AUTHOR OF THIS BLOG

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLDDRUGTRACKER
Jul 312017
 

Recent progress on fluorination in aqueous media

Green Chem., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC01566F, Tutorial Review
Lian Yang, Tao Dong, Hrishikesh M. Revankar, Cheng-Pan Zhang
Advances of fluorination in aqueous media during the last few decades are summarized in this review

Recent progress on fluorination in aqueous media

*Corresponding authors

Abstract

Advances in aqueous fluorination during the last few decades are summarized in this review. Fluorinated compounds have dominated a large percentage of agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals and a mass of functional materials. The incorporation of fluorine atoms into organic molecules has become one of the mainstream technologies for their functional modification. Water is very environmentally friendly and has advantageous physicochemical properties. Fluorination reactions in aqueous media are highly sought-after, and have attracted great attention in research areas ranging from medicinal chemistry to materials science. In early times and for a long time, fluorination was thought to be diametrically opposed to water or moisture. However, recent examples have conflicted with this viewpoint. The successful merger of “untamed” fluorine and “mild” water in chemical reactions has set up a new prospect for green chemistry. A considerable amount of remarkable research works have been carried out using water as a (co)solvent and/or a reactant for transformations including electrophilic, radical, or nucleophilic fluorination. We hope that this review will serve as a guide to better understand and to further broaden the field of fluorine chemistry in aqueous conditions.

Conclusion

The installation of fluorine atoms into organic and organometallic frameworks can dramatically change their physical, chemical, and biological properties. Organofluorides have entered many fields of science and technology with a tremendous impact on these domains. The development of efficient, selective, and mild methods to build C-F bonds is of great importance, which is highly desirable to keep up with the rapidly growing demand of novel fluorine-containing scaffolds. In early times, most fluorination reactions required harsh conditions and moisture-sensitive, highly toxic, and explosive atomic fluorine transfer agents like fluorine gas, xenon difluoride, hypofluorite, antimonytrifluoride, and diethylaminosulfurtrifluoride. The discovery of stable electrophilic fluorination reagents such as Selectflour and NFSI has remarkably changed the dilemma, which realized a large number of safe, mild, and easily controllable electrophilic and radical fluorination reactions in aqueous media. Although the exact mechanisms are still unclear at present, it does never hamper the green fluorination method development with these reagents. A mass of successful examples have confirmed that the aqueous reaction medias have positive impacts on electrophilic and radical fluorination reactions with using the N-F reagents and in many cases water can also be a nucleophile for the entire conversions.

In addition, water was generally thought to be an unsuitable medium for nucleophilic fluorination because the fluoride ions can be “trapped” in aqueous medias by hydrogen bonding and become unreactive. Thus, their use in organic synthesis has been quite limited to polar aprotic solvents. Although the strong hydrogen bond formed between fluoride and water diminished the nucleophilicity of fluoride ions, the recent examples of nucleophilic fluorination in aqueous media have implied that this “negative” effect does not always harm the reaction. Besides, the radioisotope 18F has been considered to be a good choice for PET imaging owing to its desirable radiochemical properties. With a half-life of 110 minutes, the introduction of [ 18F]fluorine atoms into biomolecules has to be completed in a swift manner to minimize the loss of radioactivity. Nucleophilic incorporation of [18F]F‒ in aqueous conditions could rapidly produce [18F]fluorinesubstituted biomolecules, which avoided azeotropic drying process, shortened the production time, and minimized the loss of activity. We summarized the recent aqueous fluorination reactions in three sections according to their possible mechanisms. The successful amalgamation of “ill-tempered” fluorine and “benign” water has boded well for green fluorine chemistry. Water behaves as a cosolvent to dissolve fluorination reagents and/or as a reactant for bifunctionalization. Since the aspects of green chemistry has drawn much attention from the society, the pursuit of more efficient and milder reaction conditions for greener fluorination in aqueous medias will never end. Although a large number of research works have been published in this area, it’s only the tip of the iceberg with a wide scope for improvement. We hope that this review will serve as a guide to understand and to further broaden the field of aqueous fluorine chemistry. To meet the principle of green chemistry in modern synthesis, the development of new fluorination reagents as well as valid catalytic systems is crucial for mild and selective C-F bond formation. It’s undoubted that a growing number of green fluorination methodologies in aqueous media will be witnessed in the near future.

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Jul 302017
 

Ecocatalyzed Suzuki cross coupling of heteroaryl compounds

Green Chem., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC01672G, Paper
Guillaume Clave, Franck Pelissier, Stephane Campidelli, Claude Grison
A bio-based EcoPd was developed for the Suzuki cross coupling of heteroaryl compounds.

Ecocatalyzed Suzuki cross coupling of heteroaryl compounds

 

Abstract

A bio-based EcoPd was developed for the Suzuki cross coupling of heteroaryl compounds. Based on the ability of Eichhornia crassipes to bioconcentrate Pd in its roots, we addressed the transformation of plant-derived Pd metals to green catalysts. The methodology is based on eco-friendly procedures. It allowed the preparation of a wide range of heterocyclic biaryl and heterocyclic–heterocyclic biaryl compounds, with a low Pd catalyst loading. EcoPd was found to have the ideal microstructure to promote complex Suzuki reactions without ligands or additives. For the first time, post-reaction solution was treated by rhizofiltration. The resulting EcoPd has been reused with the same performance. This work has established the ecocatalysis concept as a powerful strategy for Pd sustainability, with the development of homogeneous catalysts that are easily recycled and reused.

str4 str5 str6

2-Bromothiophene (20 g, 125 mmol), Phenyl boronic acid (16.8 g, 138 mmol), potassium carbonate (20.7 g, 150 mmol) and EcoPd1 (113 mg, 125 µmol of Pd, 13.3 mg of Pd, EcoPd1 at 11.7 wt% of Pd) were suspended into degassed glycerol (200 mL). The mixture was stirred at 120°C for 4h thanks to an oil bath under an argon atmosphere. The reaction was checked for completion by TLC (cyclohexane) and GCMS analysis after a short extraction of the organic material: 10 µL of the crude were added into a 1 mL microtube containing a mixture of water and AcOEt (800 µL, 1:1, v/v) ; the microtube was vortexed before using the organic layer to perform analysis. Deionised water (500 mL) and AcOEt (500 mL) were added into the flask and the mixture filtered through fritted glass to isolate black Pd for recycling. The organic layer was further washed by deionised water (500 mL x 3) before drying over Na2SO4. The organic layer was filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was then purified by chromatography on a silica gel column (250 g) with pure cyclohexane as the mobile phase, giving the desired coupled compound as a white powder (18 g, 112.5 mmol, yield 90%) Rf = 0.7 (cyclohexane).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3):  = 7.10- 7.13 (m, 2H), 7.44-7.26 (m, 5H), 7.38-7.33 (m, 1H).

13C NMR (75.5 MHz, CDCl3):  = 123.0, 124.8, 125.9, 127.4, 128.0, 128.8, 134.4, 144.4.

MS (EI): m/z = 160 (M+ , 100%), 128 (21%), 115 (54%), 89 (17%) calcd for C10H8S: 159.99.

 

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Jul 242017
 

Advances in indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 medicinal chemistry

Med. Chem. Commun., 2017, 8,1378-1392
DOI: 10.1039/C7MD00109F, Review Article
Open Access Open Access
Creative Commons Licence  This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence.
Alice Coletti, Francesco Antonio Greco, Daniela Dolciami, Emidio Camaioni, Roccaldo Sardella, Maria Teresa Pallotta, Claudia Volpi, Ciriana Orabona, Ursula Grohmann, Antonio Macchiarulo
Structure-function relationships of IDO1 and structure-activity relationships of inhibitors are discussed with an outlook on next generation IDO1 ligand.

MedChemComm

Advances in indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 medicinal chemist

 Author affiliations

Abstract

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) mediates multiple immunoregulatory processes including the induction of regulatory T cell differentiation and activation, suppression of T cell immune responses and inhibition of dendritic cell function, which impair immune recognition of cancer cells and promote tumor growth. On this basis, this enzyme is widely recognized as a valuable drug target for the development of immunotherapeutic small molecules in oncology. Although medicinal chemistry has made a substantial contribution to the discovery of numerous chemical classes of potent IDO1 inhibitors in the past 20 years, only very few compounds have progressed in clinical trials. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of structure–function relationships of the enzyme, and discuss structure–activity relationships of selected classes of inhibitors that have shaped the hitherto few successes of IDO1 medicinal chemistry. An outlook opinion is also given on trends in the design of next generation inhibitors of the enzyme.

Introduction Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenases (IDOs) are heme-containing proteins that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of the indole ring of tryptophan (L-Trp, 1) to produce N-formyl kynurenine (2) in the first rate limiting step of the kynurenine pathway (Figure 1).1,2 The family includes two related enzymatic isoforms, namely IDO1 and IDO2, sharing ∼60% of sequence similarity and featuring distinct biochemical features.3,4 A third enzyme of the family is the tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) which is structurally unrelated to IDO1 and IDO2 and is endowed with a more stringent substrate specificity for L-Trp.5 Although TDO2 is expressed almost exclusively in hepatocytes where it regulates L-Trp catabolism in response to the diet, IDO1 and IDO2 are widely expressed in macrophages and dendritic cells exerting immunoregulatory functions.6 These are accomplished through two major mechanisms including depletion of tryptophan and production of bioactive metabolites along the kynurenine pathway. Specifically, the first mechanism postulates that raising levels of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) induce IDO1 expression in macrophages and dendritic cells during pathogen infection, leading to consumption of L-Trp and growth arrest of pathogens, whose diet is sensitive to this essential nutrient.7 The second mechanism grounds on production of kynurenine metabolites that bind to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), activating signaling pathways that enhance immune tolerance.8-10 Among the three proteins, IDO1 is the most characterized enzyme and in recent years a second signal-transducing function was revealed for this protein.11,12 In particular, this signalling function relies on the presence of two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) in the non-catalytic domain of IDO1.13 The immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) stimulates phosphorylation of ITIMs by Sarcoma-family (Src-family) kinases and consequent interaction of the phosphorylated enzyme with Src Homology 2 domain Phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and Src Homology 2 domain Phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), eventually leading to long-term expression of IDO1 and immune tolerance. Conversely, in pro-inflammatory environmental conditions, increasing levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) trigger the interaction of

phosphorylated IDO1 with suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) that tags the enzyme for proteasome degradation, shortening IDO1’s half-life and promoting inflammatory response.14 The breakthrough discovery that IDO1 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of maternal immune tolerance ushered in a great deal of interest on the enzyme, by then considered a master regulatory hub of immunosuppressive pathways in pregnancy, autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and cancer.15 In this framework, elevated levels of IDO1 expression found in several tumour cells were associated to the participation of the enzyme in the tumor immuno-editing process which sets up immune tolerance to tumor antigens.16,17 On this basis, academic groups and pharmaceutical companies have been engaged in the development of IDO1 inhibitors.18 Although part of these efforts has proved successful, with a large array of potent and selective inhibitors being disclosed in literature and patent applications, only few compounds have hitherto entered clinical trials (3-7, Figure 1).2,19-22 At this regard, some studies have highlighted challenges in the development of enzyme inhibitors mostly due to redox properties of the enzyme that may account for unspecific mechanism of inhibition of many compounds discovered in preclinical studies.23,24 Starting with an overview on the architecture of IDO1 and its structure-function relationships, in this article we discuss selected classes of inhibitors that have shaped advances in the medicinal chemistry of IDO1, providing outlooks on future trends in the design of next generation compounds.

str1

Antonio Macchiarulo

Antonio Macchiarulo

 

Francesco Antonio Greco

Francesco Antonio Greco

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Revisiting the deoxydehydration of glycerol towards allyl alcohol under continuous-flow conditions

 FLOW CHEMISTRY, flow synthesis  Comments Off on Revisiting the deoxydehydration of glycerol towards allyl alcohol under continuous-flow conditions
Jul 172017
 

Revisiting the deoxydehydration of glycerol towards allyl alcohol under continuous-flow conditions

Green Chem., 2017, 19,3006-3013
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC00657H, Paper
Nelly Ntumba Tshibalonza, Jean-Christophe M. Monbaliu
Highly selective flash deoxydehydration of glycerol towards allyl alcohol under continuous-flow conditions.

Green Chemistry

Revisiting the deoxydehydration of glycerol towards allyl alcohol under continuous-flow conditions

Abstract

The deoxydehydration (DODH) of glycerol towards allyl alcohol was revisited under continuous-flow conditions combining a microfluidic reactor setup and a unique reactive dynamic feed solution approach. Short reaction times, high yield and excellent selectivity were achieved at high temperature and moderate pressure in the presence of formic acid, triethyl orthoformate, or a combination of both. Triethyl orthoformate appeared as a superior reagent for the DODH of glycerol, with shorter reaction times, lower reaction temperatures and more robust conditions. In-line IR spectroscopy and computations provided different perspectives on the unique reactivity of glycerol O,O,O-orthoesters.

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Synthesis, characterization and anti-inflammatory evaluation of novel substituted tetrazolodiazepine derivatives

 Uncategorized  Comments Off on Synthesis, characterization and anti-inflammatory evaluation of novel substituted tetrazolodiazepine derivatives
Jul 172017
 
Image result for helen p kavitha
SRM University
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

3b R = NITRO

str1

Dr. S. Sathishkumar

Dr. S. Sathishkumar
Assistant Professor in Chemistry, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode – 638052

DR. HELEN P. KAVITHA

Dr. Helen P. Kavitha
Dr. Helen P. Kavitha

Professor and Head of the Department
E-mail: helen.p@rmp.srmuniv.ac.in
Area: Chemistry
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Ramapuram Campus, SRM University

Education

Ph.D. Organic Synthesis Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli, 2000
M.Sc. General Chemistry Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli, 1994
B.Sc. General Chemistry Bharathidasan University, 1992

Other Details:

Course

  • Chemistry
  • Principles of Environmental Science

Research Interests

  • Organic Synthesis
  • Medicinal Chemistry
  • Crystal Growth
  • Molecular Docking
  • Nano Synthesis

Selected PublicationS

  • A. Santhoshkumar, Helen P. Kavitha*, R. Suresh, Hydrothermal Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of NiO Nanoparticles, Journal of Advanced Chemical Sciences-Article in press
  • R. Kavipriya, Helen P. Kavitha, B. Karthikeyan, and A. Nataraj,” Molecular structure, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), NBO analysis of N,N0-diphenyl-6-piperidin-1-yl-[1,3,5]-triazine-2,4-diamine, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 150 (2015) 476–487.
  • S. Sathishkumar, Helen P. Kavitha and S. Arulmurugan, In-silico anti-inflammatory evaluation of some novel tetrazolo and triazolodiazepine derivatives against COX-2 protien,  International Journal of Advanced Chemical Science and Applications, 3(1), 2015
  • S. Arulmurugan and Helen P Kavitha, S. Sathishkumar and R. Arulmozhi.       Review on biologically active benzimidazole, Miniriveviews in organic chemistry, 12(1), 178-195, 2015.
  • S. Sathishkumar and Helen P. Kavitha, Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Novel Triazolodiazepine Derivatives, IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 8(1),47-52, 2015.
  • A. Silambarasan, Helen P. Kavitha, S. Ponnusamy, M. Navaneethan, Y. Hayakawa, Investigation of photocatalytic behavior of l-aspartic acid stabilized Zn(1−x)MnxS solid solutions on methylene blue Applied Catalysis A: General, 476, 22,1-8, 2014.
  • S. Sathish Kumar and Helen P. Kavitha, Synthesis and Biological Applications of Triazole Derivatives-A Review      Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry, 10(1), 2013.
  • Helen P. Kavitha and S. Arulmurugan     Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic activity of benzoxazole, benzimidazole, imidazole and tetrazole      Acta pharmaceutica  63(2), 253-264, 2013
  • Jasmine P. Vennila, Jhon Thiruvadigal,  Helen P Kavitha,  G. Chakkaravarthi and V. Manivannan, N-[2-(3,4-Dimeth-oxy¬phenyl)eth¬yl]-N-methyl-naphthalene-1-sulfonamide, Acta Crystallogr Sect E, 68(Pt 3): o890, 2012.
  • Jasmine P. Vennila, D. Jhon Thiruvadigal,  and Helen P. Kavitha           Antibacterial evaluation of some organic compounds as potential inhibitors for glucosamine-6-phospate synthase            Journal of Pharmacy Research, 5(4), 1963-1966, 2012.
  • Helen P. Kavitha and R. Arulmozhi , Synthesis, Characterization and Anti inflammatory Activity of Some New Tetrazoles Derived from Quinazoline-4-one , International Journal of Chemistry, 1-6, 2012.
  • S. Arulmurugan, Helen P. Kavitha and S. Sathish Kumar.          Synthesis, characterization and molecular docking studies of some new benzoxazole, benzimidazole, imidazole and tetrazole compounds as potential inhibitors for thymidylate synthase, International Journal of Science and Technology, 1, 1-11 2012.
  • Jasmine P. Vennila, Jhon Thiruvadigal, G. E. Theboral Sugi Kamala,  Helen P Kavitha, Chakkaravarthi and V. Manivannan          N-[2-(3,4-Dimeth-oxy¬phen¬yl)eth¬yl]-N-methyl¬benzene-sulfonamide” Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online. 68(Pt 3), o882, 2012.
  • Helen P Kavitha, A. Silambarasan, S. Ponnusamy, M. Navaneethan and Y, Hayakawa, Monodispersed synthesis of hierarchical wurtzite ZnS nanostructures and its functional properties” Materials Letters 81, 209-211, 2012.
  • Jasmine P. Vennila, Jhon Thiruvadigal, Helen P Kavitha, G. Chakkaravarthi and V. Manivannan, 2-(4-Bromophenyl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one”  Acta Cryst., E67, o1902, 2011.
  • Jasmine P. Vennila, D Jhon Thiruvadigal, Helen P Kavitha, G. Chakkaravarthi and V. Manivannan    2,4-Bis(morpholin-4-yl)-6-phenoxy-1,3,5-triazine”  Acta Cryst. E67, o2451, 2011.
  • Jasmine P. Vennila, Jhon Thiruvadigal, Helen P Kavitha, G. Chakkaravarthi and V. Manivannan, 2-Chloro-4,6-bis(piperidin-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine”  Acta Cryst. E67, o312, 2011.
  • Helen P. Kavitha, Samiappan Sathish kumar and Ramachandran Balajee           Antimicrobial Activity and Molecular Docking Studies of Some Novel Tetrazolo Diazepine Derivatives, Journal of Pharmacy Research,4(9), 2946-2949, 2011
  • Helen P. Kavitha and R. Arulmozhi  Study of Antimicrobial and Analgesic Activities of Novel Tetrazoles Derived from Quinazolin-4-one, Journal of Pharmacy Research , 4(12), 4696-4698, 2011.
  • R.Thilagavathy, Helen.P.Kavitha, R.Amrutha and Bathey.R.Venkatraman       Structural parameters, charge distribution and vibrational frequency analysis using theoretical SCF methods, Elixir Comp. Chem. 40, 5514-5516, 2011.
  • S. Sathish Kumar, Helen P. Kavitha, S. Arulmurugan  and B. R. Venkatraman, Review on Synthesis of Biologically Active Diazepam Derivatives           Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry, 8, 1-17, 2011.
  • Jasmine P. Vennila, Jhon Thiruvadigal, Helen P Kavitha, B. Gunasekaran and V. Manivannan, (E)-4-{(4-Bromopenzylidene) amino} phenol, Acta Cryst, E66, O316, 2010.
  • Subramaniyan Arulmurugan and Helen P. Kavitha, 2-Methyl-3-{4-[-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)ethylamino]phenyl}-3H-quinazolin-4-one”,     Molbank, M695,1-5, 2010.
  • S. Arulmurugan, Helen P. Kavitha and B. R. Venkatraman        Biological Activities of Schiff Base and its Complexes”: A Review,           Rasayan Journal of Chemistry, 3(3), 385-410, 2010.
  • R. Thilagavathy, Helen P Kavitha and B. R. venkatraman          Isolation, Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Property of Thevetia Peruviana     E-journal of Chemistry,7(4), 1584-1590, 2010.
  • Subramaniyan  Arulmurugan, Helen P. Kavitha, B. R. Venkatraman, Synthesis, Characterization and Study of antibacterial activity of some novel tetrazole derivatives” ,  Orbital Elec. J. Chem,  2(3), 271-276, 2010.
  • With R. Thilagavathi “Synthesis of 3-{4-[4-(benzylideneamino) benzene sulfonyl]-phenyl}-2-phenylquinazoline-4(3H)-one” Molbank, M589, 2009.
  • With S.Sathish Kumar “Synthesis of 3-Methyl-1-Morpholin-4-ylmethyl-2,6-Diphenylpiperidin-4-One”, Molbank, M617, 2009.
  • With S. Sathish Kumar “6-Methyl-2,7-Diphenyl-1,4-Diazepan-5-One”, Acta Cryst., E65, (o3211), 2009.
  • With R. Thilagavathi “2-phenyl-4H-3,1-benzoxazian-4-one”, Acta., Cryst. (E), E65, (o127), 2009.
  • With Suneel Manohar Babu “4-Bromo-3-{N[2-(3,4-dimethoxy phenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-sulfamoyl}-5-methyl benzoic acid mono hydrate”, Acta., Cryst. (E), E65, (o1568), 2009.
  • With Suneel Manohar Babu “2,4-Dichloro-N-phenethyl benzene Sulfonamide” , Acta., Cryst. (E), E65, (o921), 2009.
  • With Suneel Manohar Babu “N-(5-Bromo-2-Chlorobenzyl)-N-cyclopropylnaphthlene-2-sulfonamide”,  Acta. Cryst. (E), E65, (o1098), 2009.
  • With Jasmine P. Vennila “4-nitrophenyl napthalene-1-sulfonate”, Acta Cryst. (E), (o1848), E64, 2008.
  • With R. Arulmozhi,”1- Naphthyl-9-HCarbazole-4-Sulphonate”, Acta Cryst., E66, 010208, 2008.
  • With T. Nithya “Antibacterial activity of Solanum Trilobatum”, Journal of  Ecotoxicol.Environ. Monit., 14, (237-239), 2004.
  • “Synthesis and Antimicrobial activity of1-(9’Acridinyl)-5-substituted phenyl Tetrazoles”, Asian Journal of chemistry, 16, (1191-1192), 2004.
  • With S. V. Selva bala “Study of Hypoglysemic Activity of Solanum Xanthocarpum L. on Alloxanised Diabetic Rats”, Adv. Pharmacol Toxicol., 4, (19-24), 2003.
  • Helen P. Kavitha “Study of anajesic activity some novel 1-(9’Acridinyl)-5-substituted phenyl tetrazoles”, Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 9, (361-362), 2002.
  • With S.Malliga, “Effect of Soaking the Wood of Emblica officinalis,on Some Water Parameters”, Journal of   Swamy Bot. 15, (89-90), 1998.

Working Papers

  • With S. Arulmurugan, “Review on Biologically Active Benzimidazole derivatives”: Mini reviews in organic Chemistry.

Academic Experiences

  • Assistant Professor(S. G), SRM University, Ramapuram from Sep 2007 to Jun 2012
  • Lecturer, SRM University, Ramapuram from Aug 2004 to Aug 2007
  • Senior Lecturer, VRS College, Villupuram from Aug 2002 to May 2004
  • Lecturer, VRS College, Villupuram, from Aug 2000 to May 2002
  • Lecturer, ADM College for Women, Nagapattinam from July 94 to April 95

Other Professional Experiences

  • 4 Scholars have been  awarded Ph.D Degree
  • Guiding 3 Ph.D candidates
  • Guided 8 M. Phil and 20 M. Sc projects
  • Principal Investigator for a pilot project funded by SRM University (completed)
  • Co-investigator for a UGC major project (completed)
  • Reviewer for  International Journals
  • Convenor for the National Conference on New Renaissance in Chemical Research, 2011 and 2015.
  • Member Board of Studies –Chemistry,SRM University.
  • Doctoral Committee member in Karunya University
  • Undertaking consultancy work in the department
  • Question paper setter for various universities
  • Convenor for many programmes conducted in the campus
  • Chief Superintendent for SRM University-Ramapuram campus
  • Member in various professional bodies such as MISTE, FICCE and CTA
  • Author of five books in chemistry
  • Executive council member in Association of Chemistry Teachers, Mumbai

Achievement and Award

  • Received Award and cash prize for Research from SRM University from the year 2006-15

Image result for helen p kavitha

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Catalytic carbonyl hydrosilylations via a titanocene borohydride-PMHS reagent system

 spectroscopy, SYNTHESIS  Comments Off on Catalytic carbonyl hydrosilylations via a titanocene borohydride-PMHS reagent system
Jul 142017
 

 

DOI: 10.1039/C7CY01088E, Paper
Godfred D. Fianu, Kyle C. Schipper, Robert A. Flowers II
Catalytic amounts of titanocene(III) borohydride, generated under mild conditions from commercially available titanocene dichloride, in concert with a stoichiometric hydride source is shown to effectively reduce aldehydes and ketones to their respective alcohols in aprotic media.
  • Catalysis Science & Technology

Catalytic carbonyl hydrosilylations viaa titanocene borohydride–PMHS reagent system

 Author affiliations

Abstract

Reduction of a wide range of aldehydes and ketones with catalytic amounts of titanocene borohydride in concert with a stoichiometric poly(methylhydrosiloxane) (PMHS) reductant is reported. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrate that the reaction is mediated by a reactive titanocene(III) complex, whose oxidation state remains constant throughout the reaction.

Godfred Fianu

Godfred Fianu

Robert A Flowers

Robert A Flowers

Danser Distinguished Faculty Chair in Chemistry and Deputy Provost for Faculty Affairs
Lehigh University
Bethlehem, United States
Phenyl methanol (2-c)
Phenyl methanol (2-c) was prepared from benzaldehyde (1-c) by the procedure outlined
in GP1. NMR analysis showed 100% conversion in 1 hour. 86% isolated yield of alcohol
product was obtained after complete workup.
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.37 – 7.26 (m,5H), 4.59 (s, 2H), 2.99 (s, 1H).
13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3) δ 140.92, 128.56, 127.60, 127.07,77.52, 77.20, 76.88, 65.04.
STR1 STR2

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Control of stereoselectivity of benzylic hydroxylation catalysed by wild-type cytochrome P450BM3 using decoy molecules

 SYNTHESIS, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Control of stereoselectivity of benzylic hydroxylation catalysed by wild-type cytochrome P450BM3 using decoy molecules
Jul 142017
 

 

Control of stereoselectivity of benzylic hydroxylation catalysed by wild-type cytochrome P450BM3 using decoy molecules

Catal. Sci. Technol., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7CY01130J, Paper
Kazuto Suzuki, Joshua Kyle Stanfield, Osami Shoji, Sota Yanagisawa, Hiroshi Sugimoto, Yoshitsugu Shiro, Yoshihito Watanabe
The benzylic hydroxylation of non-native substrates was catalysed by cytochrome P450BM3, wherein “decoy molecules” controlled the stereoselectivity of the reactions.
  • Catalysis Science & Technology

Control of stereoselectivity of benzylic hydroxylation catalysed by wild-type cytochrome P450BM3 using decoy molecules

Abstract

The hydroxylation of non-native substrates catalysed by wild-type P450BM3 is reported, wherein “decoy molecules”, i.e., native substrate mimics, controlled the stereoselectivity of hydroxylation reactions. We employed decoy molecules with diverse structures, resulting in either a significant improvement in enantioselectivity or clear inversion of stereoselectivity in the benzylic hydroxylation of alkylbenzenes and cycloalkylbenzenes. For example, supplementation of wild-type P450BM3 with 5-cyclohexylvaleric acid-L-phenylalanine (5CHVA-Phe) and Z-proline-L-phenylalanine yielded 53% (R) ee and 56% (S) ee for indane hydroxylation, respectively, although 16% (S) ee was still observed in the absence of any additives. Moreover, we performed a successful crystal structure analysis of 5CHVA-L-tryptophan-bound P450BM3 at 2.00 Å, which suggests that the changes in selectivity observed were caused by conformational changes in the enzyme induced by binding of the decoy molecules.

M2 Kazuto Suzuki \ suzuki.kazuto*c.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp

Yoshihito Watanabe yoshi*nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp

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2,2,5,5-Tetramethyltetrahydrofuran (TMTHF): a non-polar, non-peroxide forming ether replacement for hazardous hydrocarbon solvents

 SYNTHESIS  Comments Off on 2,2,5,5-Tetramethyltetrahydrofuran (TMTHF): a non-polar, non-peroxide forming ether replacement for hazardous hydrocarbon solvents
Jul 132017
 

 

2,2,5,5-Tetramethyltetrahydrofuran (TMTHF): a non-polar, non-peroxide forming ether replacement for hazardous hydrocarbon solvents

Green Chem., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC01392B, Paper
Fergal Byrne, Bart Forier, Greet Bossaert, Charly Hoebers, Thomas J. Farmer, James H. Clark, Andrew J. Hunt
An inherently non-peroxide forming ether solvent, 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran (2,2,5,5-tetramethyloxolane), has been synthesized from readily available and potentially renewable feedstocks, and its solvation properties have been tested

2,2,5,5-Tetramethyltetrahydrofuran (TMTHF): a non-polar, non-peroxide forming ether replacement for hazardous hydrocarbon solvents

 

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2017/GC/C7GC01392B?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+rss%2FGC+%28RSC+-+Green+Chem.+latest+articles%29#!divAbstract

Abstract

An inherently non-peroxide forming ether solvent, 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran (2,2,5,5-tetramethyloxolane), has been synthesized from readily available and potentially renewable feedstocks, and its solvation properties have been tested. Unlike traditional ethers, its absence of a proton at the alpha-position to the oxygen of the ether eliminates the potential to form hazardous peroxides. Additionally, this unusual structure leads to lower basicity compared with many traditional ethers, due to the concealment of the ethereal oxygen by four bulky methyl groups at the alpha-position. As such, this molecule exhibits similar solvent properties to common hydrocarbon solvents, particularly toluene. Its solvent properties have been proved by testing its performance in Fischer esterification, amidation and Grignard reactions. TMTHF’s differences from traditional ethers is further demonstrated by its ability to produce high molecular weight radical-initiated polymers for use as pressure-sensitive adhesives.

STR1

[TMTHF].

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.81 (s, 4H), 1.21 (s, 12H);

13C NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 29.75, 38.75, 80.75;

IR 2968, 2930, 2968, 1458, 1377, 1366, 1310, 1265, 1205, 1144, 991, 984, 885, 849, 767 cm−1;

m/z (%): (ESI–MS) 128 (40) [M+ ]

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Fergal Byrne

Fergal Byrne

PHD Researcher at Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence

University of York

York, United Kingdom

University of York

Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK 

 

Andrew Hunt

Andrew Hunt

Catalysis, Environmental Chemistry, Green Chemistry

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NMR predict

[TMTHF].

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.81 (s, 4H), 1.21 (s, 12H);

STR1 STR2

13C NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 29.75, 38.75, 80.75;

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Continuous Microflow Synthesis of Fuel Precursors from Platform Molecules Catalyzed by 1,5,7-Triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene

 FLOW CHEMISTRY, flow synthesis  Comments Off on Continuous Microflow Synthesis of Fuel Precursors from Platform Molecules Catalyzed by 1,5,7-Triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene
Jun 052017
 

 

 

Abstract Image

The first continuous flow synthesis of C8–C16 alkane fuel precursors from biobased platform molecules is reported. TBD (1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene) was found to be a recyclable and highly efficient organic base catalyst for the aldol condensation of furfural with carbonyl compounds, and the selectivity of mono- or difuryl product can be easily regulated by adjusting the molar ratio of substrates. By means of flow technique, a shorter reaction time, satisfactory output, and continuous preparation are achieved under the present procedure, representing a significant advance over the corresponding batch reaction conditions.

Continuous Microflow Synthesis of Fuel Precursors from Platform Molecules Catalyzed by 1,5,7-Triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene

Tao Shen, Jingjing Tang, Chenglun Tang, Jinglan Wu, Linfeng Wang, Chenjie Zhu*§ , and Hanjie Ying§
College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing 211816, China
§Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing 211816, China
State Key Laboratory of Motor Vehicle Biofuel Technology, Nanyang 473000, China
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.7b00141

 

*E-mail: zhucj@njtech.edu.cn. Phone/Fax: +86 25 58139389.
1-(furan-2-yl)-2-methylpent-1-en-3-one
1a
3-pentanone (100 mmol, 8.6 g) and furfural (100 mmol, 9.6 g) were diluted with MeOH-H2O to 40 mL in stream 1, catalyst TBD (10 mmol, 1.39 g) were diluted with MeOH-H2O (v/v = 1/1) to 40 mL in stream 2, the two streams was purged in a 0.2 mL/min speed into slit plate mixer and at the 353 K passed tubing reactor. Finally, the product was extracted with EtOAc and water, the obtained organic layer was evaporated and purified by silica gel flash chromatography (25:1 hexane-EtOAc) to provide the analytically pure product for further characterization, the aqueous phase was collected and reused.According to the general procedure afforded 14.92 g (91%) of product 1a, isolated as pale yellow oil;
1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.62 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.29 (s, 1H), 6.71 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1H), 6.52 (dd, J = 3.4, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 2.71 (q, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.05 (s, 3H), 1.04 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).
13C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD) δ 203.5, 153.0, 145.8, 133.8, 126.8, 116.6, 113.3, 31.1, 13.2, 9.2.
STR1 STR2 str3
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Guest blogger, Dr Pravin Patil, Synthesis of Extended Oxazoles III: Reactions of 2-(Phenylsulfonyl)methyl-4,5-Diaryloxazoles

 Uncategorized  Comments Off on Guest blogger, Dr Pravin Patil, Synthesis of Extended Oxazoles III: Reactions of 2-(Phenylsulfonyl)methyl-4,5-Diaryloxazoles
Jun 042017
 

University of Louisville

Chemistry building and Shumaker building

Department of Chemistry, University of Louisville

Synthesis of Extended Oxazoles III: Reactions of  2-(Phenylsulfonyl)methyl-4,5-Diaryloxazoles

Pravin C. Patil and Frederick A. Luzzio*

Department of Chemistry, University of Louisville, 2320South Brook Street, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 

Faluzz01@louisville.edu

*Corresponding Author: Email: faluzz01@louisville.edu

J Org. Chem.201681(21), pp 10521–10526.

Publication Date (Web): July 21, 2016 (Note)

DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.6b01280

Image result for Frederick A. Luzzio

Frederick A. Luzzio

Professor, Organic Chemistry: Organic and Medicinal Chemistry

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STR2

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STR2

Typical Procedure for Aluminum/HgCl2-Mediated Desulfonylation for Synthesis of 4 (Eq. 1) and 18 (Table 2). To a solution of the alkylated 2-(sulfonylethyl)-4,5-diphenyloxazole 5 (0.12 mmol, 1.0 equiv) and crystals of mercuric chloride (0.034 mmol, 0.3 equiv), in methanol (15 mL), was added an excess of food-grade aluminum foil (2.32 mmol, 20 equiv) with vigorous stirring under a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting heterogeneous mixture was heated at reflux until the metal disappeared. The reaction mixture was then allowed to cool to room temperature and filtered through a Celite bed followed by washing with methanol (2 x 15mL). The filtrate was concentrated to a crude residue which was submitted to gravity-column chromatography on silica gel to provide 2-methyl-4,5-diphenyloxazole 4 (96%) or 2-ethyl-4,5-diphenyloxazole 18 (97%).

General procedure for Magnesium/HgCl2-Mediated Desulfonylation of Alkylated Sulfones 5-17. To a stirred solution of an alkylated 2-(phenylsulfonyl)methyl-4,5-diphenyloxazole (0.12 mmol, 1.0 equiv. from Table 1) in methanol (5 mL) was added magnesium turnings (1.73 mmol, 15 equiv) and crystals of mercuric chloride (0.012 mmol, 0.1 equiv) at room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature (2 h) while monitoring the reaction progress by TLC. After the reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was filtered through a Celite bed followed by washing with methanol (2 x 10 mL). The filtrate was concentrated and the resultant crude residue was submitted to gravity-column chromatography on silica gel (hexane/ethyl acetate) to afford the pure products 1827 listed in Table 2.

 

Typical Procedure for Aluminum/HgCl2-Mediated Desulfonylation for Synthesis of 4 (Eq. 1) and 18 (Table 2). To a solution of the alkylated 2-(sulfonylethyl)-4,5-diphenyloxazole 5 (0.12 mmol, 1.0 equiv) and crystals of mercuric chloride (0.034 mmol, 0.3 equiv), in methanol (15 mL), was added an excess of food-grade aluminum foil (2.32 mmol, 20 equiv) with vigorous stirring under a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting heterogeneous mixture was heated at reflux until the metal disappeared. The reaction mixture was then allowed to cool to room temperature and filtered through a Celite bed followed by washing with methanol (2 x 15mL). The filtrate was concentrated to a crude residue which was submitted to gravity-column chromatography on silica gel to provide 2-methyl-4,5-diphenyloxazole 4 (96%) or 2-ethyl-4,5-diphenyloxazole 18 (97%).

 

General procedure for Magnesium/HgCl2-Mediated Desulfonylation of Alkylated Sulfones 5-17. To a stirred solution of an alkylated 2-(phenylsulfonyl)methyl-4,5-diphenyloxazole (0.12 mmol, 1.0 equiv. from Table 1) in methanol (5 mL) was added magnesium turnings (1.73 mmol, 15 equiv) and crystals of mercuric chloride (0.012 mmol, 0.1 equiv) at room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature (2 h) while monitoring the reaction progress by TLC. After the reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was filtered through a Celite bed followed by washing with methanol (2 x 10 mL). The filtrate was concentrated and the resultant crude residue was submitted to gravity-column chromatography on silica gel (hexane/ethyl acetate) to afford the pure products 1827 listed in Table 2.

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Typical procedure: Synthesis of Oxaprozin

Ethyl 3-(4,5-diphenyloxazol-2-yl)-3-(phenylsulfonyl)propanoate (28). To a prechilled solution of 2-(phenylsulfonyl)methyl-4,5-diphenyloxazole 3 (100 mg, 0.27 mmol) in dry THF (15 mL) was added potassium tert-butoxide (33 mg, 0.29 mmol) under a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting yellow solution was stirred (5°C) for 30 min. To the reaction mixture was slowly added ethyl bromoacetate (49 mg, 32.4 μL, 0.29 mmol) and stirring was continued (16 h) at room temperature. Upon completion of reaction as indicated by TLC, the reaction mixture was quenched with cold water (20 mL) and extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 20 mL). The organic layers were combined, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to obtain a crude oily residue. The residue was submitted to gravity-column chromatography on silica gel (hexane/ethyl acetate, 4:1) afford pure ethyl 3-(4,5-diphenyloxazol-2-yl)-3-(phenylsulfonyl)propanoate 28 as off-white solid ( 88 mg, 72%).

Ethyl 3-(4,5-diphenyloxazol-2-yl)acrylate (29). To a cooled (5°C) solution of sulfonyloxazole ester 28 (225 mg, 0.49 mmol) in dry THF was added potassium tert-butoxide (60.2 mg, 0.54 mmol) under nitrogen and the reaction mixture was then stirred at 5-10°C (2 h) while monitoring by TLC. After completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 25 mL) followed by washing the extracts with water and brine then drying over anhydrous Na2SO4. Removal of the drying agent and concentration of the filtrate gave a crude residue which was submitted to gravity-column chromatography (hexane/ethylacetate, 4:1) to provide unsaturated oxazole ester 29 as a colorless oil (100 mg, 65%).

Ethyl 3-(4,5-diphenyloxazol-2-yl)propanoate (30).17 The unsaturated oxazole ester 30 (160 mg, 0.50 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (25 mL) then 10% Pd/C (16 mg, 10% wt/wt) was added at room temperature. The reaction mixture was purged with nitrogen while stirring followed by the addition of hydrogen gas (balloon) and then stirring was continued (16 h) under an atmosphere of hydrogen. Upon completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was filtered through a bed of Celite while washing with methanol (2 x 30 mL). The combined filtrates were concentrated and the crude residue was submitted to gravity-column chromatography (hexane/ethyl acetate, 4:1) to afford 30 as an off-white solid (129 mg, 80%).

Methyl 3-(4,5-diphenyloxazol-2-yl)propanoate (31).13  To a clear solution of sulfonyloxazole ester 28 (80 mg, 0.173 mmol) in methanol (10 mL) was added magnesium turnings (63 mg, 2.60 mmol) followed by solid mercuric chloride (4.7 mg, 0.017 mmol) at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred (2 h) while monitoring the reaction progress by TLC. After completion of the reaction, the heterogeneous mixture was then filtered through a Celite bed followed by washing with methanol (2 x 15 mL). The methanolic filtrates were combined and concentrated to afford a crude residue. The residue was submitted to gravity-column chromatography (hexane/ethylacetate, 4:1) to provide ester 31 as an off-white solid (52 mg, 97%).

3-(4,5-Diphenyloxazol-2-yl)propanoic acid (Oxaprozin) (32).13 Ethyl ester 30 (128 mg, 0.39 mmol) or methyl ester 31 (65 mg, 0.21 mmol) and 20% aquous NaOH solution (3 mL) was stirred overnight at room temperature. Upon completion of reaction as indicated by TLC, the reaction mixture was slowly acidified to pH 3-4 using conc. HCl (3 mL) at room temperature and stirring was continued (3 h). After the neutralization was complete the reaction mixture was diluted with cold water (15 mL) and extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 15 mL). The organic extracts were combined, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to give a white solid residue. The residue was submitted to gravity-column chromatography (chloroform/methanol, 9:1) to afford pure Oxaprozin 32 as white solid (80 mg, 68%, from the ethyl ester 30) or (60 mg, 97%, from the methyl ester 31).

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ABOUT GUEST BLOGGER

Dr. Pravin C. Patil

Dr. Pravin C. Patil

Postdoctoral Research Associate at University of Louisville

Email, pravinchem@gmail.com

    see…….http://oneorganichemistoneday.blogspot.in/2017/04/dr-pravin-patil.html

    Dr. Pravin C Patil completed his B.Sc. (Chemistry) at ASC College Chopda (Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India) in 2001 and M.Sc. (Organic Chemistry) at SSVPS’S Science College Dhule in North Maharashtra University (Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India) in year 2003. After M.Sc. degree he was accepted for summer internship training program at Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC, Mumbai) in the laboratory of Prof. Subrata Chattopadhyay in Bio-organic Division. In 2003, Dr. Pravin joined to API Pharmaceutical bulk drug company, RPG Life Science (Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) and worked there for two years. In 2005, he enrolled into Ph.D. (Chemistry) program at Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Matunga, Mumbai, aharashtra, under the supervision of Prof. K. G. Akamanchi in the department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology.

    After finishing Ph.D. in 2010, he joined to Pune (Maharashtra, India) based pharmaceutical industry, Lupin Research Park (LRP) in the department of process development. After spending two years at Lupin as a Research Scientist, he got an opportunity in June 2012 to pursue Postdoctoral studies at Hope College, Holland, MI, USA under the supervision of Prof. Moses Lee. During year 2012-13 he worked on total synthesis of achiral anticancer molecules Duocarmycin and its analogs. In 2014, he joined to Prof. Frederick Luzzio at the Department for Chemistry, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA to pursue postdoctoral studies on NIH sponsored project “ Structure based design and synthesis of Peptidomimetics targeting P. gingivalis.

    During his research experience, he has authored 23 international publications in peer reviewed journals and inventor for 4 patents.

    Prof K. G. Akamanchi

    ICT Mumbai

    SEE…………

    About

    The long term goals of our research are focused at the interface of chemistry and biology. We are interested in solving problems in biomedicine using the techniques and application of synthetic organic, medicinal and natural products chemistry. Toward our goals in biomedicine we concentrate our efforts in the following three areas of organic chemistry: (1) the development of new methods and strategy which are applicable to the synthesis of biologically active compounds; (2) the total synthesis of a wide range of complex molecules including natural products, pharmaceutical leads and their analogues; and (3) the isolation and discovery of biologically active compounds from natural sources. Within our objectives in item 1 (above), we have had a long-term collaboration with the Clinical Pharmacology Section of the National Cancer Institute in which we have synthesized metabolites and analogues of thalidomide, a small-molecule immunomodulator and angiogenesis inhibitor. The derivatives and analogues of thalidomide were stereospecifically synthesized in order to ascertain the mode of action and the molecular target of this small molecule. Ultimately, the synthetic studies are leading to analogues of thalidomide which are more potent, but which have less undesirable side effects than the parent compound. In the neurosciences area we have completed an enantioselective synthesis of both optical isomers of a key intermediate in preparing the histrionicotoxins, a group of compounds which are isolated for the neurotoxic Amazon “poison dart” frogs. One of our present natural products projects  (under item 3,above) entails the isolation, neurotoxicity assays and synthesis of a series of naturally-occurring compounds called acetogenins from the North American paw paw tree Asimina triloba. The isolation, purification and structural confirmation of the natural products has been conducted in collaboration with the Neurosciences Department within the University of Louisville School of Medicine. In the area of anti-infectives (under 1), we are designing and synthesizing an array of nitrogen and nitrogen/oxygen heterocyclic scaffolds bearing acetylenic and azido groups for use in the so-called “click reaction.” The multiply-connected scaffolds have proven to be effective for inhibiting micro-organisms working in tandem to produce biofilms necessary for their establishment and survival.

    Education

    1976   B.S.   Vanderbilt University
    1979   M.S.  Tufts University
    1982   Ph.D. Tufts University
    1982-1985  Postdoctoral Fellow, Harvard University

    Current Service

    Executive Committee/Treasurer, International Society of Heterocyclic Chemistry HETCHEM@louisville.edu

    Links

    Gordon Research Conferences on Natural Products 2009

    The Natural Products Gordon Conference. 1951-2011

    International Society of Heterocyclic Chemistry

    Organic Links

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