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Keminntek Laboratories is a Hyderabad (India) based Contract Research Organization in Pharmaceutical sector in specific Pharmaceutical Intermediates, Speciality Chemicals, Impurities and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients. Promoters of Keminntek Laboratories are Young and Dynamic Technocrats and established with a vision to provide a best-in class pharmaceutical services. Keminntek Laboratories would be a value-added and innovative-in –approach business partner. It has a strong talent pool of qualified and experienced scientists drawn from the national and international institutes and industry. It has a capability to synthesize in mg to multi-kg scale.
Promoters of this company are very well qualified and experienced personalities in Pharmaceutical sector
We have a team consisting
Ph.Ds from premier Indian Institutes and postdocs from abroad
M. Sc (Chemistry) with 2-12 years pharmaceutical industry experience
Our team expertise lies in process R&D of pharmaceutical intermediates, NCEs (Medicinal Chemistry) development, pharmaceutical impurities, and custom synthesis of specialty chemicals
//////////////KemInnTek Laboratories, srinivas kolupula, hyderabad, blog, cro, custom, synthesis
Sameer Dhurua, Dilip Bhedia, Dnyaneshwar Gophanea, Kiran Hirbhagata, Vijaya Nadara, Dattatray Morea, Sapna Parikha, Roda Dalala, Lyle C. Fonsecaa, Firuza Kharasa, Prashant Y. Vadnala, Ram A. Vishwakarmaa, H. Sivaramakrishnana*
aDepartment of Medicinal Chemistry, Piramal Life Sciences Limited, 1 Nirlon Complex, Off Western Express Highway, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 063, India
bDepartment of Pharmacology, Piramal Life Sciences Limited, 1 Nirlon Complex, Off Western Express Highway, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 063, India
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21 (2011) 3784–3787
Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of novel diarylheptanoids [5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-7-(pyridin-3-yl)-heptan-3-ones and 1-phenyl-7-(pyridin-3-yl)hept-4-en-3-ones] as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α production is described in the present article. The key reactions involve the formation of a β-hydroxyketone by the reaction of substituted 4-phenyl butan-2-ones with pyridine-3-carboxaldehyde in presence of LDA and the subsequent dehydration of the same to obtain the α,β-unsaturated ketones. Compounds 4i, 5b, 5d, and 5g significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-α production from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a dose-dependent manner. Of note, the in vitro TNF-α inhibition potential of 5b and 5d is comparable to that of curcumin (a naturally occurring diarylheptanoid). Most importantly, oral administration of 4i, 5b, 5d, and 5g (each at 100 mg/kg) but not curcumin (at 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibits LPS-induced TNF-α production in BALB/c mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that these compounds may have potential therapeutic implications for TNF-α-mediated auto-immune/inflammatory disorders.
Scheme 1. Synthetic scheme
ABOUT GUEST BLOGGER
Dr. Dnyaneshwar B. Gophane, Ph. D.
Post doc fellow at Purdue university and university of Iceland
Dr. Dnyaneshwar B. Gophane completed his B.Sc. (Chemistry) at Anand college of science, Pathardi (Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India) in 2000 and M.Sc. (Organic Chemistry) at Department of Chemistry, University of Pune (India) in 2003. From 2003 to 2008, he worked in research and development departments of pharmaceutical companies like Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories and Nicholas Piramal India Limited, where he involved in synthesizing novel organic compounds for in vitro and in vivo screening and optimizing process for drug molecule syntheses. In 2008, Dnyaneshwar joined Prof. Sigurdsson’s laboratory for his Ph.D. study at the University of Iceland. His Ph.D. thesis mainly describes syntheses of nitroxide spin-labeled and fluorescent nucleosides and their incorporation into DNA and RNA using phosphoramidite chemistry. These modified nucleosides are useful probes for studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopies. In 2014, after finishing his Ph.D., he worked as post doc fellow in same laboratory and mainly worked on spin labelling of RNA. At the university of Purdue in his second post doc, he was totally dedicated to syntheses of small molecules for anti-cancer activity and modification of cyclic dinucleotides for antibacterial activity. During his research experience, he has authored 8 international publications in peer reviewed journals like Chemical Communications, Chemistry- A European Journal, Journal of organic chemistry and Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry.
Hydrogen-bonding controlled rigidity of an isoindoline-derived nitroxide spin label for nucleic acids
Dnyaneshwar B. Gophane and Snorri Th. Sigurdsson*
a Department of Chemistry, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, 107 Reykjavik, Iceland
Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 999—1001
Two new nitroxide-modified nucleosides, OxU and ImU, were synthesized and incorporated into DNA. ImU has lower mobility in duplex DNA due to an intramolecular hydrogen bond.
Nucleosides spin-labelled with isoindoline-derived benzimidazole (ImU) and benzoxazole (OxU) moieties were synthesized and incorporated into DNA oligonucleotides. Both labels display limited mobility in duplex DNA but ImU was less mobile, which was attributed to an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the N-H of the imidazole and O4 of the uracil nucleobase.
Scheme 1. Literature methods for synthesis of diamino isoindoline 6.
Scheme 2. Improved synthesis of diamino isoindoline 6.
Scheme 3. Synthesis of benzimidazole derivative phosphoramidites 10.
Scheme 4. Synthesis of benzoxazole derivative phosphoramidites 14.
ABOUT GUEST BLOGGER
Dr. Dnyaneshwar B. Gophane, Ph. D.
Post doc fellow at Purdue university and university of Iceland
Dr. Dnyaneshwar Gophane
Dr. Dnyaneshwar B. Gophane completed his B.Sc. (Chemistry) at Anand college of science, Pathardi (Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India) in 2000 and M.Sc. (Organic Chemistry) at Department of Chemistry, University of Pune (India) in 2003. From 2003 to 2008, he worked in research and development departments of pharmaceutical companies like Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories and Nicholas Piramal India Limited, where he involved in synthesizing novel organic compounds for in vitro and in vivo screening and optimizing process for drug molecule syntheses. In 2008, Dnyaneshwar joined Prof. Sigurdsson’s laboratory for his Ph.D. study at the University of Iceland. His Ph.D. thesis mainly describes syntheses of nitroxide spin-labeled and fluorescent nucleosides and their incorporation into DNA and RNA using phosphoramidite chemistry.
These modified nucleosides are useful probes for studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopies. In 2014, after finishing his Ph.D., he worked as post doc fellow in same laboratory and mainly worked on spin labelling of RNA. At the university of Purdue in his second post doc, he was totally dedicated to syntheses of small molecules for anti-cancer activity and modification of cyclic dinucleotides for antibacterial activity. During his research experience, he has authored 8 international publications in peer reviewed journals like Chemical Communications, Chemistry- A European Journal, Journal of organic chemistry and Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry.
Dr. D. Srinivasa Reddy has been appointed as an editor of Bioorganic & Medicinl Chemistry Letters, Elsevier Publications. Congratulation Sir !
Click here for details. https://www.journals.elsevier.com/bioorganic-and-medicinal-chemistry-letters
As a GUEST BLOGGER, myself Dr Pravin Patil, presenting my paper as below
A New Combination of Cyclohexylhydrazine and IBX for Oxidative Generation of Cyclohexyl Free Radical and Related Synthesis of Parvaquone
Pravin C Patil*a and Krishnacharya G Akamanchi
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai-400 019.
aPresent address: Department of Chemistry, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.
*Corresponding Author: Emailfirstname.lastname@example.org
Tetrahedron Letters 2017, 58 (19), 1883-1886 (Recently published)
Abstract: The present paper demonstrate a single-step and straightforward synthesis of parvaquone through intermediacy of cyclohexyl radical generated from novel combination of cyclohexylhydrazine and o-iodoxybenzoic acid and subsequently trapped by 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. Formation of cyclohexyl free radical using this new combination was reaffirmed by cyclohexylation of readily available 2-amino-1, 4-naphthoquinone.
Scheme: Literature methods for synthesis of parvaquone
Scheme: IBX mediated oxidative arylation towards synthesis of 1 (Parvaquone)
Scheme : Cyclohexyl radical mediated postulated mechanism for formation of Parvaquone, 1
Synthesis of 2-cyclohexyl-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (parvaquone) (1): To a solution of 3 (1.0 g, 5.74 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was added IBX (3.80 g, 13.6 mmol) in one lot and stirred for 5 min at room temperature. To this was added dropwise a solution of 8 (0.78 g, 6.8 mmol) dissolved in 10 mL of acetonitrile over the course of 20 min. During the addition of 8 exotherm (up to 35 °C) was observed with evolution of nitrogen gas in the form of bubbles. Reaction progress was monitored by TLC (using mobile phase, hexane: ethyl acetate/5:95). After satisfactory TLC, water (20 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and acetonitrile was evaporated using rotary evaporator. To the residue obtained was added dichloromethane (30 mL). Oganic layer was separated and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution followed by saturated solution of sodium sulphite. Separated organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and evaporated to obtain crude 1 which was further purified by column chromatography (mobile phase – hexane: ethyl acetate/5:95) to afford 1 as yellow solid, (0.88 g, 60% yield); mp 136-138 °C (lit.18 135-136°C); FT-IR (KBr): 3585, 3513, 3071, 2926, 2853, 1666, 1604, 1590 cm-1;
1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3): δ 8.10-8.06 (d, J = 12 Hz, 2H), 7.74-7.67 (d, J = 22 Hz, 2H, 7.45 (s, 1H, OH), 3.11-3.03 (t, J = 16 Hz, 1H), 1.99-1.34 (m, 10H); 13C NMR (75 MHz; CDCl3): δ 184.5, 181.9, 152.8, 135.1, 134.9, 132.7, 129.2, 127.9, 126.9, 125.9, 35.1, 29.2, 26.7, 25.9.
ABOUT GUEST BLOGGER
Dr. Pravin C Patil completed his B.Sc. (Chemistry) at ASC College Chopda (Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India) in 2001 and M.Sc. (Organic Chemistry) at SSVPS’S Science College Dhule in North Maharashtra University (Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India) in year 2003. After M.Sc. degree he was accepted for summer internship training program at Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC, Mumbai) in the laboratory of Prof. Subrata Chattopadhyay in Bio-organic Division. In 2003, Dr. Pravin joined to API Pharmaceutical bulk drug company, RPG Life Science (Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) and worked there for two years. In 2005, he enrolled into Ph.D. (Chemistry) program at Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Matunga, Mumbai, aharashtra, under the supervision of Prof. K. G. Akamanchi in the department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology.
After finishing Ph.D. in 2010, he joined to Pune (Maharashtra, India) based pharmaceutical industry, Lupin Research Park (LRP) in the department of process development. After spending two years at Lupin as a Research Scientist, he got an opportunity in June 2012 to pursue Postdoctoral studies at Hope College, Holland, MI, USA under the supervision of Prof. Moses Lee. During year 2012-13 he worked on total synthesis of achiral anticancer molecules Duocarmycin and its analogs. In 2014, he joined to Prof. Frederick Luzzio at the Department for Chemistry, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA to pursue postdoctoral studies on NIH sponsored project “ Structure based design and synthesis of Peptidomimetics targeting P. gingivalis.
During his research experience, he has authored 23 international publications in peer reviewed journals and inventor for 4 patents.
//////////////Parvaquone, guest blogger, pravin patil
Discussing my paper……..
Metal-catalyzed cycloadditions of alkenyldiazo reagents are useful tools to access carbo- and heterocycles. These diazo compounds are chemically sensitive toward both Brønsted orLewis acids. Their reported cycloadditions rely heavily on the formation of metal carbenes to initiate regio- and stereoselective [3+n] cycloadditions (n=2–4) with suitable dipolarophiles.[2–4] A noncarbene route was postulated for a few copper-catalyzed cycloadditions of these diazo species, but they resulted in complete diazo decomposition.[3a, 4a, 5] oyle and co-workers reported[4a] a [3+2] cycloaddition of the alkenylrhodium carbene A with imines to give dihydropyrroles (Scheme 1a). We proposed a cycloaddition the tetrahydroquinoline derivatives 3 and 3’, as well as the tetrahydro-1H-benzo[b]azepine species 4. Access to these frameworks are valuable
Access to these frameworks are valuable for the preparation of several bioactive molecules including 2-phenyl-2,3-
dihydroquinolone,[8a] L-689,560,[8b] torcetrapib,[8c] martinellic acid,[8d] OPC-31260,[8e] OPC-51803,[8f] and tetraperalone A (Figure 1).[8g] Their specific biological functions have been well documented.
Spectral data for ethyl 2-diazo-2-(2-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-4-yl) acetate (2a)
IR (KBr, cm-1 ): 3542 (m), 2117 (s), 3015 (s), 1737 (s), 1564 (s), 1334 (m), 1137 (s), 817 (s);
1H NMR (600 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.41 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 2 H), 7.36 ~ 7.33 (m, 2 H), 7.30 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2 H), 7.07 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.04 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.71 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 6.55 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H) 4.56 (dd, J = 11.0, 2.3 Hz, 1H ), 4.25 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H ), 4.21 (dd, J = 11.0, 5.3 Hz, 1H ), 4.01 (s, 1H) 2.36 ~ 2.33 (m, 1H), 2.00 (dd, J = 11.8, 2.3 Hz, 1H ), 1.28 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H);
13C NMR (150 MHz, CDCl3): δ 167.2, 145.3, 142.9, 128.6, 128.0, 127.8, 126.5, 126.4, 118.8, 117.9, 114.4, 60.9, 59.5, 56.2, 36.8, 32.6, 14.4.
HRMS calcd for C19H19N3O2: 321.1477; found: 321.1483.
Rings aplenty: A HOTf-catalyzed (Tf=trifluoromethanesulfonyl) Povarov reaction of alkenyldiazo species has been developed and delivers diazo-containing cycloadducts stereoselectively (see scheme). The resulting cycloadducts provide access to six- and seven-membered azacycles through the generation of metal carbenes as well as the functionalization of diazo group.
 Selected reviews: a) M. P. Doyle,M. A. McKervy, T. Ye, Modern Catalytic Methods for Organic Synthesis with Diazo Compounds, Wiley, New York, 1998; b) A. Padwa, M. D. Weingarten, Chem. Rev. 1996, 96, 223; c) H. M. L. Davies, J. R. Denton, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2009, 38, 3061; d) M. P. Doyle, R. Duffy, M. Ratnikov, L. Zhou, Chem. Rev. 2010, 110, 704; e) H. M. L. Davies, D. Morton, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2011, 40, 1857; f) Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Tetrahedron
2008, 64, 6577.
 Selected examples for carbocyclic cycloadducts, see: a) L. Deng, A. J. Giessert, O. O. Gerlitz, X. Dai, S. T. Diver, H. M. L. Davies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 1342; b) H. M. L. Davies, Adv. Cycloaddit. 1999, 5, 119; c) H. M. L. Davies, B. Xing, N. Kong, D. G. Stafford, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 7461; d) H. M. L. Davies, T. J. Clark, H. D. Smith, J. Org. Chem. 1991, 56, 3819; e) Y. Liu, K. Bakshi, P. Zavalij, M. P. Doyle, Org. Lett. 2010, 12, 4304; f) J. P. Olson, H. M. L. Davies, Org. Lett. 2008, 10, 573.
 For oxacyclic cycloadducts, see: a) X. Xu, W.-H. Hu, P. Y. Zavalij, M. P. Doyle, Angew. Chem. 2011, 123, 11348; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 11152; b) M. P. Doyle, W. Hu, D. J. Timmons, Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 3741.
 For azacyclic cycloadducts, see selected reviews: a) M. P. Doyle, M. Yan, W. Hu, L. Gronenberg, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 4692; b) J. Barluenga, G. Lonzi, L. Riesgo, L. A. Lpez, M. Tomas, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 13200; c) M. Yan, N. Jacobsen, W. Hu, L. S. Gronenberg, M. P. Doyle, J. T. Colyer, D. Bykowski, Angew. Chem. 2004, 116, 6881; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 6713; d) X.Wang, X. Xu, P. Zavalij, M. P. Doyle, J. Am.
Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 16402; e) Y. Lian, H. M. L. Davies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 440; f) X. Xu, M. O. Ratnikov, P. Y. Zavalij, M. P. Doyle, Org. Lett. 2011, 13, 6122; g) V. V. Pagar, A. M. Jadhav, R.-S. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 20728; h) R. P. Reddy, H. M. L. Davies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 10312.
 Y. Qian, X. Xu, X.Wang, P. Zavalij,W. Hu, M. P. Doyle, Angew. Chem. 2012, 124, 6002; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 5900.
 Povarov reactions refer to the formal [4+2] cycloadditions of Naryl imines with enol ethers or enamines. See reviews: a) L. S. Povarov, Russ. Chem. Rev. 1967, 36, 656; b) V. V. Kouznetsov, Tetrahedron 2009, 65, 2721; c) D. Bello, R. Ramn, R. Lavilla, Curr. Org. Chem. 2010, 14, 332; d) M. A. McCarrick, Y. D. Wu, K. N. Houk, J. Org. Chem. 1993, 58, 3330; e) A. Whiting, C. M. Windsor, Tetrahedron 1998, 54, 6035.
 For Povarov reactions catalyzed by Brønsted acids, see selected examples: a) H. Xu, S. J. Zuend, M. G. Woll, Y. Tao, E. N. Jacobson, Science 2010, 327, 986; b) T. Akiyama, H. Morita, K. Fuchibe, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 13070; c) H. Liu, G. Dagousset, G. Masson, P. Retailleau, J. Zhu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 4598; d) G. Dagousset, J. Zhu, G. Masson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 14804; e) H. Ishitani, S. Kobayashi, Tetrahedron Lett. 1996, 37, 7357; f) G. Bergonzini, L. Gramigna, A. Mazzanti, M. Fochi, L. Bernardi, A. Ricci, Chem. Commun.
2010, 46, 327; g) L. He, M. Bekkaye, P. Retailleau, G. Masson, Org. Lett. 2012, 14, 3158.
 a) Y. Xia, Z.-Y. Yang, P. Xia, K. F. Bastow, Y. Tachibana, S.-C. Kuo, E. Hamel, T. Hackl, K.-H. Lee, J. Med. Chem. 1998, 41, 1155; b) R.W. Carling, P. D. Leeson, A. M. Moseley, J. D. Smith, K. Saywell, M. D. Trickelbank, J. A. Kemp, G. R. Marshall, A. C. Foster, S. Grimwood, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1993, 3, 65;
c) D. B. Damon, R. W. Dugger, R.W. Scott, U.S. Patent 6,689,897, 2004; d) D. A. Powell, R. A. Batey, Org. Lett. 2002, 4, 2913; e) A. Matsuhisa, K. Kikuchi, K. Sakamoto, T. Yatsu, A. Tanaka, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1999, 47, 329; f) M. Y. Christopher, E. A. Christine, D. M. Ashworth, J. Barnett, A. J. Baxter, J. D. Broadbridge, R. J. Franklin, S. L. Hampton, P. Hudson, J. A. Horton, P. D. Jenkins, A. M. Penson, G. R.W. Pitt, P. Rivire,
P. A. Robson, D. P. Rooker, G. Semple, A. Sheppard, R. M.Haigh, M. B. Roe, J. Med. Chem. 2008, 51, 8124; g) C. Li, X. Li, R. Hong, Org. Lett. 2009, 11, 4036.
Vinayak Vishnu Pagar was born in Nasik, Maharashtra (India) in 1983. He obtained his BSc and MSc degrees in chemistry from the University of Pune (India) in 2004 and 2006, respectively. From 2006–2010, he worked as Research Associate in pharmaceutical companies like Jubilant Chemsys Ltd. and Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd. (India). In 2010, he joined the group of Professor Rai-Shung Liu to pursue his PhD degree in National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan) and completed it in 2014. Subsequently, he worked as a postdoctoral fellow in the same group for one year. Currently, he is working as a Research Scientist at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio USA. His research focused on the development of new organic reactions by using transition-metal catalysis such Gold, Silver, Rhodium, Zinc, Cobalt, Nickel and Copper metals which enables mild, diastereoselective, enantioselective and efficient transformations of variety of readily available substrates to wide range of synthetically useful nitrogen and oxygen containing heterocyclic products which are medicinally important. He published his research in a very high impact factor international Journals includes J. Am. Chem. Soc., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., J. Org. Chem., Chem- A. Eur. Journal, Org. Biomol. Chem., and Synform (Literature Coverage).
Dr. Vinayak Pagar
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
The Ohio State University
100 West 18th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210 USA
/////////Vinayak Pagar, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, The Ohio State University, blog, Povarov Reaction, Carbene Generation Sequence, Alkenyldiazocarbonyl Compounds
Diazo acetonitrile has long been neglected despite its high value in organic synthesis due to a high risk of explosions. Herein, we report our efforts towards the transient and safe generation of this diazo compound, its applications in iron catalyzed cyclopropanation and cyclopropenation reactions and the gram-scale synthesis of cyclopropyl nitriles.
Mechanisms for the Formation of Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride
Thionyl chloride is the most common reagent in process chemistry for the conversion of a carboxylic acid to an acid chloride. One of the primary factors is cost, since the reagent is inexpensive and represents one of the most cost-efficient ways of preparing acid chlorides. However, one disadvantage of thionyl chloride is the potential formation of dimethylcarbamoyl chloride, a known carcinogen in animal models, when used in combination with DMF as catalyst.
Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride is a reagent for transferring a dimethylcarbonyl group to alcoholic or phenolic hydroxyl groups forming dimethyl carbamates, usually having pharmacological or pesticidal activities. Because of its high toxicity and its carcinogenic properties shown in animal experiments and presumably also in humans, dimethylcarbamoyl chloride can only be used under stringent safety precautions.
Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride can be produced in high yields (90%) at 275 °C by reacting phosgene with gaseous dimethylamine in a flow reactor. To suppress the formation of ureas excessive phosgene is used (in a 3:1 ratio).
The reaction can also be carried out at the laboratory scale with diphosgene or triphosgene and a aqueous dimethylamine solution in the two-phase system benzene+xylene/water in a stirred reactor with sodium hydroxide as an acid scavenger. However, considerably lower yields (56%) are achieved due to the hydrolysis sensitivity of dimethylcarbamoyl chloride .
A more recent process is based on dimethylamine chloride, which is converted practically quantitatively to dimethylcarbamoyl chloride on a palladium catalyst under pressure with carbon monoxide at room temperature.
Dicarbamoyl chloride can also be formed in small amounts (0-20 ppm) from dimethylformamide (DMF) in the Vilsmeier-Haack reaction or when DMF is used as a catalyst in the reaction of carboxylic acids with thionyl chloride to the corresponding carboxylic acid chlorides.
The tendency towards dicarbamoyl chloride formation depends on the chlorination reagent (thionyl chloride> oxalyl chloride> phosphorus oxychloride) and is higher in the presence of a base. However, dicarbamoyl chloride hydrolyses very quickly to dimethylamine, hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide (with a half-life of about 6 minutes at 0 °C) so that less than 3 ppm of dicarbamoyl chloride are found in the Vilsmeier product after aqueous work-up.
Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride is a clear, colorless, corrosive and flammable liquid with a pungent odor and a tear-penetrating effect, which decomposes rapidly in water.Because of its unpleasant, toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties it has to be used under extreme precautions.
Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride behaves like an acid chloride whose chlorine atom can be exchanged for other nucleophiles. Therefore, it reacts with alcohols, phenols and oximes to the corresponding N, N-dimethylcarbamates, with thiols to thiolourethanes, with amines and hydroxylamine to substituted ureas, and with imidazoles and triazoles to carbamoylazoles.
Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride is less reactive and less selective to substrates with multiple nucleophilic centers than conventional acid chlorides.
Alkali metal carboxylates react with dimethylcarbamoyl chloride forming the corresponding dimethylamides. Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride reacts with anhydrous sodium carbonate or with excess dimethylamine to tetramethylurea.
The reaction of dimethylcarbamoyl chloride with DMF forms tetramethylformamidinium chloride which is a major intermediate in the preparation of tris(dimethylamino)methane, a reagent for the introduction of enamine functions in conjunction with activated methylene groups and the preparation of amidines.
Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride is a starting material for the insecticide class of the dimethyl carbamates which act as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, including dimetilane,and the related compounds isolane, pirimicarb and triazamate.
The quaternary ammonium compounds neostigmine finds pharmaceutical applications as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. It is obtained from 3-dimethylaminophenol and dimethylcarbamoyl chloride and subsequent quaternization with methyl bromide or dimethyl sulfate
Cholecystokinin-2/gastrin antagonists: 5-hydroxy-5-aryl-pyrrol-2-ones as anti-inflammatory analgesics for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease
Arylated 5-hydroxy-pyrrol-2-ones were prepared in 2 synthetic steps from mucochloric acid and optimised as CCK2-selective ligands using radiolabelled binding assays. CCK antagonism was confirmed for the ligands in isolated tissue preparations. DSS (dextran sulfate sodium)-induced inflammation was analysed for derivative 7 and PNB-001 with L-365,260 as a standard. The IC50 of PNB-001 was determined to be 10 nM. Subsequent in vivo evaluation confirmed anti-inflammatory activity with respect to IBD assays. The best molecule, PNB-001, showed analgesic activity in the formalin test and in the hotplate assay, in which the analgesic effect of 1.5 mg kg−1 PNB-001 was equivalent to 40 mg kg−1 tramadol. The CCK2-selective antagonist PNB-001 protected rats against indomethacin-induced ulceration at similar doses. The GI protection activity was found to be more potent than that of the 10 mg kg−1 dose of prednisolone, which served as a standard.