Jul 162014
AZoNano - The A to Z of Nanotechnology
Published on July 14, 2014 at 6:04 AM IN AZANO

Poor bioavailability is a major reason for compounds to fail in preclinical development. Technology Catalysts International (TCI), a leading global pharmaceutical consulting firm, has compiled and analyzed technical and market information pertaining to the delivery of poorly water soluble or poorly permeable pharmaceutical compounds.


To download a complimentary excerpt of this report, go to:


Source: http://www.technology-catalysts.com/

Jan 132014


Iloprost (ciloprost)

MF C22H32O4
Formula Wgt 360.5


6,​9α-​methylene-​11α,​15S-​dihydroxy-​16-​methyl-​prosta-​5E,​13E-​dien-​18-​yn-​1-​oic acid


Iloprost Molecule

ILOPROST (Ventavis®) is used to treat a serious heart and lung disorder called pulmonary arterial hypertension. While iloprost inhalation solution will not cure this disorder, it is designed to improve symptoms and the quality of life. Generic iloprost inhalation solution is not yet available.

Iloprost is a second generation structural analog of prostacyclin (PGI) with about ten-fold greater potency than the first generation stable analogs, typified by carbaprostacyclin.1 Iloprost binds with equal affinity to the human recombinant IP and EP1 receptors with a Ki of 11 nM.2Iloprost constricts the isolated guinea pig ilium and fundus circular smooth muscle (an EP1 receptor preparation) as strongly as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) itself.3 Iloprost inhibits the ADP, thrombin, and collagen-induced aggregation of human platelets with an ED50 of about 13 nM.1 In whole animals, iloprost acts as a vasodilator, hypotensive, antidiuretic, and prolongs bleeding time.4 It has been evaluated in several human clinical studies as a treatment for idiopathic pulmonary hypertension.5,6 In these studies, an aerosolized dose of 30 µg/day was effective, and doses as high as 150 µg/day for up to a year were well tolerated.

73873-87-7 CAS NO


Launched – 1992 bayer

Ilomedin®, Ventavis™


An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.

BAY-q-6256 E-1030 SH-401 ZK-36374

  • BAY Q6256
  • Ciloprost
  • Iloprost
  • Iloprostum
  • Iloprostum [Latin]
  • UNII-AHG2128QW6
  • Ventavis
  • ZK 00036374
  • ZK 36374

Endoprost Ilomedin Ilomédine Ventavis Iloprost is a synthetic prostacyclin analog discovered and developed by Schering AG and Berlex which has been available for more than ten years as therapy for peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), including Raynaud’s phenomenon and Buerger’s disease.

Iloprost improves blood flow, relieves the pain associated with circulatory disturbances and improves the healing of ulcers, which can develop as a result of poor arterial blood flow. Iloprost also produces vasodilatation of the pulmonary arterial bed, with subsequent significant improvement in pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output, as well as mixed venous oxygen saturation. In 2003, Schering AG received approval in the E.U. for an inhaled formulation of iloprost (Ventavis[R]) for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension and the following year, the product was launched in Germany and the U.K.

Introduction on the U.S. market took place in March 2005 by CoTherix for the same indication in patients with NYHA Class III or IV symptoms. Iloprost is also available for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. CoTherix had been developing a dry powder for potential use in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension; however, no recent development has been reported for this research. In Japan, phase III clinical trials are ongoing for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In 2003, CoTherix licensed exclusive rights from Schering AG to market iloprost in the U.S. for primary pulmonary hypertension while Schering AG retained rights to the product outside the U.S. In April 2005, CoTherix established a collaborative research and development agreement with Quadrant to develop an extended-release formulation of iloprost inhalation solution. Iloprost was designated as an orphan medicinal product for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in December 2000 by the EMEA and will fall under orphan drug protection until 2013.

The FDA has assigned to iloprost several orphan drug designations. In 1989, iloprost solution for infusion was granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis followed by another orphan drug designation in 1990 for iloprost solution for injection for the treatment of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. In 2004, an additional orphan drug designation for iloprost inhalation solution for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension was assigned.

The status has also been assigned in the E.U. for this indication. In 2012, orphan drug designation was assigned in the U.S. for the treatment of purpura fulminans in combination with eptifibatide and for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In 2007, Cotherix was acquired by Actelion.




iloprost phenacyl ester

Ventavis (TN), Iloprost phenacyl ester, Iloprost-PE, Iloprost (INN), CHEMBL138694, CHEMBL236025, AC1O6009, DAP000273, CID5311181

Molecular Formula: C30H38O5   Molecular Weight: 478.61972

2-oxo-2-phenylethyl 5-[(2Z)-5-hydroxy-4-[(1E)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloct-1-en-6-yn-1-yl]-octahydropentalen-2-ylidene]pentanoate


Ciloprost Drugs Fut 1981, 6(11): 676

A carbohydrate approach for the formal total synthesis of the prostacyclin analogue (16S)-iloprost Tetrahedron Asymmetry 2012, 23(5): 388

Angewandte Chemie, 1981 ,  vol. 93,   12  pg. 1080 – 1081

Tetrahedron Letters, 1992 ,  vol. 33,   52  pg. 8055 – 8056

Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1986 ,  vol. 69,  7  pg. 1718 – 1727

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 1986 ,  vol. 29,  3  pg. 313 – 315

US5286494 A1

US 4474802

 US 2013253049

uS 2013184295

WO 1992014438

WO 1993007876

WO 1993015739

WO 1994008584

WO 2013040068

WO 2012174407

WO 2011047048

EP0011591A1 * Oct 18, 1979 May 28, 1980 Schering Aktiengesellschaft Prostane derivatives, their production and pharmaceutical compositions containing them
EP0084856A1 * Jan 19, 1983 Aug 3, 1983 Toray Industries, Inc. 5,6,7-Trinor-4, 8-inter-m-phenylene prostaglandin I2 derivatives
EP0099538A1 * Jul 11, 1983 Feb 1, 1984 Schering Aktiengesellschaft Carbacyclines, process for their preparation and their use as medicines


  •  5,6,7-trinor-4,8-inter-m-phenylene prostaglandin 12derivatives.
  • Prostaglandin I2, hereinafter referred to as PGI2, of

    Figure imgb0001

    was first found by J.R. Vane et.al. in 1976 and is biosynthe- sized from arachidonic acid via endoperoxide(PGH2 or PGG2) in the vascular wall. PGI2 is well known to show potent activity to inhibit platelet aggregation and to dilate peripheral blood vessels(C & EN, Dec. 20, 1976, page 17 and S. Moncade et al., Nature, 263,633(1976)).

  • [0003]
    Because of the unstable exo-enolether structure thereof, PGI2 is extremely unstable even in a neutral aqueous solution and is readily converted to 6-oxo-PGF which is almost physiologically inactive. Such instability of PGI2 is a big obstacle to its use as a drug. Furthermore, PGI2 is unstable in vivo as well and shows only short duration of action.
  • The compounds of the present invention are novel PGI2 derivatives in which the exo-enolether moiety characteristic of PGI2 is transformed into “inter-m-phenylene” moiety. In this sense the compounds may be regarded as analogs of PGI2.
  • The compounds of the present invention feature much improved stability in vitro as well as in vivo in comparison with PGI2. The compounds are highly stable even in an aqueous solution and show long duration of action in vivo. Further, the compounds have advantages over PGI2 for pharmaceutical application because they exhibit more selective physiological actions than PGI2, which has multifarious, inseperable biological activities.
  • Some prostaglandin I2 derivatives which have 5,6,7-tri- nor-4,8-inter-m-phenylene structure have already been described in publication by some of the present authors. (Kiyotaka Ohno, Hisao Nishiyama and Shintaro Nishio, U.S.P. 4,301,164 (1981)). But, the compounds of the present invention, which feature the presence of alkynyl side chain, have more potent physiological activities as well as decreased side effects than the already disclosed compounds analogous to those of the present invention.
  • It is an object of this invention to provide novel prostaglandin I2derivatives which are stable and possess platelet aggregation-inhibiting, hypotensive, anti-ulcer and other activities.


  • Figure imgb0004

    is named as 16-methyl-18,19-tetradehydro-5,6,7-trinor-4,8-inter-m-phenylene PGI2.

  • Alternatively, the compound of the formula (II) may be named as a derivative of butyric acid by the more formal nomenclature. In such a case, the condensed ring moiety is named after the basical structure of 1H-cyclopenta[b]benzofuran of the following formula:

    Figure imgb0005

    The term “synthetic prostacyclins” as used herein can refer to any prostacyclin that can be prepared via synthetic organic chemistry, including those prostacyclins that are also naturally occurring, such as Prostacyclin (PGI2):


    Figure imgf000025_0001

    which is also known as Epopreostenol.

    Thus, examples of synthetic prostacyclins include, but are not limited to: Prosta


    Figure imgf000025_0002

    lloprost, which has the structure:


    Figure imgf000025_0003

    Trepro inil (also known as Rumodolin), which has the structure:


    Figure imgf000025_0004

    Beraprost, which has the structure:


    Figure imgf000026_0001

    as well as the esters, stereoisomers, and salts thereof, or other analogues or derivatives of the recited synthetic prostacyclins, such as compounds comprising other aliphatic linker groups linking the carboxylic acid group to the cyclic components of the synthetic prostacyclins, compounds containing additional alkene and/or alkyne bonds, and/or compounds containing additional substituents on the cyclic components of the synthetic prostacyclins.

    Figure imgf000031_0001

     iloprost, in contrast to PGI.sub.2 a stable prostacyclin derivative, has been known since 1980 by European patent application EP 11591, no other prostacyclin derivative has previously been tested in this indication. It is therefore reasonable to assume that a spontaneous healing is involved in the published case.

    It has now been found, surprisingly, that iloprost is effective in the case of cerebral malaria.

    For salt formation of iloprost, inorganic and organic bases are suitable, as they are known to one skilled in the art for the formation of physiologically compatible salts. For example, there can be mentioned: alkali hydroxides, such as sodium and potassium hydroxide, alkaline-earth hydroxides, such as calcium hydroxide, ammonia, amines, such as ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, N-methylglucamine, morpholine, tris-(hydroxymethyl)-methylamine, etc.

    The β-cyclodextrin clathrate formation takes place according to EP 259468.

    The production of iloprost is described in detail in EP 11591.

    • Nileprost iloprost, and a process for preparing these compositions.
    • From EP 11 591 already carbacyclin derivatives of the cytoprotective effect on the gastric and intestinal mucosa, and the myocardial cytoprotection using carbacyclin derivatives is known.
    • It has now been found that iloprost (I) and Nileprost (II)

      Figure imgb0001

      and their salts with physiologically acceptable bases and cytoprotective effect in the kidney.

    • Forming salts of iloprost and Nileprost inorganic and organic bases are suitable, as are known to those skilled in the formation of physiologically compatible salts known. Examples which may be mentioned are: alkali metal hydroxides, such as sodium and potassium hydroxide, alkaline earth metal hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, ammonia, amines, such as ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, N-methylglucamine, morpholine, tris (hydroxymethyl) methylamine, etc.
    • The production of iloprost and is described in detail in EP Nileprost 2234 and EP 11591.
    J. Med. Chem., 1986, 29 (3), pp 313–315
    DOI: 10.1021/jm00153a001

see paper

The formal total synthesis of the synthetic and stable analogue of prostacyclin, (16S)- iloprost is described via a convergent synthesis starting from readily available d-glucose. Julia olefination and the aldol reaction are the key steps involved in the synthesis.
Full-size image (18 K)
  • Used as the starting material for the method described above ketone of general formula II can be prepared by reacting an alcohol of the formula IV

    Figure imgb0006

    (EJCorey et al., J. Amer. Chem. 93, 1490 (1971)) transformed with dihydropyran in the presence of catalytic amounts of p-toluenesulfonic acid in the tetrahydropyranyl ether V.

    Figure imgb0007
  • [0026]
    Lactone V with Diisobatylauminiumnydrid reduced at -70 ° C to the lactol VI, which is converted by Wittiereaktion Triphenylphosphoniummethylen with the olefin VII. After conversion to the tosylate with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of pyridine is obtained by reaction with potassium nitrite in the dimethylsulfoxide 9SS-configured alcohol IX, which is converted with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of pyridine in the tosylate X. Reaction with Malonsäurediäthylester in presence of potassium tert-butoxide gives the diester XI, which is converted by decarbalkoxylation with sodium cyanide in dimethyl sulfoxide in the ester XII.

    Figure imgb0008
  • [0027]
    Oxidative cleavage of the double bond in the compound XII with Hatrium p j o dat it out in the presence of catalytic amounts of osmium tetroxide to give the aldehyde XIII, which is oxidized with Jones reagent to the acid XIV which is then esterified with diazomethane to the compound XV. By Dieckmann condensation of XV with potassium tert-butoxide in tetrahydrofuran is obtained a mixture of isomers of the ketocarboxylic acid ester XVI and XVII, which by means of a decarbalkoxylation with 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane in xylene converted into ketone XVIII as the only reaction product is.

    Figure imgb0009
  • [0028]
    The removal of the Tetrahydropyranylätherschutzgruppe delivers the alcohol XIX, which is esterified with benzoyl chloride in the presence of pyridine to give the ester XX.

    Figure imgb0010
  • [0029]
    Benzyläthers hydrogenolytic cleavage of a catalytic amount of acid gives the alcohol XXI, which is according to ketalization compound XXII oxidized with Collins reagent to aldehyde XXIII.
  • [0030]
    This aldehyde XXIV with a phosphonate of the general formula

    Figure imgb0011

    wherein D, E and R 2 have the meanings given above is reacted in a Olefinicrungsreaktion to a ketone of the formula XXV.

    Figure imgb0012
  • [0031]
    After reduction of the 15-keto group with zinc borohydride or sodium borohydride or reaction with alkylmagnesium bromide or alkyllithium and. Epimerentrennung obtain the 15α-alcohols XXVI (PG numbering).

    Figure imgb0013
  • [0032]
    After hydrolysis of the ester group, for example with potassium carbonate in methanol and ketal cleavage with aqueous acetic acid yields the ketone of the formula XXVII,

    Figure imgb0014



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Jan 092014



Toyama (Originator)

RNA-Directed RNA Polymerase (NS5B) Inhibitors

Chemical Formula: C5H4FN3O2
CAS #: 259793-96-9
Molecular Weight: 157.1

Anti-influenza compound

clinical trials  http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/intervention=Favipiravir
Chemical Name: 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide
Synonyms: T-705, T705, Favipiravir

T-705 is an RNA-directed RNA polymerase (NS5B) inhibitor which has been filed for approval in Japan for the oral treatment of influenza A (including avian and H1N1 infections) and for the treatment of influenza B infection.

The compound is a unique viral RNA polymerase inhibitor, acting on viral genetic copying to prevent its reproduction, discovered by Toyama Chemical. In 2005, Utah State University carried out various studies under its contract with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and demonstrated that T-705 has exceptionally potent activity in mouse infection models of H5N1 avian influenza.

T-705 (Favipiravir) is an antiviral pyrazinecarboxamide-based, inhibitor of of the influenza virus with an EC90 of 1.3 to 7.7 uM (influenza A, H5N1). EC90 ranges for other influenza A subtypes are 0.19-1.3 uM, 0.063-1.9 uM, and 0.5-3.1 uM for H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2, respectively. T-705 also exhibits activity against type B and C viruses, with EC90s of 0.25-0.57 uM and 0.19-0.36 uM, respectively. (1) Additionally, T-705 has broad activity against arenavirus, bunyavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and West Nile virus with EC50s ranging from 5 to 300 uM.

Studies show that T-705 ribofuranosyl triphosphate is the active form of T-705 and acts like purines or purine nucleosides in cells and does not inhibit DNA synthesis

In 2012, MediVector was awarded a contract from the U.S. Department of Defense’s (DOD) Joint Project Manager Transformational Medical Technologies (JPM-TMT) to further develop T-705 (favipiravir), a broad-spectrum therapeutic against multiple influenza viruses.

Several novel anti-influenza compounds are in various phases of clinical development. One of these, T-705 (favipiravir), has a mechanism of action that is not fully understood but is suggested to target influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. We investigated the mechanism of T-705 activity against influenza A (H1N1) viruses by applying selective drug pressure over multiple sequential passages in MDCK cells. We found that T-705 treatment did not select specific mutations in potential target proteins, including PB1, PB2, PA, and NP. Phenotypic assays based on cell viability confirmed that no T-705-resistant variants were selected. In the presence of T-705, titers of infectious virus decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) during serial passage in MDCK cells inoculated with seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI; 0.0001 PFU/cell) or with 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses at a high MOI (10 PFU/cell). There was no corresponding decrease in the number of viral RNA copies; therefore, specific virus infectivity (the ratio of infectious virus yield to viral RNA copy number) was reduced. Sequence analysis showed enrichment of G→A and C→T transversion mutations, increased mutation frequency, and a shift of the nucleotide profiles of individual NP gene clones under drug selection pressure. Our results demonstrate that T-705 induces a high rate of mutation that generates a nonviable viral phenotype and that lethal mutagenesis is a key antiviral mechanism of T-705. Our findings also explain the broad spectrum of activity of T-705 against viruses of multiple families.


Favipiravir also known as T-705 is an experimental anti-viral drug with activity against many RNA viruses. It, like some other experimental antiviraldrugs—T-1105 and T-1106, is apyrazinecarboxamide derivative. Favipiravir is active against influenza virusesWest Nile virusyellow fever virusfoot-and-mouth disease virus as well as other flavivirusesarenavirusesbunyavirusesand alphaviruses.[1]

The mechanism of its actions is thought to be related to the selective inhibition of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Favipiravir does not inhibit RNA of DNA synthesis in mammalian cells and is not toxic to them.[1]

  1.  Furuta, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Shiraki, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Smee, D. F.; Barnard, D. L.; Gowen, B. B.; Julander, J. G.; Morrey, J. D. (2009). “T-705 (favipiravir) and related compounds: Novel broad-spectrum inhibitors of RNA viral infections”. Antiviral Research 82 (3): 95–102. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.02.198PMID 19428599edit
  2. WO 2000010569
  3. WO 2008099874
  4. WO 201009504
  5. WO 2010104170
  6. WO 2012063931


Process route





Influenza virus is a central virus of the cold syndrome, which has attacked human being periodically to cause many deaths amounting to tens millions. Although the number of deaths shows a tendency of decrease in the recent years owing to the improvement in hygienic and nutritive conditions, the prevalence of influenza is repeated every year, and it is apprehended that a new virus may appear to cause a wider prevalence.

For prevention of influenza virus, vaccine is used widely, in addition to which low molecular weight substances such as Amantadine and Ribavirin are also used



Synthesis of Favipiravir

ZHANG Tao1, KONG Lingjin1, LI Zongtao1,YUAN Hongyu1, XU Wenfang2*

(1. Shandong Qidu PharmaceuticalCo., Ltd., Linzi 255400; 2. School of Pharmacy, Shandong University, Jinan250012)

ABSTRACT: Favipiravir was synthesized from3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid by esterification, bromination with NBS,diazotization and amination to give 6-bromo-3-hydroxypyrazine-2-carboxamide,which was subjected to chlorination with POCl3, fluorination with KF, andhydrolysis with an overall yield of about 22%.





Figure US06787544-20040907-C00005


subs            G1 G2 G3 G4 R2
    compd 32 N CH C—CF3 N H



Figure US20100286394A1-20101111-C00001

Example 1-1


Figure US20100286394A1-20101111-C00002


To a 17.5 ml N,N-dimethylformamide solution of 5.0 g of 3,6-difluoro-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile, a 3.8 ml water solution of 7.83 g of potassium acetate was added dropwise at 25 to 35° C., and the solution was stirred at the same temperature for 2 hours. 0.38 ml of ammonia water was added to the reaction mixture, and then 15 ml of water and 0.38 g of active carbon were added. The insolubles were filtered off and the filter cake was washed with 11 ml of water. The filtrate and the washing were joined, the pH of this solution was adjusted to 9.4 with ammonia water, and 15 ml of acetone and 7.5 ml of toluene were added. Then 7.71 g of dicyclohexylamine was added dropwise and the solution was stirred at 20 to 30° C. for 45 minutes. Then 15 ml of water was added dropwise, the solution was cooled to 10° C., and the precipitate was filtered and collected to give 9.44 g of dicyclohexylamine salt of 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyradinecarbonitrile as a lightly yellowish white solid product.

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δ values: 1.00-1.36 (10H, m), 1.56-1.67 (2H, m), 1.67-1.81 (4H, m), 1.91-2.07 (4H, m), 3.01-3.18 (2H, m), 8.03-8.06 (1H, m), 8.18-8.89 (1H, broad)

Example 1-2

4.11 ml of acetic acid was added at 5 to 15° C. to a 17.5 ml N,N-dimethylformamide solution of 5.0 g of 3,6-difluoro-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile. Then 7.27 g of triethylamine was added dropwise and the solution was stirred for 2 hours. 3.8 ml of water and 0.38 ml of ammonia water were added to the reaction mixture, and then 15 ml of water and 0.38 g of active carbon were added. The insolubles were filtered off and the filter cake was washed with 11 ml of water. The filtrate and the washing were joined, the pH of the joined solution was adjusted to 9.2 with ammonia water, and 15 ml of acetone and 7.5 ml of toluene were added to the solution, followed by dropwise addition of 7.71 g of dicyclohexylamine. Then 15 ml of water was added dropwise, the solution was cooled to 5° C., and the precipitate was filtered and collected to give 9.68 g of dicyclohexylamine salt of 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile as a slightly yellowish white solid product.

Examples 2 to 5

The compounds shown in Table 1 were obtained in the same way as in Example 1-1.


Figure US20100286394A1-20101111-C00003
Example No. Organic amine Example No. Organic amine
2 Dipropylamine 4 Dibenzylamine
3 Dibutylamine 5 N-benzylmethylamine


Dipropylamine salt of 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) 6 values: 0.39 (6H, t, J=7.5 Hz), 1.10 (4H, sex, J=7.5 Hz), 2.30-2.38 (4H, m), 7.54 (1H, d, J=8.3 Hz)

Dibutylamine salt of 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) 6 values: 0.36 (6H, t, J=7.3 Hz), 0.81 (4H, sex, J=7.3 Hz), 0.99-1.10 (4H, m), 2.32-2.41 (4H, m), 7.53 (1H, d, J=8.3 Hz)

Dibenzylamine salt of 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δ values: 4.17 (4H, s), 7.34-7.56 (10H, m), 8.07 (1H, d, J=8.3 Hz)

N-benzylmethylamine salt of 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δ values: 2.57 (3H, s), 4.14 (2H, s), 7.37-7.53 (5H, m), 8.02-8.08 (1H, m)

Preparation Example 1


Figure US20100286394A1-20101111-C00004


300 ml of toluene was added to a 600 ml water solution of 37.5 g of sodium hydroxide. Then 150 g of dicyclohexylamine salt of 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile was added at 15 to 25° C. and the solution was stirred at the same temperature for 30 minutes. The water layer was separated and washed with toluene, and then 150 ml of water was added, followed by dropwise addition of 106 g of a 30% hydrogen peroxide solution at 15 to 30° C. and one-hour stirring at 20 to 30° C. Then 39 ml of hydrochloric acid was added, the seed crystals were added at 40 to 50° C., and 39 ml of hydrochloric acid was further added dropwise at the same temperature. The solution was cooled to 10° C. the precipitate was filtered and collected to give 65.6 g of 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide as a slightly yellowish white solid.

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δ values: 8.50 (1H, s), 8.51 (1H, d, J=7.8 Hz), 8.75 (1H, s), 13.41 (1H, s)



jan 2014

Investigational flu treatment drug has broad-spectrum potential to fight multiple viruses
First patient enrolled in the North American Phase 3 clinical trials for investigational flu treatment drug

BioDefense Therapeutics (BD Tx)—a Joint Product Management office within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)—announced the first patient enrolled in the North American Phase 3 clinical trials for favipiravir (T-705a). The drug is an investigational flu treatment candidate with broad-spectrum potential being developed by BD Tx through a contract with Boston-based MediVector, Inc.

Favipiravir is a novel, antiviral compound that works differently than anti-flu drugs currently on the market. The novelty lies in the drug’s selective disruption of the viralRNA replication and transcription process within the infected cell to stop the infection cycle.

“Favipiravir has proven safe and well tolerated in previous studies,” said LTC Eric G. Midboe, Joint Product Manager for BD Tx. “This first patient signifies the start of an important phase in favipiravir’s path to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for flu and lays the groundwork for future testing against other viruses of interest to the DoD.”

In providing therapeutic solutions to counter traditional, emerging, and engineered biological threats, BD Tx chose favipiravir not only because of its potential effectiveness against flu viruses, but also because of its demonstrated broad-spectrum potential against multiple viruses.  In addition to testing favipiravir in the ongoing influenzaprogram, BD Tx is testing the drug’s efficacy against the Ebola virus and other viruses considered threats to service members. In laboratory testing, favipiravir was found to be effective against a wide variety of RNA viruses in infected cells and animals.

“FDA-approved, broad-spectrum therapeutics offer the fastest way to respond to dangerous and potentially lethal viruses,” said Dr. Tyler Bennett, Assistant Product Manager for BD Tx.

MediVector is overseeing the clinical trials required by the  FDA  to obtain drug licensure. The process requires safety data from at least 1,500 patients treated for flu at the dose and duration proposed for marketing of the drug. Currently, 150 trial sites are planned throughout the U.S.

SOURCE BioDefense Therapeutics


Efficient synthesis of 3H,3′H-spiro[benzofuran-2,1'-isobenzofuran]-3,3′-dione as novel skeletons specifically for influenza virus type B inhibition.

Malpani Y, Achary R, Kim SY, Jeong HC, Kim P, Han SB, Kim M, Lee CK, Kim JN, Jung YS.

Eur J Med Chem. 2013 Apr;62:534-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2013.01.015. Epub 2013 Jan 29.



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US5420130 May 16, 1994 May 30, 1995 Synthelabo 2-aminopyrazine-5-carboxamide derivatives, their preparation and their application in therapeutics
US5459142 * Aug 23, 1993 Oct 17, 1995 Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Pyrazinyl and piperazinyl substituted pyrazine compounds
US5597823 Jun 5, 1995 Jan 28, 1997 Abbott Laboratories Tricyclic substituted hexahydrobenz [e]isoindole alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists
US6159980 * Sep 15, 1997 Dec 12, 2000 Dupont Pharmaceuticals Company Pyrazinones and triazinones and their derivatives thereof
EP0023358A1 * Jul 28, 1980 Feb 4, 1981 Rohm And Haas Company Process for the preparation of pyridazine derivatives
GB1198688A Title not available
HU9401512A Title not available
JPH09216883A * Title not available
JPS5620576A Title not available





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Jan 082014



A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.

A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties. Suramin is manufactured by Bayer in Germany as Germanin®.

Also known as: Naphuride, Germanin, Naganol, Belganyl, Fourneau, Farma, Antrypol, Suramine, Naganin

8,8′-{Carbonylbis[imino-3,1-phenylenecarbonylimino(4-methyl-3,1-phenylene)carbonylimino]}di(1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid) …FREE FORM

8,8′-[Ureylenebis[m-phenylenecarbonylimino(4-methyl-m-phenylene)carbonylimino]]di(1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid) hexasodium salt

CAS  145-63-1 FREE FORM

129-46-4 of hexa sodium


Formula C51H40N6O23S6 
Mol. mass 1297.29

The molecular formula of suramin is C51H34N6O23S6. It is a symmetric molecule in the center of which lies ureaNH-CO-NH. Suramin contains eightbenzene rings, four of which are fused in pairs (naphthalene), four amide groups in addition to the one of urea and six sulfonate groups. When given as drug it usually contains six sodium ions that form a salt with the six sulfonate groups.

Suramin is a drug developed by Oskar Dressel and Richard Kothe of BayerGermany in 1916, and is still sold by Bayer under the brand nameGermanin.

Suramin sodium is a heparanase inhibitor that was first launched in 1940 by Bayer under the brand name Antrypol for the treatment of helminthic infection. It was later launched by Bayer for the treatment of trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness).

More recently, the product has entered early clinical development at Ohio State University for the treatment of platinum-pretreated patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer, in combination with docetaxel or gemcitabine.

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is conducting phase II clinical studies for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma.

According to the National Cancer Institute there are no active clinical trials (as of April 1, 2008). Completed and closed clinical trials are listed here:[1]

In addition to Germanin, the National Cancer Institute also lists the following “Foreign brand names”: 309 F or 309 Fourneau,[1] Bayer 205, Moranyl, Naganin, Naganine.

It is used for treatment of human sleeping sickness caused by trypanosomes.[2]

It has been used in the treatment of onchocerciasis.[3]

It has been investigated as treatment for prostate cancer.[4]

Also, suramin as treatment for autism is being evaluated. [5]

Suramin is administered by a single weekly intravenous injection for six weeks. The dose per injection is 1 g.

The most frequent adverse reactions are nausea and vomiting. About 90% of patients will get an urticarial rash that disappears in a few days without needing to stop treatment. There is a greater than 50% chance of adrenal cortical damage, but only a smaller proportion will require lifelongcorticosteroid replacement. It is common for patients to get a tingling or crawling sensation of the skin with suramin. Suramin will cause clouding of the urine which is harmless: patients should be warned of this to avoid them becoming alarmed.

Kidney damage and exfoliative dermatitis occur less commonly.

Suramin has been applied clinically to HIV/AIDS patients resulting in a significant number of fatal occurrences and as a result the application of this molecule was abandoned for this condition. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3548350

Suramin is also used in research as a broad-spectrum antagonist of P2 receptors[6][7] and agonist of Ryanodine receptors.[8]

ChemSpider 2D Image | 8,8'-{Carbonylbis[imino-3,1-phenylenecarbonylimino(4-methyl-3,1-phenylene)carbonylimino]}di(1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid) | C51H40N6O23S6suramin

Its effect on telomerase has been investigated.[9]

It may have some activity against RNA viruses.[10]

In addition to antagonism of P2 receptors, Suramin inhibits the acitivation of heterotrimeric G proteins in a variety of other GPCRs with varying potency. It prevents the association of heteromeric G proteins and therefore the receptors Guanine exchange functionality (GEF). With this blockade the GDP will not release from the Gα subunit so it can not be replaced by a GTP and become activated. This has the effect of blocking downstream G protein mediated signaling of various GPCR proteins including Rhodopsin, the A1 Adenosine receptor, and the D2 dopamine receptor.[11]

A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties. Suramin is manufactured by Bayer in Germany as Germanin®.

InCl3-catalysed synthesis of 2-aryl quinazolin-4(3H)-ones and 5-aryl pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-ones and their evaluation as potential anticancer agents.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
Identification of a sirtuin 3 inhibitor that displays selectivity over sirtuin 1 and 2.
European journal of medicinal chemistry
Inhibition of the human deacylase Sirtuin 5 by the indole GW5074.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
Discovery of thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamides as potent inhibitors of SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3.
Journal of medicinal chemistry
  1.  The formula of suramin was kept secret by Bayer for commercial reasons. But it was elucidated and published in 1924 by Fourneau and his team of the Pasteur Institute, and it is only on this date that its exact chemical composition was known. (E. Fourneau, J. and Th. Tréfouël and J. Vallée (1924). “Sur une nouvelle série de médicaments trypanocides”, C. R. Séances Acad. Sci. 178: 675.)
  2. Darsaud A, Chevrier C, Bourdon L, Dumas M, Buguet A, Bouteille B (January 2004). “Megazol combined with suramin improves a new diagnosis index of the early meningo-encephalitic phase of experimental African trypanosomiasis”Trop. Med. Int. Health 9 (1): 83–91.doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2003.01154.xPMID 14728611.
  3.  Anderson J, Fuglsang H (July 1978). “Further studies on the treatment of ocular onchocerciasis with diethylcarbamazine and suramin”Br J Ophthalmol 62 (7): 450–7.doi:10.1136/bjo.62.7.450PMC 1043255PMID 678497.
  4.  Ahles TA, Herndon JE, Small EJ, et al. (November 2004). “Quality of life impact of three different doses of suramin in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma: results of Intergroup O159/Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9480″. Cancer 101 (10): 2202–8.doi:10.1002/cncr.20655PMID 15484217.
  5.  http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-03-drug-treatment-autism-symptoms-mouse.html
  6.  Abbracchio MP, Burnstock G, Boeynaems JM, Barnard EA, Boyer JL, Kennedy C, Knight GE, Fumagalli M, Gachet C, Jacobson KA, Weisman GA. (september 2006). “International Union of Pharmacology LVIII: update on the P2Y G protein-coupled nucleotide receptors: from molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology to therapy”. Pharmacol Rev. 58 (3): 281–341.doi:10.1124/pr.58.3.3PMID 16968944.
  7.  Khakh BS, Burnstock G, Kennedy C, King BF, North RA, Séguéla P, Voigt M, Humphrey PP. (march 2001). “International union of pharmacology. XXIV. Current status of the nomenclature and properties of P2X receptors and their subunits”. Pharmacol Rev. 53 (1): 107–118.PMID 11171941.
  8.  Wolner I, Kassack MU, Ullmann H, Karel A, Hohenegger M (October 2005). “Use-dependent inhibition of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor by the suramin analogue NF676″Br. J. Pharmacol. 146 (4): 525–33. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706359PMC 1751178.PMID 16056233.
  9.  Erguven M, Akev N, Ozdemir A, Karabulut E, Bilir A (August 2008). “The inhibitory effect of suramin on telomerase activity and spheroid growth of C6 glioma cells”Med. Sci. Monit. 14(8): BR165–73. PMID 18667993.
  10.  Mastrangelo E, Pezzullo M, Tarantino D, Petazzi R, Germani F, Kramer D, Robel I, Rohayem J, Bolognesi M, Milani M (2012) Structure-based inhibition of norovirus RNA-dependent RNA-polymerases. J Mol Biol
  11.  Beindl W, Mitterauer T, Hohenegger M, Ijzerman AP, Nanoff C, Freissmuth M. (August 1996).“Inhibition of receptor/G protein coupling by suramin analogues”ol. Pharmacology. 50 (2): 415–23. PMID 8700151.
  12. Drugs Fut 1986, 11(10): 860
  13. WO 2012159107
  14. WO 2012087336
  15. US 2011257109
  16. WO 2009022897
  17. WO 2009020613
  18. WO 2008094027
  19.   EP 0486809
  20. US 5158940
  21. US 5173509
  22. WO 1993007864
  23. WO 1994008574



Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is one of the major causative reagents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections and leads to numerous dead cases. Although several inactivated whole-virus vaccines have entered in clinical trials, no antiviral agent has been provided for clinical therapy. In the present work, we screened our compound library and identified that suramin, which has been clinically used to treat variable diseases, could inhibit EV71 proliferation with an IC50 value of 40μM. We further revealed that suramin could block the attachment of EV71 to host cells to regulate the early stage of EV71 infection, as well as affected other steps of EV71 life cycle. Our results are helpful to understand the mechanism for EV71 life cycle and provide a potential for the usage of an approved drug, suramin, as the antiviral against EV71 infection.


  • Suramin Hexasodium
  • 129-46-4


  • 309 F
  • Antrypol
  • BAY 205
  • Bayer 205
  • CI-1003
  • EINECS 204-949-3
  • Fourneau 309
  • Germanin
  • Moranyl
  • Naganin
  • Naganine
  • Naganinum
  • Naganol
  • Naphuride sodium
  • NF060
  • NSC 34936
  • SK 24728
  • Sodium suramin
  • Suramin Hexasodium
  • Suramin sodium
  • Suramina sodica
  • Suramina sodica [INN-Spanish]
  • Suramine sodique
  • Suramine sodique [INN-French]
  • Suramine sodium
  • Suraminum natricum
  • Suraminum natricum [INN-Latin]
  • UNII-89521262IH


Suramin Sodium, is an anticancer agent with a wide variety of activities.

Recently suramin was shown to inhibit FSH binding to its receptor (Daugherty, R. L.; Cockett, A. T. K.; Schoen, S. R. and Sluss, P. M. “Suramin inhibits gonadotropon action in rat testis: implications for treatment of advanced prostate cancer” J. Urol. 1992, 147, 727-732).

This activity causes, at least in part, the decrease in testosterone production seen in rats and humans that were administered suramin(Danesi, R.; La Rocca, R. V.; Cooper, M. R.; Ricciardi, M. P.; Pellegrini, A.; Soldani, P.; Kragel, P. J.; Paparelli, A.; Del Tacca, M.; Myers, C. E, “Clinical and experimental evidence of inhibition of testosterone production by suramin.” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1996, 81, 2238-2246).

Suramin is the only non-peptidic small molecule that has been reported to be an FSH receptor binding antagonist.

Figure US06200963-20010313-C00003

Suramin is 8,8′ – (carbonylbis(imino-3,1-phenylenecarbonylimino (4-methyl-3,1-phenylene) carbonylimino)) bis-1,3 ,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid (GB Patent No. 224849). This polyanionic compound has been used for many decades as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent for try- panosomiasis. It was subsequently shown that suramin is able to block the activity of a variety of proteins like cellular and viral enzymes and growth factors (Mitsuya, M. et al. Science 226 : 172 (1984), Hosang, M. J. Cell. Biochem. 29 : 265 (1985), De Clercq, E. Cancer Lett. 8 : 9 (1979)).


Complement inhibitors
Aromatic amidines as antiviral agents in animals
Complement inhibitors
Complement inhibitors
Cyclodextrin sulfate salts as complement inhibitors
Ureylenebis methyl-phenylene-carbonyl-bis-dihydro-2-oxo-naphthoxazine disultonic acids
Water treatment for controlling the growth of algae employing biguanides
Isoxazole substituted nitroimidazoles
Amidophenyl-azo-naphthalenesulfonic complement inhibitors and method of use thereof
Complement inhibitors
Admixtures for inorganic binders based on a hydrogenated disaccharide, inorganic binders containing these admixtures and process for their preparation Admixtures for inorganic binders based on a hydrogenated disaccharide, inorganic binders containing these admixtures and process for their preparation
1,3,5- Or 1,3,6-naphthalenetriyltris(sulfonylimino)aryl acids and salts
Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases
Malto-dextrin poly(H-)sulfates
Disazo compounds useful as complement inhibitors
Bis-substituted naphthalene-azo phenyleneazo-stilbene-disulfonic and naphthalene-sulfonic acid
Substituted bisnaphthylazo diphenyl ureido complement inhibitors
Substituted-hydroxy-naphthalenedisulfonic acid compounds


Complement inhibitors
Complement inhibitors
Complement inhibitors


EP0183352A2 * Sep 27, 1985 Jun 4, 1986 THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as represented by the Secretary United States Department of Commerce Use of suramin for clinical treatment of infection with any of the members of the family of human-t-cell leukemia (htvl) viruses including lymphadenopathy virus (lav)
EP0205077A2 * Jun 3, 1986 Dec 17, 1986 Bayer Ag Suramin sodium for use as an immunostimulant


EP0515523A1 * Feb 13, 1991 Dec 2, 1992 THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as represented by the Secretary United States Department of Commerce Use of suramin to treat rheumatologic diseases
EP0755254A1 * Mar 24, 1995 Jan 29, 1997 The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Prevention and treatment of ischemia-reperfusion and endotoxin-related injury using adenosine and purino receptor antagonists
EP1460087A1 * Feb 17, 1997 Sep 22, 2004 The Kennedy Institute Of Rheumatology Methods of treating vascular disease with TNF antagonists
EP1940376A2 * Oct 3, 2006 Jul 9, 2008 Rottapharm S.P.A. Use of neboglamine in the treatment of toxicodependency
EP1945204A2 * Oct 27, 2006 Jul 23, 2008 Brane Discovery S.R.L. V-atpase inhibitors for use in the treatment of septic shock
US5453444 * Oct 6, 1994 Sep 26, 1995 Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Method to mitigate or eliminate weight loss
US5534539 * Jun 12, 1995 Jul 9, 1996 Farmitalia Carlo Erba S.R.L. Biologically active ureido derivatives useful as anit-metastic agenst
US5596105 * Jan 13, 1995 Jan 21, 1997 Farmitalia Carlo Erba S.R.L. Therapeutically active naphthalenesulfonic pyrrolecarboxamido derivatives
US7476693 Mar 26, 2003 Jan 13, 2009 Eastern Virginia Medical School Suramin and derivatives thereof as topical microbicide and contraceptive
US7608262 Feb 16, 1996 Oct 27, 2009 The Kennedy Institute Of Rheumatology Methods of preventing or treating thrombosis with tumor necrosis factor antagonists
US8552064 Dec 19, 2008 Oct 8, 2013 Eastern Virginia Medical School Suramin and derivatives thereof as topical microbicide and contraceptive
WO1994008574A1 * Oct 12, 1993 Apr 28, 1994 Otsuka America Pharmaceutical Treatment of cachexia and inhibition of il-6 activity
WO1994010990A1 * Nov 12, 1993 May 26, 1994 British Bio Technology Inhibition of tnf production
WO1997030088A2 * Feb 17, 1997 Aug 21, 1997 Kennedy Inst Of Rheumatology Methods of treating vascular disease with tnf antagonists
WO2004113920A1 * Jun 18, 2004 Dec 29, 2004 Babon Jeff James Screening method for substances binding to merozoite surface protein-1/42
WO2008138943A2 * May 14, 2008 Nov 20, 2008 Mara Galli Prophylactic and therapeutic use of sirtuin inhibitors in tnf-alpha mediated pathologies
WO2009137471A2 * May 5, 2009 Nov 12, 2009 University Of Miami Azo dye related small molecule modulators of protein-protein interactions
WO2010016628A1 * Jul 10, 2009 Feb 11, 2010 Sammy Opiyo Conjugated suramin amino compounds for medical conditions
WO2012159107A1 * May 21, 2012 Nov 22, 2012 Rhode Island Hospital Inhibition of renal fibrosis







did you feel happy, a head to toe paralysed man’s soul in action for you round the clock

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I was  paralysed in dec2007, Posts dedicated to my family, my organisation Glenmark, Your readership keeps me going and brings smiles to my family





 Uncategorized  Comments Off
Jan 072014


Tachykinin NK1 Antagonists


4-(S)-(4-Acetyl-piperazin-1-yl)-2- (R)-(4-fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid, [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl- phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide

414910-30-8  MESYLATE
414910-27-3 (free base)


 Molecular Weight 712.719


Casopitant (trade names Rezonic (US), Zunrisa (EU)) is an neurokinin 1 (NK1receptor antagonist undergoing research for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).[1] It is currently under development by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK).

In July 2008, the company filed a marketing authorisation application with the European Medicines Agency. The application was withdrawn in September 2009 because GSK decided that further safety assessment was necessary.[2]    Casopitant mesylate, a tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, had been filed for approval in the U.S. and the E.U. by GlaxoSmithKline for the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting.

In 2009 the company discontinued the development of the drug candidate for this indication. An MAA had also been filed for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and in 2009 the application was withdrawn by the company.

Additional phase II clinical trials were ongoing at GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment of depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, fibromyalgia and overactive bladder, however, no recent developments have been reported for these indications.

  1.  Lohr L (2008). “Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting”. Cancer J 14 (2): 85–93.doi:10.1097/PPO.0b013e31816a0f07PMID 18391612.
  2.  “GlaxoSmithKline withdraws its marketing authorisation application for Zunrisa”. London: EMEA. 13 October 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2009
  3. Casopitant mesilate
    Drugs Fut 2008, 33(9): 737
  4. WO 2002032867
  5. WO 2008046882
  6. Development of a control strategy for a defluorinated analogue in the manufacturing process of casopitant mesylate
    Org Process Res Dev 2010, 14(4): 832 NMR FREE BASE, MESYLATE
  7. WO 2006061233
  8. WO 2004091616
  9. US20040014770 ENTRY 1B MP MESYLATE 243
  10. Tetrahedron, 2010 ,  vol. 66,  26  p. 4769 – 4774 NMR FREE BASE
  11. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011 ,  vol. 54,   4  p. 1071 – 1079 NMR MESYLATE
WO2006061233A1 * Dec 7, 2005 Jun 15, 2006 Glaxo Group Ltd The use of medicament 4-(s)-(4-acetyl-piperazin-1-yl)-2-(r)-(4-fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid, [1-(r)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide


WO2001044200A2 * Dec 14, 2000 Jun 21, 2001 David J Blythin Selective neurokinin antagonists
WO2002010141A1 * Jul 25, 2001 Feb 7, 2002 Michael Kirk Ahlijanian Imidazole derivatives
WO2002032867A1 * Oct 12, 2001 Apr 25, 2002 Giuseppe Alvaro Chemical compounds
US20020123491 * Dec 14, 2000 Sep 5, 2002 Neng-Yang Shih Selective neurokinin antagonists
US20030064980 * Jun 6, 2002 Apr 3, 2003 Neng-Yang Shih Selective neurokinin antagonists
US20030144270 * Nov 12, 2002 Jul 31, 2003 Schering Corporation NK1 antagonists


Casopitant (Rezonic, Zunrisa, casopitant mesylate, GW-679769, 679769, CAS #414910-27-3), 4-(4-Acetyl-piperazin-1-yl)-2-(4-fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methyl-amide, is a NK-1 receptor antagonist.

Casopitant is under investigation for the treatment of emesis, nausea, drug-induced nausea, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, post-operative nausea and vomiting, sleep disorders, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, overactive bladder, and myalgia (Drug Report for Casopitant, Thomson Investigational Drug Database (Sep. 15, 2008); Reddy et al., Supportive Cancer Therapy 2006, 3(3), 140-142; and WO 2006/061233).

Casopitant has also shown promise in treating disorders of the central nervous system, tinitis, and sexual dysfunction (WO 2006/061233).

compound may be of value in the treatment of Sexual dysfunctions including Sexual Desire Disorders such as Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Sexual Aversion Disorder sexual arousal disorders such as Female Sexual Arousal Disorder and Male Erectile Disorder orgasmic disorders such as Female Orgasmic Disorder, Male Orgasmic Disorder and Premature Ejaculation sexual pain disorder such as Dyspareunia and Vaginismus, Sexual Dysfunction Not Otherwise Specified; paraphilias such as Exhibitionism, Fetishism, Frotteurism, Pedophilia, Sexual Masochism, Sexual Sadism Transvestic Fetishism, Voyeurism and Paraphilia Not Otherwise Specified gender identity disorders such as Gender Identity Disorder in Children and Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents or Adults and Sexual Disorder Not Otherwise Specified.


Figure US20100137332A1-20100603-C00002


Casopitant is subject to CYP3A4-mediated oxidative metabolism at the 3-carbon of the piperazine ring to form a hydroxylated metabolite which may be further oxidized to the corresponding 3-oxo metabolite (Minthorn et al, Drug Metab. Disp., 2008, 36(9), 1846-1852). Adverse effects associated with casopitantadministration include: neutropenia, nausea, hiccups, headache, constipation, dizziness, pruritis, alopecia, and fatigue.

Overactive bladder is a term for a syndrome that encompasses urinary frequency, with or without urge incontinence, generally but not necessarily combined with pollacisuria and nocturia. Overactive bladder is also characterised by involuntary detrusor contractions which are either triggered by provocation or occur spontaneously. If the detrusor hyperactivity observed is based on neurological causes (e. g. Parkinson’s disease, apoplexy, some forms of multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury or the cross section of the bone marrow) it is known as neurogenic detrusor hyperactivity. If no clear cause can be detected this is known as idiopathic detrusor hyperactivity. In addition, detrusor hyperactivity may be associated with anatomical changes in the lower urinary tract, for example, in patients with bladder outlet obstruction (an enlargement of the prostate gland in males)

International patent application WO 02/32867 describes novel piperidine derivatives. A 0 particular preferred compound described therein is 4-(S)-(4-Acetyl-piperazin-1-yl)-2-(R)- (4-fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid







[0330] 4-(S)-(4-Acetyl-piperazin-1-yl)-2-(R)-(4-fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-1-Carboxylic Acid, [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide Methanesulphonate

[0331] A solution of intermediate 4a (7.7 g) in acetonitrile (177 mL) was added to a solution of 1-acetyl-piperazine (3.9 g) in acetonitrile (17.7 mL) followed by sodium triacetoxyborohydride (6.4 g) under a nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours and then quenched with a saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate (23.1 mL) and water (61.6 mL). The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuo, then AcOEt (208 mL) was added; the layers were separated and the aqueous layer was back-extracted with further AcOEt (2×77 mL). The collected organic phases were washed with brine (2×118 mL), dried and concentrated in vacuo to give the crude mixture of syn and anti diastereomers (nearly 1:1) as a white foam (9.5 g).

[0332] A solution of this intermediate in THF (85.4 mL) was added to a solution of methansulfonic acid (0.890 mL) in THF (6.1 mL) at r.t. After seeding, the desired syn diastereomer started to precipitate. The resulting suspension was stirred for 3 hours at 0° C. and then filtered under a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting cake was washed with cold THF (15.4 mL) and dried in vacuo at +20° C. for 48 hours to give the title compound as a white solid (4.44 g).

[0333] NMR (d6-DMSO): δ (ppm) 9.52 (bs, 1H); 7.99 (bs, 1H); 7.68 (bs, 2H); 7.23 (m, 1H); 6.95 (dd, 1H); 6.82 (m, 1H); 5.31 (q, 1H); 4.45 (bd, 1H); 4.20 (dd, 1H); 3.99 (bd, 1H); 3.65-3.25 (bm, 5H); 3.17 (m, 1H); 2.96 (m, 1H); 2.88-2.79 (m+m, 2H); 2.73 (s, 3H); 2.36 (s, 3H); 2.30 (s, 3H); 2.13-2.09 (bd+bd, 2H); 2.01 (s, 3H); 1.89-1.73 (m+m, 2H); 1.46 (d, 3H).

[0334] m.p 243.0° C.

[0335] The compound is isolated in a crystalline form.


intermediate 4a is needed  for above syn, ignore 4b

[0168] Intermediate 4

[0169] 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-oxo-piperidine-1-Carboxylic Acid, [1-(R)-3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)ethyl]-Methylamide (4a) and 2-(S)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-oxo-piperidine-1-Carboxylic Acid, [1-(R)-3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-Methylamide (4b) Method A

[0170] A solution of triphosgene (147 mg) dissolved in dry DCM (5 mL) was added drop-wise to a solution of intermediate 2 (250 mg) and DIPEA (860 μL) in dry DCM (15 mL) previously cooled to 0° C. under a nitrogen atmosphere. After 2 hours, [1-(R)-3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamine hydrochloride (503 mg) and DIPEA (320 μL) in dry acetonitrile (20 mL) were added and the mixture was heated to 70° C. for 16 hours. Further [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamine hydrochloride (170 mg) and DIPEA (100 μL) were added and the mixture was stirred at 70° C. for further 4 hours. Next, the mixture was allowed to cool to r.t., taken up with AcOEt (30 mL), washed with a 1N hydrochloric acid cold solution (3×15 mL) and brine (2×10 mL). The organic layer was dried and concentrated in vacuo to a residue, which was purified by flash chromatography (CH/AcOEt 8:2) to give:

[0171] 1. intermediate 4a (230 mg) as a white foam,

[0172] 2. intermediate 4b (231 mg) as a white foam. …………….ignore

[0173] Intermediate 4a

[0174] NMR (d6-DMSO): δ (ppm) 7.98 (bs, 1H); 7.77 (bs, 2H); 7.24 (dd, 1H); 6.97 (dd, 1H); 6.89 (m, 1H); 5.24 (t, 1H); 5.14 (q, 1H); 3.61 (m, 1H); 3.55 (m, 1H); 2.71 (m, 2H); 2.56 (s, 3H); 2.50 (m, 2H); 2.26 (s, 3H); 1.57 (d, 3H).

[0175] Intermediate 4b

[0176] NMR (d6-DMSO): δ (ppm) 7.96 (bs, 1H); 7.75 (bs, 2H); 7.24 (dd, 1H); 6.98 (dd, 1H); 6.93 (dt, 1H); 5.29 (q, 1H); 5.24 (t, 1H); 3.56 (m, 1H); 3.48 (m, 1H); 2.70 (s, 3H); 2.50 (m, 4H); 2.26 (s, 3H); 1.54 (d, 3H). …….. ignore

[0177] Intermediate 4a

[0178] Method B

[0179] A saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate solution (324 mL) was added to a solution of intermediate 9 (21.6 g) in AcOEt (324 mL) and the resulting mixture was vigorously stirred for 15 minutes. The aqueous layer was back-extracted with further AcOEt (216 mL) and the combined organic extracts were dried and concentrated in vacuo to give intermediate 8 as a yellow oil, which was treated with TEA (19 mL) and AcOEt (114 mL). The solution obtained was added drop-wise over 40 minutes to a solution of triphosgene (8 g) in AcOEt (64 mL) previously cooled to 0° C. under a nitrogen atmosphere, maintaining the temperature between 0° C. and 8° C.

[0180] After stirring for 1 hours at 0° C. and for 3 hours at 20° C., [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamine hydrochloride (29.7 g), AcOEt (190 mL) and TEA (38 mL) were added to the reaction mixture which was then heated to reflux for 16 hours.

[0181] The solution was washed with 10% sodium hydroxide solution (180 mL), 1% hydrochloric acid solution (4×150 mL), water (3×180 mL) and brine (180 mL). The organic layer was dried and concentrated in vacuo to a residue, which was purified through a silica pad (CH/AcOEt 9:1) to give the title compound (21.5 g) as a brown thick oil.

[0182] NMR (d6-DMSO): 6 (ppm) 7.97-7.77 (bs+bs, 3H); 7.24 (dd, 1H); 6.97 (dd, 1H); 6.88 (td, 1H); 5.24 (m, 1H); 5.14 (q, 1H); 3.58 (m, 2H); 2.7 (m, 2H); 2.56 (s, 3H); 2.49 (m, 2H); 2.26 (s, 3H); 1.57 (d, 3H).

intermediate 2

[0152] Intermediate 2

[0153] 2-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-4-one

[0154] Method A

[0155] 2-Methyl-4-fluoro-benzaldehyde (4 g) was added to a solution of 4-aminobutan-2-one ethylene acetal (3.8 g) in dry benzene (50 mL) and the solution was stirred at r.t. under a nitrogen atmosphere. After 1 hour the mixture was heated at reflux for 16 hours and then allowed to cool to r.t. This solution was slowly added to a refluxing solution of p-toluensulphonic acid (10.6 g) in dry benzene (50 mL) previously refluxed for 1 hour with a Dean-Stark apparatus. After 3.5 hours the crude solution was cooled and made basic with a saturated potassium carbonate solution and taken up with AcOEt (50 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with AcOEt (3×50 mL) and Et2O (2×50 mL). The organic layer was dried and concentrated in vacuo to a yellow thick oil as residue (7.23 g). A portion of the crude mixture (3 g) was dissolved in a 6N hydrochloric acid solution (20 mL) and stirred at 60° C. for 16 hours. The solution was basified with solid potassium carbonate and extracted with DCM (5×50 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (50 mL), dried and concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound (2.5 g) as a thick yellow oil.

[0156] Method B

[0157] L-selectride (1M solution in dry THF, 210 mL) was added drop-wise, over 80 minutes, to a solution of intermediate 1 (50 g) in dry THF (1065 mL) previously cooled to −72° C. under a nitrogen atmosphere. After 45 minutes, 2% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution (994 mL) was added drop-wise and the solution was extracted with AcOEt (3×994 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (284 mL) and brine (568 mL). The organic phase was dried and concentrated in vacuo to get 1-benzyloxycarbonyl-2-(4-fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-4-one as a pale yellow thick oil (94 g) which was used as a crude.

[0158] This material (94 g) was dissolved in AcOEt (710 mL), then 10% Pd/C (30.5 g) was added under a nitrogen atmosphere. The slurry was hydrogenated at 1 atmosphere for 30 minutes. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the organic phase was concentrated in vacuo to give the crude 2-(4-fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-4-one as a yellow oil. This material was dissolved in AcOEt (518 mL) at r.t. and racemic camphorsulphonic acid (48.3 g) was added. The mixture was stirred at r.t for 18 hours, then the solid was filtered off, washed with AcOEt (2×50 mL) and dried in vacuo for 18 hours to give 2-(4-fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-4-one, 10-camphorsulfonic acid salt as a pale yellow solid (68.5 g). (M.p.: 167-169° C.-NMR (d6-DMSO): 6 (ppm) 9.43 (bs, 1H); 9.23 (bs, 1H); 7.66 (dd, 1H); 7.19 (m, 2H); 4.97 (bd, 1H); 3.6 (m, 2H); 2.87 (m, 3H); 2.66 (m, 1H); 2.53 (m, 2H); 2.37 (s+d, 4H); 2.22 (m, 1H); 1.93 (t, 1H); 1.8 (m, 2H); 1.26 (m, 2H); 1.03 (s, 3H); 0.73 (s, 3H).

[0159] This material (68.5 g) was suspended in AcOEt (480 mL) and stirred with a saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate (274 mL). The organic layer was separated and washed with further water (274 mL). The organic phase was dried and concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound (31 g) as a yellow-orange oil.

[0160] NMR (d6-DMSO): 6 (ppm) 7.49 (dd, 1H); 7.00 (m, 2H); 3.97 (dd, 1H); 3.27 (m, 1H); 2.82 (dt, 1H); 2.72 (bm, 1H); 2.47 (m, 1H); 2.40 (m, 1H); 2.29 (s, 3H); 2.25 (dt, 1H); 2.18 (m, 1H).

[0161] MS (ES/+): m/z=208 [MH]+.


intermediate 9

[0220] Intermediate 9

[0221] 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidin-4-one Mandelic Acid.

[0222] A solution of L-(+)-mandelic acid (22.6 g) in AcOEt (308 mL) was added to a solution of intermediate 2 (31 g) in AcOEt (308 mL). Then isopropanol (616 mL) was added and the solution was concentrated in vacuo to 274 mL. The solution was then cooled to 0° C. and further cold isopropanol (96 mL) was added. The thick precipitate was stirred under nitrogen for 5 hours at 0° C., then filtered and washed with cold Et2O (250 mL) to give the title compound as a pale yellow solid (20.3 g).

[0223] M.p.: 82-85° C.

[0224] NMR (d6-DMSO): δ (ppm) 7.51 (dd, 1H); 7.40 (m, 2H); 7.32 (m, 2H); 7.26 (m, 1H); 7.0 (m, 2H); 4.95 (s, 1H); 4.04 (dd, 1H); 3.31 (m, 1H); 2.88 (m, 1H); 2.49-2.2 (m, 4H); 2.29 (s, 3H).

[0225] Chiral HPLC: HP 1100 HPLC system; column Chiralcel OD-H, 25 cm×4.6 mm; mobile phase: n-hexane/isopropanol 95:5+1% diethylamine; flow: 1.3 ml/min; detection: 240/215 nm; retention time 12.07 minutes.






Org. Process Res. Dev., 2010, 14 (6), pp 1337–1346
DOI: 10.1021/op100150b


Abstract Image

1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6): 9.57 (br s, 1H), 7.99 (br s, 1H), 7.68 (br s, 2H), 7.23 (m, 1H), 6.95 (dd, 1H), 6.82 (m, 1H), 5.31 (q, 1H), 4.45 (m, 1H), 4.20 (dd, 1H), 3.99 (m, 1H), 3.56 (m, 1H), 3.47 (m, 3H), 3.37 (m, 1H), 3.15 (m, 1H), 2.96 (m, 1H), 2.87 (m, 1H), 2.80 (t, 1H), 2.74 (s, 3H), 2.36 (s, 3H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 2.13 (m, 1H), 2.08 (m, 1H), 2.10 (s, 3H), 1.87 (m, 1H), 1.73 (m, 1H), 1.46 (d, 3H), MS: m/z 617 [MH]+, as free base.





Org. Process Res. Dev., 2010, 14 (6), pp 1407–1419
DOI: 10.1021/op100209c

(2R,4S)-4-(4-Acetyl-1-piperazinyl)-N-{(1R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-2-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-N-methyl-1-piperidinecarboxamide Methanesulfonate Salt (Casopitant Mesylate 1)

A solution of casopitant 2 (0.86 wt) was diluted with EtOAc (overall solution of 2 in EtOAc was 4 L) and acetone (4.5 L) and was heated to the required temperature (from 39 °C). Thereafter, neat methanesulfonic acid (0.12 L, 1.64 mol) was charged, followed by a slurry of 2 (0.005 kg) in EtOAc (0.05 L) as seed. The obtained suspension was stirred for 1 h followed by the addition of 3 L of isooctane in the required time (1 h). The slurry was cooled to 20 °C in 2 h and aged 3 h. The suspension was filtered and the solid washed with EtOAc (3 × 4 L). The white solid was dried overnight under vacuum at 40 °C to give the desired casopitant mesylate 1 (0.94 kg).
1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 9.57 (br s, 1H), 7.99 (br s, 1H), 7.68 (br s, 2H), 7.23 (m, 1H), 6.95 (dd, 1H), 6.82 (m, 1H), 5.31 (q, 1H), 4.45 (m, 1H), 4.20 (dd, 1H), 3.99 (m, 1H), 3.56 (m, 1H), 3.47 (m, 3H), 3.37 (m, 1H), 3.15 (m, 1H), 2.96 (m, 1H), 2.87 (m, 1H), 2.80 (t, 1H), 2.74 (s, 3H), 2.36 (s, 3H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 2.13 (m, 1H), 2.08 (m, 1H), 2.10 (s, 3H), 1.87 (m, 1H), 1.73 (m, 1H), 1.46 (d, 3H). MS: m/z 617 [MH]+, as free base.
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2010, 14 (4), pp 805–814
DOI: 10.1021/op1000622
(2R,4S)-4-(4-Acetyl-1-piperazinyl)-N-{(1R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-2-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-N-methyl-1-piperidinecarboxamide (Casopitant 2)

HCOOH (0.49 L, 13 mol) was added to a cooled suspension of NaBH(OAc)3 (0.82 kg, 3.87 mol) in CH3CN (4 L), keeping the internal temperature between 10−15 °C; then the lines were washed with more CH3CN (1 L), and the mixture was stirred for 40 min.
1-Acetylpiperazine (0.7 kg, 5.46 mol) was added neat over the solution of piperidone-urea 3, and the mixture was diluted with CH3CN (3 L). The resulting mixture was added over the previous suspension; fresh CH3CN (4 L) was used to wash the line. The reaction mixture was stirred at 15 °C for 12 h. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure to 4 L.
The resulting suspension was diluted with fresh EtOAc (4 L), and then washed with ammonia [21% w/w solution (4 L, 11.25 M in NH3)], Na2CO3 [15% w/w solution (4 L)]. More EtOAc (4 L) was added, and the organic layer was washed with water (4 L). The organic phase was then concentrated to 2.5 L; again fresh EtOAc (4 L) was added, and the solution was concentrated to 2.5 L to give a solution of casopitant 2.
1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.99 (s, 1H), 7.68 (s, 2H), 7.18 (dd, 1H), 6.90 (dd, 1H), 6.76 (td, 1H), 5.33 (q, 1H), 4.14 (dd, 1H), 3.38 (m, 5H), 2.71 (s, 3H), 2.72 (m, 1H), 2.54 (m, 1H), 2.47 (m, 2H), 2.41 (m, 2H), 2.34 (s, 3H), 1.95 (s, 3H), 1.85 (m, 1H), 1.77 (m, 1H), 1.62 (dq, 1H), 1.47 (d, 3H), 1.40 (q, 1H).
Abstract Image

 picture    animation



J. Med. Chem., 2011, 54 (4), pp 1071–1079
DOI: 10.1021/jm1013264


(2R,4S)-1′-acetyl-N-{(1R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-2-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-N-methyl-4,4′-bipiperidine-1-carboxamide methanesulfonate salt 16a (casopitant)

nmr mesylate

1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6): 9.57 (bs, 1H), 7.99 (bs, 1H), 7.68 (bs, 2H), 7.23 (m, 1H), 6.95 (dd, 1H), 6.82 (m, 1H), 5.31 (q, 1H), 4.45 (m, 1H), 4.20 (dd, 1H), 3.99 (m, 1H), 3.56 (m, 1H), 3.47 (m, 3H), 3.37 (m, 1H), 3.15 (m, 1H), 2.96 (m, 1H), 2.87 (m, 1H), 2.80 (t, 1H), 2.74 (s, 3H), 2.36 (s, 3H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 2.13 (m, 1H), 2.08 (m, 1H), 2.10 (s, 3H), 1.87 (m, 1H), 1.73 (m, 1H), 1.46 (d, 3H). MS: m/z 617 [MH]+, as free base.

syn of intermediates


a(a) (i) 2-Bromo-5-fluorotoluene, Mg, THF, 60−70 °C; (ii) 4-methoxypyridine, benzyl chloroformate, THF, −20 °C, then Grignard’s reagent, −20 °C, 1 h; (b) (i) tris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium(I) chloride, 2-propanol, H2 (p = 5 atm), 60 °C, 5 h; (ii) Pd/C 5%, H2 (p = 4 atm), 20 °C, 5 h; (iii) (R,S)-10-camphorsulfonic acid, toluene; (c) CH2Cl2, H2O, 8% NaHCO3 (aq); l-(+)-mandelic acid, 2-propanol, heptanes; (d) MeNH2, EtOH, NaBH4, 25 °C, 1.5 h; (e) (i) ethyl acetate, NaHCO3 (aq. sat. soln), 5; (ii) triphosgene, triethylamine, ethyl acetate, then 5, 20 °C, 2 h; (f) R′RNH, CH3CN, NaBH(OAc)3, room temp, 24 h.





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(2S, 4R) -1 – [(2S)-2-tert-butyl-4-oxo-4-(piperidin-1-yl) butanoyl]-N-{(1R, 2S) -1 – [(cyclopropanesulfonyl) carbamoyl]-2-ethenylcyclopropyl} -4 – [(7-methoxy-2-phenylquinolin-4-yl) oxy] pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide



US 2009048297 ENTRY 60

WO 2008008502

CN 103420991


THERAPEUTIC CLAIM ….Treatment of hepatitis C


1. 2-Pyrrolidinecarboxamide, N-[(1R,2S)-1-[[(cyclopropylsulfonyl)amino]carbonyl]-2-
[(7-methoxy-2-phenyl-4-quinolinyl)oxy]-, (2S,4R)-

2. (2S,4R)-N-{(1R,2S)-1-[(cyclopropylsulfonyl)carbamoyl]-2-ethenylcyclopropyl}-1-{(2S)-



SPONSOR Achillion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.



  • ACH-0141625
  • Sovaprevir

Sovaprevir (formerly ACH-0141625), an HCV NS3 protease inhibitor, is in phase II clinical trials at Achillion for the oral treatment of naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1.

In 2012, fast track designation was assigned by the FDA for the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV). In 2013, a clinical hold was placed for the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) in combination with atazanavir after elevations in liver enzymes associated with the combination of both compounds.

Sovaprevir, previously referred to as ACH-1625, is an investigational, next-generation NS3/4A protease inhibitor discovered by Achillion that is currently on clinical hold. In 2012, Fast Track status was granted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to sovaprevir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C viral infection (HCV).

Achillion has initiated a Phase 2 clinical trial (007 Study) to evaluate the all-oral, interferon-free combination of sovaprevir and its second-generation NS5A inhibitor, ACH-3102, with ribavirin (RBV), for a 12 week treatment duration, in treatment naïve, genotype 1 (GT1) HCV patients. In July 2013, sovaprevir was placed on clinical hold after elevated liver enzymes were observed in a Phase 1 healthy subject drug-drug interaction study evaluating the effects of concomitant administration of sovaprevir with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir.

In accordance with the clinical hold, the FDA provided that no new clinical trials that included dosing with sovaprevir could be initiated, however, the FDA allowed continued enrollment and treatment of patients in the Phase 2 -007 clinical trial evaluating 12-weeks of sovaprevir in combination with ACH-3102 and RBV for patients with treatment-naive genotype 1 HCV. In September 2013, after reviewing Achillion’s response, the FDA stated that although all issues identified in the June 2013 letter had been addressed, it had concluded that the removal of the clinical hold was not warranted at this time.

The FDA requested, among other things, additional analysis to more fully characterize sovaprevir pharmacokinetics and the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that may lead to higher than anticipated exposures of sovaprevir or other potential toxicities in addition to the observed liver enzyme elevations.

The FDA also requested Achillion’s proposed plan for future clinical trials in combination with other directly-acting antivirals. At the request of the FDA, Achillion plans to submit a proposed plan for analyzing the additional clinical, non-clinical and pharmacokinetic data requested before the end of 2013, and if that analysis plan is approved by the FDA, submit a complete response during the first half of 2014. Achillion retains worldwide commercial rights to sovaprevir.


Sovaprevir has demonstrated activity against all HCV genotypes (GT), including equipotent activity against both GT 1a and 1b (IC50 ~ 1nM) in vitro.


With its rapid and extensive partitioning to the liver, as well as high liver/plasma ratios, sovaprevir has been clinically demonstrated to allow for once-daily, non-boosted dosing.

The current safety database for sovaprevir includes more than 560 subjects dosed to date and demonstrates that sovaprevir is well tolerated in these subjects.

Sovaprevir has demonstrated high rates of clinical cures in combination with pegylated-interferon and RBV in a challenging, real world, patient population of genotype 1 treatment-naive patients.

100% of GT1b subjects achieved a rapid virologic response (RVR) in the 007 Study evaluating the interferon-free combination of sovaprevir + ACH-3102 + RBV for 12 weeks. The Phase 2 study is ongoing.


Sovaprevir in vitro retains activity against mutations that confer resistance to 1st-generation protease inhibitors.

In clinical studies to date, sovaprevir has demonstrated a high pharmacologic barrier to resistance with no on-treatment viral breakthrough reported to date in GT1b patients.


Sovaprevir is believed to be synergistic when combined with other classes of DAAs, including the second-generation NS5A inhibitor, ACH-3102.

For more information about the next-generation NS3/4A protease inhibitor, sovaprevir, please see the Related Links on this page or visit Resources.

Sovaprevir is an investigational compound. Its safety and efficacy have not been established. (Updated December 2013)



An estimated 3% of the world’s population is infected with the hepatitis C virus. Of those exposed to HCV, 80% become chronically infected, at least 30% develop cirrhosis of the liver and 1-4% develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is one of the most prevalent causes of chronic liver disease in the United States, reportedly accounting for about 15 percent of acute viral hepatitis, 60 to 70 percent of chronic hepatitis, and up to 50 percent of cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer. Chronic HCV infection is the most common cause of liver transplantation in the U.S., Australia, and most of Europe. Hepatitis C causes an estimated 10,000 to 12,000 deaths annually in the United States. While the acute phase of HCV infection is usually associated with mild symptoms, some evidence suggests that only about 15% to 20% of infected people will clear HCV.

HCV is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that contains a positive-stranded genome of about 9.6 kb. HCV is classified as a member of the Hepacivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. At least 4 strains of HCV, GT-1-GT-4, have been characterized.

The HCV lifecycle includes entry into host cells; translation of the HCV genome, polyprotein processing, and replicase complex assembly; RNA replication, and virion assembly and release. Translation of the HCV RNA genome yields a more than 3000 amino acid long polyprotein that is processed by at least two cellular and two viral proteases. The HCV polyprotein is:


The cellular signal peptidase and signal peptide peptidase have been reported to be responsible for cleavage of the N-terminal third of the polyprotein (C-E1-E2-p7) from the nonstructural proteins (NS2-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5A-NS5B). The NS2-NS3 protease mediates a first cis cleavage at the NS2-NS3 site. The NS3-NS4A protease then mediates a second cis-cleavage at the NS3-NS4A junction. The NS3-NS4A complex then cleaves at three downstream sites to separate the remaining nonstructural proteins. Accurate processing of the polyprotein is asserted to be essential for forming an active HCV replicase complex.

Once the polyprotein has been cleaved, the replicase complex comprising at least the NS3-NS5B nonstructural proteins assembles. The replicase complex is cytoplasmic and membrane-associated. Major enzymatic activities in the replicase complex include serine protease activity and NTPase helicase activity in NS3, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of NS5B. In the RNA replication process, a complementary negative strand copy of the genomic RNA is produced. The negative strand copy is used as a template to synthesize additional positive strand genomic RNAs that may participate in translation, replication, packaging, or any combination thereof to produce progeny virus. Assembly of a functional replicase complex has been described as a component of the HCV replication mechanism. Provisional application 60/669,872 “Pharmaceutical Compositions and Methods of Inhibiting HCV Replication” filed Apr. 11, 2005, is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety for its disclosure related to assembly of the replicase complex.

Current treatment of hepatitis C infection typically includes administration of an interferon, such as pegylated interferon (IFN), in combination with ribavirin. The success of current therapies as measured by sustained virologic response (SVR) depends on the strain of HCV with which the patient is infected and the patient’s adherence to the treatment regimen. Only 50% of patients infected with HCV strain GT-1 exhibit a sustained virological response. Direct acting antiviral agents such as ACH-806, VX-950 and NM 283 (prodrug of NM 107) are in clinical development for treatment of chronic HCV. Due to lack of effective therapies for treatment for certain HCV strains and the high mutation rate of HCV, new therapies are needed.







Figure US20090048297A1-20090219-C00105






Example 1


Step 1. Preparation of N-(cyclopropylsulfonyl)-1-(BOC-amino)-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxamide


Figure US20090048297A1-20090219-C00047


CDI (2.98 g, 18.4 mm, 1.1 eq) is dissolved in ethyl acetate. N-Boc-cyclopropylvinyl acid (3.8 g, 16.7 mm, 1.0 eq), prepared via the procedure given by Beaulieu, P. L. et al. (J. Org. Chem. 70: 5869-79 (2005)) is added to the CDI/ethyl acetate mixture and stirred at RT until the starting material is consumed. Cyclopropyl sulfonamine (2.2 g, 18.4 mm, 1.1 eq) is added to this mixture followed by DBU (2.1 ml, 20.5 mm, 1.23 eq) and the mixture is stirred at RT for 2 h. Workup and purification by silica gel chromatography provides 2g of compound 2.

Step 2. Preparation of (2S,4R)-tert-butyl 2-(1-(cyclopropylsulfonylcarbamoyl)-2-vinylcyclopropylcarbamoyl)-4-(7-methoxy-2-phenylquinolin-4-yloxy)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate and (2S,4R)—N-(1-(cyclopropylsulfonylcarbamoyl)-2-vinylcyclopropyl)-4-(7-methoxy-2-phenylquinolin-4-yloxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide


Figure US20090048297A1-20090219-C00048


Compound 1 (4.3 g, 9.3 mmol, 1.1 eq), prepared according to the method given ins WO 02/060926, in DMF is stirred with O-(Benzotriazol-lyl)-N,N,N′,N′-Tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (4.1 g, 10.5 mmol, 1.3 eq) for 30 minutes, followed by addition of cyclopropylamine 2 (1.92 g, 8.3 mmol, 1.0 eq) and N-methylmorpholine (2.52 g, 25.0 mmol, 3.0 eq). The mixture is stirred over night and the solvent removed under reduced pressure. The resulting residue is diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3. The organic solvent is dried over MgSOand concentrated under reduced pressure to afford crude 3, which is used for next step without further purification.

Compound 3 in 10 ml dry CH2Clis treated with 5 mL TFA and stirred over night. The solvent is removed and the residue recrystallized from ethyl acetate to afford 4.12 g Compound 4 (61% yield two steps).

Step 3. Preparation of (3S)-3-((2S,4R)-2-(1-(cyclopropylsulfonylcarbamoyl)-2-vinylcyclopropylcarbamoyl)-4-(7-methoxy-2-phenylquinolin-4-yloxy)pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-4,4-dimethylpentanoic acid


Figure US20090048297A1-20090219-C00049


The Acid 5 (58 mg, 0.25 mmol, 1.2 eq), prepared via the procedure given by Evans, D. A., et al. (J. Org. Chem. 64: 6411-6417 (1999)) in 1.2 mL DMF is stirred with 4 (138 mg, 0.21 mmol), HATU (160 mg, 0.42 mmol, 2.0 eq), and DIEA (0.63 mmol, 3.0 eq) overnight. The mixture is subjected to HPLC purification to afford 121 mg 6 (77% yield), which is further treated with 0.5 mL TFA in 1.0 mL DCM overnight. The solvent was removed to provide Compound 7 in 100% yield.

Step 4. Preparation of (2S,4R)-1-((S)-2-tert-butyl-4-oxo-4-(piperidin-1-yl)butanoyl)-N-(1-(cyclopropylsulfonylcarbamoyl)-2-vinylcyclopropyl)-4-(7-methoxy-2-phenylquinolin-4-yloxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide


Figure US20090048297A1-20090219-C00050


The Acid 7 (0.15 mmol) in 1.0 mL DMF is stirred with pepridine (excess, 0.6 mmol, 4 eq), HATU (115 mg, 0.3 mmol, 2.0 eq), and DIEA (0.45 mmol, 3.0 eq) for 4 hrs. The mixture is subjected to HPLC purification to afford 77.1 mg 8.

Step 5. Preparation of (3S)-3-((2S,4R)-2-(1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-2-vinylcyclopropylcarbamoyl)-4-(7-methoxy-2-phenylquinolin-4-yloxy)pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-4,4-dimethylpentanoic acid


Figure US20090048297A1-20090219-C00051


Step 5. Preparation of (3S)-3-((2S,4R)-2-(1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-2-vinylcyclopropylcarbamoyl)-4-(7-methoxy-2-phenylquinolin-4-yloxy)pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-4,4-dimethylpentanoic acid

The Acid 5 (105 mg, 0.46 mmol, 1.2 eq) in 1.2 mL DMF is stirred with 9 (202 mg, 0.38 mmol), HATU (290 mg, 0.76 mmol, 2.0 eq), and DIEA (1.2 mmol, 3.0 eq) overnight. The mixture is subjected to HPLC purification to afford 204.3 mg 10 (75% yield), which is further treated with 0.5 mL TFA in 1.0 mL DCM overnight. The solvent is removed to provide 11 in 100% yield.


Figure US20090048297A1-20090219-C00052


Step 6. Preparation of Final Product

The Acid 11 (30 mg, 0.045 mmol) in 1.0 mL DMF is stirred with pepridine (0.27 mmol, 6 eq), HATU (34 mg, 0.09 mmol, 2.0 eq), and DIEA (0.14 mmol, 3.0 eq) for 2 hrs. The mixture is subjected to HPLC purification to afford 21.2 mg 12 (65% yield), which is hydrolyzed in methanol with 2N NaOH for 6 hrs. The mixture is acidified with 6N HCl and subjected to HPLC purification to afford 7.6 mg 13.



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Dec 242013



630420-16-5 CAS


THERAPEUTIC CLAIM Treatment of hepatitis C
1. Cyclopropanecarboxamide, N-[(1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]-3-methyl-L-valyl-(4R)-4-[(7-chloro-4-methoxy-1-isoquinolinyl)oxy]-L-prolyl-1-amino-N-(cyclopropylsulfonyl)-2-ethenyl-, (1R,2S)-
2. 1,1-dimethylethyl [(1S)-1-{[(2S,4R)-4-(7-chloro-4methoxyisoquinolin-1-yloxy)-2-({(1R,2S)-1-[(cyclopropylsulfonyl)carbamoyl]-2-ethenylcyclopropyl}carbamoyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl]carbonyl}-2,2-dimethylpropyl]carbamate


SPONSOR Bristol-Myers Squibb

ChemSpider 2D Image | asunaprevir | C35H46ClN5O9S


Asunaprevir (formerly BMS-650032) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of hepatitis C. It is undergoing development by Bristol-Myers Squibb and is currently inPhase III clinical trials.[1]

In 2013, the company Bristol-Myers Squibb received breakthrough therapy designation in the U.S. for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in combination with daclatasvir and BMS-791325.

Asunaprevir is an inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus enzyme serine protease NS3.[2]

Asunaprevir is being tested in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, as well as in interferon-free regimens with other direct-acting antiviral agents includingdaclatasvir[3][4][5]

Asunaprevir is an antiviral agent originated by Bristol-Myers Squibb undergoing the registration in Japan for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in combination with daclatasvir in patients who are non-responsive to interferon plus ribavirin and interferon based therapy ineligible naive/intolerant


  1. “A Phase 3 Study in Combination With BMS-790052 and BMS-650032 in Japanese Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Patients”ClinicalTrials.gov.
  2. C. Reviriego (2012). Drugs of the Future 37 (4): 247–254.doi:10.1358/dof.2012.37.4.1789350.
  3.  Preliminary Study of Two Antiviral Agents for Hepatitis C Genotype 1. Lok, A et al. New England Journal of Medicine. 366(3):216-224. January 19, 2012.
  4.  “Bristol-Myers’ Daclatasvir, Asunaprevir Cured 77%: Study”Bloomberg. Apr 19, 2012.
  5. AASLD: Daclatasvir plus Asunaprevir Rapidly Suppresses HCV in Prior Null Responders. Highleyman, L. HIVandHepatitis.com. 8 November 2011.
  6. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2011 ,  vol. 21,   7  pg. 2048 – 2054


WO 2003099274, WO 2003099274, WO 2009085659


Crystalline forms of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-3-methyl-L-valyl-(4R)-4-((7-chloro-4-methoxy-1-isoquinolinyl)oxy)-N- ((1R,2S)-1-((cyclopropylsulfonyl)carbamoyl)-2-vinylcyclopropyl)-L-prolinamide
Hepatitis C Virus Inhibitors
Hepatitis C virus inhibitors
Hepatitis C virus inhibitors


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen, infecting an estimated 170 million persons worldwide—roughly five times the number infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. A substantial fraction of these HCV infected individuals develop serious progressive liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Presently, the most effective HCV therapy employs a combination of alpha-interferon and ribavirin, leading to sustained efficacy in 40 percent of patients. Recent clinical results demonstrate that pegylated alpha-interferon is superior to unmodified alpha-interferon as monotherapy. However, even with experimental therapeutic regimens involving combinations of pegylated alpha-interferon and ribavirin, a substantial fraction of patients do not have a sustained reduction in viral load. Thus, there is a clear and unmet need to develop effective therapeutics for treatment of HCV infection.

Figure US08338606-20121225-C00018
Figure US08338606-20121225-C00019



Compound 277

Compound 277 was prepared by following Scheme 2 of Example 269 except that 3- (4-chloro-phenyl)-3-methoxy-acrylic acid was used in place of 2- trifluormethoxycinnamic acid in step 1.

Step 1:

Modifications: 4.24 g 3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-methoxy-acrylic acid used, 130 mg product obtained (3% yield) Product:

Figure imgf000383_0002

Data: 1H NMR(400 MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 3.96 (s, 3 H), 7.19 (dd, 7=8.80, 2.45 Hz, 1 H), 7.28 (d, 7=2.45 Hz, 1 H), 7.34 (s, 1 H), 8.25 (d, 7=9.05 Hz, 1 H); MS: (M+H)+ 210.

Step 2:

Modifications: 105 mg 7-chloro-4-methoxy-2H-isoquinolin-l-one used, 60 mg product obtained (71% yield). Product:

Figure imgf000384_0001

Data: Η NMR (400 Hz, CDC13) δ ppm 4.05 (s, 3 H), 7.67 (dd, 7=8.80, 1.96 Hz, 1 H), 7.80 (s, 1 H), 8.16 (d, 7=9.05 Hz, 1 H), 8.24 (d, 7=1.96 Hz, 1 H); MS: (M+H)+ 229.

Step 3:

Modifications: 46 mg l,7-dichloro-4-methoxy-isoquinoline and 113 mg { l-[2-(l- cyclopropanesulfonylaminocarbonyl-2-vinyl-cyclopropylcarbamoyl)-4-hydroxy- pyrrolidine-1 -carbon yl]-2,2-dimethyl-propyl} -carbamic acid tert-butyl ester used, 50 mg product obtained (31% yield). Product:

Figure imgf000384_0002

Compound 277

Data: 1H NMR (400 Hz, CD3OD) δ ppm 1.06 (m, 11 H), 1.16 (s, 9 H), 1.24 (m, 2 H), 1.44 (dd, 7=9.54, 5.38 Hz, 1 H), 1.88 (dd, 7=8.07, 5.62 Hz, 1 H), 2.28 (m, 2 H), 2.59 (dd, 7=13.69, 6.85 Hz, 1 H), 2.94 (m, 1 H), 4.00 (s, 3 H), 4.05 (d, 7=11.74 Hz, 1 H), 4.19 (s, 1 H), 4.43 (d, 7=11.49 Hz, 1 H), 4.56 (dd, 7=10.03, 6.85 Hz, 1 H), 5.12 (d, 7=11.49 Hz, 1 H), 5.30 (d, 7=17.12 Hz, 1 H), 5.76 (m, 2 H), 7.57 (s, 1 H), 7.67 (d, 7=8.56 Hz, 1 H), 8.04 (s, 1 H), 8.08 (d, 7=8.80 Hz, 1 H); MS: (M+H)+ 749.






Figure US06995174-20060207-C00021



Figure US06995174-20060207-C00022



WO 2003099274

Figure US06995174-20060207-C00038







Figure US20090202476A1-20090813-C00018


Figure US20090202476A1-20090813-C00019


Preparation of Compound C

DMSO (264 ml) was added to a mixture of Compound A (6 g, 26.31 mmol, 1.0 eq, 96.5% potency), Compound B (6.696 g, 28.96 mmol, 1.1 eq) and KOtBu (8.856 g, 78.92 mmol, 3 eq) under nitrogen and stirred at 36° C. for 1 h. After cooling the dark solution to 16° C., it was treated with water (66 ml) and EtOAc (132 ml). The resulting biphasic mixture was acidified to pH 4.82 with 1N HCl (54 ml) at 11.2-14.6° C. The phases were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted once with EtOAc (132 ml). The organic phases were combined and washed with 25% brine (2×132 ml). Rich organic phase (228 ml) was distilled at 30-40° C./50 mbar to 37.2 ml. A fresh EtOAc (37.2 ml) was added and distilled out to 37.2 ml at 30-35° C./50 nm bar. After heating the final EtOAc solution (37.2 ml) to 50° C., heptane ((37.2 ml) was added at 46-51° C. and cooled to 22.5° C. over 2 h. It was seeded with 49 mg of Compound C and held at 23° C. for 15 min to develop a thin slurry. It was cooled to 0.5° C. in 30 min and kept at 0.2-0.5° C. for 3 h. After the filtration, the cake was washed with heptane (16.7 ml) and dried at 47° C./80 mm/15.5 h to give Compound C as beige colored solids (6.3717 g, 58.9% corrected yield, 99.2% potency, 97.4 AP).

Preparation of Compound E

DIPEA (2.15 ml, 12.3 mmol, 1.3 eq followed by EDAC (2 g, 10.4 mmol, 1.1 eq) were added to a mixture of Compound C (4 g, 9.46 mmol, 97.4% potency, 98.5 AP), Compound D (4.568 g, 11.35 mmol, 1.20 eq), HOBT-H2O (0.86 g, 4.18 mmol, 0.44 eq) in CH2Cl2 (40 ml) at 23-25° C. under nitrogen. The reaction was complete after 3 h at 23-25° C. It was then washed with 1N HCl (12 ml), water (12 ml) and 25% brine (12 ml). MeOH (80 ml) was added to the rich organic solution at 25° C., which was distilled at atmospheric pressure to ˜60 ml to initiate the crystallization of the product. The crystal slurry was then cooled from 64° C. to 60° C. in 5 min and stirred at 60° C. for 1 h. It was further cooled to 24° C. over 1.5 h and held at 24° C. for 2 h. After the filtration, the cake was washed with MeOH (12 ml) and dried at 51° C./20-40 nm i/18 h to give Compound E (5.33 g, 89% yield, 97.7% potency, 99.1 AP).

Preparation of Compound F

5-6N HCl in IPA (10.08 ml, 50.5 mmol, Normality: 5N) was added in four portions in 1 h to a solution of Compound E (8 g, 12.6 mmol, 97.7% potency, 99.1 AP) in IPA (120 ml) at 75° C. After stirring for 1 h at 75° C., the resulting slurry was cooled to 21° C. in 2 h and stirred at 21° C. for 2 h. It was filtered and the cake was washed with IPA (2×24 ml). The wet cake was dried at 45° C./House vacuum/16 h to give Compound F as an off-white solid (6.03 g, 84.5% yield, 98.5% potency, 100 AP).

Preparation of Compound (I)

DIPEA (9.824 ml) followed by HATU (7.99 g) were added to a stirred mixture of Compound F (10 g, 99.2% potency, 99.6 AP) and Compound G (4.41 g) in CH2Cl2 (100 ml) at 2.7-5° C. under nitrogen. The resulting light brown solution was stirred at 0.2-3° C. for 1.5 h, at 3-20° C. in 0.5 h and at 20-23° C. for 15.5 h for a reaction completion. It was quenched with 2N HCl (50 ml) at 23° C. and stirred for 20 min at 23-24° C. The biphasic mixture was polish filtered through diatomaceous earth (Celite®) (10 g) to remove insoluble solids of HOAT and HATU. The filter cake was washed with 20 ml of CH2Cl2. After separating the organic phase from the filtrates, it was washed with 2N HCl (5×50 ml) and water (2×50 ml). The organic phase (115 ml) was concentrated to ˜50 ml, which was diluted with absolute EtOH (200 proof, 100 ml) and concentrated again to ˜50 ml. Absolute EtOH (50 ml) was added to bring the final volume to 100 ml. It was then warmed to 50° C. to form a clear solution and held at 50° C. for 35 min. The ethanolic solution was cooled from 50 to 23° C. over 15 min to form the crystal slurry. The slurry was stirred at 23 CC for 18 h, cooled to 0.3° C. over 30 min and kept at 0.2-0.3° C. for 2 h. After the filtration, the cake was washed with cold EtOH (2.7° C., 2×6 ml) and dried at 53° C./72 mm/67 h to give Compound (I) in Form T1F-1/2 as an off white solid (10.49 g, 80.7% yield, 99.6 AP).https://www.google.co.in/patents/US20090202476?dq=WO+2009085659&ei=dzy5UpL_LMXXrQewxYG4Dw&cl=en


extra info

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the principal cause of chronic liver disease that can lead to cirrhosis, carcinoma and liver failure.1 More than 200 million people worldwide are chronically infected by this virus. Currently, the most effective treatment for HCV infection is based on a combination therapy of injectable pegylated interferon-α (PEG IFN-α) and antiviral drug ribavirin. This treatment, indirectly targeting the virus, is associated with significant side effects often leading to treatment discontinuation in certain patient populations.2 In addition, this treatment regimen cures only less than 50% of patients infected with genotype-1 which is the predominant genotype (while genotype 1a is most abundant in the US, the majority of sequences in Europe and Japan are from genotype 1b).3 Limited efficacy and adverse side effects of current treatment, and high prevalence of infection worldwide highlight an urgent need for more effective, convenient, and well-tolerated treatments.4

HCV NS3 serine protease plays a critical role in the HCV replication by cleaving downstream sites (with the assistance of the cofactor NS4A) along the HCV viral polyprotein to produce functional proteins. Recently, NS3/4A protease inhibitors have emerged as a promising treatment for HCV infection.5 There are two distinct classes of NS3 protease inhibitors in clinical development. The first class is comprised of serine-trap inhibitors, exemplified by VX-950 (telaprevir)6 and SCH-503034 (boceprevir).7 The second class is represented by reversible noncovalent inhibitors such as macrocyclic inhibitors BILN-2061 (ciluprevir),8 ITMN-191 (danoprevir),9 TMC-43535010 and MK-7009 (vaniprevir).11 Due to concern over cardiac issues in animals treated with macrocyclic BILN-2061,12 newer acyclic inhibitors have recently been developed exemplified by BI-20133513 and BMS-650032.14 However, a rapid development of viral resistance has been observed for patients treated with HCV NS3 protease inhibitors.15 Therefore, the discovery of new NS3 protease inhibitors with novel binding paradigm and thus potentially differentiated resistance profile is highly desirable.

References and notes

    • F. Zoulim, M. Chevallier, M. Maynard, C. Trepo
    • Rev. Med. Virol., 13 (2003), p. 57
    • M.W. Fried
    • Hepatology, 36 (2002), p. S237
    • B.L. Pearlman
    • Am. J. Med., 117 (2004), p. 344
    • (a) R. Flisiak, A. Parfieniuk
    • For a recent review on HCV anti-viral agents, see: Expert Opin. Invest. Drugs, 19 (2010), p. 63
    • (b) A.D. Kwong, L. McNair, I. Jacobson, S. George
    • Curr. Opin. Pharmacol., 8 (2008), p. 522
    • (a) K.X. Chen, F.G. Njoroge
    • For a recent review on HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors, see: Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs, 10 (2009), p. 821
    • (b) M. Reiser, J. Timm
    • Expert Rev. Anti. Infect. Ther., 7 (2009), p. 537
    • C. Lin, A.D. Kwong, R.B. Perni
    • Infect. Disord. Drug Targets, 6 (2006), p. 3
    • F.G. Njoroge, K.X. Chen, N.Y. Shih, J.J. Piwinski
    • Acc. Chem. Res., 41 (2008), p. 50
    • M. Llinàs-Brunet, M.D. Bailey, G. Bolger, C. Brochu, A.M. Faucher, J.M. Ferland, M. Garneau, E. Ghiro, V. Gorys, C. Grand-Maître, T. Halmos, N. Lapeyre-Paquette, F. Liard, M. Poirier, M. Rhéaume, Y.S. Tsantrizos, D. Lamarre
    • J. Med. Chem., 47 (2004), p. 1605
    • S.D. Seiwert, S.W. Andrews, Y. Jiang, V. Serebryany, H. Tan, K. Kossen, P.T. Rajagopalan, S. Misialek, S.K. Stevens, A. Stoycheva, J. Hong, S.R. Lim, X. Qin, R. Rieger, K.R. Condroski, H. Zhang, M.G. Do, C. Lemieux, G.P. Hingorani, D.P. Hartley, J.A. Josey, L. Pan, L. Beigelman, L.M. Blatt
    • Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 52 (2008), p. 4432
    • P. Raboisson, H. de Kock, A. Rosenquist, M. Nilsson, L. Salvador-Oden, T.I. Lin, N. Roue, V. Ivanov, H. Wähling, K. Wickström, E. Hamelink, M. Edlund, L. Vrang, S. Vendeville, W. Van de Vreken, D. McGowan, A. Tahri, L. Hu, C. Boutton, O. Lenz, F. Delouvroy, G. Pille, D. Surleraux, P. Wigerinck, B. Samuelsson, K. Simmen
    • Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 18 (2008), p. 4853
    • J.A. McCauley, C.J. McIntyre, M.T. Rudd, K.T. Nguyen, J.J. Romano, J.W. Butcher, K.F. Gilbert, K.J. Bush, M.K. Holloway, J. Swestock, B.L. Wan, S.S. Carroll, J.M. Dimuzio, D.J. Graham, S.W. Ludmerer, S.S. Mao, M.W. Stahlhut, C.M. Fandozzi, N. Trainor, D.B. Olsen, J.P. Vacca, N.J. Liverton
    • J. Med. Chem., 53 (2010), p. 2443
    • H. Hinrichsen, Y. Benhamou, H. Wedemeyer, M. Reiser, R.E. Sentjens, J.L. Calleja, X. Forns, A. Erhardt, J. Crönlein, R.L. Chaves, C.L. Yong, G. Nehmiz, G.G. Steinmann
    • Gastroenterology, 127 (2004), p. 1347
    • M. Llinàs-Brunet, M.D. Bailey, N. Goudreau, P.K. Bhardwaj, J. Bordeleau, M. Bös, Y. Bousquet, M.G. Cordingley, J. Duan, P. Forgione, M. Garneau, E. Ghiro, V. Gorys, S. Goulet, T. Halmos, S.H. Kawai, J. Naud, M.A. Poupart, P.W. White
    • J. Med. Chem., 53 (2010), p. 6466
    • (a)Chemical and Engineering News (April 12, 2010 issue), 88, pp 30–33.
    • (b)Perrone, R.K.; Wang, C.; Ying, W.; Song, A.I. WO 2009085659
    • L. Rong, H. Dahari, R.M. Ribeiro, A.S. Perelson
    • Sci. Transl. Med., 2 (2010), p. 30ra32


Dec 102013



M.Wt: 529.45

Formula: C22H29FN3O9P

Isopropyl (2S)-2-[[[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-dioxopyrimidin-1-yl)-4-fluoro-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxy-phenoxy-phosphoryl]amino]propanoate

A prodrug of 2′-deoxy-2′-alpha-F-2′-beta-C-methyluridine 5′-monophosphate.
GS-7977, PSI-7977

  • GS 7977
  • GS-7977
  • PSI 7977
  • PSI-7977
  • Sofosbuvir
  • Sovaldi

CAS Registry Number :1190307 -88-0


Indications: Chronic hepatitis C (HCV GT1, GT2, GT3, GT4)
Mechanism: nucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor
approved Time: December 6, 2013
,U.S. Patent Number: 7964580,8415322,8334270,7429572;, patent validity: March 26, 2029 (U.S. Patent No.: 7,964,580 and 8,334,270), April 3, 2025 (U.S. Patent No.: 7,429,572 and 8,415,322)

US patent number 7964580, US patent number 8415322, US patent number 8334270,US patent number 7429572 Patent Expiration Date: March 26, 2029 for US patent number 7964580 and 8334270 (2028 in EU); April 3, 2025 for US patent number 7429572 and 8415322

Sales value (estimated): $ 1.9 billion (2014), 6600000000 USD (2016)

Drug Companies: Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Gilead Sciences)

WASHINGTON, Dec. 6, 2013 (AP) — Federal health officials have approved a highly anticipated hepatitis C drug from Gilead Sciences Inc. that is expected to offer a faster, more palatable cure to millions of people infected with the liver-destroying virus.

The Food and Drug Administration said Friday it approved the pill Sovaldi in combination with older drugs to treat the main forms of hepatitis C that affect U.S. patients.

Current treatments for hepatitis C can take up to a year of therapy and involve weekly injections of a drug that causes flu-like side effects. That approach only cures about three out of four patients. Sovaldi is a daily pill that in clinical trials cured roughly 90 percent of patients in just 12 weeks, when combined with the older drug cocktail.http://www.pharmalive.com/us-approves-breakthrough-hepatitis-c-drug


  • The end of October 2013 saw a nod from the FDA given to Gilead’s New Drug Application for Sofosbuvir, a much needed treatment for hepatitis C.
  • As a nucleotide analogue, Sofosbuvir is designed as a once daily treatment.
  • There are roughly 170 million cases of hepatitis C around the world.
  • A report in the Journal of the American Medical Association on August 28, 2013 revealed that the Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin combination treatment effectively cured many patients with the Hepatitis C Virus.
  • The Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin drug combination was void of interferon-based treatments, which  many patients are resistant too.
  • More than 3 million Americans have chronic Hepatitis C Virus, and 22 percent of these patients are African American.

Sofosbuvir (brand names Sovaldi and Virunon) is a drug used for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, with a high cure rate.[1][2] It inhibits the RNA polymerase that the hepatitis C virus uses to replicate its RNA. It was discovered at Pharmasset and developed by Gilead Sciences.[3]

Sofosbuvir is a component of the first all-oral, interferon-free regimen approved for treating chronic Hepatitis C.[4]

In 2013, the FDA approved sofosbuvir in combination with ribavirin (RBV) for oral dual therapy of HCV genotypes 2 and 3, and for triple therapy with injected pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and RBV for treatment-naive patients with HCV genotypes 1 and 4.[4] Sofosbuvir treatment regimens last 12 weeks for genotypes 1, 2 and 4, compared to 24 weeks for treatment of genotype 3. The label furhter states that sofosbuvir in combination with ribavirin may be considered for patients infected with genotype 1 who are interferon-ineligible.[5] Sofosbuvir will cost $84,000 for 12 weeks of treatment and $168,000 for the 24 weeks, which some patient advocates have criticized as unaffordable.

Interferon-free therapy for treatment of hepatitis C eliminates the substantial side-effects associated with use of interferon. Up to half of hepatitis C patients cannot tolerate the use of interferon.[6]


Sofosbuvir is a prodrug that is metabolized to the active antiviral agent 2′-deoxy-2′-α-fluoro-β-C-methyluridine-5′-triphosphate.[7] Sofosbuvir is anucleotide analog inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) polymerase.[8] The HCV polymerase or NS5B protein is a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase critical for the viral cycle.

The New Drug Application for Sofosbuvir was submitted on April 8, 2013 and received the FDA’s Breakthrough Therapy Designation, which grants priority review status to drug candidates that may offer major treatment advantages over existing options.[9]

On 6th December 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved sofosbuvir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.[10]

Sofosbuvir is being studied in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, with ribavirin alone, and with other direct-acting antiviral agents.[11][12] It has shown clinical efficacy when used either with pegylated interferon/ribavirin or in interferon-free combinations. In particular, combinations of sofosbuvir with NS5A inhibitors, such as daclatasvir or GS-5885, have shown sustained virological response rates of up to 100% in people infected with HCV.[13]

Data from the ELECTRON trial showed that a dual interferon-free regimen of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin produced a 24-week post-treatment sustained virological response (SVR24) rate of 100% for previously untreated patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3.[14][15]

Data presented at the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in March 2013 showed that a triple regimen of sofosbuvir, ledipasvir, and ribavirin produced a 12-week post-treatment sustained virological response (SVR12) rate of 100% for both treatment-naive patients and prior non-responders with HCV genotype 1.[16] Gilead has developed a sofosbuvir + ledipasvir coformulation that is being tested with and without ribavirin.

Sofosbuvir will cost $84,000 for 12 weeks of treatment used for genotype 1 and 2, and $168,000 for the 24 weeks used for genotype 3.[17] This represents a substantial pricing increase from previous treatments consisting of interferon and ribavirin, which cost between $15,000 and $20,000.[18] The price is also significantly higher than that of Johnson & Johnson‘s recently approved drug simeprevir (Olysio), which costs $50,000 and also treats chronic hepatitis C.[18] The high cost of the drug has resulted in a push back from insurance companies and the like, includingExpress Scripts, which has threatened to substitute lower priced competitors, even if those therapies come with a more unfriendly dosing schedule.[18] Other treatments that have recently entered the market have not matched the efficacy of sofosbuvir, however, allowing Gilead to set a higher price until additional competition enters the market.[18] Patient advocates such as Doctors Without Borders have complained about the price, which is particularly difficult for underdeveloped countries to afford.[19]

ChemSpider 2D Image | Sofosbuvir | C22H29FN3O9P


  1.  News: United States to approve potent oral drugs for hepatitis C, Sara Reardon, Nature, 30 October 2013
  2.  Sofia MJ, Bao D, Chang W, Du J, Nagarathnam D, Rachakonda S, Reddy PG, Ross BS, Wang P, Zhang HR, Bansal S, Espiritu C, Keilman M, Lam AM, Steuer HM, Niu C, Otto MJ, Furman PA (October 2010). “Discovery of a β-d-2′-deoxy-2′-α-fluoro-2′-β-C-methyluridine nucleotide prodrug (PSI-7977) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus”. J. Med. Chem. 53 (19): 7202–18.doi:10.1021/jm100863xPMID 20845908.
  3.  “PSI-7977″. Gilead Sciences.
  4. Tucker M (December 6, 2013). “FDA Approves ‘Game Changer’ Hepatitis C Drug Sofosbuvir”. Medscape.
  5.  “U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Gilead’s Sovaldi™ (Sofosbuvir) for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C – See more at: http://www.gilead.com/news/press-releases/2013/12/us-food-and-drug-administration-approves-gileads-sovaldi-sofosbuvir-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c#sthash.T9uTbSWK.dpuf”. Gilead. December 6, 2013.
  6.  “Sofosbuvir is safer than interferon for hepatitis C patients, say scientists”. News Medical. April 25, 2013.
  7.  Murakami E, Tolstykh T, Bao H, Niu C, Steuer HM, Bao D, Chang W, Espiritu C, Bansal S, Lam AM, Otto MJ, Sofia MJ, Furman PA (November 2010). “Mechanism of activation of PSI-7851 and its diastereoisomer PSI-7977″J. Biol. Chem. 285 (45): 34337–47.doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.161802PMC 2966047PMID 20801890.
  8.  Alejandro Soza (November 11, 2012). “Sofosbuvir”. Hepaton.
  9.  “FDA Advisory Committee Supports Approval of Gilead’s Sofosbuvir for Chronic Hepatitis C Infection”Drugs.com. October 25, 2013.
  10.  “FDA approves Sovaldi for chronic hepatitis C”FDA New Release. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2013-12-06.
  11.  Murphy T (November 21, 2011). “Gilead Sciences to buy Pharmasset for $11 billion”.Bloomberg Businessweek.
  12.  Asselah T (January 2014). “Sofosbuvir for the treatment of hepatitis C virus”. Expert Opin Pharmacother 15 (1): 121–30. doi:10.1517/14656566.2014.857656PMID 24289735.
  13.  “AASLD 2012: Sofosbuvir and daclatasvir dual regimen cures most people with HCV genotypes 1, 2, or 3″News. European Liver Patients Association. 2012-11-21.
  14.  AASLD: PSI-7977 plus Ribavirin Can Cure Hepatitis C in 12 Weeks without Interferon. Highleyman, L. HIVandHepatitis.com. 8 November 2011.
  15.  Gane EJ, Stedman CA, Hyland RH, Ding X, Svarovskaia E, Symonds WT, Hindes RG, Berrey MM (January 2013). “Nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for hepatitis C”.N. Engl. J. Med. 368 (1): 34–44. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1208953PMID 23281974.
  16.  CROI 2013: Sofosbuvir + Ledipasvir + Ribavirin Combo for HCV Produces 100% Sustained Response. Highleyman, L. HIVandHepatitis.com. 4 March 2013.
  17.  Campbell T (December 11, 2013). “Gilead’s Sofosbuvir Gets New Name, Price, Headaches”. The Motley Fool.
  18.  Cohen, J. (2013). “Advocates Protest the Cost of a Hepatitis C Cure”. Science 342 (6164): 1302–1303. doi:10.1126/science.342.6164.1302PMID 24337268edit

The chemical structure 

Chemical Structure of Sovaldi_Sofosbuvir_Hepatatis C-Gilead

GS-7977, (S)-isopropyl 2-(((S)-(((2R,3R,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4- dihydropyrimidin^l(2H)-yl)-4-fluoro-3-hydroxy-4-methyltetrahydrofuran-2- yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino)propanoate, available from Gilead Sciences, Inc., is described and claimed in U.S. Patent No. 7,964,580. (See also US 2010/0016251, US 2010/0298257, US 201 1/0251 152 and US 2012/0107278.) GS-7977 has the structure:


Figure imgf000013_0001

GS-7977 can be crystalline or amorphous. Examples of preparing crystalline and amorphous forms of GS-7977 are disclosed in US 2010/0298257 (US 12/783,680) and US 201 1/0251 152 (US 13/076,552),




Chemical Synthesis of Sofosbuvir_Sovaldi_GS-7977_PSI-7977_Hepatitis C_Gilead


Commerically available isopropylidine protected D-glyceraldehyde was reacted with (carbethoxyethylidene)triphenylmethylphosphorane gave the chiral pentenoate ester YP-1. Permanganate dihydroxylation of YP-1 in acetone gave the D-isomer diol YP-2. The cyclic sulfate YP-3 was obtained by first making the cyclic sulfite with thionyl chloride and then oxidizing to cyclic sulfate with sodium hypochlorite. Fluorination of YP-3 with triethylamine-trihydrofluoride(TEA-3HF) in the presence of triethylamine, followed by the hydrolysis of sulfate ester in the presence of concentrated HCl provided diol YP-4 which was benzoylated to give ribonolactone YP-5. Reduction of YP-5 with Red-Al followed by chlorination with sulfuryl chloride in the presence of catalytic amount of tetrabutylammonium bromide yielded YP-6. The conversion of YP-6 to benzoyl protected 2′-deoxyl-2′-alpha-F-2′-Beta-C-methylcytidine (YP-7) was achieved by using O-trimethyl silyl-N4-benzoylcytosine and stannic chloride. Preparation of the uridine nucleoside YP-8 was accomplished by first heating benzoyl cytidine YP-7 in acetic acid then treating with methoanolic ammonia to provide YP-8 in 78% yield.

The phosphoramidating reagent YP-9 was obtained by first reacting phenyldichlorophosphate with L-Alanine isopropyl ester hydrochloride and then with pentafluorophenol. Isolation of single Sp diastereomer YP-9 was achieved via crystallization-induced dynamic resolution in the presence of 20% MTBE/hexane at room temperature.

The uridine nucleoside YP-8 was treated with tert-butylmagnesium chloride in dry THF, followed by pentafluorophenyl Sp diastereomer YP-9 to furnish the Isopropyl (2S)-2-[[[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-dioxopyrimidin-1-yl)-4-fluoro-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxy-phenoxy-phosphoryl]amino]propanoate (Sovaldi, sofosbuvir, GS-7977, PSI-7977)。


US 7429572

US  8415322

US 7964580

US 8334270B


WO 2006012440

WO 2011123668




In US 20050009737 published Jan. 13, 2005, J. Clark discloses fluoro-nucleoside derivatives that inhibit Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase. In particular, 4-amino-1-((2R,3R,4R,5R)-3-fluoro-4-hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-3-methyl-tetrahydro-faran-2-yl)-1H-pyrimidin-2-one (18) was a particularly potent inhibitor of HCV polymerase as well as the polymerase of other Flaviviridae.


Figure US20080139802A1-20080612-C00002


In WO2006/012440 published Feb. 2, 2006, P. Wang et al disclose processes for the preparation of 18. Introduction of the cytosine is carried out utilizing the Vorbruggen protocol. In US 20060122146 published Jun. 8, 2006, B.-K. Chun et al. disclose and improved procedures for the preparation of the 2-methyl-2-fluoro-lactone 10. In the latter disclosure the nucleobase is glycosylated by reacting with ribofuranosyl acetate which is prepared by reduction of 10 with LiAlH(O-tert-Bu)followed by acetylaton of the intermediate lactol which was treated with an O-trimethylsilyl N4-benzoylcytosine in the presence of SnClto afford the O,O,N-tribenzoylated nucleoside.



The present process as described in SCHEME A and the following examples contain numerous improvements which have resulted in higher yields of the desired nucleoside. The asymmetric hydroxylation of 22 was discovered to be best carried out with sodium permanganate in the presence of ethylene glycol, sodium bicarbonate in acetone which afforded the diol in 60-64% on pilot plant scale. The sodium permanganate procedure avoids introduction of osmium into the process stream. Further more the stereospecific hydroxylation can be accomplished without using an expensive chiral ligand. The requisite olefin is prepared from (1S,2S)-1,2-bis-((R)-2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-yl)-ethane-1,2-diol (20) (C. R. Schmid and J. D. Bryant, Org. Syn. 1995 72:6-13) by oxidative cleavage of the diol and treating the resulting aldehyde with 2-(triphenyl-λ5-phosphanylidene)-propionic acid ethyl ester to afford 22.


Figure US20080139802A1-20080612-C00005


(i) NaIO4, NaHCO3, DCM; (ii) MeC(═PPh3)CO2Et; (iii) acetone-NaMnO(aq), ethylene glycol, NaHCO3, −10 to 0° C.; aq. NaHSO(quench); (iv) i-PrOAc, MeCN, TEA, SOCl2; (v) i-PrOAc, MeCN, NaOCl; (vi) TEA-3HF, TEA; (vii) HCl (aq)-BaCl2-aq; (viii) (PhCO)2O, DMAP, MeCN, (ix) RED-AL/TFE (1:1), DCM; (x) SO2Cl2-TBAB, DCM; (xi) 32, SnCl4-PhCl; (xii) MeOH-MeONa

EXAMPLE 3 (2S,3R)-3-[(4R)-2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-yl]-2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-propionic acid ethyl ester (24)


Figure US20080139802A1-20080612-C00008


A suspension of 22 (10 kg, CAS Reg. No. 81997-76-4), ethylene glycol (11.6 kg), solid NaHCO(11.8 kg) and acetone (150 L) is cooled to ca.-15° C. A solution of 36% aqueous NaMnO(19.5 kg) is charged slowly (over 4 h) to the suspension maintaining reaction temperature at or below −10° C. After stirring for 0.5 h at −10° C., an aliquot of the reaction mixture (ca. 5 mL) is quenched with 25% aqueous sodium bisulfite (ca. 15 mL). A portion of resulting slurry is filtered and submitted for GC analysis to check the progress of the reaction. When the reaction is complete, the reaction mixture is quenched by slow addition (over 40 min) of cooled (ca. 0° C.) 25% aqueous NaHSO(60 L). The temperature of the reaction mixture is allowed to reach 4° C. during the quench. CELITE® (ca. 2.5 kg) is then slurried in acetone (8 kg) and added to the dark brown reaction mixture. The resulting slurry is aged at RT to obtain light tan slurry. The slurry is filtered, and the filter cake is washed with acetone (3×39 kg). The combined filtrate is concentrated by vacuum distillation (vacuum approximately 24 inches of Hg; max pot temperature is 32° C.) to remove the acetone. The aqueous concentrate is extracted with EtOAc (3×27 kg), and the combined organic extracts were washed with water (25 L). The organic phase is then concentrated by atmospheric distillation and EtOAc is replaced with toluene. The volume of the batch is adjusted to ca. 20 L. Heptane (62 kg) is added and the batch cooled to ca. 27° C. to initiate crystallization. The batch is then cooled to −10° C. After aging overnight at −10° C., the product is filtered, washed with 10% toluene in heptane and dried at 50° C. under vacuum to afford 6.91 kg (59.5%) of 24 (CARN 81997-76-4) as a white crystalline solid.

EXAMPLE 4 (3R,4R,5R)-3-Fluoro-4-hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-3-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one (10)


Figure US20080139802A1-20080612-C00009


steps 1 & 2—A dry, clean vessel was charged with 24 (6.0 kg), isopropyl acetate (28.0 kg), MeCN (3.8 kg) and TEA (5.4 kg). The mixture was cooled to 5-10° C., and thionyl chloride (3.2 kg) was added slowly while cooling the solution to maintain the temperature below 20° C. The mixture was stirred until no starting material was left (GC analysis). The reaction was typically complete within 30 min after addition is complete. To the mixture was added water (9 kg) and after stirring, the mixture was allowed to settle. The aqueous phase was discarded and the organic phase was washed with a mixture of water (8 kg) and saturated NaHCO(4 kg) solution. To the remaining organic phase containing 36 was added MeCN (2.5 kg) and solid NaHCO(3.1 kg). The resulting slurry was cooled to ca. 10° C. Bleach (NaOCl solution, 6.89 wt % aqueous solution, 52.4 kg, 2 eq.) was added slowly while cooling to maintain temperature below 25° C. The mixture was aged with stirring over 90-120 min at 20-25° C., until the reaction was complete (GC analysis). After completion of the reaction, the mixture was cooled to ca. 10° C. and then quenched with aqueous Na2SOsolution (15.1% w/w, 21 kg) while cooling to maintain temperature below 20° C. The quenched reaction mixture was filtered through a cartridge filter to remove inorganic solids. The filtrate was allowed to settle, and phases are separated and the aqueous phase is discarded. The organic layer was washed first with a mixture of water (11 kg) and saturated NaHCOsolution (4.7 kg), then with of saturated NaHCOsolution (5.1 kg). DIPEA (220 mL) was added to the organic phase and the resulting solution was filtered through CELITE® (bag filter) into a clean drum. The reactor was rinsed with isopropyl acetate (7 kg) and the rinse is transferred to the drum. The organic phase was then concentrated under vacuum (25-28 inches of Hg) while maintaining reactor jacket temperature at 45-50° C. to afford 26 as an oil (˜10 L). Additional DIPEA (280 mL) was added and the vacuum distillation was continued (jacket temperature 50-55° C.) until no more distillate was collected. (batch volume ca. 7 L).

step 3—To the concentrated oil from step 2 containing 26 was added TEA (2.34 kg) and TEA-trihydrofluoride (1.63 kg). The mixture was heated to 85° C. for 2 h. The batch was sampled to monitor the progress of the reaction by GC. After the reaction was complete conc. HCl (2.35 kg) was added to the mixture and the resulting mixture heated to ca. 90° C. (small amount of distillate collected). The reaction mixture was stirred at ca. 90° C. for 30 min and then saturated aqueous BaCl2solution (18.8 kg) was added. The resulting suspension was stirred at about 90° C. for 4 h. The resulting mixture was then azeotropically dried under a vacuum (9-10 inches of Hg) by adding slowly n-propanol (119 kg) while distilling off the azeotropic mixture (internal batch temperature ca. 85-90° C.). To the residual suspension was added toluene (33 kg) and vacuum distillation was continued to distill off residual n-propanol (and traces of water) to a minimum volume to afford 28.

step 4—To the residue from step 3 containing 28 was added MeCN (35 kg) and ca. 15 L was distilled out under atmospheric pressure. The reaction mixture was cooled to ca. 10° C. and then benzoyl chloride (8.27 kg) and DMAP (0.14 kg) are added. TEA (5.84 kg) was added slowly to the reaction mixture while cooling to maintain temperature below 40° C. The batch was aged at ca. 20° C. and the progress of the benzoylation is monitored by HPLC. After completion of the reaction, EtOAc (30 kg) was added to the mixture and the resulting suspension is stirred for about 30 min. The reaction mixture was filtered through a CELITE® pad (using a nutsche filter) to remove inorganic salts. The solid cake was washed with EtOAc (38 kg). The combined filtrate and washes were washed successively with water (38 kg), saturated NaHCOsolution (40 kg) and saturated brine (44 kg). The organic phase was polish-filtered (through a cartridge filter) and concentrated under modest vacuum to minimum volume. IPA (77 kg) was added to the concentrate and ca. 25 L of distillate was collected under modest vacuum allowing the internal batch temperature to reach ca. 75° C. at the end of the distillation. The remaining solution was then cooled to ca. 5° C. over 5 h and optionally aged overnight. The precipitate was filtered and washed with of cold (ca. 5° C.) IPA (24 kg). The product was dried under vacuum at 60-70° C. to afford 6.63 kg (70.7% theory of 10 which was 98.2% pure by HPLC.

EXAMPLE 1 Benzoic acid 3-benzoyloxy-5-(4-benzoylamino-2-oxo-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-4-fluoro-4-methyl-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethyl ester (14)


Figure US20080139802A1-20080612-C00006


Trifluoroethanol (4.08 kg) is added slowly to a cold solution (−15° C.) of RED-AL® solution (12.53 kg) and toluene (21.3 kg) while maintaining the reaction temperature at or below −10° C. After warming up to RT (ca. 20° C.), the modified RED-AL reagent mixture (30.1 kg out of the 37.6 kg prepared) is added slowly to a pre-cooled solution (−15° C.) of fluorolactone dibenzoate 10 (10 kg) in DCM (94.7 kg) while maintaining reaction temperature at or below −10° C. After reduction of the lactone (monitored by in-process HPLC), a catalytic amount of tetrabutylammonium bromide (90 g) is added to the reaction mixture. Sulfiiryl chloride (11.86 kg) is then added while maintaining reaction temperature at or below 0° C. The reaction mixture is then heated to 40° C. until formation of the chloride is complete (ca. 4 h) or warmed to RT (20-25° C.) and stirred over night (ca. 16 h). The reaction mixture is cooled to about 0° C., and water (100 L) is added cautiously while maintaining reaction temperature at or below 15° C. The reaction mixture is then stirred at RT for ca. 1 h to ensure hydrolytic decomposition of excess sulfuryl chloride and the phases are separated. The organic layer is washed with a dilute solution of citric acid (prepared by dissolving 15.5 kg of citric acid in 85 L of water) and then with dilute KOH solution (prepared by dissolving 15 kg of 50% KOH in 100 L of water). The organic phase is then concentrated and solvents are replaced with chlorobenzene (2×150 kg) via atmospheric replacement distillation. The resulting solution containing 30 is dried azeotropically.

A suspension of N-benzoyl cytosine (8.85 kg), ammonium sulfate (0.07 kg) and hexamethyldisilazane (6.6 kg) in chlorobenzene (52.4 kg) is heated to reflux (ca. 135° C.) and stirred (ca. 1 h) until the mixture becomes a clear solution. The reaction mixture is then concentrated in vacuo to obtain 32 as a syrupy liquid. The anhydrous solution of 30 in chlorobenzene (as prepared) and stannic chloride (28.2 kg) is added to this concentrate. The reaction mixture is maintained at about 70° C. until the desired coupling reaction is complete (ca. 10 h) as determined by in-process HPLC. Upon completion, the reaction mixture is cooled to RT and diluted with DCM (121 kg). This solution is added to a suspension of solid NaHCO(47 kg) and CELITE® (9.4 kg) in DCM (100.6 kg). The resulting slurry is cooled to 10-15° C., and water (8.4 kg) is added slowly to quench the reaction mixture. The resulting suspension is very slowly (caution: gas evolution) heated to reflux (ca. 45° C.) and maintained for about 30 min. The slurry is then cooled to ca. 15° C. and filtered. The filter cake is repeatedly reslurried in DCM (4×100 L) and filtered. The combined filtrate is concentrated under atmospheric pressure (the distillate collected in the process is used for reslurrying the filter cake) until the batch temperature rises to about 90° C. and then allowed to cool slowly to about −5° C. The resulting slurry is aged for at least 2 h at −5° C. The precipitated product is filtered and washed with IPA (30 kg+20 kg), and oven-dried in vacuo at about 70° C. to afford 8.8 kg (57.3%) of 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-2-methyl-3-5-O-dibenzoyl-β-D-ribofuranosyl)-N-4-benzoylcytosine (14, CAS Reg No. 817204-32-3) which was 99.3% pure.

EXAMPLE 2 4-Amino-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-3-methyl-tetrahydro-furan-2-yl)-1H-pyrimidin-2-one (18)


Figure US20080139802A1-20080612-C00007


A slurry of 14 (14.7 kg) in MeOH (92.6 kg) is treated with catalytic amounts of methanolic sodium methoxide (0.275 kg). The reaction mixture is heated to ca. 50° C. and aged (ca. 1 h) until the hydrolysis is complete. The reaction mixture is quenched by addition of isobutyric acid (0.115 kg). The resulting solution is concentrated under moderate vacuum and then residual solvents are replaced with IPA (80 kg). The batch is distilled to a volume of ca. 50 L. The resulting slurry is heated to ca. 80° C. and then cooled slowly to ca. 5° C. and aged (ca. 2 h). The precipitated product is isolated by filtration, washed with IPA (16.8 kg) and dried in an oven at 70° C. in vacuo to afford 6.26 kg (88.9%) of 18 which assayed at 99.43% pure.




EXAMPLE 4 Preparation of 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-2′-C-methyluridine



2′-Deoxy-2′-fluoro-2′-C-methylcytidine (1.0 g, 1 eq) (Clark, J., et al., J. Med. Chem., 2005, 48, 5504-5508) was dissolved in 10 ml of anhydrous pyridine and concentrated to dryness in vacuo. The resulting syrup was dissolved in 20 ml of anhydrous pyridine under nitrogen and cooled to 0° C. with stirring. The brown solution was treated with benzoyl chloride (1.63 g, 3 eq) dropwise over 10 min. The ice bath was removed and stirring continued for 1.5 h whereby thin-layer chromatography (TLC) showed no remaining starting material. The mixture was quenched by addition of water (0.5 ml) and concentrated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in 50 mL of dichloromethane (DCM) and washed with saturated NaHCOaqueous solution and H2O. The organic phase was dried over NaSOand filtered, concentrated to dryness to give N4,3′,5′-tribenzoyl-2′-Deoxy-2′-fluoro-2′-C-methylcytidine (2.0 g, Yield: 91%).

N4,3′,5′-tribenzoyl-2′-Deoxy-2′-fluoro-2′-C-methylcytidine (2.0 g, 1 eq) was refluxed in 80% aqueous AcOH overnight. After cooling and standing at room temperature (15° C.), most of the product precipitated and then was filtered through a sintered funnel. White precipitate was washed with water and co-evaporated with toluene to give a white solid. The filtrate was concentrated and co-evaporated with toluene to give additional product which was washed with water to give a white solid. Combining the two batches of white solid gave 1.50 g of 3′,5′-dibenzoyl-2′-Deoxy-2′-fluoro-2′-C-methyluridine (Yield: 91%).

To a solution of 3′,5′-dibenzoyl-2′-Deoxy-2′-fluoro-2′-C-methyluridine (1.5 g, 1 eq) in MeOH (10 mL) was added a solution of saturated ammonia in MeOH (20 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 30 min, and then warmed to room temperature slowly. After the reaction mixture was stirred for another 18 hours, the reaction mixture was evaporated under reduced pressure to give the residue, which was purified by column chromatography to afford pure compound 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-2′-C-methyluridine (500 mg, Yield: 60%).


Example numbers 13-54 and 56-66 are prepared using similar procedures described for examples 5-8. The example number, compound identification, and NMR/MS details are shown below:


entry 25
Figure US08334270-20121218-C00063
entry 251H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 1.13-1.28 (m, 12H), 3.74-3.81 (m, 2H), 3.95-4.08 (m, 1H), 4.20-4.45 (m, 2H), 4.83-4.87 (m, 1H), 5.52-5.58 (m, 1H),5.84-6.15 (m, 3H), 7.17-7.23 (m, 3H), 7.35-7.39 (m, 2H), 7.54-7.57(m, 1H), 11.50 (s. 1H); MS, m/e 530.2 (M + 1)+




Synthesis of diastereomerically pure nucleotide phosphoramidates.

Ross BS, Reddy PG, Zhang HR, Rachakonda S, Sofia MJ.

J Org Chem. 2011 Oct 21;76(20):8311-9. doi: 10.1021/jo201492m. Epub 2011 Sep 26.

The HCV NS5B nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors.

Membreno FE, Lawitz EJ.

Clin Liver Dis. 2011 Aug;15(3):611-26. doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2011.05.003. Review.

Discovery of a β-d-2′-deoxy-2′-α-fluoro-2′-β-C-methyluridine nucleotide prodrug (PSI-7977) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus.

Sofia MJ, Bao D, Chang W, Du J, Nagarathnam D, Rachakonda S, Reddy PG, Ross BS, Wang P, Zhang HR, Bansal S, Espiritu C, Keilman M, Lam AM, Steuer HM, Niu C, Otto MJ, Furman PA.

J Med Chem. 2010 Oct 14;53(19):7202-18. doi: 10.1021/jm100863x.

Mechanism of activation of PSI-7851 and its diastereoisomer PSI-7977.

Murakami E, Tolstykh T, Bao H, Niu C, Steuer HM, Bao D, Chang W, Espiritu C, Bansal S, Lam AM, Otto MJ, Sofia MJ, Furman PA.

J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 5;285(45):34337-47. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.161802. Epub 2010 Aug 26.


Michael J. Sofia,Donghui Bao, Wonsuk Chang, Jinfa Du, Dhanapalan Nagarathnam, Suguna Rachakonda, P. Ganapati Reddy, Bruce S. Ross, Peiyuan Wang, Hai-Ren Zhang, Shalini Bansal, Christine Espiritu, Meg Keilman, Angela M. Lam, Holly M. Micolochick Steuer, Congrong Niu, Michael J. Otto, and Phillip A. Furman; Discovery of a β-D-2-Deoxy-2-a-fluoro-2-β-C-methyluridine Nucleotide Prodrug (PSI-7977) for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus; J. Med. Chem. 2010, 53, 7202–7218; Pharmasset, Inc.


Bruce S. Ross, P. Ganapati Reddy , Hai-Ren Zhang , Suguna Rachakonda , and Michael J. Sofia; Synthesis of Diastereomerically Pure Nucleotide Phosphoramidates; J. Org. Chem., 2011, 76 (20), pp 8311–8319; Pharmasset, Inc.


Peiyuan Wang, Byoung-Kwon Chun, Suguna Rachakonda, Jinfa Du, Noshena Khan, Junxing Shi, Wojciech Stec, Darryl Cleary, Bruce S. Ross and Michael J. Sofia; An Efficient and Diastereoselective Synthesis of PSI-6130: A Clinically Efficacious Inhibitor of HCV NS5B Polymerase; J. Org. Chem., 2009, 74 (17), pp 6819–6824;Pharmasset, Inc.


Jeremy L. Clark, Laurent Hollecker, J. Christian Mason, Lieven J. Stuyver, Phillip M. Tharnish, Stefania Lostia, Tamara R. McBrayer, Raymond F. Schinazi, Kyoichi A. Watanabe, Michael J. Otto, Phillip A. Furman, Wojciech J. Stec, Steven E. Patterson, and Krzysztof W. Pankiewicz; Design, Synthesis, and Antiviral Activity of 2‘-Deoxy-2‘-fluoro-2‘-C-methylcytidine, a Potent Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus Replication; J. Med. Chem., 2005, 48 (17), pp 5504–5508; Pharmasset, Inc




SOVALDI is the brand name for sofosbuvir, a nucleotide analog inhibitor of HCV NS5B polymerase.

The IUPAC name for sofosbuvir is (S)-Isopropyl 2-((S)-(((2R,3R,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-4-fluoro-3-hydroxy-4-methyltetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)-(phenoxy)phosphorylamino)propanoate. It has a molecular formula of C22H29FN3O9P and a molecular weight of 529.45. It has the following structural formula:



SOVALDI™ (sofosbuvir) Structural Formula Illustration


Sofosbuvir is a white to off-white crystalline solid with a solubility of ≥ 2 mg/mL across the pH range of 2-7.7 at 37 oC and is slightly soluble in water.

SOVALDI tablets are for oral administration. Each tablet contains 400 mg of sofosbuvir. The tablets include the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, mannitol, and microcrystalline cellulose. The tablets are film-coated with a coating material containing the following inactive ingredients: polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, talc, titanium dioxide, and yellow iron oxide.


Dec 092013

Friday, 6 December 2013

AstraZeneca today announced that the European Commission (EC) has granted Marketing Authorisation to FluenzTM Tetra. Fluenz Tetra is a nasally administered four-strain live attenuated influenza vaccine for the prevention of influenza in children and adolescents from 24 months up to 18 years of age. The EC approval makes Fluenz Tetra the first and only intra-nasal four-strain influenza vaccine available in Europe.http://www.pharmalive.com/ec-approves-fluenz-tetra



Nov 282013

andexanet alfa

Portola gets FDA breakthrough therapy status for andexanet alfa
US-based biopharmaceutical firm Portola Pharmaceuticals has received breakthrough therapy designation from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its investigational Factor Xa inhibitor antidote, ‘andexanet alfa’.

read all at


Andexanet alfa (PRT4445*): FXa Inhibitor Antidote


  • Recombinant Factor Xa inhibitor antidote
  • Portola has worldwide rights to develop and commercialize andexanet alfa.

Key Characteristics

  • Acts as a Factor Xa decoy that binds and sequesters direct Factor Xa inhibitors in the blood. Once bound to andexanet alfa, the Factor Xa inhibitors are unable to bind to and inhibit native Factor Xa. The native Factor Xa is then available to participate in the coagulation process and restore hemostasis (normal clotting).
  • Preclinical and Phase 1 studies suggest that andexanet alfa has the potential to be a universal reversal agent for all Factor Xa inhibitors.

Potential Indications

  • Reverse Factor Xa inhibitor anticoagulant activity in patients treated with a Factor Xa inhibitor who suffer an uncontrolled bleeding episode or need to undergo emergency surgery

Clinical Development

Phase 2 proof-of-concept studies are underway or planned. These randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are designed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of andexanet alfa after dosing of a direct/indirect Factor Xa inhibitor in healthy volunteers.

  • Positive pharmacodynamic and safety data from a Phase 2 study evaluating andexanet alfa with Eliquis® (apixaban) were presented in an oral session at the XXIV Congress of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis in Amsterdam in July 2013. This study is ongoing to evaluate the administration of andexanet alfa bolus plus extended-duration infusion.
  • A Phase 2 study evaluating andexanet alfa and XARELTO® (rivaroxaban) is ongoing.
  • Separate studies evaluating andexanet alfa with Lovenox® (enoxaparin), Lixiana® (edoxaban) and betrixaban are planned.



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