while those that take effect after that time period will only require a majority vote. Send your bill in as early as possible.
Submit your bill to your potential sponsor. Contact your representative by phone or email. Many have websites where you can fill out a form to submit your case. Be sure to ask what the process is like and when you can expect to hear back.
Get a lobbyist to represent you. If your patent is important to certain groups or not extending it could cause harm, then look for someone with contacts to represent you. Lobbyist groups can put pressure on Congress to extend your patent. In order to do this, you need to have a good cause with far-reaching effects if your patent is not extended.
Be patient. The legislative process can take time. It must go through multiple committees before the house will vote on it. After that, it must be signed in. The length of time this will take varies and is something you should discuss with your sponsor.
- It is best to file for an extension as soon as possible, as the USPTO generally takes months to process most filings.
- The request for patent extension should be made 3 months prior to the date on which the patent is set to expire.
Sources and Citations
- ↑ http://www.bpmlegal.com/patqa.html#2
- ↑ http://www.uspto.gov/patents-getting-started/patent-basics/types-patent-applications/general-information-about-35-usc-161
- ↑ http://corporate.findlaw.com/intellectual-property/patent-term-extensions-and-restoration-under-the-hatch-waxman-act.html#sthash.xuVfZJXF.dpuf