AUTHOR OF THIS BLOG

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLDDRUGTRACKER
Jul 252016
 

 

WO 2016113372

Carbotegravir, New Patent, WO 2016113372, Lek Pharmaceutical and Chemical Co DD

LEK PHARMACEUTICALS D.D. [SI/SI]; Verovskova 57 1526 Ljubljana (SI)

MARAS, Nenad; (SI).
SELIC, Lovro; (SI).
CUSAK, Anja; (SI)

ViiV Healthcare is developing cabotegravir (first disclosed in WO2006088173), which in July 2016, was reported to be in phase 2 clinical development.

WO-2016113372

Process for preparing integrase inhibitors such as dolutegravir and cabotegravir and their analogs, useful for treating viral infections eg HIV infection. Also claims a process for preparing intermediates of dolutegravir and cabotegravir.

(4R, 12aS)-N-[(2,4-Difluorophenyl)methyl]-3 ,4,6,8, 12, 12a-hexahydro-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-6,8-dioxo-2H-pyrido[1 ‘,2’:4,5]pyrazino[2, 1-b][1 ,3]oxazine-9-carboxamide (Formula A):

Formula A

known by the INN name dolutegravir, is a new efficient antiviral agent from the group of HIV integrase inhibitors which is used in combination with some other antiviral agents for treatment of HIV infections, such as AIDS. The compound, which belongs to condensed polycyclic pyridines and was first disclosed in WO2006/1 16764, is marketed.

Another compound disclosed in WO2006/1 16764 is (3S, 1 1 aR)-N-[(2,4-difluorophenyl)methyl]-6-hydroxy-3-methyl-5,7-dioxo-2,3,5,7, 1 1 ,1 1 a-hexahydro[1 ,3]oxazolo[3,2-a]pyrido[1 ,2-d]pyrazine-8-carboxamide (Formula

Formula C

known by the INN name cabotegravir.

The complex structures of dolutegravir and cabotegravir present a synthetic challenge. The first description of the synthesis in WO2006/1 16764 shows a 16-steps synthesis (see Scheme A), which is industrially impractical due to its length and low overall yield.

Scheme A

WO 2010/068253 and WO 2006/1 16764 describe an alternative synthesis. The 1 1 -step synthesis, shown in Scheme B1 and Scheme B2, is based on bromination of the 9-position for further introduction of the carboxylic group. The synthesis relies on the use of expensive palladium catalysts and toxic selenium compounds. Furthermore, some variations of these approaches involve pyrone intermediates in several steps. In some cases pyrones are liquids which can complicate purification, while further reactions form complex mixtures.

doiutegravir

Scheme B2

In further alternative syntheses, acetoacetates were used as starting materials. Such an approach is challenging in terms of introducing the hydroxy group in the 7-position. The variation in Scheme C1 , described in WO2012/018065, starts from 4-benzyloxyacetoacetate. The procedure requires 9 steps, but use expensive reagents like palladium catalysts. Moreover, there is described a possibility of formation a co-crystal between an intermediate and hydroquinone, wherein however the additional step may diminish yields and make the process longer and time consuming.

Scheme C1

The variation in Scheme C2, described in WO2012/018065, starts from 4-chloroacetoacetate. The process is not optimal because of problems in steps which include pyrones and because of problems with conversion of 7-chloro to 7-hydroxy group which includes a disadvantageous use of silanolates with low yield (25%).

Scheme C2

The variation in Scheme C3, described in WO201 1/1 19566, starts from unsubstituted acetoacetate. For the introduction of the 7-hydroxy group, bromination is used and substitution of bromo with hydroxy is performed by a use of silanolates. The substitution of the bromine is achieved in a 43% yield.

Scheme C3

The variation in Scheme C4, described in WO201 1/1 19566, starts from 4-methoxyacetoacetate aiming at preparing dolutegravir or cabotegravir. The process uses lithium bases to affect a difficult to control selective monohydrolysis of a diester.

The object of the present invention is to provide short, simple, cost-effective, environmentally friendly and industrially suitable processes for beneficially providing dolutegravir and analogues thereof and cabotegravir and analogues thereof, in particular dolutegravir.

 

Scheme 1

According to an embodiment of the process of the invention the building block 3-aminobutanol can suitably be substituted with other aminoalcohols to give dolutegravir analogues. For example, using (S)-alaninol gives cabotegravir as the final product. Similarly, using amines other than 2,4-difluorobenzylamine in the amidation step results in the synthesis of other dolutegravir analogues.

According to the another preferred embodiment cabotegravir or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is prepared by the analogue process, which comprises providing a compound of formula (5c)

5c

converting the compound of formula (5c) to a compound of formula (6c)

6c

by carrying out a chlorination reaction, and converting the compound of formula (6c) to cabotegravir and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

The compound of formula (5c) can preferably be provided by converting a compound of formula (3) to a compound of formula (4c)

 

Scheme 2

1. ) EtOCOCI, Et3N / Me2CO

2. ) 2,4-difiuorobenzylamine

 

Scheme 3

Analogous compound of formula 7c is a useful intermediate in the synthesis of cabotegravir. Scheme 3a

 

Scheme 4

 

Examples

The following examples are merely illustrative of the present invention and they should not be considered as limiting the scope of the invention in any way. The examples and modifications or other equivalents thereof will become apparent to those versed in the art in the light of the present entire disclosure. Particularly, all Examples related to the preparation of dolutegravir and intermediates thereof can be used by the analogy for the preparation of cabotegravir and intermediates thereof.

Example 1 :

Methyl acetoacetate (1 , 25.22 g) and dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (DMFDMA, 35 mL) was heated at 50-55°C for 2 h, then methanol (60 mL), aminoacetaldehyde dimethyl acetal (24 mL) and acetic acid (4 mL) was added an the mixture was heated under reflux for one hour, then concentrated. MTBE (100 mL) was added and the mixture was kept at 5 °C overnight to crystallize. Upon filtration 46 g (92%) of product 2 was recovered.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 2.31 (s, 3H), 3.30 (s, 6H), 3.49 (m, 2H), 3.61 (s, 3H), 4.43 (m, 1 H), 8.02 (d, 1 H), 10.8 (bs, 1 H). 13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 30.52, 35.48, 50.53, 54.23, 98.99, 102.47, 160.70, 166.92, 197.21 .

Example 2:

Compound 2 (5.00 g) was dissolved in 2-propanol, dimethyl oxalate (7.02 g) was added and heated to 40 °C. Sodium methylate (25% in methanol; 20 mL) was slowly (10 min) added, the mixture was then heated to 50-55 °C and stirred at that temperature for 2-2.5 h. The mixture was cooled to ambient temperature, then sodium hydroxide solution (1 M, 65 mL) was added to the mixture and stirred for another 2 h, followed by addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid (1 1 mL) and stirred for another 2 h. The precipitate was filtered and dried to give 8.08 g (NMR assay 47%; 65% yield) of compound 3.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 2.50 (m, 2H), 3.30 (s. 6H), 4.49 (m, 1 H), 7.06 (s, 1 H); 8.70 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 55.23, 55.37, 102.34, 1 15.47, 120.24, 145.17, 162.71 , 165.22, 178.55.

Example 3:

Compound 2 (158.37 g) was dissolved in methanol (548 mL), followed by the addition of dimethyl oxalate (202.2 g). While keeping the temperature below 30°C, potassium ferf-butoxide (192.1 g) was added and reaction mixture was heated at 50 °C overnight. The suspension was then filtered and the filter cake washed with methanol. The filtrate was concentrated (approximately to 680 mL), then water (680 mL) was added, followed by addition of lithium hydroxide hydrate (143.7 g) while keeping the temperature below 40 °C. The suspension was then stirred at ambient temperature overnight and filtered. To the obtained filtrate, concentrated hydrochloric acid (339 mL) was added while keeping the temperature below 30 °C. The suspension was aged for 2 h and filtered to give 4 as a white powder (95.6 g, NMR assay 100%; 52% yield).

Example 4:

Compound 2 (5.00 g) was dissolved in 2-propanol, dimethyl oxalate (7.02 g) was added and heated to 40 °C. Sodium methylate (25% in methanol; 15 mL) was slowly (10 min) added then the mixture was heated to 50-55 °C and stirred at that temperature for 72 h. The mixture was concentrated and components were separated by flash column chromatography (ethyl acetate/methanol 9:1 to 6:4). Early fractions gave compound 22 upon concentration, late fractions gave compound 23.

Compound 22: 1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 2.49 (m, 2H), 3.28 (s, 6H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 4.41 (m, 1 H), 4.50 (m, 1 H), 6.65 (s, 1 H), 8.36 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 51.63, 53.36, 54.25, 55.47, 102.71 , 1 18.24, 123.60, 140.81 , 150.21 , 162.44, 164.49, 173.43.

Compound 23: 1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 2.49 (m, 2H), 3.26 (s, 6H); 3.70 (s, 3H); 4.33 (d, 1 H); 4.60 (m, 1 H), 6.19 (s, 1 H), 8.12 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 50.03, 51.34, 54.59, 54.85, 102.91 , 1 16.04, 1 18.19, 148.32, 152.12, 163.46, 165.24, 174.99

Example 5:

Compound 3 (5.5 g; assay 53%) was suspended in acetonitrile, acetic acid (6 mL) and methanesulfonic acid (2.5 mL) were added followed by the heating of mixture to 70 °C for 4 h. The suspension was filtered and filtrate cooled to ambient temperature. Triethylamine (6.6 mL) and (R)-3-amino-butan-1 -ol (1.24 mL) was added followed by heating the mixture at reflux temperature for 20-24 h. The mixture was filtered, filtrate concentrated and 1 M HCI (100 mL) was added, followed by extraction with dichloromethane (3 x 50 mL). Combined organic fractions were concentrated, 2-propanol was added (10 mL) and suspension was stirred at 70-80 °C for 10 min, left to cool to ambient temperature then filtered to give 2.19 g of compound 4 (73%).

1H NMR (DMSO-de): δ 1.31 (d, 3H), 1.52 (m, 1 H), 1 .97 (m, 1 H), 3.89 (m, 1 H), 4.01 (m, 1 H), 4.46 (m, 1 H), 4.64 (m, 1 H), 4.78 (m, 1 H), 5.50 (m, 1 H), 7.29 (s, 1 H), 8.88 (s, 1 H), 15.83 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 15.22, 29.14, 45.26, 51.13, 62.09, 76.03, 1 16.31 , 1 18.79, 140.53, 146.79, 155.36, 165.24, 178.75.

Example 6:

Compound 3 (14.55 g; assay 49%) was suspended in acetonitrile (125 mL), acetic acid (15 mL) and methanesulfonic acid (6.25 mL) were added followed by the heating of mixture to 70 °C for 4 h. The suspension was filtered and filtrate cooled to ambient temperature. Triethylamine (16.5 mL) and (S)-2-aminopropanol (2.45 mL) was added followed by heating the mixture at reflux temperature for 24 h. The insoluble product was filtered, washed with 2-propanol (20 mL) and dried to give (3S, 1 1 aR)-3-methyl-5,7-dioxo-2,3,5,7, 1 1 ,1 1 a-hexahydrooxazolo[3,2-a]pyrido[1 ,2-d]pyrazine-8-carboxylic acid (5.2 g, 75%).

1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 1.31 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 3H), 3.65 (dd, J = 8.6, 6.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.13 (dd, J = 1 1.7, 10.3 Hz, 1 H), 4.28 (m, 1 H), 4.39 (dd, J = 8.6, 6.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.92 (dd, J = 12.3, 4.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.45 (dd, J = 10.2, 4.1 Hz, 1 H), 7.16 (s, 1 H), 8.84 (s, 1 H), 15.74 (s, 1 H).

Example 7:

Compound 4 (0.63 g) was dissolved in dichloromethane (15 mL), cooled to 5°C, then triethylamine (0.31 mL) was added, followed by ethyl chloroformate (0.26 mL), followed by slow (30 min) addition of 2,4-difluorobenzylamine. The mixture was then stirred at ambient temperature for 24 h. Water (10 mL) was added, organic phase was separated and washed with 1 M HCI (15 mL) and water (15 mL), concentrated and treated with 2-propanol to give the product 5 in a quantitative yield.

1H NMR (CDCI3): δ 1.39 (d, 3H), 1.52 (s, 1 H), 2.19 (m, 1 H), 4.00 (m, 2H), 4.16 (m, 1 H), 4.31 (m, 1 H), 4.62 (d, 2H), 5.00 (m, 1 H), 5.27 (m, 1 H), 6.80 (m 2H), 7.33 (m, 2H), 8.49 (s, 1 H), 10.48 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCI3): 15.50, 29.22, 36.43, 45.19, 51.83, 62.79, 103.71 , 103.91 , 1 1 1 .0, 1 1 1 .18, 120.59, 123.04, 130.40, 137.41 , 144.58, 156.27, 163. 87, 177.83.

Example 8:

To a suspension of 4 (2.84 g, 10 mmol) in a mixture of triethylamine (2.24 mL, 16 mmol) and acetone (50 mL) stirring on an ice bath was added ethyl chloroformate (1 .20 mL, 12 mmol). After stirring for 10 min, 2,4-difluorobenzylamine (1.21 mL, 10 mmol) was added and the mixture left stirring at room temperature for 1 h. The product was isolated by slowly diluting the reaction mixture with water (50 mL), partial concentration, filtration, washing with water (2 50 mL) and drying. There was obtained 5 as a white powder (3.48 g, 86%): mp 181.0-184.7 °C. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 1.29 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1 .56 (dd, J = 13.9, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 1 .93-2.06 (m, 1 H), 3.90 (ddd, J = 1 1.6, 5.0, 2.1 Hz, 1 H), 3.98 (td, J = 12.0, 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 4.45 (dd, J = 13.6, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.72 (dd, J = 13.6, 3.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.74-4.81 (m, 1 H), 5.44 (dd, J = 6.6, 3.8 Hz, 1 H), 8.93 (s, 1 H), 15.14 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 15.78, 29.13, 44.89, 52.88, 61 .63, 75.61 , 1 13.54, 128.49, 136.42, 145.64, 154.62, 164.58, 174.58

Example 9:

To a suspension of 4 (1 1.36 g, 40 mmol) in acetonitrile (80 mL) stirring at room temperature was added TCCA (9.29 g, 38 mmol) and DABCO (0.23 g, 5 mol%). After stirring at room temperature for 1 h, the reaction was quenched with a mixture of DMSO (5.26 mL) and water (1.33 mL). The insoluble cyanuric acid was removed by filtration and the filtrate evaporated under reduced pressure to give viscous oil. This was triturated in methanol (20 mL) to induce crystallization. The product was filtered, washed with cold methanol (10 mL) and dried to give 7 as a yellowish powder (5.13 g, 41 %): mp 191 .3-198.7 °C.

Example 10:

Attempted chlorination of 23: Compound 23 (0.54g) was suspended in acetonitrile (10 mL) and trichlorocyanuric acid (0.44 g) was added and the solution was stirred at ambient temperature overnight. Precipitate was filtered. Only traces of a product corresponding to the compound 26 could be detected in the reaction mixture by LC-MS analysis. Conversion did not improve with time.

Example 11 :

Attempted chlorination of 3: Compound 3 (0.30 g) was suspended in acetonitrile (5 mL) and trichlorocyanuric acid (0.13 g) was added. The suspension was stirred at ambient temperature overnight. Only traces of a product corresponding to the compound 24 could be detected in the reaction mixture by LC-MS analysis.

Example 12:

9 10

Trichloroisocyanuric acid (0.23 g) was added in a single portion to a stirred solution of the diethyl 1 -(2,2-dimethoxyethyl)-4-oxo-1 ,4-dihydropyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate (9, 0.66 g) in dry acetonitrile (4 mL) at room temperature. The resulting suspension was stirred at room temperature for ca. 24 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and filtrated. The filtrate was then concentrated in vacuo to afford crude oil (0.86 g). Purification by flash chromatography (eluting ethyl acetate/cyclohexane) furnished diethyl 3-chloro-1 -(2,2-dimethoxyethyl)-4-oxo-1 ,4-dihydropyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate, 10 as a yellow semi-solid (0.38 g). 1H NMR (CDCI3): δ 1.28 (t, J=7A Hz, 3H), 1 .37 (t, J=7.2 Hz, 3H), 3.35 (s, 6H), 3.89 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 2H), 4.27 (q, J=l A Hz, 2H), 4.43 (q, J=l A Hz, 2H), 4.48 (t, J=4.9 Hz, 1 H), 8.15 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCI3): δ 13.83, 14.13, 55.82, 57.09, 61.41 , 63.72, 102.52, 1 17.35, 126.90, 140.22, 146.92, 160.67, 164.13, 168.95.

Example 13:

Diethyl 1 -(2,2-dimethoxyethyl)-4-oxo-1 ,4-dihydropyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate (9, 0.64 g) was dissolved in anhydrous acetonitrile (6 mL) and treated sequentially with acetic acid (560 μί) and methanesulfonic acid (40 μί). The resulting mixture was heated to 62 °C and stirred for 4 h and more methanesulfonic acid (40 μΙ_) was added. After additional 2 h, more methanesulfonic acid (80 μΙ_) was added. This was repeated after additional 2 h, when more methanesulfonic acid (80 μΙ_) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred additional 17 h at 62 °C then was treated with a mixture of (R)-3-aminobutanol (0.22 g), triethylamine (0.5 mL) and acetonitrile (0.7 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred additional 22 h at 62 °C and then concentrated in vacuo. The crude material was partitioned between dichloromethane and 1 M HCI solution (15 mL). The combined organic phases were dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford the crude (4R, 12aS)-ethyl 4-methyl-6,8-dioxo-3,4,6,8, 12,12a-hexahydro-2H-pyrido[1 ‘,2’:4,5]pyrazino[2, 1 -b][1 ,3]oxazine-9-carboxylate (11 ) as a brownish oil (0.61 g).

1H NMR (CD3OD): δ 8.44 (s, 1 H), 7.16 (m, 1 H), 5.48 (t, J=4.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.86 (m, 1 H), 4.49 (dd, J=13.6, 4.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.30-4.25 (m, 3H), 4.09 (dt, J=12.1 , 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.96 (ddd, J=1 1.7, 5.0, 2.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.18-2.10 (m, 1 H), 1.60-1 .56 (m, 1 H) 1 .39 (d, J=7A Hz, 3H), 1.33 (t, J=7A Hz, 3H). 13C NMR (CDCI3): δ 8.45, 14.08, 15.39, 29.17, 45.04, 45.72, 51 .56, 60.86, 62.61 , 76.33, 1 19.54, 123.72, 136.96, 145.67, 156.26, 163.68, 175.43

Example 14:

10

Diethyl 3-chloro-1 -(2,2-dimethoxyethyl)-4-oxo-1 ,4-dihydropyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate (10, 1.23 g) was dissolved in 85% formic acid (25 mL) at room temperature. The mixture was warmed to 40 °C and stirred for 23 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo, and then partitioned between dichloromethane and aqueous NaHC03 solution. The combined organic phases were dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford brownish oil (0.49 g). The crude oil was dissolved in anhydrous toluene (5 mL) and treated sequentially with (R)-3-aminobutanol (0.19 g), methanol (0.2 mL) and acetic acid (96 μί). The resulting mixture was heated to 90 °C and stirred for 20 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and then partitioned between dichloromethane and aqueous NaHC03 solution. The combined organic phases were dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford the crude (4R,12aS)-Ethyl 7-chloro-4-methyl-6,8-dioxo-3,4,6,8,12, 12a-hexahydro-2H-pyrido[1 ‘,2’:4,5] pyrazino [2, 1-b][1 ,3]oxazine-9-carboxylate (12) as a brownish oil (0.24 g).

Example 15:

To a solution of 4 (5.68 g, 20 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) stirring in an ice bath was added triethylamine (5.6 mL, 40 mmol), followed by ethyl chloroformate (2.61 mL, 26 mmol). After 20 min, ethanol (50 mL) was added. The mixture was then left stirring 24 h at room temperature and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was triturated in acetone (80 mL). The insoluble salt (triethylamine hydrochloride) was removed by filtration. The filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure to give 11 as an amorphous solid in a quantitative yield (6.1 g).

Example 16:

To a stirring solution of 11 (0.94 g, 3.0 mmol) in acetonitrile (8 mL) heated at 40 °C was added TCCA in portions during 1 h (0.44 g, 1 .8 mmol). After an additional 1 h, the reaction mixture was diluted with a solution of NaHS03 (0.60 g) in water (60 mL), extracted with dichloromethane (50 mL) and the extract evaporated under reduced pressure to give a crude product which was purified by flash chromatography (CH2CI2 : MeOH, from 98 : 2 to 80 : 20) to give 12 (0.45 g, 44%).

1H NMR (CDCI3): δ 1.37 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1.38 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1 .56 (dq, J = 13.9, 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.21 (m, 1 H), 3.99 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 4.00 (t, J = 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.10 (dd, J = 13.2, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.37-4.27 (m, 3H), 4.98 (m, 1 H), 5.35 (dd, J = 6.6, 3.8 Hz, 1 H), 8.07 (s, 1 H).

13C NMR (CDCI3): δ 14.20, 16.09, 29.34, 44.87, 53.73, 61.49, 62.29, 76.01 , 1 16.22, 133.1 1 , 134.18, 144.52, 155.48, 163.88, 169.98.

Example 17:

To a mixture of 7 (3.89 g, 12.2 mmol) in methanol (12 mL) was added sodium methylate (22.3 mL, 97.6 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for 24 h at 30 °C and then quenched with a slow addition of 3M hydrochloric acid (35 mL) while stirring in an ice bath. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove most of the methanol, then extracted with dichloromethane (2 30 mL), the combined extracts washed with water (30 mL) and evaporated under reduced pressure. Methanol (20 mL) was added to the obtained amorphous residue and removed under reduced pressure to yield the solid 8 (3.69 g, 98%).

1H NMR (CDCI3): δ 15.04 (s, 1 H), 8.42 (s, 1 H), 5.29 (dd, J=5.6, 3.9 Hz, 1 H), 5.01 -4.96 (m, 1 H), 4.42 (dd, J=13.6, 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.25 (dd, J=13.6, 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.05 (s, 3H), 4.00-3.97 (m, 2H), 2.21 -2-14 (m, 1 H), 1.53 (dd, J=14.1 , 1.9 Hz, 1 H), 1.36 (d, J=7 Hz, 3H). 13C NMR (CDCI3): δ 176.35, 165.94, 155.03, 153.70, 143.08, 130.90, 1 15.94, 76.05, 62.65, 61.45, 53.86, 44.96, 29.43, 16.06.

Example 18:

To a suspension of 7 (2.55 g, 8.0 mmol) in a mixture of triethylamine (1 .46 mL, 10.4 mmol) and acetone (32 mL) stirring on an ice bath was added ethyl chloroformate (0.88 mL, 8.8 mmol). After stirring for 10 min, 2,4-difluorobenzylamine (1.07 mL, 8.8 mmol) was added and the mixture left stirring at room temperature for 1 h. The product was isolated by slowly diluting the reaction mixture with water (40 mL), filtration, washing with water (2 30 mL) and drying. There was obtained 2.91 g of 6 as a white powder (83%).

1H NMR (CDCI3): δ 1.30 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1 .49 (dd, J = 14.0, 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.14 (ddd, J = 14.6, 1 1.1 , 6.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.89-3.95 (m, 2H), 4.09-4.15 (m, 1 H), 4.26 (dd, J = 13.4, 3.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.55 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 2H), 4.89-4.98 (m, 1 H), 5.18 (dd, J = 6.2, 3.8 Hz, 1 H), 6.68-6.79 (m, 2H), 7.23-7.31 (m, 1 H), 8.41 (s, 1 H), 10.24 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCI3): δ 16.09, 26.95, 29.30, 36.79, 45.1 1 , 45.28, 53.86, 62.47, 75.93, 103.87 (t, J = 25.4 Hz), 1 1 1 .21 (dd, J = 21 .0, 3.4 Hz), 1 17.32, 130.58 (dd, J = 9.3, 5.8 Hz), 133.40, 143.54, 155.34, 163.16, 163.25, 163.35, 172.88.

Example 19:

To a suspension of 5 (1 .67 g, 4 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was added DABCO (23 mg, 5 mol%) and TCCA (0.62 g, 2.52 mmol). The mixture was stirred 18 h at 40 °C protected from light and then quenched with a mixture of DMSO (0.48 mL) and water (0.12 mL). The insoluble cyanuric acid was removed by filtration and washed with acetonitrile (5 mL). The filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure to give viscous oil that was crystallized from a mixture of methanol (6 mL) and water (3 mL), by slowly cooling the solution from 60 °C to room

temperature. The product 6 was filtered, washed with cold methanol (5 mL) and dried to give an off-white powder (1.07 g, 61 %).

1H NMR (CDCI3): δ 1.30 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1 .49 (dd, J = 14.0, 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.14 (ddd, J = 14.6, 1 1.1 , 6.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.89-3.95 (m, 2H), 4.09-4.15 (m, 1 H), 4.26 (dd, J = 13.4, 3.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.55 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 2H), 4.89-4.98 (m, 1 H), 5.18 (dd, J = 6.2, 3.8 Hz, 1 H), 6.68-6.79 (m, 2H), 7.23-7.31 (m, 1 H), 8.41 (s, 1 H), 10.24 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCI3): δ 16.09, 26.95, 29.30, 36.79, 45.1 1 , 45.28, 53.86, 62.47, 75.93, 103.87 (t, J = 25.4 Hz), 1 1 1 .21 (dd, J = 21.0, 3.4 Hz), 1 17.32, 130.58 (dd, J = 9.3, 5.8 Hz), 133.40, 143.54, 155.34, 163.16, 163.25, 163.35, 172.88.

Example 20:

To a suspension of 6 (0.44 g) in anhydrous methanol (1 mL) was added a 25% methanolic solution of sodium methylate (1 .14 mL) and the mixture stirred for 4 h at 40 °C. The reaction was quenched with acetic acid (0.4 mL), diluted with water (8 mL), extracted with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (12 mL), the extract washed with 1 M NaOH(aq) (8 mL), water (8 mL) and evaporated under reduced pressure. To the oily residue was added methanol (8 mL) and evaporated under reduced pressure to give 27 as a white solid (0.38 g, 88%).

Example 21 :

The suspension of (4R, 12aS)-7-chloro-N-(2,4-difluorobenzyl)-4-methyl-6,8-dioxo-3,4,6,8,12, 12a-hexahydro-2H-pyrido[1 ‘,2’:4,5]pyrazino[2, 1 -b][1 ,3]oxazine-9-carboxamide (6, 0.44 g) and solid sodium hydroxide (0.20 g) in absolute ethanol (2 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 24 h. The reaction was quenched with 2M H2S04 (1 .18 mL) and left stirring for 2 h at room temperature. The reaction mixture was filtered through fitted funnel rinsing with water (2 x 2 mL). The obtained white precipitate (0.38 g) was suspended in THF-water (1 :1 , 4.5 mL) and stirred at room temperature for ca. 2 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through fitted funnel rinsing with water (2 χ 1 mL) and dried in vacuo at 40°C to afford pure dolutegravir as a white solid (0.33 g, HPLC purity: 99.38%).

1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 12.51 (s, 1 H), 10.36 (t, J=5.9 Hz, 1 H), 8.50 (s, 1 H), 7.41-7.36 (m, 1 H), 7.26-7.21 (m, 1 H), 7.07-7.03 (m, 1 H), 5.45 (dd, J=5.4, 4.3 Hz, 1 H), 4.81 -4.76 (m, 1 H), 4.59-4.53 (m, 3H), 4.36 (dd, J=13.8, 5.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.05-4.00 (m, 1 H), 3.91-3.88 (m, 1 H), 2.05-1 .97 (m, 1 H), 1.55-1.52 (m, 1 H), 1 .33 (d, J=7.1 Hz, 3H). 13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 170.27, 163.68, 162.29, 161 .78 (dd), 159.82 (dd), 154.61 , 140.64, 130.74 (d), 130.67 (d), 122.37 (d), 1 16.73, 1 15.38, 1 1 1 .33 (d), 103.80 (t), 62.01 , 51 .16, 44.69, 35.74, 29.13, 15.21.

Example 22:

A suspension of dolutegravir (0.31 g) in methanol (4 mL) was cooled to 0 °C.25% Solution of sodium methoxide in methanol was added to the mixture and the resulting suspension was stirred at 0 °C for 2 h, then at room temperature for 23 h. The reaction mixture was then filtered through fitted funnel rinsing with methanol (3 x 10 mL). The white precipitate was dried overnight at room temperature to afford pure dolutegravir sodium as a white solid (0.26 g, HPLC purity: 99.84%).

1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 10.70 (t, J=5.8, 1H), 7.89 (s, 1H), 7.37-7.30 (m, 1H), 7.23-7.19 (m, 1H), 7.04-7.01 (m, 1H), 5.17 (m, 1H), 4.81 (t, J=6.4Hz, 1H), 4.51 (d, J=5.5Hz, 2H), 4.32-4.29 (m, 1H), 4.16 (dd, J=14.1, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 3.99-3.94 (m, 1H), 3.82-3.80 (m, 1H), 1.89-1.84 (m, 1H), 1.38 (d, J=12.9 Hz, 1H), 1.24 (d, J=7.0Hz, 3H).13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 177.93, 167.12, 166.08, 161.59 (dd), 161.13, 159.63 (dd), 134.26, 130.44 (d), 130.38 (d), 122.90 (d), 114.95, 111.23 (d), 108.78, 103.64 (t), 75.59, 61.95, 53.11, 43.01, 35.32, 29.22, 15.30.

Example 23:

The suspension of 6 (0.44 g) and solid sodium hydroxide (0.20 g) in absolute ethanol (2 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 24 h. The reaction was diluted with absolute ethanol (10 mL) and left stirring for ca. 30 min at room temperature. The reaction mixture was filtered through fitted funnel rinsing with absolute ethanol (3 x 10 mL) and dried in vacuo at room temperature to afford dolutegravir sodium as a pale yellow solid (0.43 g, HPLC purity: 98.80%). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 10.70 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 7.89 (s, 1H), 7.37-7.30 (m, 1H), 7.23-7.19 (m, 1H), 7.04-7.01 (m, 1H), 5.17 (m, 1H), 4.81 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 4.32-4.29 (m, 1H), 4.16 (dd, J= 14.1, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 3.99-3.94 (m, 1H), 3.82-3.80 (m, 1H), 1.89-1.84 (m, 1H), 1.38 (d, J = 12.9 Hz, 1H), 1.24 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H).13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 177.93, 167.12, 166.08, 161.59 (dd), 161.13, 159.63 (dd), 134.26, 130.44 (d), 130.38 (d), 122.90 (d), 114.95, 111.23 (d), 108.78, 103.64 (t), 75.59, 61.95, 53.11, 43.01, 35.32, 29.22, 15.30.

Example 24:

The suspension of (4R,12aS)-N-(2,4-difluorobenzyl)-7-methoxy-4-methyl-6,8-dioxo-3,4,6,8,12, 12a-hexahydro-2H-pyrido[1′,2′:4,5]pyrazino[2,1-6][1,3]oxazine-9-carboxamide (27, 0.43 g) and solid sodium hydroxide (0.20 g) in absolute ethanol (2.5 mL) was stirred at room temperature for ca.24 h. The reaction was diluted with mixture of water/ethanol (5 mL, 1:1) and left stirring for ca. 1.5 h at room temperature. The reaction mixture was filtered through fitted funnel rinsing with mixture of water/ethanol (3 x 5 mL, 1:1) and dried in vacuo at room temperature to afford 15 as a pale yellow solid (0.41 g, HPLC purity: 98.87%).

1H NMR (DMSO-de): δ 10.70 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 7.89 (s, 1H), 7.37-7.30 (m, 1H), 7.23-7.19 (m, 1H), 7.04-7.01 (m, 1H), 5.17 (m, 1H), 4.81 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 4.32-4.29 (m, 1H), 4.16 (dd, J = 14.1, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 3.99-3.94 (m, 1H), 3.82-3.80 (m, 1H), 1.89-1.84 (m, 1H), 1.38 (d, J = 12.9 Hz, 1H), 1.24 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H).13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 177.93, 167.12, 166.08, 161.59 (dd), 161.13, 159.63 (dd), 134.26, 130.44 (d), 130.38 (d), 122.90 (d), 114.95, 111.23 (d), 108.78, 103.64 (t), 75.59, 61.95, 53.11, 43.01, 35.32, 29.22, 15.30.

Example 25:

The suspension of {4R, 12aS)-7-chloro-4-methyl-6,8-dioxo-3,4, 6,8, 12,12a-hexahydro-2H-pyrido[1′,2′:4,5]pyrazino[2,1-6][1,3]oxazine-9-carboxylic acid (7, 0.31 g) and solid sodium hydroxide (0.20 g) in absolute ethanol (2.5 mL) was stirred at 50 °C for 3 days. The reaction was quenched with 2M H2S04 (1.2 mL) and left stirring for 7 h at room temperature. The reaction mixture was filtered through fitted funnel rinsing with water (3×5 mL) and ethanol (5 mL) dried in vacuo at 40°C to afford 28 as a pale yellow solid (0.17 g).

1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 15.37 (s, 1H), 12.76 (s, 1H), 8.66 (s, 1H), 5.51-5.49 (m, 1H), 4.80-4.78 (m, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J=13.8, 3.7 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (dd, J=13.8, 5.9 Hz, 1H), 4.05 (t, J^^.b Hz, 1H), 3.91 (dd, J=11.4, 3.1 Hz, 1H), 2.07-2.00 (m, 1H), 1.56 (d, J=13.8 Hz, 1H), 1.34 (d, J=7.0 Hz, 3H).13C NMR (DMSO-de): δ 172.21, 165.39, 161.73, 153.61, 141.11, 118.66, 112.99, 75.95, 62.03, 51.50, 44.90, 29.08, 15.18.

Example 26:

The suspension of (4R,12aS)-N-(2,4-difluorobenzyl)-7-methoxy-4-methyl-6,8-dioxo-3,4,6,8, 12, 12a-hexahydro-2H-pyrido[1 ‘,2’:4,5]pyrazino[2, 1 ,3]oxazine-9-carboxamide (27, 0.88 g) and solid sodium hydroxide (0.24 g) in absolute ethanol (20 mL) was stirred at 30 °C for 1.5 h. The reaction was quenched with 2M H2S04 (1 .5 mL) and left stirring for 3 hours at room temperature. The reaction mixture was filtered through fritted funnel and rinsed with water (3 x 2 mL) and ethanol (4 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40 °C to afford O-ethyl dolutegravir (29) as a pale yellow solid (0.25 g). The filtrate was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 5 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated, then dried in vacuo at 40 °C to afford more 29 as a pale yellow solid (0.27 g).

1H NMR (CDCI3): δ 10.37 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1 H), 8.36 (s, 1 H), 7.37-7.32 (m, 1 H), 6.83-6.77 (m, 2H), 5.19 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.04-4.98 (m, 1 H), 4.61 (d, J = 6Hz, 2H), 4.26-4.22 (m, 3H), 4.1 1 (dd, J = 13.4, 5.9 Hz, 1 H), 3.97 (t, J = 2.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.96 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1 H), 2.21-2.14 (m, 1 H), 1.51 (dq, J = 14.0, 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 1 .47 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1 .35 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H).

13C NMR (CDCI3): δ 174.78, 164.17, 162.49 (dd), 160.51 (dd), 155.72, 154.08, 142.32, 130.60 (dd), 129.33, 121 .51 (dd), 1 18.67, 1 1 1 .23 (dd), 103.78 (t), 76.15, 69.74, 62.58, 53.42, 44.58, 36.50 (d), 29.44, 16.04, 15.64.

Example 27:

The suspension of (4R, 12aS)-7-(benzyloxy)-4-methyl-3,4, 12,12a-tetrahydro-2H-pyrido[1 ‘,2’:4,5]pyrazino[2, 1-b][1 ,3]oxazine-6,8-dione (30, 0.68 g, prepared according to prior art) and solid sodium hydroxide (0.40 g) in absolute ethanol (5 mL) was stirred at 50 °C for 14 h. The reaction was quenched with formic acid (0.35 mL), water (2 mL) was added and mixture was left stirring for additional 1 h at room temperature. The reaction mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 5 mL) and the combined organic layers concentrated to afford a crude oil. Purification by flash chromatography (eluting with CH2CI2/methanol) afforded 32 as an orange solid (0.26 g, 52 %).

The above procedure if done at room temperature in same time period, affords 31 as orange oil (0.24 g, 43 %).

Compound 32: 1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 7.64 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1 H), 6.20 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H), 5.40 (dd, J = 5.1 , 4.2 Hz, 1 H), 4.83-4.78 (m, 1 H), 4.35 (dd, J = 13.6, 3.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.13 (dd, J = 13.6, 5.4 Hz, 1 H), 4.05-4.00 (m, 1 H), 3.90-3.85 (m, 1 H), 2.03-1.95 (m, 1 H), 1.52 (dd, J = 13.9, 1 .9 Hz, 1 H), 1.33 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H). 13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 170.96, 163.01 , 153.48, 137.96, 1 16.83, 1 13.52, 76.18, 62.05, 50.39, 44.53, 29.21 , 15.28.

Compound 31 : 1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 7.67 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1 H), 6.28 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1 H), 5.29 (dd, J = 5.4, 3.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.82-4.75 (m, 1 H), 4.32 (dd, J = 13.6, 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.10 (dd, J = 13.5, 5.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.03-3.93 (m, 3H), 3.85 (ddd, J = 1 1 .6, 5.0, 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 1.97-1 .89 (m, 1 H), 1 .48 (dd, J = 13.8, 2.1 Hz, 1 H), 1.27 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1.26 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H). 13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 174.38, 156.1 1 , 150.82, 139.48, 1 16.39, 1 13.52, 75.92, 67.31 , 61 .80, 51 .36, 44.22, 29.29, 15.76, 15.36.

Exa

The transformation of 6 to dolutegravir with sodium hydroxide in ethanol was monitored for the interconversion of intermediates. The suspension of 6 (0.44 g) and solid sodium hydroxide (0.20 g) in ethanol (3.33 ml.) was stirred at 22 °C. Samples of the reaction mixture were taken after 3, 8 and 24 h for UPLC analysis. After 24 h, the reaction mixture was quenched with 2 M H2S04 (5 ml_), and left stirring at room temperature. The reaction mixture was filtered through fritted funnel, the product rinsed with water (30 ml.) and dried in vacuo at 50 °C overnight to afford dolutegravir as a white solid (0.27 g, 64 %).

The results of reaction monitoring:

Time UPLC analysis (area%)

Entry

(h) compound 6 compound 29 dolutegravir

1 3 h 37.50 20.63 39.99

2 8 h 0.78 15.46 80.32

3 24h 0.31 8.56 88.21

Example 29:

The effect of added water and reaction temperature was evaluated by monitoring 4 reactions in parallel. To the suspensions of 27 (0.86 g) in MeOH were added solid sodium hydroxide (0.40 g) or aqueous solution of NaOH (5 M, 2 ml.) (see Table below). The reactions were stirred in parallel at 50 °C or 22 °C. Samples were taken in timely intervals for UPLC analysis.

The results of reaction monitoring demethylation of 27 in MeOH:

Example 30:

The effect of added water and reaction temperature was evaluated by monitoring 4 reactions in parallel. To the suspensions of 6 (0.88 g) in EtOH were added solid sodium hydroxide (0.40 g) or aqueous solution of NaOH (5 M, 2 mL) (see Table below). The reactions were stirred in parallel at 50 °C or 22 °C. Samples were taken in timely intervals for UPLC analysis.

The results of reaction monitoring of the transformations of 6 in ethanol with NaOH:

dol. = dolutegravir

Exa

The effect of added water and reaction temperature was evaluated by monitoring 4 reactions in parallel. To the suspensions of 27 (0.88 g) in EtOH were added solid sodium hydroxide (0.40 g) or aqueous solution of NaOH (5 M, 2ml_) (see Table below). The reactions were stirred in parallel at 50 °C or 22 °C. Samples were taken in timely intervals for UPLC analysis.

The results of reaction monitoring of the transformations of 27 in ethanol with NaOH:

dol. = dolutegravir

Example 32:

Compound 3 (30 g, 1 10 mmol; assay 99%) was suspended in acetonitrile (450 mL), acetic acid (73 mL) and methanesulfonic acid (25 mL) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred 4 h at 70 °C. The clear red solution was cooled to 25 °C. Triethylamine (77 mL) and (S)-2-aminopropanol (17 mL) were added and the mixture was stirred at reflux temperature for 20 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 25 °C and the insoluble product filtered, washed with 1 M HCI(aq) (60 mL), water (3 * 60 mL) and dried to give 4c (19.49 g, 67%): mp = 313-315 °C; 1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 1.31 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 3H), 3.65 (dd, J = 8.6, 6.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.13 (dd, J = 1 1.7, 10.3 Hz, 1 H), 4.28 (m, 1 H), 4.39 (dd, J = 8.6, 6.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.92 (dd, J = 12.3, 4.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.45 (dd, J = 10.2, 4.1 Hz, 1 H), 7.16 (s, 1 H), 8.84 (s, 1 H), 15.74 (s, 1 H); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) 16.5, 51.6, 52.9, 72.4, 81.6, 1 15.8, 1 18.1 , 141.5, 147.6, 153.4, 165.3, 179.0.

Example 33

Compound 4c (2.78 g) was suspended in dimethylformamide (40 mL), cooled to 0 °C, then triethylamine (3.52 mL) was added, followed by ethyl chloroformate (1 .31 mL). After 10 min there was added 2,4-difluorobenzylamine (1 .57 mL). The mixture was then stirred at 25 °C for 1 h. Water (150 mL) was added and the mixture extracted with dichloromethane (50 mL). The organic phase was separated, washed with water (2 χ 50 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue (4.31 g) was treated with boiling 2-propanol (40 mL), the suspension cooled, the product filtered and dried to give the product 5c as a white powder (2.70 g, 69%): 99.80 area% by HPLC at 258 nm; mp = 222-223 °C; MS (ESI) m/z = 390 [MH]+; 1H NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 1 .30 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 3H), 3.63 (dd, J = 8.6, 6.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.02 (m, 1 H), 4.26 (m, 1 H), 4.37 (dd, J = 8.6, 6.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.53 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 4.84 (dd, J = 12.2, 4.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.40 (dd, J = 12.2, 4.2 Hz, 1 H), 6.91 (s, 1 H), 7.05 (m, 1 H), 7.24 (m, 1 H), 7.38 (m, 1 H), 8.62 (s, 1 H), 10.43 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1 H).

To a suspension of 5c (2.70 g, 6.9 mmol) in acetonitrile (32 mL) was added DABCO (39 mg, 5 mol%) and TCCA (1.01 g, 4.3 mmol). The mixture was stirred 20 h at 40 °C protected from light and then quenched with a mixture of DMSO (0.81 mL) and water (0.20 mL). The insoluble cyanuric acid was removed by filtration and washed with acetonitrile (10 mL). The filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure to give viscous oil that was crystallized from a mixture of methanol (10 mL) and water (5 mL), by slowly cooling the solution from 60 °C to room temperature. The product 6c was filtered, washed with cold methanol (8 mL) and dried to give an off-white powder (1 .20 g, 41 %): mp = 225-227 °C; MS (ESI) m/z = 424 [MH]+; 1H NMR

(DMSO-d6): δ 1.28 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 3H), 3.65 (dd, J = 8.6, 6.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.09 (m, 1 H), 4.26 (m, 1 H), 4.35 (dd, J = 8.6, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.54 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H), 4.85 (dd, J = 12.3, 3.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.42 (dd, J = 10.1 , 3.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.06 (m, 1 H), 7.24 (m, 1 H), 7.40 (m, 1 H), 8.67 (s, 1 H), 10.24 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1 H).

Example 35

cabotegravir

The suspension of 6c (1.00 g, 2.4 mmol) and sodium hydroxide (0.57 g, 14.2 mmol) in absolute ethanol (7 mL) was stirred at 40 °C for 16 h. The reaction was quenched with 0.5M H2S04 (15 mL), extracted with dichloromethane (20 mL), the extract washed with water (20 mL) and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was triturated in MTBE (10 mL), the product filtered, washed with MTBE (10 mL) and dried to give cabotegravir as an off-white solid (0.74 g, 77%): MS (ESI) m/z = 405 [MH]+.

Lek, a Sandoz company, opens the first production facility in Slovenia for drug substances for innovative medicines at its Mengeš site

Vojmir Urlep, president of Lek Board of Management

 

Dr Miro Cerar, the Prime Minister of the Republic of SloveniaPhoto for print

Dr Miro Cerar, the Prime Minister of the Republic of Slovenia

Lek, a Sandoz company, awarded for cooperation in practical training of students of the Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

30. 1. 2015

At a ceremony held on 22 January 2015 at the Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, the Maks Samec awards and recognitions for 2014 were presented for the best doctoral thesis in the field of chemistry, the best doctoral thesis in the field of chemical engineering and chemical technology and for services and merits to the Faculty in the year 2014. On this occasion, the Faculty also wanted to thank all the companies and individuals who shared their knowledge and resources to help the Faculty on its education and research path.

Lek, a Sandoz company, received a plaque for taking part in the implementation of practical training, which was collected, on behalf of the company, by Samo Roš, Head of Human Resources and a Member of the Lek Board of Management. By doing so, the Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology thanked all the mentors who directly transfer their expertise and valuable experience onto students, teaching them specific skills, encouraging their development, guiding them through the work process and ensuring that students become socialized in the workplace.

* * *

Lek, a Sandoz company, is one of key pillars of the second-largest generic pharmaceutical company globally. Its role within Sandoz is to act as: a leading global development center for technologically demanding products and technologies; a global manufacturing center for active pharmaceutical ingredients and medicines; a competence center for the development of vertically integrated products; a Sandoz competence center in the field of development and manufacturing of biosimilar products; and, a supply center for the markets of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South East Europe (SEE) and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and it is responsible for sales on the Slovenian market. For further information please visit http://www.lek.si/en.

Sandoz, the generic pharmaceuticals division of Novartis, is a global leader in the generic pharmaceutical sector. Sandoz employs over 26,400 employees and its products are available in more than 160 countries, offering a broad range of high-quality, affordable products that are no longer protected by patents. With USD 9.6 billion in sales in 2014, Sandoz has a portfolio of approximately 1,100 molecules, and holds the #1 position globally in biosimilars as well as in generic injectables, ophthalmics, dermatology and antibiotics, complemented by leading positions in the cardiovascular, metabolism, central nervous system, pain, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and hormonal therapeutic areas. Sandoz develops, produces, and markets these medicines, as well as active pharmaceutical and biotechnological substances. Nearly half of Sandoz’s portfolio is in differentiated products, which are defined as products that are more difficult to scientifically develop and manufacture than standard generics. In addition to strong organic growth since consolidating its generics businesses under the Sandoz brand name in 2003, Sandoz has benefitted from strong growth of its acquisitions, which include Lek (Slovenia), Sabex (Canada), Hexal (Germany), Eon Labs (US), EBEWE Pharma (Austria), Oriel Therapeutics (US), and Fougera Pharmaceuticals (US).
Sandoz is on Twitter. Sign up to follow @Sandoz_global at http://twitter.com/Sandoz_Global.

Novartis provides innovative healthcare solutions that address the evolving needs of patients and societies. Headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, Novartis offers a diversified portfolio to best meet these needs: innovative medicines, eye care, cost-saving generic pharmaceuticals, preventive vaccines and over-the-counter products. Novartis is the only global company with leading positions in these areas. In 2014, the Group achieved net sales of USD 58.0 billion, while R&D throughout the Group amounted to approximately USD 9.9 billion (USD 9.6 billion excluding impairment and amortization charges). Novartis Group companies employ approximately 130,000 full-time-equivalent associates. Novartis products are available in more than 180 countries around the world. For more information, please visit www.novartis.com

 

////////////Carbotegravir, Dolutegravir, New Patent, WO 2016113372, Lek Pharmaceutical and Chemical Co DD

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Jul 232016
 

File:Belinostat.svg

Belinostat (PXD101)

 FAST TRACK FDA , ORPHAN STATUS

PXD101;PX105684;PXD-101;PXD 101;PX-105684
UNII:F4H96P17NZ
N-Hydroxy-3-(3-phenylsulphamoylphenyl)acrylamide
N-HYDROXY-3-[3-[(PHENYLAMINO)SULFONYL]PHENYL]-2-PROPENAMIDE
NSC726630
(E)-N-hydroxy-3-[3-(phenylsulfamoyl)phenyl]prop-2-enamide
414864-00-9 [RN]
866323-14-0 [RN]
Beleodaq®

Approved by FDA……http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-beleodaq-belinostat-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-4052.html?utm_source=ddc&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Today%27s+news+summary+-+July+3%2C+2014

July 3, 2014 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Beleodaq (belinostat) for the treatment of patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), a rare and fast-growing type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The action was taken under the agency’s accelerated approval program.

Belinostat (PXD101) is a novel HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of 27 nM, with activity demonstrated in cisplatin-resistant tumors.

CLINICAL TRIALS…http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/intervention=Belinostat+OR+PXD101

MP 172–174 °C, (lit.(@) 172 °C). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 10.75–10.42 (m, 2H), 9.15 (s, 1H), 7.92 (s, 1H), 7.78 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.71 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H),7.47 (d, J = 15.8 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (m, 2H), 7.10–7.01 (m, 3H), 6.51 (d, J = 15.8 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z = 318.6 [M+H] +.

Finn, P. W.; Bandara, M.; Butcher, C.; Finn, A.; Hollinshead, R.; Khan, N.; Law, N.; Murthy, S.; Romero,R.; Watkins, C.; Andrianov, V.; Bokaldere, R. M.; Dikovska, K.; Gailite, V.; Loza, E.; Piskunova, I.;Starchenkov, I.; Vorona, M.; Kalvinsh, I. Helv. Chim. Acta 2005, 88, 1630, DOI: 10.1002/hlca.200590129

Beleodaq and Folotyn are marketed by Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc., based in Henderson, Nevada. Istodax is marketed by Celgene Corporation based in Summit, New Jersey.

Belinostat was granted orphan drug status for the treatment of Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) in the US in September 2009 and the EU in October 2012. In July 2015, an orphan drug designation has also been granted for malignant thymoma in the EU.

Belinostat received its first global approval in the US-FDA on 3 July 2014 for the intravenous (IV) treatment of relapsed or refractory PTCL in adults.

Belinostat was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on July 3, 2014. It was originally developed by CuraGen Pharma,then developed by Spectrum Pharmaceuticals cooperating with Onxeo, then marketed as Beleodaq® by Spectrum.

Beleodaq is a pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor selectively causing the accumulation of acetylated histones and other proteinsin tumor cells. It is indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL).

Beleodaq® is available as lyophilized powder for intravenous infusion, containing 500 mg of free Belinostat. The recommended dose is 1,000 mg/m2 once daily on days 1-5 of a 21-day cycle.

Index:

MW 318.07
MF C15H14N2O4S

414864-00-9  cas no

866323-14-0

(2E)-N-hydroxy-3-[3-(phenylsulfamoyl)phenyl]acrylamide

A novel HDAC inhibitor

Chemical structure for belinostat
PTCL comprises a diverse group of rare diseases in which lymph nodes become cancerous. In 2014, the National Cancer Institute estimates that 70,800 Americans will be diagnosed with NHL and 18,990 will die. PTCL represents about 10 to 15 percent of NHLs in North America.Belinostat inhibits the growth of tumor cells (A2780, HCT116, HT29, WIL, CALU-3, MCF7, PC3 and HS852) with IC50 from 0.2-0.66 μM. PD101 shows low activity in A2780/cp70 and 2780AD cells. Belinostat inhibits bladder cancer cell growth, especially in 5637 cells, which shows accumulation of G0-G1 phase, decrease in S phase, and increase in G2-M phase. Belinostat also shows enhanced tubulin acetylation in ovarian cancer cell lines. A recent study shows that Belinostat activates protein kinase A in a TGF-β signaling-dependent mechanism and decreases survivin mRNA.

Beleodaq works by stopping enzymes that contribute to T-cells, a type of immune cell, becoming cancerous. It is intended for patients whose disease returned after treatment (relapsed) or did not respond to previous treatment (refractory).

“This is the third drug that has been approved since 2009 for the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Today’s approval expands the number of treatment options available to patients with serious and life-threatening diseases.”

The FDA granted accelerated approval to Folotyn (pralatrexate) in 2009 for use in patients with relapsed or refractory PTCL and Istodax (romidepsin) in 2011 for the treatment of PTCL in patients who received at least one prior therapy.

The safety and effectiveness of Beleodaq was evaluated in a clinical study involving 129 participants with relapsed or refractory PTCL. All participants were treated with Beleodaq until their disease progressed or side effects became unacceptable. Results showed 25.8 percent of participants had their cancer disappear (complete response) or shrink (partial response) after treatment.

The most common side effects seen in Beleodaq-treated participants were nausea, fatigue, fever (pyrexia), low red blood cells (anemia), and vomiting.

The FDA’s accelerated approval program allows for approval of a drug based on surrogate or intermediate endpoints reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit for patients with serious conditions with unmet medical needs. Drugs receiving accelerated approval are subject to confirmatory trials verifying clinical benefit. Beleodaq also received orphan product designation by the FDA because it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition.

 

BELINOSTAT

Belinostat (trade name Beleodaq, previously known as PXD101) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor drug developed by TopoTargetfor the treatment of hematological malignancies and solid tumors.[2]

It was approved in July 2014 by the US FDA to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma.[3]

In 2007 preliminary results were released from the Phase II clinical trial of intravenous belinostat in combination with carboplatin andpaclitaxel for relapsed ovarian cancer.[4] Final results in late 2009 of a phase II trial for T-cell lymphoma were encouraging.[5]Belinostat has been granted orphan drug and fast track designation by the FDA,[6] and was approved in the US for the use againstperipheral T-cell lymphoma on 3 July 2014.[3] It is not approved in Europe as of August 2014.[7]

The approved pharmaceutical formulation is given intravenously.[8]:180 Belinostat is primarily metabolized by UGT1A1; the initial dose should be reduced if the recipient is known to be homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele.[8]:179 and 181

NCI: A novel hydroxamic acid-type histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. Belinostat targets HDAC enzymes, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, promoting cellular differentiation, and inhibiting angiogenesis. This agent may sensitize drug-resistant tumor cells to other antineoplastic agents, possibly through a mechanism involving the down-regulation of thymidylate synthase

 

The study of inhibitors of histone deacetylases indicates that these enzymes play an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. The inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) (Yoshida et al., 1990a) causes cell cycle arrest at both G1 and G2 phases (Yoshida and Beppu, 1988), reverts the transformed phenotype of different cell lines, and induces differentiation of Friend leukaemia cells and others (Yoshida et al., 1990b). TSA (and SAHA) have been reported to inhibit cell growth, induce terminal differentiation, and prevent the formation of tumours in mice (Finnin et al., 1999).

Trichostatin A (TSA)

Figure imgf000005_0001

Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA)

Figure imgf000005_0002

Cell cycle arrest by TSA correlates with an increased expression of gelsolin (Hoshikawa et al., 1994), an actin regulatory protein that is down regulated in malignant breast cancer (Mielnicki et al., 1999). Similar effects on cell cycle and differentiation have been observed with a number of deacetylase inhibitors (Kim et al., 1999). Trichostatin A has also been reported to be useful in the treatment of fibrosis, e.g., liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. See, e.g., Geerts et al., 1998.

Recently, certain compounds that induce differentiation have been reported to inhibit histone deacetylases. Several experimental antitumour compounds, such as trichostatin A (TSA), trapoxin, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and phenylbutyrate have been reported to act, at least in part, by inhibiting histone deacetylase (see, e.g., Yoshida et al., 1990; Richon et al., 1998; Kijima et al., 1993). Additionally, diallyl sulfide and related molecules (see, e.g., Lea et al., 1999), oxamflatin (see, e.g., Kim et al., 1999), MS-27-275, a synthetic benzamide derivative (see, e.g., Saito et al., 1999; Suzuki et al., 1999; note that MS-27-275 was later re-named as MS-275), butyrate derivatives (see, e.g., Lea and Tulsyan, 1995), FR901228 (see, e.g., Nokajima et al., 1998), depudecin (see, e.g., Kwon et al., 1998), and m-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxamide (see, e.g., Richon et al., 1998) have been reported to inhibit histone deacetylases. In vitro, some of these compounds are reported to inhibit the growth of fibroblast cells by causing cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2 phases, and can lead to the terminal differentiation and loss of transforming potential of a variety of transformed cell lines (see, e.g., Richon et al, 1996; Kim et al., 1999; Yoshida et al., 1995; Yoshida & Beppu, 1988). In vivo, phenybutyrate is reported to be effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia in conjunction with retinoic acid (see, e.g., Warrell et al., 1998). SAHA is reported to be effective in preventing the formation of mammary tumours in rats, and lung tumours in mice (see, e.g., Desai et al., 1999).

The clear involvement of HDACs in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation suggest that aberrant HDAC activity may play a role in cancer. The most direct demonstration that deacetylases contribute to cancer development comes from the analysis of different acute promyelocytic leukaemias (APL). In most APL patients, a translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17 (t(15;17)) results in the expression of a fusion protein containing the N-terminal portion of PML gene product linked to most of RARσ (retinoic acid receptor). In some cases, a different translocation (t(11 ;17)) causes the fusion between the zinc finger protein PLZF and RARα. In the absence of ligand, the wild type RARα represses target genes by tethering HDAC repressor complexes to the promoter DNA. During normal hematopoiesis, retinoic acid (RA) binds RARα and displaces the repressor complex, allowing expression of genes implicated in myeloid differentiation. The RARα fusion proteins occurring in APL patients are no longer responsive to physiological levels of RA and they interfere with the expression of the RA- inducible genes that promote myeloid differentiation. This results in a clonal expansion of promyelocytic cells and development of leukaemia. In vitro experiments have shown that TSA is capable of restoring RA-responsiveness to the fusion RARα proteins and of allowing myeloid differentiation. These results establish a link between HDACs and oncogenesis and suggest that HDACs are potential targets for pharmaceutical intervention in APL patients. (See, for example, Kitamura et al., 2000; David et al., 1998; Lin et al., 1998).

BELINOSTAT

Furthermore, different lines of evidence suggest that HDACs may be important therapeutic targets in other types of cancer. Cell lines derived from many different cancers (prostate, coloreetal, breast, neuronal, hepatic) are induced to differentiate by HDAC inhibitors (Yoshida and Horinouchi, 1999). A number of HDAC inhibitors have been studied in animal models of cancer. They reduce tumour growth and prolong the lifespan of mice bearing different types of transplanted tumours, including melanoma, leukaemia, colon, lung and gastric carcinomas, etc. (Ueda et al., 1994; Kim et al., 1999).

Psoriasis is a common chronic disfiguring skin disease which is characterised by well-demarcated, red, hardened scaly plaques: these may be limited or widespread. The prevalence rate of psoriasis is approximately 2%, i.e., 12.5 million sufferers in the triad countries (US/Europe/Japan). While the disease is rarely fatal, it clearly has serious detrimental effects upon the quality of life of the patient: this is further compounded by the lack of effective therapies. Present treatments are either ineffective, cosmetically unacceptable, or possess undesired side effects. There is therefore a large unmet clinical need for effective and safe drugs for this condition. Psoriasis is a disease of complex etiology. Whilst there is clearly a genetic component, with a number of gene loci being involved, there are also undefined environmental triggers. Whatever the ultimate cause of psoriasis, at the cellular level, it is characterised by local T-cell mediated inflammation, by keratinocyte hyperproliferation, and by localised angiogenesis. These are all processes in which histone deacetylases have been implicated (see, e.g., Saunders et al., 1999; Bernhard et al, 1999; Takahashi et al, 1996; Kim et al , 2001 ). Therefore HDAC inhibitors may be of use in therapy for psoriasis. Candidate drugs may be screened, for example, using proliferation assays with T-cells and/or keratinocytes.

 CLIP

PXD101/Belinostat®

(E)-N-hydroxy-3-(3-phenylsulfamoyl-phenyl)-acrylamide, also known as PXD101 and Belinostat®, shown below, is a well known histone deacetylate (HDAC) inhibitor. It is being developed for treatment of a range of disorders mediated by HDAC, including proliferative conditions (such as cancer and psoriasis), malaria, etc.

Figure US20100286279A1-20101111-C00001

PXD101 was first described in WO 02/30879 A2. That document describes a multi-step method of synthesis which may conveniently be illustrated by the following scheme.

Figure US20100286279A1-20101111-C00002
Figure US20100286279A1-20101111-C00003

PATENT

GENERAL SYNTHESIS

str1

WO2002030879A2

IGNORE 10

Figure imgf000060_0002

ENTRY 45 IS BELINOSTAT

Scheme 1

Figure imgf000101_0001

By using amines instead of aniline, the corresponding products may be obtained. The use of aniline, 4-methoxyaniline, 4-methylaniline, 4-bromoaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 4-benzylamine, and 4-phenethyamine, among others, is described in the Examples below.

In another method, a suitable amino acid (e.g., ω-amino acid) having a protected carboxylic acid (e.g., as an ester) and an unprotected amino group is reacted with a sulfonyl chloride compound (e.g., RSO2CI) to give the corresponding sulfonamide having a protected carboxylic acid. The protected carboxylic acid is then deprotected using base to give the free carboxylic acid, which is then reacted with, for example, hydroxylamine 2-chlorotrityl resin followed by acid (e.g., trifluoroacetic acid), to give the desired carbamic acid.

One example of this approach is illustrated below, in Scheme 2, wherein the reaction conditions are as follows: (i) RSO2CI, pyridine, DCM, room temperature, 12 hours; (ii) 1 M LiOH or 1 M NaOH, dioxane, room temperature, 3-48 hours; (iii) hydroxylamine 2-chlorotrityl resin, HOAt, HATU, DIPEA, DCM, room temperature, 16 hours; and (iv) TFA/DCM (5:95, v/v), room temperature, 1.5 hours.

Scheme 2

Figure imgf000102_0001

Additional methods for the synthesis of compounds of the present invention are illustrated below and are exemplified in the examples below.

Scheme 3A

Figure imgf000102_0002

Scheme 3B

Figure imgf000103_0001

Scheme 4

Figure imgf000104_0001
Figure imgf000105_0001

Scheme 8

Figure imgf000108_0002

Scheme 9

Figure imgf000109_0001

PATENT

SYNTHESIS

WO2002030879A2

Example 1

3-Formylbenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt (1)

Figure imgf000123_0001

Oleum (5 ml) was placed in a reaction vessel and benzaldehyde (2.00 g, 18.84 mmol) was slowly added not exceeding the temperature of the reaction mixture more than 30°C. The obtained solution was stirred at 40°C for ten hours and at ambient temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was poured into ice and extracted with ethyl acetate. The aqueous phase was treated with CaC03 until the evolution of C02 ceased (pH~6-7), then the precipitated CaSO4was filtered off and washed with water. The filtrate was treated with Na2CO3 until the pH of the reaction medium increased to pH 8, obtained CaCO3 was filtered off and water solution was evaporated in vacuum. The residue was washed with methanol, the washings were evaporated and the residue was dried in desiccator over P2Oβ affording the title compound (2.00 g, 51%). 1H NMR (D20), δ: 7.56-8.40 (4H, m); 10.04 ppm (1 H, s).

Example 2 3-(3-Sulfophenyl)acrylic acid methyl ester, sodium salt (2)

Figure imgf000124_0001

Sodium salt of 3-formylbenzenesulfonic acid (1) (1.00 g, 4.80 mmol), potassium carbonate (1.32 g, 9.56 mmol), trimethyl phosphonoacetate (1.05 g, 5.77 mmol) and water (2 ml) were stirred at ambient temperature for 30 min., precipitated solid was filtered and washed with methanol. The filtrate was evaporated and the title compound (2) was obtained as a white solid (0.70 g, 55%). 1H NMR (DMSO- dβl HMDSO), δ: 3.68 (3H, s); 6.51 (1 H, d, J=16.0 Hz); 7.30-7.88 (5H, m).

Example 3 3-(3-Chlorosulfonylphenyl)acrylic acid methyl ester (3)

Figure imgf000124_0002

To the sodium salt of 3-(3-sulfophenyl)acrylic acid methyl ester (2) (0.670 g, 2.53 mmol) benzene (2 ml), thionyl chloride (1.508 g, 0.9 ml, 12.67 mmol) and 3 drops of dimethylformamide were added and the resultant suspension was stirred at reflux for one hour. The reaction mixture was evaporated, the residue was dissolved in benzene (3 ml), filtered and the filtrate was evaporated to give the title compound (0.6’40 g, 97%).

Example 4 3-(3-Phenylsulfamoylphenyl)acrylic acid methyl ester (4a)

Figure imgf000125_0001

A solution of 3-(3-chlorosulfonylphenyl)acrylic acid methyl ester (3) (0.640 g, 2.45 mmol) in dichloromethane (2 ml) was added to a mixture of aniline (0.465 g, 4.99 mmol) and pyridine (1 ml), and the resultant solution was stirred at 50°C for one hour. The reaction mixture was evaporated and the residue was partitioned between ethyl acetate and 10% HCI. The organic layer was washed successively with water, saturated NaCl, and dried (Na2S0 ). The solvent was removed and the residue was chromatographed on silica gel with chloroform-ethyl acetate (7:1 , v/v) as eluent. The obtained product was washed with diethyl ether to give the title compound (0.226 g, 29%). 1H NMR (CDCI3, HMDSO), δ: 3.72 (3H, s); 6.34 (1H, d, J=16.0 Hz); 6.68 (1 H, br s); 6.92-7.89 (10H, m).

Example 5 3-(3-Phenylsulfamoylphenyl)acrylic acid (5a)

Figure imgf000125_0002

3-(3-Phenylsulfamoylphenyl)acrylic acid methyl ester (4a) (0.220 g, 0.69 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (3 ml), 1N NaOH (2.08 ml, 2.08 mmol) was added and the resultant solution was stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water. The aqueous layer was acidified with 10% HCI and stirred for 30 min. The precipitated solid was filtered, washed with water and dried in desiccator over P2Os to give the title compound as a white solid (0.173 g, 82%). Example 6 3-(3-Phenylsulfamoylphenyl)acryloyl chloride (6a)

Figure imgf000126_0001

To a suspension of 3-(3-phenylsulfamoylphenyl)acrylic acid (5a) (0.173 g, 0.57 mmol) in dichloromethane (2.3 ml) oxalyl chloride (0.17 ml, 1.95 mmol) and one drop of dimethylformamide were added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 40°C for one hour and concentrated under reduced pressure to give crude title compound (0.185 g).

Example 7

N-Hydroxy-3-(3-phenylsulfamoylphenyl)acrylamide (7a) (PX105684) BELINOSTAT

Figure imgf000126_0002

To a suspension of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (0.200 g, 2.87 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (3.5 ml) a saturated NaHCOβ solution (2.5 ml) was added and the resultant mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 10 min. To the reaction mixture a 3-(3-phenylsulfamoylphenyl)acryloyl chloride (6a) (0.185 g) solution in tetrahydrofuran (2.3 ml) was added and stirred at ambient temperature for one hour. The reaction mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate and 2N HCI. The organic layer was washed successively with water and saturated NaCl, the solvent was removed and the residue was washed with acetonitrile and diethyl ether.

The title compound was obtained as a white solid (0.066 g, 36%), m.p. 172°C. BELINOSTAT

1H NMR (DMSO-d6, HMDSO), δ: 6.49 (1 H, d, J=16.0 Hz); 7.18-8.05 (10H, m); 9.16 (1 H, br s); 10.34 (1 H, s); 10.85 ppm (1 H, br s).

HPLC analysis on Symmetry C18column: impurities 4% (column size 3.9×150 mm; mobile phase acetonitrile – 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 2.5), 40:60; sample concentration 1 mg/ml; flow rate 0.8 ml/ min; detector UV 220 nm).

Anal. Calcd for C154N204S, %: C 56.59, H 4.43, N 8.80. Found, %: C 56.28, H 4.44, N 8.56.

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/CN102786448A?cl=en

Example: belinostat (compound of formula I) Preparation of

 

Figure CN102786448AD00092

Methods of operation:

The compound of formula II (4. Og) added to the reactor, was added methanol 30ml, and stirred to dissolve, was added IM aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (38mL), stirred at room temperature overnight, the reaction was completed, ethyl acetate was added (IOmL) ^ K (20mL), stirred for 5 minutes, phase separation, the ethyl acetate phase was discarded, the aqueous phase was acidified with 10% hydrochloric acid to pH2, stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes, filtered, washed with water, and dried to give hydrolyzate 3. lg, yield rate of 81.6%.

 The hydrolyzate (3. Og) added to the reactor, was added methylene chloride (53. 2g), dissolved with stirring, was added oxalyl chloride (2.8mL, 0.0032mol) at room temperature was added I drop DMF, reflux I hours, concentrated and the residue was dissolved in THF (30mL) alternate, the other to take a reaction flask was added hydroxylamine hydrochloride (3. 5g, 0.05mol), THF (50mL), saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (40mL), the mixture at room temperature under stirring for 10 minutes, then was added to spare, stirred at room temperature for I hour, the reaction was complete, at – at room temperature was added ethyl acetate (50mL), 2M hydrochloric acid (50mL), stirred for 5 minutes the phases were separated, the aqueous phase was discarded, the organic layer was washed with water, saturated brine, dried, filtered and concentrated to give crude product belinostat, recrystallized from ethyl acetate, 50 ° C and dried for 8 hours to give white crystals 2. 6g, yield 83.8%. .  1H-NMR (DMS0-d6, 400MHz) δ: 6 50 (1H, d, J = 16. OHz); 7 07 (d, J = 7. 8Hz, 2H); 7 16 (t.. , J = 7. 3Hz, 1H);. 7 25 (m, 2H);. 7 45 (t, J = 7. 8Hz, 1H);. 7 60 (d, J = 15. 9Hz, 1H); 7 . 62 (d, J = 7. 7Hz, 1H);. 7 75 (d, J = 7. 8Hz, 1H);. 7 88 (br s. ‘1H);. 9 17 (br s’ 1H); 10. 35 (s, 1H);. 10 82ppm (br s, 1H). ·

str1

 

Step a): Preparation of Compound III

 

Figure CN102786448AD00071

 The carboxy benzene sulfonate (224g, Imol), anhydrous methanol (2300g), concentrated hydrochloric acid (188. 6g) refluxing

3-5 hours, filtered and the filtrate was added anhydrous sodium bicarbonate powder (200g), stirred for I hour, filtered, the filter residue was discarded, the filtrate was concentrated. The concentrate was added methanol (2000g), stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to dryness, 80 ° C and dried for 4 hours to give a white solid compound III147g, yield 61.8%.

Step b): Preparation of Compound IV

 

Figure CN102786448AD00072

 Compound III (50g, 0. 21mol), phosphorus oxychloride (250mL) was refluxed for 2_6 hours, completion of the reaction, cooled to

0-5 ° C, was slowly added to ice water, stirred for 2 hours and filtered to give a brown solid compound IV40 g, due to the instability of Compound IV, directly into the next reaction without drying.

Preparation of Compound V: [0040] Step c)

 

Figure CN102786448AD00073

The aniline (5. 58g, 0. 06mol) and 30mL of toluene added to the reactor, stirred to dissolve, in step b) the resulting compound IV (7. 05g, O. 03mol) was dissolved in 60 ml of toluene, at room temperature dropwise added to the reactor, the addition was completed, stirring at room temperature for 1-2 hours, the reaction was completed, the filtered solid washed with water, and then recrystallized from toluene, 50 ° C and dried for 4 hours to obtain a white crystalline compound V6. Og, yield 73%. mp:.. 144 4-145 2. . .

 1H- bandit R (CDCl3, 400MHz) δ:…. 3 92 (s, 3H); 6 80 (. Br s, 1H); 7 06-7 09 (m, 2H); 7 11. . -7 15 (m, 1H);.. 7 22-7 26 (m, 2H);. 7 51 (t, J = 7. 8Hz, 1H);.. 7 90-7 93 (dt, J = . 1.2,7 8Hz, 1H); 8 18-8 21 (dt, J = I. 4, 7. 8Hz, 1H);… 8 48 (t, J = L 6Hz, 1H).

 IR v ™ r: 3243,3198,3081,2953,1705,1438,1345,766,702,681cm-1.

 Step d): Preparation of Compound VI

 

Figure CN102786448AD00081

 The anhydrous lithium chloride 2. 32g, potassium borohydride 2. 96g, THF50mL added to the reactor, stirring evenly, Compound V (8g, 0. 027mol) was dissolved in 7mL of tetrahydrofuran, was slowly dropped into the reactor was heated under reflux for 5 hours, the reaction was completed, the force mouth 40mL water and ethyl acetate 40mL, stirred for half an hour, allowed to stand for separation, the organic layer was washed with 40mL water, concentrated under reduced pressure to give the crude product, the crude product was recrystallized from toluene, solid 50 V dried for 4 hours to give a white crystalline compound VI6. 82g, yield 90. O%. mp:.. 98 2-98 6. . .

1H-NMR (DMS0-d6, 400ΜΗζ) δ:….. 4 53 (s, 2H); 5 39 (s, 1H); 6 99-7 03 (m, 1H); 7 08- 7. ll (m, 2H);.. 7 19-7 24 (m, 2H);.. 7 45-7 52 (m, 2H);.. 7 61-7 63 (dt, J = I. 8 , 7 4Hz, 1H);.. 7 79 (br s, 1H);. 10. 26 (s, 1H).

IRv =: 3453,3130,2964,1488,1151,1031, 757,688cm_10

Step e): Preparation of Compound VII

Figure CN102786448AD00082

After Compound VI (7.5g, 0.028mol) dissolved in acetone was added 7ml, dichloromethane was added 60mL, supported on silica gel was added PCC at room temperature 20g, stirred at room temperature for 12-24 hours, the reaction was complete, filtered and the filtrate was purified The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was discarded after the organic phase is washed 30mL5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate, evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure to give the crude product, the crude product was recrystallized from toluene, 50 ° C and dried for 8 hours to give white crystalline compound VII4. 7g, yield 62.7%. mp:.. 128 1-128 5 ° C.

 1H- bandit R (CDCl3,400MHz) δ:…. 7 08-7 15 (m, 4Η); 7 · 23-7 27 (m, 2H); 7 · 60-7 64 (t, J = 7 7Hz, 1Η);.. 8 00 (d, J = 7. 6Hz, 1Η);. 8 04 (d, J = 7. 6Hz, 1Η);. 8 30 (br s’ 1Η).; 10. 00 (S, 1Η).

 IR ν ™ Γ: 3213,3059,2964,2829,1687,1480,1348,1159,1082,758,679cm_10

Preparation of compounds of formula II: [0055] Step f)

 

Figure CN102786448AD00091

 phosphoryl trimethylorthoacetate (2. 93g, 0. 0161mol) added to the reaction vessel, THF30mL, stirring to dissolve, cooled to -5-0 ° C, was added sodium hydride (O. 8g, content 80%) , the addition was completed, stirring for 10-20 minutes, was added dropwise the compound VII (4g, O. 0156mol) and THF (20mL) solution, stirred for 1_4 hours at room temperature, the reaction was complete, 10% aqueous ammonium chloride solution was added dropwise 50mL, and then After addition of 50mL of ethyl acetate, stirred 30min rested stratification, the aqueous layer was discarded, the organic phase was concentrated under reduced pressure to give the crude product, the crude product was recrystallized from methanol 60mL, 50 ° C and dried for 8 hours to give white crystalline compound 113. 6g, yield 75%. mp:.. 152 0-152 5 ° C.

 1H-Nmr (Cdci3JOOmHz) δ:…. 3 81 (s, 3H); 6 40 (d, J = 16. 0Hz, 1H); 6 79 (. Br s, 1H); 7 08 ( d, J = 7. 8Hz, 2H);. 7 14 (t, J = 7. 3Hz, 1H);. 7 24 (m, 2H);. 7 46 (t, J = 7. 8Hz, 1H); 7. 61 (d, J = 16. ΟΗζ, ΙΗ);. 7 64 (d, J = 7. 6Hz, 1H);. 7 75 (d, J = 7. 8Hz, 1H);. 7 89 (br . s, 1H).

IR v ^ :: 3172,3081,2954,2849,1698,1475,1345,1157,773,714,677cm-1.

 

PATENT

SYNTHESIS

US20100286279

Figure US20100286279A1-20101111-C00034

CLIP

SYNTHESIS AND SPECTRAL DATA

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011 ,  vol. 54,  13  pg. 4694 – 4720

(E)-N-Hydroxy-3-(3-phenylsulfamoyl-phenyl)-acrylamide (28, belinostat, PXD101).

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jm2003552

 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jm2003552/suppl_file/jm2003552_si_001.pdf

The methyl ester (27) (8.0 g) was prepared according to reported synthetic route,

(Watkins, C. J.; Romero-Martin, M.-R.; Moore, K. G.; Ritchie, J.; Finn, P. W.; Kalvinsh, I.;
Loza, E.; Dikvoska, K.; Gailite, V.; Vorona, M.; Piskunova, I.; Starchenkov, I.; Harris, C. J.;
Duffy, J. E. S. Carbamic acid compounds comprising a sulfonamide linkage as HDAC
inhibitors. PCT Int. Appl. WO200230879A2, April 18, 2002.)
but using procedure D (Experimental Section) or method described for 26 to convert the methyl ester to crude
hydroxamic acid which was further purified by chromatography (silica, MeOH/DCM = 1:10) to
afford 28 (PXD101) as off-white or pale yellow powder (2.5 g, 31%).

LC–MS m/z 319.0 ([M +H]+).

1H NMR (DMSO-d6)  12–9 (very broad, 2H), 7.90 (s, 1H), 7.76 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (d, J

= 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.44 (d, J = 15.8 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H), 7.08 (d,J = 7.8 Hz, 2H), 7.01 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 6.50 (d, J = 15.8 Hz, 1H);

13C NMR (DMSO-d6)  162.1, 140.6, 138.0, 136.5, 135.9, 131.8, 130.0, 129.2, 127.1, 124.8, 124.1, 121.3, 120.4.

Anal.
(C15H14N2O4S) C, H, N

str1

 

 

PATENT

SYNTHESIS

str1

WO2009040517A2

PXDIOI / Belinostat®

(E)-N-hydroxy-3-(3-phenylsulfamoyl-phenyl)-acrylamide, also known as PXD101 and Belinostat®, shown below, is a well known histone deacetylate (HDAC) inhibitor. It is being developed for treatment of a range of disorders mediated by HDAC, including proliferative conditions (such as cancer and psoriasis), malaria, etc.

Figure imgf000003_0001

PXD101 was first described in WO 02/30879 A2. That document describes a multi-step method of synthesis which may conveniently be illustrated by the following scheme.

Scheme 1

Not isolated

Figure imgf000003_0002

ed on (A)

on (D)

Figure imgf000003_0003

d on (H)

Figure imgf000004_0001

There is a need for alternative methods for the synthesis of PXD101 and related compounds for example, methods which are simpler and/or employ fewer steps and/or permit higher yields and/or higher purity product.

Scheme 5

Figure imgf000052_0001

DMAP, toluene

Figure imgf000052_0003
Figure imgf000052_0002
Figure imgf000052_0004

Synthesis 1 3-Bromo-N-phenyl-benzenesulfonamide (3)

Figure imgf000052_0005

To a 30 gallon (-136 L) reactor was charged aniline (2) (4.01 kg; 93.13 g/mol; 43 mol), toluene (25 L), and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) (12 g), and the mixture was heated to 50-600C. 3-Bromobenzenesulfonyl chloride (1) (5 kg; 255.52 g/mol; 19.6 mol) was charged into the reactor over 30 minutes at 50-600C and progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC. After 19 hours, toluene (5 L) was added due to losses overnight through the vent line and the reaction was deemed to be complete with no compound (1) being detected by HPLC. The reaction mixture was diluted with toluene (10 L) and then quenched with 2 M aqueous hydrochloric acid (20 L). The organic and aqueous layers were separated, the aqueous layer was discarded, and the organic layer was washed with water (20 L), and then 5% (w/w) sodium bicarbonate solution (20 L), while maintaining the batch temperature at 45-55°C. The batch was then used in the next synthesis.

Synthesis 2 (E)-3-(3-Phenylsulfamoyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid ethyl ester (5)

Figure imgf000053_0001

To the batch containing 3-bromo-N-phenyl-benzenesulfonamide (3) (the treated organic layer obtained in the previous synthesis) was added triethylamine (2.97 kg; 101.19 g/mol; 29.4 mol), tri(o-tolyl)phosphine (119 g; 304.37 g/mol; 0.4 mol), and palladium (II) acetate (44 g; 224.51 g/mol; 0.2 mol), and the resulting mixture was degassed four times with a vacuum/nitrogen purge at 45-55°C. Catalytic palladium (0) was formed in situ. The batch was then heated to 80-900C and ethyl acrylate (4) (2.16 kg; 100.12 g/mol; 21.6 mol) was slowly added over 2.75 hours. The batch was sampled after a further 2 hours and was deemed to be complete with no compound (3) being detected by HPLC. The batch was cooled to 45-55°C and for convenience was left at this temperature overnight.

The batch was then reduced in volume under vacuum to 20-25 L, at a batch temperature of 45-55°C, and ethyl acetate (20 L) was added. The batch was filtered and the residue washed with ethyl acetate (3.5 L). The residue was discarded and the filtrates were sent to a 100 gallon (-454 L) reactor, which had been pre-heated to 600C. The 30 gallon (-136 L) reactor was then cleaned to remove any residual Pd, while the batch in the 100 gallon (-454 L) reactor was washed with 2 M aqueous hydrochloric acid and water at 45-55°C. Once the washes were complete and the 30 gallon (-136 L) reactor was clean, the batch was transferred from the 100 gallon (-454 L) reactor back to the 30 gallon (-136 L) reactor and the solvent was swapped under vacuum from ethyl acetate/toluene to toluene while maintaining a batch temperature of 45-55°C (the volume was reduced to 20-25 L). At this point, the batch had precipitated and heptanes (10 L) were added to re-dissolve it. The batch was then cooled to 0-100C and held at this temperature over the weekend in order to precipitate the product. The batch was filtered and the residue was washed with heptanes (5 L). A sample of the wet-cake was taken for Pd analysis. The Pd content of the crude product (5) was determined to be 12.9 ppm.

The wet-cake was then charged back into the 30 gallon (-136 L) reactor along with ethyl acetate (50 L) and heated to 40-500C in order to obtain a solution. A sparkler filter loaded with 12 impregnated Darco G60® carbon pads was then connected to the reactor and the solution was pumped around in a loop through the sparkler filter. After 1 hour, a sample was taken and evaporated to dryness and analysed for Pd content. The amount of Pd was found to be 1.4 ppm. A second sample was taken after 2 hours and evaporated to dryness and analysed for Pd content. The amount of Pd had been reduced to 0.6 ppm. The batch was blown back into the reactor and held at 40-500C overnight before the solvent was swapped under vacuum from ethyl acetate to toluene while maintaining a batch temperature of 45-55°C (the volume was reduced to 20-25 L). At this point, the batch had precipitated and heptanes (10 L) were added to re-dissolve it and the batch was cooled to 0-100C and held at this temperature overnight in order to precipitate the product. The batch was filtered and the residue was washed with heptanes (5 L). The filtrate was discarded and the residue was dried at 45-55°C under vacuum for 25 hours. A first lot of the title compound (5) was obtained as an off-white solid (4.48 kg, 69% overall yield from 3-bromobenzenesulfonyl chloride (1)) with a Pd content of 0.4 ppm and a purity of 99.22% (AUC) by HPLC.

Synthesis 3 (E)-3-(3-Phenylsulfamoyl-phenyl)-acrvlic acid (6)

Figure imgf000054_0001

To the 30 gallon (-136 L) reactor was charged the (E)-3-(3-phenylsulfamoyl-phenyl)- acrylic acid ethyl ester (5) (4.48 kg; 331.39 g/mol; 13.5 mol) along with 2 M aqueous sodium hydroxide (17.76 L; -35 mol). The mixture was heated to 40-50°C and held at this temperature for 2 hours before sampling, at which point the reaction was deemed to be complete with no compound (5) being detected by HPLC. The batch was adjusted to pH 2.2 using 1 M aqueous hydrochloric acid while maintaining the batch temperature between 40-500C. The product had precipitated and the batch was cooled to 20-300C and held at this temperature for 1 hour before filtering and washing the cake with water (8.9 L). The filtrate was discarded. The batch was allowed to condition on the filter overnight before being charged back into the reactor and slurried in water (44.4 L) at 40-500C for 2 hours. The batch was cooled to 15-20°C, held for 1 hour, and then filtered and the residue washed with water (8.9 L). The filtrate was discarded. The crude title compound (6) was transferred to an oven for drying at 45-55°C under vacuum with a slight nitrogen bleed for 5 days (this was done for convenience) to give a white solid (3.93 kg, 97% yield). The moisture content of the crude material was measured using Karl Fischer (KF) titration and found to be <0.1% (w/w). To the 30 gallon (-136 L) reactor was charged the crude compound (6) along with acetonitrile (47.2 L). The batch was heated to reflux (about 80°C) and held at reflux for 2 hours before cooling to 0-10°C and holding at this temperature overnight in order to precipitate the product. The batch was filtered and the residue was washed with cold acetonitrile (7.9 L). The filtrate was discarded and the residue was dried under vacuum at 45-55°C for 21.5 hours. The title compound (6) was obtained as a fluffy white solid (3.37 kg, 84% yield with respect to compound (5)) with a purity of 99.89% (AUC) by HPLC.

Synthesis 4 (E)-N-Hvdroxy-3-(3-phenylsulfamoyl-phenyl)-acrylamide (PXD101) BELINOSTAT

Figure imgf000055_0001

To the 30 gallon (-136 L) reactor was charged (E)-3-(3-phenylsulfamoyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid (6) (3.37 kg; 303.34 g/mol; 11.1 mol) and a pre-mixed solution of 1 ,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) in isopropyl acetate (IPAc) (27 g in 30 L; 152.24 g/mol; 0.18 mol). The slurry was stirred and thionyl chloride (SOCI2) (960 mL; density ~1.631 g/mL; 118.97 g/mol; -13 mol) was added to the reaction mixture and the batch was stirred at 20-300C overnight. After 18.5 hours, the batch was sampled and deemed to be complete with no compound (6) being detected by HPLC. The resulting solution was transferred to a 100 L Schott reactor for temporary storage while the

30 gallon (-136 L) reactor was rinsed with isopropyl acetate (IPAc) and water. Deionized water (28.9 L) was then added to the 30 gallon (-136 L) reactor followed by 50% (w/w) hydroxylamine (6.57 L; -1.078 g/mL; 33.03 g/mol; -214 mol) and another charge of deionized water (1.66 L) to rinse the lines free of hydroxylamine to make a 10% (w/w) hydroxylamine solution. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) (6.64 L) was then charged to the

30 gallon (-136 L) reactor and the mixture was stirred and cooled to 0-100C. The acid chloride solution (from the 100 L Schott reactor) was then slowly charged into the hydroxylamine solution over 1 hour maintaining a batch temperature of 0-10°C during the addition. The batch was then allowed to warm to 20-300C. The aqueous layer was separated and discarded. The organic layer was then reduced in volume under vacuum while maintaining a batch temperature of less than 300C. The intention was to distill out 10-13 L of solvent, but this level was overshot. A larger volume of isopropyl acetate (IPAc) (16.6 L) was added and about 6 L of solvent was distilled out. The batch had precipitated and heptanes (24.9 L) were added and the batch was held at 20-30°C overnight. The batch was filtered and the residue was washed with heptanes (6.64 L). The filtrate was discarded and the residue was dried at 45-55°C under vacuum with a slight nitrogen bleed over the weekend. The title compound (PXD101) was obtained as a light orange solid (3.11 kg, 89% yield with respect to compound (6)) with a purity of 99.25% (AUC) by HPLC.

The title compound (PXD101) (1.2 kg, 3.77 mol) was dissolved in 8 volumes of 1:1 (EtOH/water) at 600C. Sodium bicarbonate (15.8 g, 5 mol%) was added to the solution. Water (HPLC grade) was then added at a rate of 65 mL/min while keeping the internal temperature >57°C. After water (6.6 L) had been added, crystals started to form and the water addition was stopped. The reaction mixture was then cooled at a rate of 10°C/90 min to a temperature of 0-10cC and then stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The crystals were then filtered and collected. The filter cake was washed by slurrying in water (2 x 1.2 L) and then dried in an oven at 45°C for 60 hours with a slight nitrogen bleed. 1.048 kg (87% recovery) of a light orange solid was recovered. Microscopy and XRPD data showed a conglomerate of irregularly shaped birefringant crystalline particles. The compound was found to contain 0.02% water.

As discussed above: the yield of compound (5) with respect to compound (1) was 69%. the yield of compound (6) with respect to compound (5) was 84%. the yield of PXD101 with respect to compound (6) was 89%.

 

PAPER

Synthetic Commun. 2010, 40, 2520-2524.

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PATENT

FORMULATION

WO2006120456A1

Formulation Studies

These studies demonstrate a substantial enhancement of HDACi solubility (on the order of a 500-fold increase for PXD-101) using one or more of: cyclodextrin, arginine, and meglumine. The resulting compositions are stable and can be diluted to the desired target concentration without the risk of precipitation. Furthermore, the compositions have a pH that, while higher than ideal, is acceptable for use.

Figure imgf000047_0001

UV Absorbance

The ultraviolet (UV absorbance E\ value for PXD-101 was determined by plotting a calibration curve of PXD-101 concentration in 50:50 methanol/water at the λmax for the material, 269 nm. Using this method, the E1i value was determined as 715.7.

Methanol/water was selected as the subsequent diluting medium for solubility studies rather than neat methanol (or other organic solvent) to reduce the risk of precipitation of the cyclodextrin.

Solubility in Demineralised Water

The solubility of PXD-101 was determined to be 0.14 mg/mL for demineralised water. Solubility Enhancement with Cvclodextrins

Saturated samples of PXD-101 were prepared in aqueous solutions of two natural cyclodextrins (α-CD and γ-CD) and hydroxypropyl derivatives of the α, β and Y cyclodextrins (HP-α-CD, HP-β-CD and HP-γ-CD). All experiments were completed with cyclodextrin concentrations of 250 mg/mL, except for α-CD, where the solubility of the cyclodextrin was not sufficient to achieve this concentration. The data are summarised in the following table. HP-β-CD offers the best solubility enhancement for PXD-101.

Figure imgf000048_0001

Phase Solubility Determination of HP-β-CD

The phase solubility diagram for HP-β-CD was prepared for concentrations of cyclodextrin between 50 and 500 mg/mL (5-50% w/v). The calculated saturated solubilities of the complexed HDACi were plotted against the concentration of cyclodextrin. See Figure 1.

 

Links

 

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SPECTRUM

Tiny Biotech With Three Cancer Drugs Is More Alluring Takeover Bet Now
Forbes
The drug is one of Spectrum’s two drugs undergoing phase 3 clinical trials. Allergan paid Spectrum $41.5 million and will make additional payments of up to $304 million based on achieving certain milestones. So far, Raj Shrotriya, Spectrum’s chairman, 

http://www.forbes.com/sites/genemarcial/2013/07/14/tiny-biotech-with-three-cancer-drugs-is-more-alluring-takeover-bet-now/

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Copenhagen, December 10, 2013
Topotarget announces the submission of a New Drug Application (NDA) for belinostat for the treatment of relapsed or refractory (R/R) peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The NDA has been filed for Accelerated Approval with a request for Priority Review. Response from the FDA regarding acceptance to file is expected within 60 days from the FDA receipt date.
read all this here

PAPER

The Development of an Effective Synthetic Route of Belinostat

Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design & Discovery, Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00170
Publication Date (Web): July 12, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
Abstract Image

A practical synthetic route of belinostat is reported. Belinostat was obtained via a five-step process starting from benzaldehyde and including addition reaction with sodium bisulfite, sulfochlorination with chlorosulfonic acid, sulfonamidation with aniline, Knoevenagel condensation, and the final amidation with hydroxylamine. Key to the strategy is the preparation of 3-formylbenzenesulfonyl chloride using an economical and practical protocol. The main advantages of the route include inexpensive starting materials and acceptable overall yield. The scale-up experiment was carried out to provide 169 g of belinostat with 99.6% purity in 33% total yield.

(E)-N-Hydroxy-3-((phenylamino)sulfonyl)phenyl)acrylamide (Belinostat, 1)

1

mp 172–174 °C, (lit.(@) 172 °C). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 10.75–10.42 (m, 2H), 9.15 (s, 1H), 7.92 (s, 1H), 7.78 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.71 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H),7.47 (d, J = 15.8 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (m, 2H), 7.10–7.01 (m, 3H), 6.51 (d, J = 15.8 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z = 318.6 [M+H] +.

Finn, P. W.; Bandara, M.; Butcher, C.; Finn, A.; Hollinshead, R.; Khan, N.; Law, N.; Murthy, S.; Romero,R.; Watkins, C.; Andrianov, V.; Bokaldere, R. M.; Dikovska, K.; Gailite, V.; Loza, E.; Piskunova, I.;Starchenkov, I.; Vorona, M.; Kalvinsh, I. Helv. Chim. Acta 2005, 88, 1630, DOI: 10.1002/hlca.200590129

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Belinostat (Beleodaq),

Belinostat is a drug which was developed by Spectrum Pharmaceuticals and is currently marketed by Onxeo as Beleodaq. The
drug, which received fast track designation by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) and was approved for
the treatment of hematological malignancies and solid tumors associated with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) in 2014,58 is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and is the third such treatment to receive accelerated approval for PTCL, the others being
vorinostat (Zolinza) and pralatrexate (Folotyn).58 Although belinostat was not yet approved in Europe as of August 2014,58 the
compound exhibits a safety profile considered to be acceptable for HDAC inhibitors–less than 25% of patients reported adverse
effects and these most frequently were nausea, fatigue, pyrexia,anemia, and emesis.58 While several different synthetic approaches
have been reported for the preparation of belinostat and related HDAC inhibitors,59–62 the most likely process-scale approach has
been described in a patent application filed by Reisch and co-workers at Topotarget UK, which exemplifies the synthesis described in
Scheme 8 on kilogram scale.63

Commercially available 3-bromobenzenesulfonyl chloride (41) was reacted with aniline in the presence of aqueous sodium carbonate
to deliver sulfonamide 42 in 94% yield. Next, this aryl bromide was subjected to a Heck reaction involving ethyl acrylate to
give rise to cinnamate ester 43, which was immediately saponified under basic conditions and acidic workup to furnish the corresponding acid 44. This acid was activated as the corresponding acid chloride prior to subjection to hydroxylamine under basic conditions to form the hydroxamic acid, which was then recrystallized from an 8:1 ethanol/water mixture in the presence of a catalytic
amount of sodium bicarbonate to furnish crystalline belinostat (VI) in 87% overall yield from acid 44.61

str1

Lee, H. Z.; Kwitkowski, V. E.; Del Valle, P. L.; Ricci, M. S.; Saber, H.;Habtemariam, B. A.; Bullock, J.; Bloomquist, E.; Li Shen, Y.; Chen, X. H.;Brown, J.; Mehrotra, N.; Dorff, S.; Charlab, R.; Kane, R. C.; Kaminskas, E.;Justice, R.; Farrell, A. T.; Pazdur, R. Clin. Cancer Res. 2015, 21, 2666.
59. Qian, J.; Zhang, G.; Qin, H.; Zhu, Y.; Xiao, Y. CN Patent 102786448A, 2012.
60. Wang, H.; Yu, N.; Chen, D.; Lee, K. C.; Lye, P. L.; Chang, J. W.; Deng, W.; Ng, M.C.; Lu, T.; Khoo, M. L.; Poulsen, A.; ngthongpitag, K.; Wu, X.; Hu, C.; Goh, K.C.; Wang, X.; Fang, L.; Goh, K. L.; Khng, H. H.; Goh, S. K.; Yeo, P.; Liu, X.; Bonday, Z.; Wood, J. M.; Dymock, B. W.; Kantharaj, E.; Sun, E. T. J. Med. Chem.2011, 54, 4694.
61. Yang, L.; Xue, X.; Zhang, Y. Synth. Comm. 2010, 40, 2520.

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Let’s Research !!!!!

 
 Helv Chim Acta 2005, 88(7), 1630-1657: It is first reported synthesis for Belinostat and many other derivatives. The procedure uses oleum, thionyl chloride (SOCl2) as well as oxalyl chloride (COCl)2, no wonder better procedures were derived from it. ABOVE
Synth Comm 2010, 40(17), 2520–2524: The synthesis avoids the use of the extremely corrosive oleum and thionyl chloride (SOCl2) and therefore is possibly better for scaled-up production. Second, synthetic steps do not involve tedious separations and give a better overall yield.  BELOWIdentifications:
1H NMR (Estimated) for Belinostat

Experimental: 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 6.52 (d, J=15.9 Hz, 1H), 6.81–7.12 (m, 6H), 7.33 (d, J=15.9 Hz, 1H), 7.47–7.67 (m, 3 H), 7.87 (s, 1H), 9.00–11.20 (br, 3H).

 SEE COMPILATION ON SIMILAR COMPOUNDS AT …………..http://drugsynthesisint.blogspot.in/p/nostat-series.html

 

HPLC

ANALYTICAL HPLC TEST METHOD

str1

str1

 

HPLC spectrum of Belinostat.

str1

 

PATENT

http://www.google.si/patents/CN102531972A?cl=en

Belinostat synthesis process related to the first report of the literature of W002 / 30879 A2, including preparation for Belinostat described as follows:

Figure CN102531972AD00031

Example 3:

3- (3-sulfonate-yl) phenyl – acrylate preparation:

First, 3-bromophenyl sulfonate 37. Ig (257. 90g / mol, 0. 1439mol) was dissolved with stirring in 260mL toluene IL reactor was then added triethylamine 36. 5g (101. 19g / mol, 0. 3604mol), tri (o-methylphenyl) phosphine 0. 875g (304. 37g / mol, 0. 002874mol), palladium acetate 0. 324g (224. 51g, 0. 001441mol), the reaction mixture was heated to 45- 55 ° C with nitrogen pumping ventilation four, this time in the reaction system to generate the catalytically active 1 ^ (0). The temperature of the reaction system was raised to 80-90 ° C, within 2. 75h dropwise methacrylate 13. 6g (86. 04g / mol, 0. 1586mol), the reaction was continued after the cell by HPLC 3- bromophenyl sulfonyl chloride was completion of the reaction. The temperature of the reaction system was reduced to 45-55 ° C.

[0021] In at 45-55 ° C, the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, ethyl acetate and n-heptane and recrystallized to give the product 29. 4g, 83% yield.

[0022] The spectral data:

1HNMR (DMS0-d6, HMDS0), δ (ppm): 3. 65 (3H, S, H-1); 6. 47 (1H, d, J = 16 0 Hz, H-2.); 7. 30 -8 00 (5H, m, H-3, H_4, H_5, H_6, H_7) m / e:. 264. 23

Figure CN102531972AD00061

Links

References

    1.  “Beleodaq (belinostat) For Injection, For Intravenous Administration. Full Prescribing Information” (PDF). Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Irvine, CA 92618. Retrieved 21 November2015.
    2. Plumb JA; Finn PW; Williams RJ; et al. (2003). “Pharmacodynamic Response and Inhibition of Growth of Human Tumor Xenografts by the Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor PXD101”. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 2 (8): 721–728.PMID 12939461.
    3.  “FDA approves Beleodaq to treat rare, aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma”. FDA. 3 July 2014.
    4.  “CuraGen Corporation (CRGN) and TopoTarget A/S Announce Presentation of Belinostat Clinical Trial Results at AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference”. October 2007.
    5.  Final Results of a Phase II Trial of Belinostat (PXD101) in Patients with Recurrent or Refractory Peripheral or Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma, December 2009
    6.  “Spectrum adds to cancer pipeline with $350M deal.”. February 2010.
    7.  H. Spreitzer (4 August 2014). “Neue Wirkstoffe – Belinostat”.Österreichische Apothekerzeitung (in German) (16/2014): 27.
    8.  Lexicomp, (corporate author) (2016). Bragalone, DL, ed.Drug Information Handbook for Oncology (14th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. ISBN 9781591953517.
  1. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 2005 ,  vol. 88,  7  PG. 1630 – 1657, MP 172
  2. WO2009/40517 A2, ….
  3. WO2006/120456 A1, …..
  4. Synthetic Communications, 2010 ,  vol. 40,  17  PG. 2520 – 2524, MP 172
  5. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011 ,  vol. 54,   13  PG. 4694 – 4720, NMR IN SUP INFO

Drug@FDA, NDA206256 Pharmacology Review(s).

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J. Transl. Med. 2007, 5, 1-12.

Mol. Cancer Ther. 2006, 5, 2086-2095.

Int. J. Cancer 2008, 122, 1400-1410.

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Belinostat
Belinostat.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2E)-N-Hydroxy-3-[3-(phenylsulfamoyl)phenyl]prop-2-enamide
Clinical data
Trade names Beleodaq
AHFS/Drugs.com beleodaq
Pregnancy
category
  • US: D (Evidence of risk)
Routes of
administration
Intravenous (IV)
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100% (IV)
Protein binding 92.9–95.8%[1]
Metabolism UGT1A1
Excretion Urine
Identifiers
CAS Number 866323-14-0 
ATC code L01XX49 (WHO)
PubChem CID 6918638
ChemSpider 5293831 Yes
UNII F4H96P17NZ Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:61076 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL408513 Yes
Synonyms PXD101
Chemical data
Formula C15H14N2O4S
Molar mass 318.348 g/mol
////////////Belinostat, PXD101, novel HDAC inhibitor, Beleodaq, Folotyn, Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, Istodax, Celgene Corporation,  Summit, New Jersey,  CuraGen Pharma, FDA 2014
O=S(=O)(Nc1ccccc1)c2cc(\C=C\C(=O)NO)ccc2
 SEE COMPILATION ON SIMILAR COMPOUNDS AT …………..http://drugsynthesisint.blogspot.in/p/nostat-series.html
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Jul 232016
 

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CLICK TO PLAY THE ABOVE MEDIA CLIP……

 

Comprehensive toxicological data on raw material is practically non existent, which means designing green product development processes can be tedious and time consuming.

ViridisChem Inc., is offering a solution that will help scientists make environmentally friendly decisions throughout the product development life-cycle.

Our first product the Green Pocketbook® is a cloud based reference tool that helps scientists assess chemicals of high concern and identify safer alternatives that are less hazardous for people and environmentally friendly.

Containing more than 90 million chemical entries from the worlds best structure, reaction and literature databases, the Green Pocketbook combines the power of a search engine with user friendly decisions support tools.

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Unlike other chemistry reference products, it is the only software tool in the industry that correlates physical and toxicological properties then calculates a Green Score based on these properties.  The software allows the user to visually compare multiple chemicals side by side for easy assessment and decision making.

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Other Features include:

Flexible Search options, search by;

  • Chemical Name, CAS#, IUPAC Name
  • Structure, or draw your own
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Comprehensive Physical and Toxicological data

  • The software displays many of the properties contained in the MSDS plus more.
  • There over 24 physical properties and over 26 toxicological properties that can be configured and displayed to suite your preferences
  • Displays US and International regulatory concerns

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Jose Castanon

Jose Castanon

Marketing Leader, Team Builder

Best,
Jose Castanon
ViridisChem Inc.
408 218 3125
josec@viridischem.com
click  Media
 
Jose Castanon is a marketing professional with over 15 years of experience in medical technology and devices. He specializes in growth strategies and bringing new technologies to market. Prior to ViridisChem Jose was the Director of Marketing for Omnicell, where he led all North American marketing activity for the Medication Automation and Analytics business line. Jose has held commercial leadership roles at Philips Healthcare, Roche and Johnson and Johnson. He holds a BS in Biology from the University of Puget Sound and an MBA from Pepperdine University.

Neelam Vaidya

Neelam Vaidya

Experienced executive with passion to bring most needed solutions to market

Neelam Vaidya is a serial entrepreneur with over 25 years’ experience in both high-tech and bio-tech industry. In 2014, Neelam and Rahul Vaidya cofounded ViridisChem Inc. with the mission to develop a portfolio of software solutions that will provide all the information and analysis capabilities scientists would need to practice “green chemistry” within their everyday research, that will result in environmentally friendly product development processes that are greener, safer, and economical. To enable this goal, the company has built in-house and proprietary
– chemical database with over 60 million chemicals,
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It recently launched its first product Green Pocketbook that is being used both as an educational tool and as a reference guide by universities and industry scientists for their day-to-day research needs. It provides full chemical and toxicological profiles of chemicals, and offers “green scores” based on these properties through easy to understand visual charts. With inclusion of chemicals relevant to most industries, and by providing the most comprehensive information about chemicals in a very easy to use and understand manner, Green Pocketbook is proving to be a “must have” software solution for scientists from most industries for their day-to-day work.

In past she was the founder and CEO of a biotech company ChiroSolve, Inc. that offers products and services that define chiral resolution method for optically active and hard-to-separate chiral molecules. Neelam was also the founder of Software Company called Perfect Solutions that offered enterprise software products for high-tech industry. Before her entrepreneur career, Neelam has lead number high-profile enterprise infrastructure projects

ACS National Fall Symposium, 2015, Boston, MA (August 16-18, 2015)

News/Events – ViridisChem, Inc.

www.viridischem.com

ViridisChem Team

 

 

REFERENCES

http://www.viridischem.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/GreenPocket-Datasheet-3-10-2016_V3.pdf

https://library.stanford.edu/swain/databases/green-pocketbook

////////Green Pocketbook, Research & Development Departments, Jose Castanon,  ViridisChem Inc,

Neelam Vaidya

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Jul 222016
 

 

STR1

AZD1981; AZD-1981; 802904-66-1; UNII-2AD53WQ2CX; ; AZD 1981;
Molecular Formula: C19H17ClN2O3S
Molecular Weight: 388.86788 g/mol
      1H-Indole-1-acetic acid, 4-(acetylamino)-3-[(4-chlorophenyl)thio]-2-methyl-
  • 2-[4-acetamido-3-(4-chlorophenyl)sulfanyl-2-methylindol-1-yl]acetic acid
  • Originator AstraZeneca
  • Developer AstraZeneca; Johns Hopkins University
  • Class Antiasthmatics
  • Mechanism of Action Prostaglandin D2 receptor antagonists
    • Phase II Urticaria
    • Discontinued Asthma; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Most Recent Events

    • 09 Mar 2016 AZD 1981 is still in phase II trials for Urticaria in USA (PO)
    • 07 Mar 2016 Johns Hopkins University in collaboration with AstraZeneca completes a phase II trial in Urticaria in USA (PO) (NCT02031679)
    • 04 Mar 2016 Efficacy and safety data from a phase II trial in Urticaria presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI-2016)

https://ncats.nih.gov/files/AZD1981.pdf

SEE

NMR

HPLC

AZD1981 is a potent, selective CRTh2 (DP2) receptor antagonist with IC50 of 4 nM, showing >1000-fold selectivity over more than 340 other enzymes and receptors, including DP1. Phase 2.

AZD1981.png

118 patients were randomised to treatment (AZD1981 n = 61; placebo n = 57); 83% of patients were male and the mean age was 63 years (range 43-83). There were no significant differences in the mean difference in change from baseline to end of treatment between AZD1981 and placebo for the co-primary endpoints of pre-bronchodilator FEV1 (AZD1981-placebo: -0.015, 95% CI: -0.10 to 0.070; p = 0.72) and CCQ total score (difference: 0.042, 95% CI: -0.21 to 0.30; p = 0.75). Similarly, no differences were observed between treatments for the other outcomes of lung function, COPD symptom score, 6-MWT, BODE index, and use of reliever medication. AZD1981 was well tolerated.

CONCLUSION:

There was no beneficial clinical effect of AZD1981, at a dose of 1000 mg twice daily for 4 weeks, in patients with moderate to severe COPD. AZD1981 was well tolerated and no safety concerns were identified.

 

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Biological Activity

Description AZD1981 is a potent, selective CRTh2 (DP2) receptor antagonist with IC50 of 4 nM, showing >1000-fold selectivity over more than 340 other enzymes and receptors, including DP1. Phase 2.
Targets CRTh2 (DP2) receptor [1]
IC50 4 nM
In vitro AZD1981, as a potent antagonist in a disease relevant cell system, inhibits DK-PGD2-induced CD11b expression in human eosinophils with IC50 of 10 nM. [1] AZD1981 blocks DP2-mediated shape change in human eosinophils and basophils in blood, as well as DP2-mediated chemotaxis of human Th2 cells and eosinophils. Moreover, AZD1981 also blocks the binding of [3H]PGD2 to mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit and dog recombinant DP2. [2]
In vivo AZD1981 has high oral bioavailability in male sprague dawley rats. [1] In guinea pig hind limb model, AZD1981 (100 nM) completely inhibits DK-PGD2-induced eosinophil mobilization. [2]
Features An orally available selective DP2(CRTh2) receptor antagonist in clinical development for asthma.

Protocol(Only for Reference)

Kinase Assay: [2]

DP2 binding studies A scintillation proximity assay (SPA) following [3H]PGD2 binding to membranes of HEK cells expressing recombinant DP2 is used. The potency of AZD1981 as an antagonist is determined by quantifying its ability to displace specific radio-ligand binding. Briefly, membranes from HEK293 expressing recombinant human DP2 are pre-bound to Wheat Germ Agglutinin-coated PVT-SPA beads for 18 h at 4°C. Assays were started by the addition of 25 μL of membrane-coated beads (10 mg/mL of beads) to an assay buffer (50 mm HEPES pH 7.4 containing 5 mm MgCl2) containing 2.5 nM [3H]PGD2 in the absence or the presence of increasing concentrations of the tested compounds (50 μL final volume). Non-specific binding is determined in the same conditions but in the presence of 10 μM DK-PGD2. Plates are incubated for 2 h at room temperature, and bead-associated radioactivity is measured using a Wallac Microbeta counter. The concentration of the compounds causing 50% inhibition of binding of [3H]PGD2 to the receptor is calculated (IC50). Ki values have not been derived from IC50, as there is no evidence of a simple competitive interaction with PGD2. The same methodology is used for recombinant human, murine, rat, guinea pig, dog and rabbit DP2. Reversibility of binding to the human receptor was assessed by recovery of [3H]PGD2 binding after removal of AZD1981 by washing of the membrane-coated SPA beads. HEK-membrane-coated beads are incubated in the presence of AZD1981 for 2 h at room temperature to bind the compound to DP2. To remove the bound AZD1981, beads are centrifuged (1 min at 1300× g), and the pellet resuspended in 1 mL of assay buffer. This is repeated four times. Aliquots (30 μL) are transferred to 96-well plates, and [3H]PGD2 binding is evaluated as above. Parallel samples containing (i) 10 μM DK-PGD2 during the 2 h incubation and in the wash buffer; (ii) AZD1981 at 2 μM in the wash buffer; and (iii) vehicle are processed alongside to determine non-specific binding and the ‘no wash’ condition whilst controlling for loss of beads during the washing process. The time from first wash to end of first reading is approximately 13 min.

Animal Study: [1]

Animal Models Male sprague dawley rats.
Formulation
Dosages 1 mg/kg(i.v.), 4 mg/kg(oral)
Administration i.v. or oral administration

Conversion of different model animals based on BSA (Value based on data from FDA Draft Guidelines)

Species Mouse Rat Rabbit Guinea pig Hamster Dog
Weight (kg) 0.02 0.15 1.8 0.4 0.08 10
Body Surface Area (m2) 0.007 0.025 0.15 0.05 0.02 0.5
Km factor 3 6 12 8 5 20
Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by  Animal B Km
Animal A Km

For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.

Rat dose (mg/kg) = mouse dose (22.4 mg/kg) × mouse Km(3)  = 11.2 mg/kg
rat Km(6)

 

References

[1] Luker T, et al. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011, 21(21), 6288-6292.

[2] Schmidt JA, et al. Br J Pharmacol. 2013, 168(7), 1626-1638.

Clinical Trial Information( data from http://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2016-07-09)

NCT Number Recruitment Conditions Sponsor
/Collaborators
Start Date Phases
NCT02031679 Recruiting Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria Johns Hopkins University|AstraZeneca January 2014 Phase 2
NCT01311635 Completed Healthy AstraZeneca April 2011 Phase 1
NCT01254461 Completed Drug Interaction AstraZeneca February 2011 Phase 1
NCT01265641 Completed Asthma AstraZeneca January 2011 Phase 1
NCT01199341 Completed Pharmakokinetic AstraZeneca October 2010 Phase 1

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015210655 2015-07-30 CERTAIN (2S)-N-[(1S)-1-CYANO-2-PHENYLETHYL]-1,4-OXAZEPANE-2-CARBOXAMIDES AS DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE 1 INHIBITORS
US2015072963 2015-03-12 COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR REGULATING HAIR GROWTH
US2014328861 2014-11-06 Combination of CRTH2 Antagonist and a Proton Pump Inhibitor for the Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis
US8772305 2014-07-08 Substituted pyridinyl-pyrimidines and their use as medicaments
US8227622 2012-07-24 Pharmaceutical Process and Intermediates 714
US2012178764 2012-07-12 Novel Compounds
US2011263614 2011-10-27 Novel compounds
US7781598 2010-08-24 Process for the preparation of substituted indoles
US7687535 2010-03-30 Substituted 3-sulfur indoles
US2009163518 2009-06-25 Novel Compounds

///////////

CC1=C(C2=C(N1CC(=O)O)C=CC=C2NC(=O)C)SC3=CC=C(C=C3)Cl

 

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Jul 222016
 

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AZD3514; AZD 3514; AZD-3514.

CAS 1240299-33-5
Chemical Formula: C25H32F3N7O2
Exact Mass: 519.25696

1-(4-(2-(4-(1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl)piperidin-4-yl)phenoxy)ethyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethanone

Ethanone, 1-​[4-​[2-​[4-​[1-​[7,​8-​dihydro-​3-​(trifluoromethyl)​-​1,​2,​4-​triazolo[4,​3-​b]​pyridazin-​6-​yl]​-​4-​piperidinyl]​phenoxy]​ethyl]​-​1-​piperazinyl]

6-f4-{4-[2-f4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxylphenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3-( trifluoromethyr)-7,8-dihvdro [ 1 ,2,41 triazolo [4,3-bl pyridazine

6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- vDethoxyl phenyllpiperidin- l-vD-3-f trifluoromethyl)-7.,8-(iihv(iro [ 1 ,2,41 triazolo [4,3- blpyridazine

  • 1-[4-[2-[4-[1-[7,8-Dihydro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]-4-piperidinyl]phenoxy]ethyl]-1-piperazinyl]ethanone
  • Originator AstraZeneca
  • Class Antineoplastics
  • Mechanism of Action Androgen receptor antagonists

AZD-3514 is a potent androgen receptor downregulator with potential anticancer cancer activity. AZD3514 is being evaluated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

AZD3514 is currently in Phase I trail. This trial is looking at a new drug called AZD3514 for men who have prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and is no longer responding to hormone therapy.  Doctors often use hormone therapy to treat prostate cancer. This may keep it under control for long periods of time. But researchers are looking for treatments that will help men who have prostate cancer that stops responding to hormone therapy.  Prostate cancer needs the hormone testosterone to grow. The testosterone locks into receptors on the cancer cells. AZD3514 works by breaking down these receptors so that testosterone canÂ’t tell the prostate cancer cells to grow.

img

 

 

6-(4-{4-[2-(4-Acetylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-1-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-ihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine 

as a white, free flowing solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.62 (2H, m), 1.88 (2H, m), 2.02 (3H, s), 2.49 (4H, m), 2.65 – 2.78 (5H, m), 2.94 (2H, m), 3.15 (2H, t), 3.42 (2H, m), 3.57 (2H, m), 4.03 (2H, t), 4.24 (2H, m), 6.80 (2H, d), 7.06 (2H, d);

m/z = 520 [M+H]+. RT = 0.87: 99% purity.

HRMS found 520.26373,

 

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among men in developed countries, and was projected to account for 25% of newly-diagnosed cases and 9% of deaths due to cancer in the USA in 2010. The androgen receptor (AR), a ligand binding transcription factor in the nuclear hormone receptor super family, is a key molecular target in the etiology and progression of prostate cancer.Binding of the endogenous AR ligand dihydrotestosterone stabilizes and protects the AR from rapid proteolytic degradation. The early stages of prostate cancer tumor growth are androgen dependent and respond well to androgen ablation,  either via surgical castration or by chemical castration with a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist in combination with an AR antagonist, such as bicalutamide.

Although introduction of androgen deprivation therapy represented a major advance in prostate cancer treatment, recurrence within 1–2 years typically marks transition to the so-called castrate-resistant state, in which the tumor continues to grow in the presence of low circulating endogenous ligand and is no longer responsive to classical AR antagonists. Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a largely unmet medical need with a 5-year survival rate of less than 15%. Antimitotic agents docetaxel and cabazitaxel, testosterone biosynthesis inhibitor abiraterone acetate and second generation AR antagonist enzalutamide (MDV3100) are the currently approved small-molecule drugs that have been shown to provide survival benefit.

Recent evidence from both pre-clinical and clinical studies is consistent with the importance of re-activation of AR signaling in a majority of castrate-resistant prostate tumors. It is also well established that the functional AR in castrate-resistant tumors is frequently mutated or amplified, and that over-expression can convert hormone-responsive cell lines to hormone refractory. Recent second-generation AR antagonists have been designed that retain antagonism in over-expressing cell lines, and among these agents enzalutamide has recently successfully met efficacy criteria in a large Phase III clinical trial.

By analogy with fulvestrant, an estrogen receptor (ER) downregulator approved by the FDA in 2002 for treatment of advanced breast cancer and initially characterized as a pure ER antagonist, a ligand which downregulates the AR represents one of a number of potential approaches to treatment of CRPC via a sustained reduction in tumor AR content. We recently described derivation from a novel 3-(trifluoromethyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine ligand of AR inhibitor 1 The compound also causes AR downregulation15 and high plasma levels following oral administration in pre-clinical models compensate for moderate cellular potency

Figure 1.

Structures of lead AR downregulator 1 and chemotype 2.

Structures of lead AR downregulator 1 and chemotype 2.

Scheme 3.

Synthesis of compounds 10, 11a–b, 12. Reagents and conditions: (a) ...

Synthesis of compounds 10, 11ab, 12. Reagents and conditions: (a) 2-(1-Methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)ethanol,27 Ph3P, diisopropyl azodicarboxylate, THF, 20 °C; (b) 2-(4-acetylpiperazine-1-yl)ethanol,28 Ph3P, diisopropyl azodicarboxylate, THF, 20 °C; (c) H2, 10% Pd-C, MeOH, 50 °C.

PATENT

WO 2010092371

 Robert Hugh Bradbury, Gregory Richard Carr,Alfred Arthur Rabow, Korupoju Srinivasa Rao,Harikrishna Tumma,
Applicant Astrazeneca Ab, Astrazeneca Uk Limited

Preparation of 6-f4-{4-[2-f4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxylphenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3-

( trifluoromethyr)-7,8-dihvdro [ 1 ,2,41 triazolo [4,3-bl pyridazine

Figure imgf000079_0001

A solution of acetyl chloride (0.027 mL, 0.38 mmol) in DCM (0.5 mL) was added dropwise to 6-[4- [4- [2-(piperazin- 1 -yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin- 1 -yl] -3 -(trifluoromethyl)- 7,8-dihydro-[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (150 mg, 0.31 mmol) and triethylamine (0.088 mL, 0.63 mmol) in DCM (1 mL) cooled to 00C under nitrogen. The resulting solution was stirred at 00C for 5 minutes then allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 15 minutes. The reaction mixture was diluted with water (2 mL), passed through a phase separating cartridge and then the organic layer was evaporated to afford crude product. The crude product was purified by preparative HPLC (Waters XBridge Prep Cl 8 OBD column, 5μ silica, 19 mm diameter, 100 mm length), using decreasingly polar mixtures of water (containing 1% ammonia) and MeCN as eluents. Fractions containing the desired compound were evaporated to dryness to give 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3- b]pyridazine (80 mg, 49%) as a gum.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.69 (2H, m), 1.95 (2H, m), 2.08 (3H, s), 2.56 (4H, m), 2.71 – 2.84 (5H, m), 3.00 (2H, m), 3.22 (2H, t), 3.48 (2H, m), 3.63 (2H, m), 4.10 (2H, t), 4.31 (2H, m), 6.86 (2H, d), 7.12 (2H, d); m/z = 520 [M+H]+.

The 6-[4-[4-[2-(piperazin- 1 -yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin- 1 -yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8- dihydro-[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine used as starting material was prepared as follows :-

Preparation of tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-(l-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4- yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate DIAD (12.60 mL, 64.00 mmol) was added dropwise to benzyl 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6- dihydropyridine-l(2H)-carboxylate (obtained as described in Example 4.1, preparation of starting materials) (16.5 g, 53.34 mmol), tert-butyl 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-l- carboxylate (CAS 77279-24-4) (14.74 g, 64.00 mmol) and triphenylphosphine (16.79 g, 64.00 mmol) in THF (150 mL) under nitrogen. The resulting solution was stirred at ambient temperature for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was evaporated to dryness then the residue was stirred in ether (200 mL) for 10 minutes at room temperature. The resulting precipitate was removed by filtration and discarded. The ether filtrate was washed with water (100 mL) followed by saturated brine (100 mL), then dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to give crude product. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography, elution gradient 20 to 60% EtOAc in isohexane. Fractions containing the desired product were evaporated to dryness to afford tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-(l- (benzyloxycarbonyl)- 1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l- carboxylate (34.6 g, 82%) as a gum which was contaminated with 34% by weight triphenylphosphine oxide.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.40 (9H, s), 2.42 – 2.47 (6H, m), 2.71 (2H, m), 3.32 (4H, m), 3.62 (2H, m), 4.03 – 4.10 (4H, m), 5.12 (2H, s), 6.06 (IH, m), 6.92 (2H, d), 7.31 – 7.40 (7H, m); m/z = 522 [M+H]+.

Preparation of tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l- carboxylate tert-Butyl 4-[2-[4-(l-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4- yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate (66% pure by weight) (34.62 g, 43.80 mmol) and 5% palladium on carbon (50% wet) (4.47 g, 1.05 mmol) in MeOH (250 mL) were stirred under an atmosphere of hydrogen at 5 bar and 600C for 4 hours. The catalyst was removed by filtration and the solvents evaporated to give crude product. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography, eluting with 60% EtOAc in isohexane then 15% 2M ammonia/MeOH in DCM. Pure fractions were evaporated to dryness to afford tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate (15.42 g, 90%) as a solid. IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.46 (9H, s), 1.62 (2H, m), 1.81 (2H, m), 2.50 – 2.59 (5H, m), 2.73 (2H, m), 2.80 (2H, t), 3.18 (2H, m), 3.44 (4H, m), 4.09 (2H, t), 6.85 (2H, d), 7.13 (2H, d); m/z = 390 [M+H]+.

Preparation of tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-(3-(trifluoromethyl)-[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3- b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl]phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate

DIPEA (2.348 mL, 13.48 mmol) was added to 6-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (obtained as described in Monatsh. Chem. 1972, 103, 1591) (2 g, 8.99 mmol) and tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l- carboxylate (3.68 g, 9.44 mmol) in DMF (30 mL). The resulting solution was stirred at 800C for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and the solvents evaporated to dryness. The resulting solid was triturated with water then collected by filtration, washed with ether and dried to afford tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-(3-(trifluoromethyl)- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl]phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l -carboxylate (5.02 g, 97%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.46 (9H, s), 1.76 (2H, m), 2.00 (2H, m), 2.54 (4H, m), 2.75 – 2.86 (3H, m), 3.11 (2H, m), 3.46 (4H, m), 4.11 (2H, m), 4.37 (2H, m), 6.87 (2H, d), 7.13 (3H, m), 7.92 (IH, d); m/z = 576 [M+H]+.

Preparation of tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro-

[1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazin-6-yl)piperidin-4-yl] phenoxy] ethyl] piperazine- 1- carboxylate

10% Palladium on carbon (0.924 g, 0.87 mmol) was added to tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-(3- (trifluoromethyl)-[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4- yl]phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l -carboxylate (2.5 g, 4.34 mmol) and ammonium formate (2.74 g, 43.43 mmol) in ethanol (100 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred at 78°C, with further portions of ammonium formate being added every 5 hours until the reaction was complete. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and the catalyst was removed by filtration. The filtrate was evaporated to dryness, redissolved in DCM (100 mL) and the solution was washed with water (100 mL) followed by brine (50 mL), then the solvents were evaporated to afford tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyπdazin-6-yl)pipeπdin-4-yl]phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate (2.02O g, 81%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.46 (9H, s), 1.69 (2H, m), 1.95 (2H, m), 2.52 (4H, m), 2.71 – 2.82 (5H, m), 3.00 (2H, m), 3.22 (2H, t), 3.45 (4H, m), 4.09 (2H, m), 4.31 (2H, m), 6.86 (2H, d), 7.12 (2H, d); m/z = 578 [M+H]+.

Preparation of 6- [4-[4- [2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethoxy] phenyl] piperidin-1-yl] -3- (trifluor omethyl)-7,8-dihydr o- [ 1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazine

TFA (10 mL) was added to tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyπdazin-6-yl)pipeπdin-4-yl]phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate (2.02 g, 3.50 mmol) in DCM (10 mL). The resulting solution was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour then added to an SCX column. The desired product was eluted from the column using 2M ammonia/MeOH and the solvents were evaporated to afford 6-[4-[4- [2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (1.660 g, 99%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.68 (2H, m), 1.95 (2H, m), 2.55 (4H, m), 2.70 – 2.80 (5H, m), 2.91 (4H, m), 3.00 (2H, m), 3.22 (2H, t), 4.09 (2H, t), 4.30 (2H, m), 6.87 (2H, d), 7.11 (2H, d); m/z = 478 [M+H]+.

Example 5.2

Larger scale preparation of 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- vDethoxyl phenyllpiperidin- l-vD-3-f trifluoromethyl)-7.,8-dihvdro [ 1 ,2,41 triazolo [4,3- blpyridazine

Ammonium formate (99 g, 1568.94 mmol) was added to 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin- 1 -yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (81.2 g, 156.89 mmol) and 10% palladium on carbon (8.35 g, 7.84 mmol) in EtOH (810 mL) under nitrogen. The resulting mixture was stirred at 700C for 6 hours, then ammonium formate (50 g) was added. The mixture was stirred at 700C for 2 hours then further portions of 10% palladium on carbon (8.35 g, 7.84 mmol) and ammonium formate (50 g) were added and stirring continued at 700C for a further 10 hours. Ammonium formate (50 g) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 700C for 24 hours then cooled to room temperature. The catalyst was removed by filtration and the reaction charged with further 10% palladium on carbon (8.35 g, 7.84 mmol) and stirred at 700C for 16 hours. Further ammonium formate (50 g) was added and the stirring continued for 5 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and a further portion of 10% palladium on carbon (8.35 g, 7.84 mmol) was added. The mixture was heated to 700C for a 30 hours, cooled to room temperature and the catalyst removed by filtration and washed with EtOH. The solvent was evaporated and the residue dissolved in DCM (500 mL) and the solution washed with water (500 mL). The aqueous layer was re-extracted with DCM (500 mL), then EtOAc (500 mL x 2). The combined extracts were dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to give crude product. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography, elution gradient 0 to 5% MeOH in DCM. Pure fractions were evaporated to dryness to afford a gum, which was slurried with ether (300 mL) and re-evaporated. Methyl tert-butyl ether (250 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred vigorously for 3 days. The solid was collected by filtration and dried to afford 6-(4-{4-[2-(4- acetylpiperazin- 1 -yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin- 1 -yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8- dihydro[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (60.8 g, 75%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.62 (2H, m), 1.88 (2H, m), 2.02 (3H, s), 2.49 (4H, m), 2.65 – 2.78 (5H, m), 2.94 (2H, m), 3.15 (2H, t), 3.42 (2H, m), 3.57 (2H, m), 4.03 (2H, t), 4.24 (2H, m), 6.80 (2H, d), 7.06 (2H, d); m/z = 520 [M+H]+.

The 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3-

(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine used as starting material was prepared as follows :-

Preparation of 4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenol Benzyl 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-dihydropyridine-l(2H)-carboxylate (obtained as described in Example 4.1, preparation of starting materials) (37.7 g, 121.86 mmol) and 5% palladium on carbon (7.6 g, 3.57 mmol) in methanol (380 mL) were stirred under an atmosphere of hydrogen at 5 bar and 25°C for 2 hours. The catalyst was removed by filtration, washed with MeOH and the solvents evaporated. The crude material was triturated with diethyl ether, then the desired product collected by filtration and dried under vacuum to afford 4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenol (20.36 g, 94%) as a solid. IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.46 (2H, m), 1.65 (2H, m), 2.45 (IH, m), 2.58 (2H, m), 3.02 (2H, m), 6.68 (2H, d), 7.00 (2H, d), 9.15 (IH, s); m/z = 178 [M+H]+.

Preparation of 4- { 1- [3-(trifluor omethyl) [1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazin-6-yl] piperidin- 4-yl}phenol

DIPEA (48.2 mL, 276.86 mmol) was added to 6-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (obtained as described in Monatsh. Chem. 1972, 103, 1591) (24.65 g, 110.74 mmol) and 4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenol (20.61 g, 116.28 mmol) in DMF (200 mL). The resulting solution was stirred at 800C for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, then evaporated to dryness and re-dissolved in DCM (1 L) and washed with water (2 x 1 L). The organic layer was washed with saturated brine (500 mL), then dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to afford crude product. The crude product was triturated with ether to afford 4-{l-[3- (trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenol (36.6 g, 91%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.64 (2H, m), 1.87 (2H, m), 2.75 (IH, m), 3.09 (2H, m), 4.40 (2H, m), 6.69 (2H, d), 7.05 (2H, d), 7.65 (IH, d), 8.24 (IH, d), 9.15 (IH, s); m/z = 364 [M+H]+.

Preparation of 2-(4-{l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6- yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenoxy)ethanol

A solution of ethylene carbonate (121 g, 1376.13 mmol) in DMF (200 mL) was added dropwise to a stirred suspension of 4-{l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3- b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenol (100 g, 275.23 mmol) and potassium carbonate (76 g, 550.45 mmol) in DMF (200 mL) at 800C over a period of 15 minutes under nitrogen.

The resulting mixture was stirred at 800C for 20 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, then concentrated and diluted with DCM (2 L), and washed sequentially with water (1 L) and saturated brine (500 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to afford crude product. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography, elution gradient 70 to 100% EtOAc in isohexane. Fractions containing the desired product were evaporated to dryness then triturated with EtOAc (150 mL). The resulting solid was washed with further EtOAc (50 mL) and ether then dried to give 2-(4- { 1 -[3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4- yl}phenoxy)ethanol. The filtrate was evaporated and further purified by flash silica chromatography, elution gradient 70 to 100% EtOAc in isohexane. Fractions containing the desired product were evaporated to dryness then triturated with ether, dried and combined with the material previously collected to afford 2-(4- { 1 -[3-

(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenoxy)ethanol (89 g, 79%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.66 (2H, m), 1.88 (2H, m), 2.80 (IH, m), 3.10 (2H, m), 3.70 (2H, m), 3.95 (2H, t), 4.41 (2H, m), 4.85 (IH, t), 6.87 (2H, d), 7.18 (2H, d), 7.67 (IH, d), 8.25 (IH, d); m/z = 408 [M+H]+.

Preparation of 2-(4-{ 1- [3-(trifluoromethyl) [ 1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazin-6- yl] piperidin-4-yl}phenoxy)ethyl methanesulfonate

A solution of methanesulfonyl chloride (20.37 mL, 262.16 mmol) in DCM (300 mL) was added to 2-(4- { 1 -[3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4- yl}phenoxy)ethanol (89 g, 218.46 mmol) and triethylamine (60.9 mL, 436.93 mmol) in DCM (900 mL) at 00C over a period of 30 minutes under nitrogen. The resulting solution was stirred at 00C for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was diluted with DCM (1 L), and washed with water (2 L). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to afford 2-(4- { 1 -[3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4- yl}phenoxy)ethyl methanesulfonate (104 g, 98%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.67 (2H, m), 1.89 (2H, m), 2.83 (IH, m), 3.11 (2H, m), 3.23 (3H, s), 4.23 (2H, t), 4.41 (2H, m), 4.52 (2H, t), 6.91 (2H, d), 7.21 (2H, d), 7.66 (IH, d), 8.24 (IH, d); m/z = 486 [M+H]+. Preparation of 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3- (trifluor omethyl) [ 1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazine DIPEA (107 mL, 613.00 mmol) was added to 2-(4-{l-[3-

(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenoxy)ethyl methanesulfonate (99 g, 204.33 mmol) and N-acetylpiperazine (28.8 g, 224.77 mmol) in DMA (500 mL). The resulting solution was stirred at 1100C for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and the solvents were evaporated. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1 L) and the solution was washed with water (1 L). The aqueous was re-extracted with ethyl acetate (1 L) and the combined organics were washed with brine (1 L), dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to give crude product. The aqueous layer was basifϊed to pH 12 with 2M NaOH, then extracted with ethyl acetate (1 L), washed with brine (IL), dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to give further crude product. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography, elution gradient 0 to 3% MeOH in DCM then 5% MeOH in DCM. Pure fractions were evaporated to give 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3- (trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (81 g, 77%) as a solid. IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMS0-d6) δ 1.59-1.73 (2H, m), 1.87 (2H, d), 1.99 (3H, s), 2.42 (2H, t), 2.71 (2H, t), 2.76-2.86 (IH, t), 3.08 (2H, t), 3.38-3.47 (4H, m), 4.08 (2H, t), 4.41 (2H, d), 6.88 (2H, d), 7.18 (2H, d), 7.62 (IH, d), 8.26 (IH, d); m/z = 518 [M+H]+.

Example 5.5

Alternative route for the preparation of 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- vDethoxyl phenyllpiperidin- l-vD-3-f trifluoromethyl)-7.,8-(iihv(iro [ 1 ,2,41 triazolo [4,3- blpyridazine Form A

Methanol (375.0 mL) was added to 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1,2,4] triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (25.0 g, 48 m mol) in a 2.0 L autoclave reactor and to this was added 10% Pd/C (12.5 g, 50% w/w) paste at 22-25°C under nitrogen gas atmosphere. The reaction was performed under hydrogen pressure (5.0 bar) at 500C temperature for 10.0 h. The reaction mass was cooled to room temperature and the catalyst removed by filtration. Filtered cake was washed with methanol. The solvent was evaporated and the residue was azeotropically distilled by ethylacetate (2 x 125.0 mL) at 400C under reduced pressure to 3.0 rel vol (75.0 mL). Drop wise addition of tert-butylmethylether (MTBE, 375.0 mL) to the reaction mass resulted in solid material, which was collected by filtration and washed with MTBE (50.0 mL). The material was dried under reduced pressure with nitrogen gas bleed at 500C to afford the desired product 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3- (trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro[l,2,4]triazolo [4,3-b]pyridazine (22.3 g, 88%) as a white color free flowing solid. The isolated material was confirmed by XRPD as Form A. IH NMR (400.13 MHz, CDC13): δ 1.62 (2H, m), 1.88 (2H, m), 2.02 (3H, s), 2.49 (4H, m), 2.65 – 2.78 (5H, m), 2.94 (2H, m), 3.15 (2H, t), 3.42 (2H, m), 3.57 (2H, m), 4.03 (2H, t), 4.24 (2H, m), 6.80 (2H, d), 7.06 (2H, d); m/z = 520 [M+H]+.

The 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3- (trifluoromethyl)[ 1,2,4] triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine used as starting material was prepared as follows :-

Preparation of 4- { 1- [3-(trifluor omethyl) [1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazin-6-yl] piperidin- 4-yl}phenol: Dimethylacetamide (250.0 mL) was added to 6-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine [CAS: 40971-95-7] (50.0 g, 225 m mol) at 22-25°C in a suitable round bottom flask followed by 4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenol [CAS: 62614-84-0] (60.9 g, 236 m mol) at 22-25°C. The reaction mass was stirred to obtain a clear solution. Triethylamine (79.1 mL, 561 m mol) was slowly added to the reaction mass by drop wise addition over a period of 60 min at 25-300C. Temperature was raised to 400C and the reaction mass stirred for 1.0 h. After completion of reaction, water (500.0 mL) was added to the reaction mass by drop wise addition over a period of 30 min at 40-430C. The slurry mass was stirred for 30 min at 400C and then filtered under reduced pressure. The wet material was slurry washed using water (500.0 mL) for 30 min at 400C. The solid was collected by filtration and the material washed with water (125.0 mL). The material was dried under reduced pressure with nitrogen gas bleed at 500C to afford the desired product 4-{l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenol (75.1 g, 89.9%) as a free flowing solid. IH NMR (400.13 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 1.64 (2H, m), 1.87 (2H, m), 2.75 (IH, m), 3.09 (2H, m), 4.40 (2H, m), 6.69 (2H, d), 7.05 (2H, d), 7.65 (IH, d), 8.24 (IH, d), 9.15 (IH, s); m/z = 364 [M+H]+.

Preparation of 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3- (trifluor omethyl) [ 1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazine:

Dichloromethane (225.0 mL) and 4-{l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin- 6-yl]piperidin-4-yl} phenol (50.0 g, 138 m mol) were charged to a suitable round bottom flask at 22-25°C. Triphenylphosphine (72.2 g, 275 m mol) and l-[4-(2-hydroxy- ethyl)piperazin-l-yl]ethanone [CAS: 83502-55-0] (47.4 g, 275 m mol) were added successively to the reaction mass and stirred for 10 min at 22-25°C. Di-isopropyl azodicarboxylate (55.65 g, 275 m mol) in dichloromethane (75.0 mL) was added to the reaction mass slowly drop wise at 25-300C over a period of 60-90 min. The resulting reaction mass was stirred for 1.0 h at 25-300C to complete the reaction. n-Heptane (600.0 mL) was introduced to the reaction mass by drop wise addition over a period of 15-30 min at 22-25°C and stirred for 30 min at the same temperature. Thus precipitated solid was filtered and washed with n-heptane (150.0 mL). The material was then suck dried for 30 min under reduced pressure. The crude material was purified by slurry washing in methanol (325.0 mL) at 22-25°C. The solid was then collected by filtration and washed with methanol (50.0 mL). The material was dired under reduced pressure with nitrogen gas bleed at 500C to afford the desired product 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin- 1 -yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4] triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (61.2 g, 84%) as a free flowing solid.

IH NMR (400.13 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 1.59-1.73 (2H, m), 1.87 (2H, d), 1.99 (3H, s), 2.42 (2H, t), 2.71 (2H, t), 2.76-2.86 (IH, t), 3.08 (2H, t), 3.38-3.47 (4H, m), 4.08 (2H, t), 4.41 (2H, d), 6.88 (2H, d), 7.18 (2H, d), 7.62 (IH, d), 8.26 (IH, d); m/z = 518 [M+H]+.

Example 5.8

Preparation of 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3-(trifluor omethyl)-7,8-dihydr 0 [1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazine maleate

Figure imgf000096_0001

A clear solution of maleic acid (0.445 g, 3.84 m mol) in methanol (1.0 mL) was added to a clear solution of 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3- (trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine, obtained as described in Example 5.5, (2.0 g, 3.84 m mol) in methanol (2.0 mL) at 22-25°C and the resulting clear solution heated to 500C for 30 min. The reaction mass was cooled to 22-25°C and ethylacetate (16.0 mL) added drop wise to the reaction mass at 22-25°C. The reaction mass was then stirred for 60 min at 22-25°C. The resulting white color material was collected by filtration and washed with ethylacetate (5.0 mL). The material was dried under reduced pressure with nitrogen gas bleed at 500C to afford the desired product 6-(4- {4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8- dihydro[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine maleate (2.21 g, 90.0%) as free flowing white color material.

IH NMR (400.13 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 1.62 (2H, m), 1.77 (2H, m), 2.02 (3H, s), 2.75 (IH, m), 2.77 (2H, m), 2.80 (2H, m), 2.95 (4H, m), 3.16 (2H, t), 3.36 (6H, m), 4.22 (4H, m), 6.08 (2H, s), 6.91 (2H, d), 7.17 (2H, d).

PAPER

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Apr 1;23(7):1945-8

Discovery of AZD3514, a small-molecule androgen receptor downregulator for treatment of advanced prostate cancer

  • Oncology iMed, AstraZeneca, Mereside, Alderley Park, Macclesfield SK10 4TG, UK

 

Removal of the basic piperazine nitrogen atom, introduction of a solubilising end group and partial reduction of the triazolopyridazine moiety in the previously-described lead androgen receptor downregulator 6-[4-(4-cyanobenzyl)piperazin-1-yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (1) addressed hERG and physical property issues, and led to clinical candidate 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-1-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (12), designated AZD3514, that is being evaluated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

Image for unlabelled figure

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X13002321

 

SYNTHESIS

STR1AZD 3514

6-(4-{4-[2-(4-Acetylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-1-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine AZD 3514

 

 

 

STR1

 

 

SYNTHETIC ROUTE 2ND GENERATION

STR1

 

 

STR1

SYNTHETIC ROUTE 4TH GENERATION

STR1

 

REFERENCES

1: Bradbury RH, Acton DG, Broadbent NL, Brooks AN, Carr GR, Hatter G, Hayter BR,  Hill KJ, Howe NJ, Jones RD, Jude D, Lamont SG, Loddick SA, McFarland HL, Parveen  Z, Rabow AA, Sharma-Singh G, Stratton NC, Thomason AG, Trueman D, Walker GE, Wells SL, Wilson J, Wood JM. Discovery of AZD3514, a small-molecule androgen receptor downregulator for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Apr 1;23(7):1945-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.02.056. Epub 2013 Feb 21. PubMed PMID: 23466225.

 

Some pics, Team at Astrazeneca , Bangalore, INDIA

Vijaykumar Sengodan Chellappan

Vijaykumar Sengodan Chellappan

Dr. Vidya Nandialath

Associate Research Scientist II at AstraZeneca India Pvt Ltd

Rifahath Mon

Rifahath Mon

Associate Research Scientist at AstraZeneca

Dr Kagita Veera Babu

Route Scouting, Process Design, Technology Transfer, Trouble shooting, QbD, Green Chemistry

Srinivasa Rao Korupoju

Srinivasa Rao Korupoju

Harikrishna Tumma Ph. D.

Harikrishna Tumma Ph. D.

 

Anandan Muthusamy

Anandan Muthusamy

Partha Pratim Bishi, PMP®

Partha Pratim Bishi,

Ranga Nc

 

 ASTAZENECA BANGALORE

 

 

///////////////AZD 3514 MALEATE, AZD 3514 , AZD-3514, Prostate cancer, Androgen receptor downregulator, AZD3514, 1240299-33-5

 

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Jul 222016
 

 

One and a half year after its publication, the ICH Q3D guideline still raises many questions. The EMA has recently published a guideline draft aiming at clarifying the practical implementation of ICH Q3D. Read more here about what is expected in a marketing authorisation application or in an application for a CEP with regard to risk assessment and the control of elemental impurities in APIs and medicinal products.

http://www.gmp-compliance.org/enews_05481_Practical-Implementation-of-the-Control-of-Elemental-Impurities-EMA-s-new-Guideline-Draft_15339,15429,15332,S-WKS_n.html

The “ICH Q3D Guideline for Elemental Impurities” was published in December 2014 as Step 4 document and released in August 2015 under No EMA/CHMP/ICH/353369/2013 as EMA’s Scientific Guideline. The guideline came into effect in June 2016 for all medicinal products currently underlying a marketing authorisation procedure (new applications).

In the meantime, it became clear that implementing in practice the requirements of this guideline has been so complex and led to some marketing authorisation procedures being delayed. The ICH has already reacted to the situation and published 7 training modules on its website. Moreover, a concept paper announces a question & answer document.

On 12 July 2016, the draft of an EMA’s guideline entitled “Implementation strategy of ICH Q3D guideline” (EMA/404489/2016) was published. The purpose of the document is to provide support for implementing ICH Q3D in the European context.

The draft comprises three chapters addressing the most important elements in relation with the implementation of the ICH Q3D requirements. The chapter “1. Different approaches to Risk Management” starts describing the two fundamental approaches to the performance of a risk assessment and the justification for a control strategy with regard to elemental impurities:

Drug Product Approach
Here, batches of the finished product are scanned by means of analytical (validated!) procedures to develop a risk-based control strategy. If – with this approach – the omission of a routine testing has to be justified, the authority expects a detailed and valid justification though, and not just analytical data from a few batches.

Component Approach
The guideline draft clearly gives its preference to this approach. The respective contribution of the different components of a medicinal product is considered with respect to the potential total impurity profile and compared to the PDE value from the risk assessment. All potential sources of impurity, for example from production equipment or from excipients of natural (mined) origin have to be considered in this assessment. This particularly applies to outsourced APIs; here, all pieces of information available from Active Substance Master Files (ASMFs) or Certificates of Suitability (CEPs) have to be used. Substances with a Ph.Eur. monograph should always comply with the elemental impurities limits of the corresponding monograph.

The chapter “2. Particulars for Intentionally Added Element(s)” deals with the common practice in many organic syntheses to add elements to increase the specificity of the chemical reaction and the yield. It is particularly critical when the last step of an API synthesis just before the end product uses a metal catalyst. In such a case, the authority expects a convincing evidence that the catalyst is purged to levels consistently below the control threshold (<30% of the PDE) by means of appropriate methods. All details about the API synthesis including the fate of the metals intentionally added have to be consistently described and documented in the marketing authorisation application or in the application for a CEP. If the routine testing of an elemental impurity is needed, the API manufacturer may determine a specification. This information will be required by the medicinal product manufacturer for his overall risk assessment.

The chapter “3. ASMF/CEP: dossier expectations and assessment strategy” explains who has to submit the risk assessment necessary for an ASMF or a CEP and how the dossier will be processed by the assessor of the regulatory authority. Basically, two scenarios are possible:

1. The API manufacturer submits a summary of a risk assessment/management for elemental impurities
Such information flows in the overall risk assessment of the medicinal product manufacturer and is assessed by the quality assessor/ CEP assessor within the marketing authorisation procedure. All data and documents used for the risk assessment should also be available for a GMP inspection.

2. The API manufacturer doesn’t perform any risk assessment/ management.
The regulatory authority basically expects a detailed description of the API synthesis including data on all metal catalysts used. This as well as the analytical routine controls on elemental impurities performed by the API manufacturer will also be assessed by the quality assessor/ CEP assessor. Nevertheless, the assessor won’t make a final conclusion in the ASMF or CEP assessment report with regard to the compliance with ICH Q3D. This will be done within the marketing authorisation procedure for the medicinal product.

The guideline draft can be commented on until 12 August 2016.

///////////ICH Q3D, Control of Elemental Impurities,  EMA, control of elemental impurities in APIs

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Jul 222016
 

 

On June 24, 2016, the USP announced the elaboration of a new general chapter <1220> regarding life cycle management of analytical methods. Read more about the new general chapter  <1220> “The Analytical Procedure Lifecycle“.

SEE

http://www.gmp-compliance.org/enews_05438_Elaboration-of-New-USP-General-Chapter–1220—-Analytical-Procedure-Lifecycle—announced_15438,15608,Z-PDM_n.html

On June 24, 2016, the USP announced the elaboration of a new general chapter <1220> “The Analytical Procedure Lifecycle”. Input Deadline is July 29, 2016.

The suggested audience are drug product manufacturers, dietary supplement manufacturers, testing organizations, and drug product related regulatory agencies.

“An analytical procedure must be shown to be fit for its intended purpose. It is useful to consider the entire lifecycle of an analytical procedure when approaching development of the procedure, i.e. its design, development, qualification, and continued verification. The current concepts of validation, verification, and transfer of procedures address portions of the lifecycle but do not consider them holistically. This General Chapter intends to more fully address the entire procedure lifecycle and define concepts which may be useful.”

The approach is consistent with the concepts of Quality by Design (QbD) as described in ICH Guidelines Q8 (R2), 9, 10, and 11 and with the expected new ICH Guideline Q12 (Lifecycle Management).

Preliminary outline:
THE LIFECYCLE APPROACH

  • focal point: Analytical target profile (ATP), comparable to the Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP).

STAGE 1: PROCEDURE DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND UNDERSTANDING

  • Procedure design and development,
  • Procedure understanding,
  • Preparing for qualification.

STAGE 2: PROCEDURE PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION

STAGE 3: IMPLEMENTATION AND CONTINUED PROCEDURE PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION

  • Routine monitoring,
  • Analytical control strategy,
  • Knowledge management,
  • Change control.

Anticipated proposed design phase activities:

Two Stimuli articles are scheduled for PF 42(5) [Sep.–Oct. 2016]:

  • Analytical Target Profile: Structure and Application throughout the Analytical Lifecycle,
  • Analytical Control Strategy.

Two stimuli articles have already been published:

  • Lifecycle Management of Analytical Procedures: Method Development, Procedure Performance Qualification, and Procedure Performance Verification. PF 39(5) [Sep.–Oct. 2013],
  • Fitness for Use: Decision Rules and Target Measurement Uncertainty. PF 42(2) [Mar.–Apr. 2016].

Additionally, the USP proposed a revision of general chapter <1225> “Validation of compendial procedures” in PF 42(2) [March-April 2016].
This chapter is being revised to incorporate a section on “Lifecycle Management of Analytical Procedures”. The revision is an attempt to better align the validation concept with the recently (July 2015) issued FDA guidance “Analytical Procedures and Methods Validation for Drugs and Biologics”, which also includes a section on “Life Cycle Management of Analytical Procedures”.

Estimated proposal for the new general chapter <1220> “The Analytical Procedure Lifecycle” is PF 43(1) [Jan.–Feb. 2017].

Furthermore, an USP and ECA Joint Conference and Workshop on Lifecycle Approach of Analytical Procedures will be held November 8-9, 2016 in Prague, Czech Republic.

For more information please visit the USP website – Notices- General Chapter Prospectus – The Analytical Procedure Lifecycle.

 

 

//////////The Analytical Procedure Lifecycle, USP, chapter <1220>

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Jul 212016
 

Simi Gunaseelan Ph.D  Author

Assistant Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Texas at Tyler, TEXAS, USA

S. Gunaseelan : R. Maskiewicz (*)

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences( School of Pharmacy Loma Linda University 11175 Campus Street, Chan Shun Pavilion 21018 Loma Linda, California 92350, USA e-mail: rmaskiewicz@llu.edu

Purpose

Use of coital-dependent products to prevent HIV-1 transmission has resulted in mixed success. We hypothesize that incorporation of antiviral drug candidates into a novel controlled delivery system will prolong their activity, making their use coital independent, thus increasing their chance of prophylactic success.

Methods

Tenofovir, emtricitabine, and C5A peptide HIV microbicides were mechanically incorporated into matrices comprising a series of subliming solids. Matrix sublimation rates and drug release rates were measured in three in vitro and one in vivo environments intended to model human vaginal interior. Antiviral activity studies evaluating matrix incorporated microbicides were performed using in vitro cell cultures and human ectocervical explants.

Results

Drug release rates were identical to matrix sublimation rates, and were zero order. Differences in matrix material sublimation enthalpies determined drug release and matrix erosion rates in a thermodynamically definable manner, in vitro and in vivo. Durations of release ranging from several days to several months were readily achieved. Prolonged duration of anti HIV-1 activity was shown for matrix incorporated microbicides, using ectocervical explant and cell culture models of HIV-1 infection.

Conclusion

Subliming solid matrices show promise as a delivery system providing multi month intravaginal release of a wide range of HIV-1 microbicides.

 

Sustained Local Delivery of Structurally Diverse HIV-1 Microbicides Released from Sublimation Enthalpy Controlled Matrices

Simi Gunaseelan,1 Philippe A. Gallay,2 Michael D. Bobardt,2 Charlene S. Dezzutti,3,4 Timothy Esch,3 and Richard Maskiewiczcorresponding author1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy Loma Linda University, 11175 Campus Street, Chan Shun Pavilion 21018, Loma Linda, California 92350 USA
2Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, IMM-9 The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 USA
3Magee-Womens Research Institute, 204 Craft Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 USA
4Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, 204 Craft Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 USA
Richard Maskiewicz, Phone: +1-909-5589473, Fax: +1-909-5580446, ude.ull@zciweiksamr.
corresponding authorCorresponding author.

//////////enthalpically controlled release, HIV-1, intravaginal delivery, prolonged antiviral effect, subliming solid matrix,

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Jul 212016
 

 

 

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Lobeglitazone.svg

Lobeglitazone Sulfate, CKD-501, IDR-105

(Duvie®)Approved KOREA

Chong Kun Dang (Originator)

Adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 Diabetes mellitus

A dual PPARα and PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes.

Trade Name:Duvie®MOA:Dual PPARα and PPARγ agonistIndication:Type 2 diabetes

CAS No. 607723-33-1(FREE)

CAS 763108-62-9(Lobeglitazone Sulfate)

2,4-Thiazolidinedione, 5-((4-(2-((6-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-4- pyrimidinyl)methylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)methyl)-, sulfate (1:1);

Duvie Tab.

  • Developer Chong Kun Dang; EQUIS & ZAROO
  • Class Antihyperglycaemics; Pyrimidines; Small molecules; Thiazolidinediones
  • Mechanism of Action Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonists; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists
  • MarketedType 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Most Recent Events

    • 01 May 2016Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical completes two phase I drug-interaction trials in Healthy volunteers in South Korea (PO) (NCT02824874; NCT02827890)
    • 01 Apr 2016Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical initiates two phase I drug-interaction trials in Healthy volunteers in South Korea (PO) (NCT02824874; NCT02827890)
    • 01 Mar 2016Chong Kun Dang completes a phase I pharmacokinetic trial in Impaired hepatic function in Healthy volunteers in South Korea, NCT02007941)
    • Lobeglitazone sulfate was approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) on July 4, 2013. It was developed and marketed as Duvie® by Chong Kun Dang Corporation.Lobeglitazone is an agonist for both PPARα and PPARγ, and it works as an insulin sensitizer by binding to the PPAR receptors in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin. It is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.Duvie® is available as tablet for oral use, containing 0.5 mg of free Lobeglitazone. The recommended dose is 0.5 mg once daily.

 

 

Lobeglitazone sulfate.png

Lobeglitazone (trade name Duvie, Chong Kun Dang) is an antidiabetic drug in the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. As an agonistfor both PPARα and PPARγ, it works as an insulin sensitizer by binding to the PPAR receptors in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin.[3]

Chong Kun Dang

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Lobeglitazone sulfate was approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) on July 4, 2013. It was developed and marketed as Duvie® by Chong Kun Dang Corporation.

Lobeglitazone is an agonist for both PPARα and PPARγ, and it works as an insulin sensitizer by binding to the PPAR receptors in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin. It is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

Duvie® is available as tablet for oral use, containing 0.5 mg of free Lobeglitazone. The recommended dose is 0.5 mg once daily.

Lobeglitazone which was reported in our previous works belongs to the class of potent PPARα/γ dual agonists (PPARα EC50:  0.02 μM, PPARγ EC50:  0.018 μM, rosiglitazone; PPARα EC50:  >10 μM, PPARγ EC50:  0.02 μM, pioglitazone PPARα EC50:  >10 μM, PPARγ EC50:  0.30 μM). Lobeglitazone has excellent pharmacokinetic properties and was shown to have more efficacious in vivo effects in KKAy mice than rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.17 Due to its outstanding pharmacokinetic profile, lobeglitazone was chosen as a promising antidiabetes drug candidate.

Medical uses

Lobeglitazone is used to assist regulation of blood glucose level of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. It can be used alone or in combination with metformin.[4]

Lobeglitazone was approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) in 2013, and the postmarketing surveillance is on progress until 2019.[4][5]

SYNTHESIS

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Chong Kun Dang’s Modcol Flu Dry Syrup is released in four different versions: All-Day, Night, Nose and Cough. [CHONG KUN DANG]

 

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PAPER

Org. Process Res. Dev. 2007, 11, 190-199.

Process Development and Scale-Up of PPAR α/γ Dual Agonist Lobeglitazone Sulfate (CKD-501)

Process Research and Development Laboratory, Chemical Research Group, Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical Cooperation, Cheonan P. O. Box 74, Cheonan 330-831, South Korea, and Department of Chemistry, Korea University, 5-1-2, Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701, Korea
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2007, 11 (2), pp 190–199
DOI: 10.1021/op060087u

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op060087u

Abstract Image

A scaleable synthetic route to the potent PPARα/γ dual agonistic agent, lobeglitazone (1), used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes was developed. The synthetic pathway comprises an effective five-step synthesis. This process involves a consecutive synthesis of the intermediate, pyrimidinyl aminoalcohol (6), from the commercially available 4,6-dichloropyrimidine (3) without the isolation of pyrimidinyl phenoxy ether (4). Significant improvements were also made in the regioselective 1,4-reduction of the intermediate, benzylidene-2,4-thiazolidinedione (10), using Hantzsch dihydropyridine ester (HEH) with silica gel as an acid catalyst. The sulfate salt form of lobeglitazone was selected as a candidate compound for further preclinical and clinical study. More than 2 kg of lobeglitazone sulfate (CKD-501, 2) was prepared in 98.5% purity after the GMP batch. Overall yield of 2 was improved to 52% from 17% of the original medicinal chemistry route.

Silica gel TLC Rf = 0.35 (detection:  iodine char chamber, ninhydrin solution, developing solvents:  CH2Cl2/MeOH, 20:1); mp 111.4 °C; IR (KBr) ν 3437, 3037, 2937, 2775, 1751, 1698, 1648, 1610, 1503, 1439, 1301, 1246, 1215, 1183 cm-1;

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.09 (m, 4H), 3.29 (m, 1H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 3.97 (m, 2H), 4.14 (m, 2H), 4.86 (m, 1H), 6.06 (bs, 1H), 6.86 (m, 2H), 7.00 (m, 2H), 7.13 (m, 4H), 8.30 (s, 1H), 11.99 (s, NH);

13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 37.1, 38.2, 53.7, 53.8, 56.3, 62.2, 65.8, 86.0, 115.1, 116.0, 123.0, 129.8, 131.2, 145.7, 153.4, 157.9, 158.1, 161.1, 166.5, 172.4, 172.5, 176.3, 176.5;

MS (ESI)m/z (M + 1) 481.5; Anal. Calcd for C24H26N4O9S2:  C, 49.82; H, 4.53; N, 9.68; S, 11.08. Found:  C, 49.85; H, 4.57; N, 9.75; S, 11.15.

PATENT

WO03080605A1.

 

Clip
Lobeglitazone sulfate (Duvie) Lobeglitazone sulfate, an oral peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARa/c) dual agonist with IC50 = 20 and 18 nM respectively, was developed by Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical in Korea for the treatment of diabetes.135 This drug is differentiated from two other PPAR agonists available—pioglitazone and rosiglitazone —which lack PPARa activity.135 The most likely processscale preparation of lobeglitazone sulfate follows the route described in a process communication from Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical.136

Commercially available 4,6-dichloropyrimidine (152) was treated with a stoichiometric equivalent of p-methoxyphenol (153) in the presence of KF in warm DMF (Scheme 24). Upon completion of this reaction, 2-methylaminoethanol was added to the mixture to provide pyrimidine 154 in high yield.137

Next, alcohol 154 underwent a substitution reaction with p-fluorobenzaldehyde (155) under basic conditions to provide alkoxy benzaldehyde 156 which was converted to the benzylidene thiazolidindione 158 upon subjection to Knoevenagel conditions with 2,4-thiazolidinedione (157) in 90% yield.

Finally, reduction of olefin 158 was facilitated by treatment with the Hantzsch ester (159) in the presence of silica gel followed by treatment with methanolic sulfuric acid (96%) at low temperature to ultimately furnish lobeglitazone sulfate in 90% yield.

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135. Jin, S. M.; Park, C. Y.; Cho, Y. M.; Ku, B. J.; Ahn, C. W.; Cha, B.-S.; Min, K. W.;Sung, Y. A.; Baik, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Yoon, K.-H.; Lee, M.-K.; Park, S. W. Diab.Obes. Metab. 2015, 17, 599.
136. Lee, H. W.; Ahn, J. B.; Kang, S. K.; Ahn, S. K.; Ha, D.-C. Org. Process Res. Dev.2007, 11, 190.
137. Lee, H. W.; Kim, B. Y.; Ahn, J. B.; Kang, S. K.; Lee, J. H.; Shin, J. S.; Ahn, S. K.; Lee,S. J.; Yoon, S. S. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 40, 862.

 

References

  1. Lee JH, Noh CK, Yim CS, Jeong YS, Ahn SH, Lee W, Kim DD, Chung SJ. (2015). “Kinetics of the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of Lobeglitazone, a Novel Activator of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma in Rats.”.Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences 104 (9): 3049–3059.doi:10.1002/jps.24378. PMID 25648999.
  2.  Kim JW, Kim JR, Yi S, Shin KH, Shin HS, Yoon SH, Cho JY, Kim DH, Shin SG, Jang IJ, Yu KS. (2011). “Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of lobeglitazone (CKD-501), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist: a single- and multiple-dose, double-blind, randomized control study in healthy male Korean subjects.”. Clinical therapeutics 33 (11): 1819–1830.doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.09.023. PMID 22047812.
  3.  Lee JH, Woo YA, Hwang IC, Kim CY, Kim DD, Shim CK, Chung SJ. (2009). “Quantification of CKD-501, lobeglitazone, in rat plasma using a liquid-chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method and its applications to pharmacokinetic studies.”. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 50 (5): 872–877.doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2009.06.003. PMID 19577404.
  4.  “MFDS permission information of Duvie Tablet 0.5mg”(Release of Information). Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Retrieved2014-10-23.
  5.  “국내개발 20번째 신약‘듀비에정’허가(20th new drug developed in Korea ‘Duvie Tablet’ was approved)”. Chong Kun Dang press release. 2013-07-04. Retrieved 2014-10-23.
Lobeglitazone
Lobeglitazone.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5-[(4-[2-([6-(4-Methoxyphenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yl]-methylamino)ethoxy]phenyl)methyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
Clinical data
Trade names Duvie
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding >99%[1]
Metabolism liver (CYP2C9, 2C19, and 1A2)[1]
Biological half-life 7.8–9.8 hours[2]
Identifiers
CAS Number 607723-33-1
PubChem CID 9826451
DrugBank DB09198 Yes
ChemSpider 8002194
Synonyms CKD-501
Chemical data
Formula C24H24N4O5S
Molar mass 480.53616 g/mol

Identifications:

1H NMR (Estimated) for Lobeglitazone

Experimental: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.12 (m, 4H), 3.45 (m, 1H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 4.00 (m, 2H), 4.16 (m, 2H), 4.50 (m, 1H), 5.84 (bs, 1H), 6.83 (m, 2H), 7.06 (m, 2H), 7.15 (m, 2H), 8.31 (s, 1H), 8.89 (bs, NH).

///Lobeglitazone Sulfate, CKD-501, Duvie®,  Approved KOREA, Chong Kun Dang, A dual PPARα and PPARγ agonist , type 2 diabetes, CKD 501, 763108-62-9, 607723-33-1, IDR-105

CN(CCOC1=CC=C(C=C1)CC2C(=O)NC(=O)S2)C3=CC(=NC=N3)OC4=CC=C(C=C4)OC.OS(=O)(=O)O

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Jul 212016
 

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Biography

Gunaseelan’s research expertise is in drug delivery. For the past 10 years she has been working towards developing ‘Novel Drug Delivery Systems’ for HIV Prevention & HIV and Cancer Therapeutics. Her research works resulted in 5 patents, more than 20 publications in high-impact journals and presentations in 20 national and international conferences. Her dedication towards research work at Rutgers University School of Pharmacy New Jersey, led her to be a recipient of Merit Award for 3 consecutive years. She is currently a journal reviewer for Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, Pharmaceutical Research, and Controlled Release Society Meeting Abstracts

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Abstract

Objectives: Microbicides, products applied vaginally or rectally, are effective at preventing HIV transmission. However, many products (e.g., peptides, antiretroviral drugs) are reactive or incompatible in the existing diffusion/hydrolysis/dissolution based delivery systems. To overcome the issues of extended delivery and product compatibility, the use of a novel subliming solid matrix-based delivery system is described here. Methods: The microbicides C5A, tenofovir fumarate, emtricitabine, dapivarine, UC-781 and IQP0528 were employed as representatives of a range of molecular structures and physicochemical properties. Hydrophobic, chemically inert subliming solid matrices, utilized for microbicide formulations and achieving a defined range of sustained release rates, included norbornane, hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane, perfluoroundecane, perfluorododecane and cyclododecane. Rates of matrix sublimation and concomitant microbicide release were determined in vitro. Formulations were tested for cellular toxicity, and durations of anti-HIV-1 activity by constant release of microbicides from the sublimable matrices. Results: Subliming solid matrices release microbicides by surface erosion achieved through sublimation. Zero order sustained microbicide release was achieved in vitro, at rates independent of microbicide structures and properties, and controlled exclusively by sublimation enthalpies of each hydrophobic matrix material. The matrices provided prolongation of anti-HIV-1 activity relative to bolus microbicide administration, when evaluated in cultured human ectocervical tissue, macrophages, and TZM reporter cells. No evidence of matrix toxicity was observed after continuous exposure to macrophages, T-lymphocytes, PBMC cells and ectocervical explants. Implications: Subliming matrices offer unique attributes that will allow steady-state delivery of any microbicide, over durations ranging from weeks to months, by employing, simple, stable, and readily available matrix materials, suggesting novel delivery capabilities.

Speaker Presentations

 

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