AUTHOR OF THIS BLOG

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLDDRUGTRACKER

ANIDULAFUNGIN

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Aug 012016
 

 

Anidulafungin Molecular Structure 2.png

 

OR

Anidulafungin

V-Echinocandin

CAS Number 166663-25-8

N-[(3S,6S,9S,11R,15S,18S,20R,21R,24S,25S,26S)-6-[(1S,2R)-1,2-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-11,20,21,25-tetrahydroxy-3,15-bis[(1R)-1-hydroxyethyl]-26-methyl-2,5,8,14,17,23-hexaoxo-1,4,7,13,16,22-hexaazatricyclo[22.3.0.09,13]heptacosan-18-yl]- 4-{4-[4-(pentyloxy)phenyl]phenyl}benzamide

  • LY-307853
  • LY-329960
  • LY-333006
  • LY303366
  • VEC
  • VER-002

1H NMR (700 MHz, d6-DMSO) δ 0.91 (t, 3H), 1.12 (d, 3H), 1.36 (m, 2H), 1.41 (m, 2H), 1.74 (p, 2H), 1.88 and 1.97 (overlapped, 2H), 3.85 (overlapped, 1H), 4.01 (t, 2H), 4.35 (overlapped, 1H), 4.44 (m, 1H), 4.76 (m, 1H), 4.80 (m, 1H), 5.02 (m, 1H), 5.07 (d, 1H), 5.52 (d, 1H), 7.04 (d, 1H), 7.66 (d, 1H), 7.74 (d, 1H), 7.80 (d, 1H), 7.82 (d, 1H), 7.97 (d, 1H), 8.01 (d, 1H), 8.14 (broad s, 1H), 8.60 (d, 1H). IR (cm−1)

KBr νmax; 3450 (O−H), 2932 (C−H), 2871 (C−H), 1632 (C═O), 1517 (Ar), 1488 (Ar), 1248 (C−O), 821 (C−H out-of-plane bending Ar 2 adj H’s).

Anidulafungin (brand names: Eraxis (in U.S. and Russia), Ecalta (in Europe)) is a semisynthetic echinocandin used as anantifungal drug. Anidulafungin was originally manufactured and submitted for FDA approval by Vicuron Pharmaceuticals.[1] Pfizeracquired the drug upon its acquisition of Vicuron in the fall of 2005.[2] Pfizer gained approval by the Food and Drug Administration(FDA) on February 21, 2006;[3] it was previously known as LY303366. Preliminary evidence indicates it has a similar safety profile tocaspofungin. Anidulafungin has proven efficacy against esophageal candidiasis, but its main use will probably be in invasive Candidainfection;[4][5][6] it may also have application in treating invasive Aspergillus infection. It is a member of the class of antifungal drugs known as the echinocandins; its mechanism of action is by inhibition of (1→3)-β-D-glucan synthase, an enzyme important to the synthesis of the fungal cell wall.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics

Anidulafungin significantly differs from other antifungals in that it undergoes chemical degradation to inactive forms at body pH and temperature. Because it does not rely on enzymatic degradation or hepatic or renal excretion, the drug is safe to use in patients with any degree of hepatic or renal impairment.[7]

Distribution: 30–50 L. Protein binding: 84%.

Anidulafungin is not evidently metabolized by the liver. This specific drug undergoes slow chemical hydrolysis to an open-ring peptide which lacks antifungal activity. The half-life of the drug is 27 hours. Thirty percent is excreted in the feces (10% as unchanged drug). Less than 1% is excreted in the urine.[8][9][10]

Mechanism of action

Anidulafungin inhibits glucan synthase, an enzyme important in the formation of (1→3)-β-D-glucan, a major fungal cell wall component. Glucan synthase is not present in mammalian cells, so it is an attractive target for antifungal activity.[11]

Semisynthesis

Anidulafungin is manufactured via semisynthesis. The starting material is echinocandin B (a lipopeptide fermentation product ofAspergillus nidulans or the closely related species, A. rugulosus), which undergoes deacylation (cleavage of the linoleoyl side chain) by the action of a deacylase enzyme from the bacterium Actinoplanes utahensis;[12] in three subsequent synthetic steps, including a chemical reacylation, the antifungal drug anidulafungin[11][13] is synthesized.

Aspergillus nidulans. Anidulafungin is an echinocandin, a class of antifungal drugs that inhibits the synthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan, an essential component of fungal cell walls.

ERAXIS (anidulafungin) is 1-[(4R,5R)-4,5-dihydroxy-N -[[4“-(pentyloxy)[1,1′:4′,1”-terphenyl]-4-yl]carbonyl]-L-ornithine]echinocandin B. Anidulafungin is a white to off-white powder that is practically insoluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. In addition to the active ingredient, anidulafungin, ERAXIS for Injection contains the following inactive ingredients:

50 mg/vialfructose (50 mg), mannitol (250 mg), polysorbate 80 (125 mg), tartaric acid (5.6 mg), and sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment.

100 mg/vial – fructose (100 mg), mannitol (500 mg), polysorbate 80 (250 mg), tartaric acid (11.2 mg), and sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment.

The empirical formula of anidulafungin is C58H73N7O17 and the formula weight is 1140.3. The structural formula is

ERAXIS™ (anidulafung in) Structural Formula Illustration

Prior to administration, ERAXIS for Injection requires reconstitution with sterile Water for Injection and subsequent dilution with either 5% DextroseInjection, USP or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (normal saline).

SYNTHESIS

J MED CHEM 1995, 38 3271-3281

Semisynthetic Chemical Modification of the Antifungal Lipopeptide …

pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm00017a012

by M Debono – ‎1995 – ‎Cited by 113 – ‎Related articles

Aug 1, 1995 – J. Med. Chem. , 1995, 38 (17), pp 3271–3281. DOI: 10.1021/jm00017a012 … Journal ofMedicinal Chemistry 2001 44 (16), 2671-2674

Echinocandin B (ECB) is a lipopeptide composed of a complex cyclic peptide acylated at the N-terminus by linoleic acid. Enzymatic deacylation of ECB provided the peptide “nucleus” as a biologically inactive substrate from which novel ECB analogs were generated by chemical reacylation at the N-terminus. Varying the acyl group revealed that the structure and physical properties of the side chain, particularly its geometry and lipophilicity, played a pivotal role in determining the antifungal potency properties of the analog. Using CLOGP values to describe and compare the lipophilicities of the side chain fragments, it was shown that values of > 3.5 were required for expression of antifungal activity. Secondly, a linearly rigid geometry of the side chain was the most effective shape in enhancing the antifungal potency. Using these parameters as a guide, a variety of novel ECB analogs were synthesized which included arylacyl groups that incorporated biphenyl, terphenyl, tetraphenyl, and arylethynyl groups. Generally the glucan synthase inhibition by these analogs correlated well with in vitro and in vivo activities and was likewise influenced by the structure of the side chain. These structural variations resulted in enhancement of antifungal activity in both in vitro and in vivo assays. Some of these analogs, including LY303366 (14a), were effective by the oral route of administration.

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PATENT

US 5965525

http://www.google.co.in/patents/US5965525

PATENT

US 4293482

http://www.google.co.in/patents/US4293482

Paper

Commercialization and Late-Stage Development of a Semisynthetic Antifungal API: Anidulafungin/d-Fructose (Eraxis)

Chemical Research and Development, Pfizer Inc. Global Research and Development Laboratories, Eastern Point Road, Groton, Connecticut 06340, U.S.A.
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2008, 12 (3), pp 447–455
DOI: 10.1021/op800055h

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op800055h

* Corresponding author. E-mail: timothy.norris@pfizer.com. Telephone: +860 441 4406 . Fax: +860 686 5340.

Abstract Image

Many years ago anidulafungin 1 was identified as a potentially useful medicine for the treatment of fungal infections. Its chemical and physical properties as a relatively high molecular weight semisynthetic derived from echinocandin B proved to be a significant hurdle to its final presentation as a useful medicine. It has recently been approved as an intravenous treatment for invasive candidaisis, an increasingly common health hazard that is potentially life-threatening. The development and commercialization of this API, which is presented as a molecular mixture of anidulafungin and d-fructose is described. This includes, single crystal X-ray structures of the starting materials, the echinocandin B cyclic-peptide nucleus (ECBN·HCl) and the active ester 1-({[4′′-(pentyloxy)-1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl-4-yl]carbonyl}oxy)-1H-1,2,3-benzotriazole (TOBt). Details of the structure and properties of starting materials, scale-up chemistry and unusual crystallization phenomena associated with the API formation are discussed.

 

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References

  1.  PRNewswire. Vicuron Pharmaceuticals Files New Drug Application (NDA) for Anidulafungin for Treatment of Invasive Candidiasis/Candidemia 08-18-2005.
  2. Jump up^ PRNewswire. Vicuron Pharmaceuticals Stockholders Approve Merger With Pfizer 08-15-2005
  3.  “FDA Approves New Treatment for Fungal Infections”. FDA News Release. Food and Drug Administration. 2006-02-21. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
  4.  Krause DS, Reinhardt J, Vazquez JA, Reboli A, Goldstein BP, Wible M, Henkel T (2004). “Phase 2, randomized, dose-ranging study evaluating the safety and efficacy of anidulafungin in invasive candidiasis and candidemia”. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48 (6): 2021–4.doi:10.1128/AAC.48.6.2021-2024.2004. PMC 415613. PMID 15155194.
  5. Jump up^ Pfaller MA, Boyken L, Hollis RJ, Messer SA, Tendolkar S, Diekema DJ (2005). “In Vitro Activities of Anidulafungin against More than 2,500 Clinical Isolates of Candida spp., Including 315 Isolates Resistant to Fluconazole”. J Clin Microbiol 43 (11): 5425–7.doi:10.1128/JCM.43.11.5425-5427.2005. PMC 1287823. PMID 16272464.
  6. J Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Boyken L, Messer SA, Tendolkar S, Hollis RJ, Goldstein BP (2005). “Effectiveness of anidulafungin in eradicating Candida species in invasive candidiasis”. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 (11): 4795–7. doi:10.1128/AAC.49.11.4795-4797.2005.PMC 1280139. PMID 16251335.
  7. Jump up^ “Eraxis at RxList”. 2009-06-24. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
  8.  Trissel LA and Ogundele AB, “Compatibility of Anidulafungin With Other Drugs During Simulated Y-Site Administration,”Am J Health-Sys Pharm, 2005, 62:834-7.
  9.  Vazquez JA, “Anidulafungin: A New Echinocandin With a Novel Profile,” Clin Ther, 2005, 27(6):657-73.
  10. Jump up^ Walsh TJ, Anaissie EJ, Denning DW, et al., “Treatment of Aspergillosis: Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America,” Clin Infect Dis, 2008, 46(3):327-60
  11. Denning DW (1997). “Echinocandins and pneumocandins – a new antifungal class with a novel mode of action”. J Antimicrob Chemother 40 (5): 611–614. doi:10.1093/jac/dkf045.PMID 9421307.
  12.  Lei Shao; Jian Li; Aijuan Liu; Qing Chang; Huimin Lin; Daijie Chen (2013). “Efficient Bioconversion of Echinocandin B to Its Nucleus by Overexpression of Deacylase Genes in Different Host Strains”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79 (4): 1126–1133. doi:10.1128/AEM.02792-12. PMC 3568618. PMID 23220968.
  13.  “Anidulafungin EMA Europa” (PDF).
Anidulafungin
Anidulafungin Molecular Structure 2.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-[(3S,6S,9S,11R,15S,18S,20R,21R,24S,25S,26S)-6-[(1S,2R)-1,2-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-11,20,21,25-tetrahydroxy-3,15-bis[(1R)-1-hydroxyethyl]-26-methyl-2,5,8,14,17,23-hexaoxo-1,4,7,13,16,22-hexaazatricyclo[22.3.0.09,13]heptacosan-18-yl]- 4-{4-[4-(pentyloxy)phenyl]phenyl}benzamide
Clinical data
Trade names Eraxis
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 84 %
Biological half-life 40–50 hours
Identifiers
CAS Number 166663-25-8 Yes
ATC code J02AX06 (WHO)
PubChem CID 166548
DrugBank DB00362 Yes
ChemSpider 21106258 Yes
UNII 9HLM53094I Yes
KEGG D03211 
ChEBI CHEBI:55346
ChEMBL CHEMBL1630215 
Chemical data
Formula C58H73N7O17
Molar mass 1140.24 g/mol

//////////FUNGIN, ANIDULAFUNGIN, Eraxis , Ecalta,  semisynthetic echinocandin, anantifungal drug, FDA 2006, PFIZER, LY-307853, LY-329960, LY-333006, LY303366, VEC, VER-002, 166663-25-8, Eli Lilly and Company Inc.

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CCCCCOc1ccc(cc1)c2ccc(cc2)c3ccc(cc3)C(=O)N[C@H]6C[C@@H](O)[C@@H](O)NC(=O)C4[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C)CN4C(=O)C(NC(=O)C(NC(=O)C5C[C@@H](O)CN5C(=O)C(NC6=O)[C@@H](C)O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)c7ccc(O)cc7)[C@@H](C)O

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Varenicline (Chantix™) バレニクリン酒石酸塩

 Uncategorized  Comments Off on Varenicline (Chantix™) バレニクリン酒石酸塩
Jul 282016
 

Varenicline.svg

Varenicline (Chantix™)

Varenicline

  • MF C13H13N3
  • MW 211.26
(1R,12S)-5,8,14-Triazatétracyclo[10.3.1.02,11.04,9]hexadéca-2,4,6,8,10-pentaène [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
6,10-Methano-6H-azepino[4,5-g]quinoxaline, 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-, (6R,10S)- [ACD/Index Name]
Champix
(1R,12S)-5,8,14-triazatetracyclo[10.3.1.02,11.04,9]hexadeca-2(11),3,5,7,9-pentaene
CP-526,555
MFCD08460603
MFCD10001497
UNII:W6HS99O8ZO
APPROVALS
FDA MAY 10, 2006
EMA SEPT 2006
PMDA JAPAN JAN 25 2008

Varenicline (trade name Chantix and Champix usually in the form of varenicline tartrate), is a prescription medication used to treatnicotine addiction. Varenicline is a nicotinic receptor partial agonist—it stimulates nicotine receptors more weakly than nicotine itself does. In this respect it is similar to cytisine and different from the nicotinic antagonist, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapies(NRTs) like nicotine patches and nicotine gum. As a partial agonist it both reduces cravings for and decreases the pleasurable effects of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Through these mechanisms it can assist some patients to quit smoking.

Varenicline

Varenicline
CAS Registry Number: 249296-44-4
CAS Name: 7,8,9,10-Tetrahydro-6,10-methano-6H-pyrazino[2,3-h][3]benzazepine
Additional Names: 5,8,14-triazatetracyclo[10.3.1.02,11.04,9]hexadeca-2(11)-3,5,7,9-pentaene
Manufacturers’ Codes: CP-526555
Molecular Formula: C13H13N3
Molecular Weight: 211.26
Percent Composition: C 73.91%, H 6.20%, N 19.89%
Literature References: Nicotinic a4b2 acetylcholine receptor partial agonist. Prepn: P. R. P. Brooks, J. W. Coe, WO 0162736(2001 to Pfizer). Synthesis, receptor binding studies, and in vivo dopaminergic acitvity: J. W. Coe et al., J. Med. Chem. 48, 3474 (2005). Metabolism: R. S. Obach et al., Drug Metab. Dispos. 34, 121 (2006).
Derivative Type: Tartrate
CAS Registry Number: 375815-87-5
Trademarks: Champix (Pfizer)
Molecular Formula: C13H13N3.C4H6O6
Molecular Weight: 361.35
Percent Composition: C 56.51%, H 5.30%, N 11.63%, O 26.57%
Therap-Cat: Aid in smoking cessation.
バレニクリン酒石酸塩
Varenicline Tartrate

C13H13N3▪C4H6O6 : 361.35
[375815-87-5]

Medical uses

Varenicline is used for smoking cessation. In a 2009 meta-analysis varenicline was found to be more effective than bupropion (odds ratio 1.40) and NRTs (odds ratio 1.56).[1]

A 2013 Cochrane overview and network meta-analysis concluded that varenicline is the most effective medication for tobacco cessation and that smokers were nearly three times more likely to quit on varenicline than with placebo treatment. Varenicline was more efficacious than bupropion or NRT and as effective as combination NRT for tobacco smoking cessation.[2][3]

The United States’ Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has approved the use of varenicline for up to twelve weeks. If smoking cessation has been achieved it may be continued for another twelve weeks.[4]

Varenicline has not been tested in those under 18 years old or pregnant women and therefore is not recommended for use by these groups. Varenicline is considered a class C pregnancy drug, as animal studies have shown no increased risk of congenital anomalies, however, no data from human studies is available.[5] An observational study is currently being conducted assessing for malformations related to varenicline exposure, but has no results yet.[6] An alternate drug is preferred for smoking cessation during breastfeeding due to lack of information and based on the animal studies on nicotine.[7]

 

Varenicline L-tartrate (Compound I) is the international commonly accepted name for 7,8,9,10- tetrahydro-6, 10-methano-6i7-pyrazino [2, 3- h] [3 ] benzazepme, (2R, 3R) -2 , 3-dihydroxybutanedioate (1:1) (which is also known as 5,8,14- tπazatetracyclo [10.3.1. O211. O49] -hexadeca-2 (11) , 3, 5, 7, 9-pentaene, (2R, 3R)-2,3- dihydroxybutanedioate (1:1)) and has an empirical formula of C13H13N3 C4H6O6 and a molecular weight of 361.35. Varenicline L-tartrate is a commercially marketed pharmaceutically active substance known to be useful for the treatment of smoking addiction.

Figure imgf000002_0001

(D

Varenicline L-tartrate is a partial agonist selective for (X4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. In the United States, varenicline L-tartrate is marketed under the name Chantix™ for the treatment of smoking cessation. Varenicline base and its pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts are described in U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550. In particular, Example 26 of U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550 describes the preparation of varenicline hydrochloride salt using 1- (4 , 5-dinitro-10- aza-tπcyclo [6.3.1.O27] dodeca-2, 4, 6-trien-10-yl) -2,2,2- tπfluoroethanone (compound of formula (III)) as starting compound. On the other hand, Example HA) of U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550 illustrates the preparation of compound of formula (III) via nitration of compound of formula (II) using an excess of nitronium triflate (>4 equiv) as a nitrating agent. The process disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550 is depicted in Scheme 1.

Figure imgf000003_0001

VareniclineΗCl

Scheme 1

However, Coe et al., J. Med. Chem., 48, 3474 (2005), describes the same process and examples as U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550, and it also reveals that this process affords intermediate ortho-4 , 5-dinitrocompound of formula (III) together with the meta-3, 5-dinitro- isomer (i.e. the meta-dinitrocompound) in a ratio 9:1. The presence of the meta-dinitrocompound may affect not only the purity of the intermediate compound of formula III but it may also have an effect on the purity of the final varenicline tartrate, given that it can be carried along the synthetic pathway and/or it can also give rise to other derivative impurities. Thereby, as well as in U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550, in order to isolate pure compound of formula (III) , the raw product is triturated with ethyl acetate/hexane to afford compound of formula (III) with 77% yield. Additionally, the mother liquor is purified by chromatography on silica gel to improve the yield to a total of 82.8%. However, this process is not desirable for industrial implementation since it requires extensive and complicated purification procedures, i.e. trituration of the solid product along with column chromatography purification of the mother liquor, which is not very efficient or suitable for industrial scale-up.

Several improved processes for the synthesis of varenicline or its salts have been reported in the literature (e.g. WO2006/090236) . However, none of these processes tackle the optimization of the purification step of compound of formula (III).

There is therefore the need for providing an improved process for the preparation of varenicline L- tartrate which involves simple experimental procedures well suited to industrial production, which avoids the use of column chromatography purifications, and which affords high pure varenicline L-tartrate which hence can be used directly as a starting product for the preparation of the marketed pharmaceutical speciality.

Additionally, it has been observed that varenicline L-tartrate is usually obtained as a yellow solid under – A –

standard synthetic conditions. In this regard, colour must be attributed to the presence of some specific impurities that may or may not be detectable by conventional methods such as HPLC. The presence of impurities may adversely affect the safety and shelf life of formulations. In this connection, International application No. WO2006/090236 describes the isolation of vareniclme L- tartrate as a white solid. However, in order to remove coloured impurities, the varenicline L-tartrate obtained in WO2006/090236 is treated with a particular activated carbon having a specific grade (i.e. Darco KB-B™) . In fact, Example 5 of WO2006/090236 describes a large reprocessing step which comprises: dissolving varenicline L-tartrate in water, adding toluene, basifying with NaOH aqueous solution, collecting the toluene phase containing varenicline free base, distilling, adding methanol, azeotropically distilling the mixture, and adding more methanol to obtain a methanolic solution containing varenicline free base, adding Darco KB-B™ (10% w/w) , stirring for one hour, filtering through a pad of celite, and treating with L-tartaric acid to give varenicline L- tartrate salt as a white solid. Further, WO2006/090236 provides the absorbance at 430 nm of a varenicline L- tartrate salt solution, either in dichloromethane or in toluene, with or without using Darco KB-B™ activated carbon. However, this measure cannot be used to corroborate the whiteness of the solid varenicline L- tartrate. In addition, Example 3 of International application No. WO2002/092089, also disclose the preparation of varenicline L-tartrate polymorphic form C (i.e. a hydrate polymorph) as a white precipitate. Therefore, there is also a need for a simple and efficient method for preparing varenicline L-tartrate with enhanced whiteness and having a high purity.

SYNTHESIS

 

Synthesis of Intermediate VIII

Paper

J. Med. Chem. 48, 3474 (2005).

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jm050069n

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PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2001062736A1?cl=en

 

CLIP

Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients and Related Methodology, Volume 37

edited by Harry G. Brittain

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SYNTHESIS

DOI: 10.1021/jm00190a020
DOI: 10.1021/jm050069n

 

CLIP

Scheme (I) compound patent US6410550B1 is provided adjacent difluorobromobenzene as raw materials by DA reaction, oxidation, cyclization, debenzylation get varenicline intermediate (II). The synthesis route is as follows:

Figure CN102827079AD00051
CLIP

Patent CN101693712A mainly given varenicline intermediate (II) The preparation process is different from the compound patented. After the five-step method patents cited compounds. The entire route is longer, while using a large number of precious metal catalysts and reaction conditions need very strict control, inappropriate EVAL industry production.

Figure CN102827079AD00052
CLIP

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PATENT

CN 102827079

A varenicline intermediate 2,3, 4, 5-tetrahydro-1,5-methylene bridge synthesis -1H-3- benzazepine hydrochloride, which comprises the following Step: (1) 2-indanone of formula 3 and the compound and paraformaldehyde under alkaline or acidic conditions Mannich reaction, as shown in general formula 2 intermediate; (2) the step (I) obtained through reaction of Formula 2 intermediate under basic or acidic conditions by reducing the role of the carbonyl group is reduced to a methylene group, and get varenicline intermediate (II) by debenzylation, the reaction is:

Figure CN102827079AC00021

Wherein, R groups are selected from _H, _Me, _Et, _iPr> _t_Bu.

 

Figure 2;

Figure CN102827079AD00072

Wherein, R group is -H, -Me, -Et, -iPr or -t_Bu.

(2) Step (I) obtained by the reaction intermediates of formula under basic or acidic conditions by reducing the role of the carbonyl group is reduced 2 methylene, and get by debenzylation cutting Lenk Lin intermediate (II);

Figure CN102827079AD00073

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CLIP

Varenicline, a nicotinic 􀀁4􀀂2 partial agonist, was approved in the US for the treatment of smoking cessation in May of 2006. It was developed and marketed by Pfizer as a treatment for cigarette smokers who want to quit. Varenicline partially activates the nicotinic receptors and thus reduces the craving for cigarette that smokers feel when they try to quit smoking. By mitigating this craving and antagonizing nicotine activity without other symptoms, this novel drug helps quitting this dangerous addiction easier on the patients [6,52]. Several modifications [54,55] to the original synthesis [53,56] have been reported in the literature, including an improved process scale synthesis of the last few steps (Scheme 15) [57]. The Grignard reaction was initiated on a small scale by addition of 2-bromo fluorobenzene 113 to a slurry of Magnesium turnings and catalytic 1,2-dibromoethane in THF and heating the mixture until refluxing in maintained. To this refluxing mixture was added a mixture of the 2-bromo fluorobenzene 113 and cyclopentadiene 114 over a period of 1.5 h. After complete addition, the reaction was allowed to reflux for additional 1.5 h to give the Diels- Alder product 115 in 64% yield. Dihydroxylation of the olefin 115 by reacting with catalytic osmium tetraoxide in the presence of N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMO) in acetone: water mixture at room temperature provided the diol 116 in 89% yield. Oxidative cleavage of diol 116 with sodium periodate in biphasic mixture of water: DCE at 10ºC provided di-aldehyde 117 which was immediately reacted with benzyl amine in the presence of sodium acetoxyborohydride to give benzyl amine 118 in 85.7% yield. The removal of the benzyl group was effected by hydrogenation of the HCl salt in 40-50 psi hydrogen pressure with 20% Pd(OH)2 in methanol to give amine hydrochloride 119 in 88% yield. Treatment of amine 119 with trifluoroacetic anhydride and pyridine in dichloromethane at 0ºC gave trifluoroacetamide 120 in 94% yield. Dinitro compound 121 was prepared by addition of trifluoroacetamide 120 to a mixture of trifluoromethane sulfonic acid and nitric acid, which was premixed, in dichloromethane at 0ºC. Reduction of the dinitro compound 121 by hydrogenation at 40-50 psi hydrogen in the presence of catalytic 5%Pd/C in isopropanol:water mixture provided the diamine intermediate 122 which was quickly reacted with glyoxal in water at room temperature for 18h to give compound 123 in 85% overall yield. The trifluoroacetamide 123 was then hydrolyzed with 2 M sodium hydroxide in toluene at 37-40ºC for 2-3h followed by preparation of tartrate salt in methanol to furnish varenicline tartrate (XV).

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[52]Keating, G.; Siddiqui, M. A. A. CNSdrugs, 2006, 11, 946.
[53] Coe, J. W.; Brooks, P. R.; Vetelino, M. G.; Wirtz, M. C.; Arnold,E. P. ; Huang, J.; Sands, S. B.; Davis, T. I.; Lebel, L. A.; Fox, C.
B.; Shrikhande, A.; Heym, J. H.; Schaeffer, E.; Rollema, H.; Lu,Y.; Mansbach, R. S.; Chambers, L. K.; Rovetti, C. C.; Schulz, D.
W.; Tingley, III, F. D.; O’Neill, B. T. J. Med. Chem., 2005, 48,3474.
[54] Brooks, P. R.; Caron, S.; Coe, J. W.; Ng, K. K.; Singer, R. A.;Vazquez, E.; Vetelino, M. G.; Watson, Jr. H. H.; Whritenour, D.
C.; Wirtz, M. C. Synthesis, 2004, 11, 1755.
[55] Singer, R. A.; McKinley, J. D.; Barbe, G.; Farlow, R. A. Org. Lett.,2004, 6, 2357.
[56] Coe, J. W.; Brooks, P. R. P. US-6410550 B1, 2002.
[57] Busch, F. R.; Hawkins, J. M.; Mustakis, L. G.; Sinay, T. G., Jr.;Watson, T. J. N.; Withbroe, G. J. WO-2006090236 A1, 2006.

PATENT

WO 2002085843

https://google.com/patents/WO2002085843A2?cl=en

STR1

 

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/EP2204369A1?cl=en

Varenicline (a compound I of formula I) is the international commonly accepted non-proprietary name for 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,10-methano-6H-pyrazino[2,3-h][3]benzazepine (which is also known as 5,8,14-triazatetracyclo[10.3.1.02,11.04,9]-hexadeca-2(11),3,5,7,9-pentaene), and has an empirical formula of C13H13N3 and a molecular weight of 211.26.

Figure imgb0001

The L-tartrate salt of varenicline is known to be therapeutically useful and is commercially marketed for the treatment of smoking addiction. Varenicline L-tartrate is a partial agonist selective for α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. In the United States, varenicline L-tartrate is marketed under the trade mark Chantix and is indicated as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.

Varenicline base and its pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts are described in U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550 . In particular, the preparation of varenicline provided in this reference makes use of 10-aza-tricyclo[6.3.1.02,7]-dodeca-2(7),3,5-triene (a compound of Formula VI), as a key intermediate compound (see Scheme 1 below). Specifically, Example 1 of U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550 describes the synthetic preparation of key intermediate compound of Formula VI as depicted in Scheme 1.

Figure imgb0002

 

1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methano-naphthalene-cis-2,3-diol (a compound of Formula III), and / or indane-1,3-dicarbaldehyde (a compound of Formula IV).

Example 1: Preparation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methano-naphthalene-cis-2,3-diol (a compound of Formula III)

A 10mL round bottom flask was charged with a compound of formula II (142mg, 1mmol), N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (120mg, 1.03mmol), tert-butanol (3mL) and water (1mL). FibreCat 3003 (OsO4 anchored onto a polymeric support) (11.6mg, 0.0025mmol) was added to this solution and the mixture was heated to reflux. Complete conversion to a compound of formula III was detected by GC, method A, after 48h.

Example 2: Preparation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methano-naphthalene-cis-2,3-diol (a compound of Formula III)Step A) Preparation of hexadecyl-trimethylammoniumpermanganate (HTAP):

HTAP was prepared from ion exchange reaction between hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide and potassium permanganate.

Potassium permanganate (17.38g, 0.11mol, 1equiv.) was dissolved in 500mL water. A solution of hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide (40.10g, 0.11mol, 1equiv) in 500mL water was added drop-wise over 45 min at 20-22°C, and the mixture stirred for 30 minutes at this temperature. The precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with water (3 x 100mL) and dried under vacuum at 35°C for 24 hours to give 34.38g of HTAP as a light purple solid.

Step B) Preparation of a compound of formula III:

Compound II (3.52g, 24.8mmol, 1equiv.) was dissolved in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (80mL) and a solution of HTAP (10g, 24.8mmol, 1.0equiv.) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (125mL) was added drop-wise at 23-30°C over 45min. The reaction was monitored by TLC (hexane-ethyl acetate = 1:1). After complete reaction the mixture was cooled to below 10°C, and methyl tert-butyl ether (50mL) and 5% aqueous NaOH solution (50mL) were added and the mixture stirred for 30min. The solid was removed by filtration, and washed with methyl tert-butyl ether (2 x 30mL). The combined layers of the filtrate were separated and the aqueous phase extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (2 x 30mL). The organic layers were combined and washed with 5% aqueous NaOH solution (50mL), water (2 x 50mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated to obtain a dark green solid. This residue was suspended in acetone (15mL) and collected by filtration, washing with additional acetone (3 x 5mL). The product was dried under vacuum at 40°C to give 2.215g (50.7% yield) as a white crystalline solid.

Analytical data: m.p. = 178.8-179.3°C; 1H-NMR: See Figure 1; 13C-NMR: See Figure 2.

Example 3: Preparation of indane-1,3-dicarbaldehyde (a compound of Formula IV)

A 25 mL round bottom flask was charged with a compound of formula I (142mg, 1mmol), Ruthenium (III) chloride hydrate (Aldrich, Reagent Plus) (7.2mg, 0.035mmol), acetonitrile (8.5mL) and water (1.1mL). The solution was heated to 45°C and sodium periodate (449mg, 2.1mmol) was added portionwise over 25 minutes. After 1h, the reaction was cooled to ambient temperature and filtered. The solids were washed with ethyl acetate (3 x 2mL) and water (3mL). The filtrate was concentrated under vacuum and 5mL of water were added to the obtained residue. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 5mL) and the combination of the organic layers was washed with water (3 x 5mL), dried with MgSO4 and concentrated under vacuum to obtain a compound of formula IV (118mg) in 68% yield, 70.9% purity (analyzed by GC, method A).

PATENT

WO 199935131, WO 2002092089, US 2013030179

STR1

 

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2009065872A2?cl=en

Example 1: Preparation of 7,8,9,10- tetrahydro-6, 10-methano-6H-pyrazino [2, 3-h] [3] benzazepine L-tartrate (i.e. varenicline L-tartrate)

A) Preparation of compound of formula (III)

This example is based on U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550.

A 250 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, addition funnel and magnetic stirring was charged with 10-aza-tricyclo [ 6.3.1. O27] dodeca-2, 4, 6- triene para-toluene sulfonic acid salt (12.4g, 37.5 mmol) and 44 mL of CH2Cl2. Triethylamine (8.3 g, 82.5 mmol) was added to the slurry and the resulting solution was cooled to 0-5 0C. The addition funnel was charged with a solution of (CF3CO)2O (8.1q, 41.25 mmol) in 19 mL of CH2Cl2. This solution was slowly added to the reaction mixture, maintaining the temperature < 15 0C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 1 hour, and the complete conversion was monitored by GC. The crude reaction mixture was washed with water (2 * 40 mL) and brine (40 mL) . The organic phase was used in the next step without further purification.

On the other hand, a 500 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, addition funnel and magnetic stirring was charged with CF3SO3H (25.9 g, 172.5 mmol), CH2Cl2 (110 mL) and cooled to 0-5 0C. At this temperature, fuming nitric acid (5.4 g, 86.25 mmol) was added slowly. To the resulting slurry at 0-5 0C, the solution obtained in the previous step was slowly added, maintaining the temperature < 15 0C. After the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred overnight. The complete dinitration was confirmed by GC. The crude reaction mixture was poured into water (60 mL) an ice (80 g) and stirred. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with CH2Cl2 (3 x 50 mL) . The mixture of the organic phases was washed with aqueous saturated NaHCO3, dried over Na2SO4 and volatiles evaporated under vacuum to obtain 11.9 g of a solid that was suspended and stirred for 2 hours in AcOEt (12 mL) and hexanes (24 mL) . The solid was filtered and washed with hexanes to obtain the compound of formula (III), 9.1g with a purity of 88.9% by GC (9.8% of meta-dimtrocompound impurity) .

B) Preparation of compound of formula (IV)

This example is based on International Patent No. WO/2006/090236.

A 200 mL autoclave was charged with (III) (9.1 g, 26.3 mmol), damp 5% Pd/C 50% and 180 mL of a 2- propanol/water (80/20 wt/wt) . The reaction was stirred under 50 psi of hydrogen for 18 hours. The complete hydrogenation was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was filtered through Celite and washed with 2-propanol (40 mL) . To this solution, K2HPO4(458 mg, 2.63 mmol) was added. The mixture was cooled at 0-5 0C and a solution of 4.07 g of 40% aqueous glyoxal diluted with water (14.5 mL) was added slowly. The resulting solution was stirred 2 hours at this temperature and overnight at room temperature. The complete conversion was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was concentrated under vacuum to a volume of 68 mL and water (128 mL) was added drop- wise. The resulting suspension was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature, 1 hour in a ice/water bath, filtered, washed with water (20 mL) and dried m a oven at 50 0C to obtain the compound of formula (IV), 6.78 g.

C) Preparation of vareniclme L-tartrate (compound of formula (I) )

This example is based on International Patent No. WO/2006/090236.

A 250 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, and magnetic stirring was charged with compound of formula (IV) (6.78 g, 22 mmol) and toluene

(47 mL) . To this solution was added a solution of NaOH (2.7 g, 68.2 mmol) in water (34 mL) . The mixture was heated to 400C and stirred for 4 hours. The complete hydrolysis was confirmed by GC analysis. Toluene (68 mL) was added and the reaction was cooled. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (30 mL) . The organic phases were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in MeOH (90 mL) and evaporated again. The final residue was dissolved in 156 mL of MeOH. 1.3 g of activated carbon “Darco G-60 100 mesh” were added and the mixture was stirred for 30 min and filtered through Celite to obtain an intense yellow solution. The process with activated carbon was repeated without any improvement in the colour. This solution was added drop-wise over a solution of L- tartaric acid (3.63 g, 24.2 mmol) in MeOH (47 mL) . The slurry was stirred for 72 hours at room temperature, filtered, washed with MeOH and dried in an oven at 50 0C for 8 hours, to obtain 5.05 g of varenicline L-tartrate as a yellow solid with a 95.5% purity by HPLC (4.4% of unknown impurity A). Colour L: 92.75, a*: -7.19, b*:43.08.

Comparative Example 2: Preparation of 7,8,9,10- tetrahydro-6, 10-methano-6H-pyrazmo [2, 3-h] [3 ] benzazepine L-tartrate (i.e. varenicline L-tartrate) A) Preparation of compound of formula (IV)

This example is based on International Patent No. WO/2006/090236.

A 200 mL autoclave was charged with (III) prepared according to Comparative Example 1.A) (4.1 g) , 123 mg of damp 5% Pd/C 50% and 81 mL of a 2-propanol/water (80/20 wt/wt) . The reaction was stirred under 50 psi of hydrogen for 24 hours. The complete hydrogenation was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was filtered through Celite and washed with 2-propanol (16 mL) . To this solution, K2HPO4 (207 mg, 1.19 mmol) was added. The mixture was cooled at 0-5 0C and a solution of 1.84 g of 40% aqueous glyoxal diluted with water (6.6 mL) was added slowly. The resulting solution was stirred 2 hours at this temperature and overnight at room temperature. The complete conversion was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was concentrated under vacuum to a volume of 30 mL and water (56 mL) was added drop-wise. The resulting suspension was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature, 1 hour in a ice/water bath, filtered, washed with water and dried in a oven at 50 0C to obtain 3.15 g of compound of formula (IV) .

B) Preparation of vareniclme L-tartrate (compound of formula (I) )

This example is based on International application No. WO/2006/090236. A 100 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, and magnetic stirring was charged with

7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydro-8- (tπfluoroacetyl) -6, 10-methano-6H- pyrazino [2 , 3-h] [3] benzazepine, i.e. compound of formula

(IV) (3.14 g, 10.2 mmol) and toluene (22 mL) . To this solution was added a solution of NaOH (1.3 g, 31.6 mmol) in water (16 mL) . The mixture was heated to 40 0C and stirred for 2.5 hours. The complete hydrolysis was confirmed by GC analysis. Toluene (30 mL) was added and the reaction was cooled. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (15 mL) . The organic phases were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in MeOH (45 mL) and evaporated again. The final residue was dissolved m 70 mL of MeOH. 314 mg of activated carbon “Darco G-60 100 mesh” were added and the mixture was stirred for 30 mm and filtered through Celite to obtain a yellow solution. This solution was added drop-wise over a solution of L- tartaπc acid (1.68 g, 11.22 mmol) m MeOH (22 mL) . The slurry was stirred for 1 hour at room temperature, filtered, washed with MeOH (2 x 5 mL) and dried under vacuum, to obtain vareniclme L-tartrate (2.48 g) as a yellow solid with a 95.6% purity by HPLC (4.4% of unknown impurity A). Colour L: 99.50, a*: -4.98, b*:43.02

Comparative Example 3: Preparation of 7,8,9,10- tetrahydro-6, 10-methano-6H-pyrazino [2, 3-h] [3 ] benzazepine L-tartrate (i.e. vareniclme L-tartrate)

This example is based on International application No. WO/2002/092089.

2 g of vareniclme L-tartrate as obtained from Comparative Example 1 were dissolved in 3 mL of water.

To this solution, 100 mL of CH3CN were added, and the resulting slurry was stirred for 10 mm and filtered.

After drying the product was analysed to be a 98.2% purity by HPLC (1.7% of unknown impurity A) . Colour L: 91.44, a*: -3.24, b* : 33.47

Example 1: Preparation of 7, 8, 9, lO-tetrahydro-6, 10- methano-6H-pyrazmo [2, 3-h] [3] benzazepine L-tartrate

(i.e. vareniclme L-tartrate)

A) Preparation of compound of formula (III) This example is based on U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550, except for the purification step, which is the object of the present invention (i.e. crystallization in toluene) .

A 500 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, addition funnel and magnetic stirring was charged with 10-aza-tricyclo [ 6.3.1. O27] dodeca-2, 4, 6- tπene para-toluene sulfonic acid salt (32.5g, 98.2 mmol) and 115 mL of CH2Cl2. Triethylamine (21.8 g, 216 mmol) was added to the slurry and the resulting solution was cooled to 0-5 0C. The addition funnel was charged with a solution of (CF3CO)2O (22.7 g, 108 mmol) in 50 mL of CH2Cl2. This solution was slowly added to the reaction mixture, maintaining the temperature < 15 0C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 1 hour, and the complete conversion was monitored by GC. The crude reaction mixture was washed with water (2 x 100 mL) and brine (100 mL) . The organic phase was used in the next step without further purification.

A l L round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, addition funnel and magnetic stirring was charged with CF3SO3H (67.8 g, 452 mmol), CH2Cl2 (280 mL) and cooled to 0-5 0C. At this temperature, fuming nitric acid (14.2 g, 226 mmol) was slowly added. To the resulting slurry at 0-5 0C, the solution obtained in the previous step was slowly added, maintaining the temperature < 15 0C. After the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred overnight. The complete dinitration was confirmed by GC. The crude reaction mixture was poured into water (150 mL) an ice (200 g) and stirred. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with CH2Cl2 (100 mL) . The mixture of the organic phases was washed with aqueous saturated NaHCO3 (2×100 mL) , water (100 mL) , dried over Na2SO4 and volatiles evaporated under vacuum to obtain 30.5 g of a solid with a 83.6% purity by GC (12.5% of meta- dinitrocompound impurity) . 20 g of this solid were crystallized in toluene (100 mL) to obtain the compound of formula (III), 15 g of a pale brown solid with a 98.5 % purity by GC (meta-dinitrocompound impurity not detected) .

B) Preparation of compound of formula (IV) This example is based on International Patent No. WO/2006/090236.

A 200 mL autoclave was charged with (III) (9.1 g, 26.3 mmol, crystals from toluene), damp 5% Pd/C 50% and 180 mL of a 2-propanol/water (80/20 wt/wt) . The reaction was stirred under 50 psi of hydrogen for 18 hours. The complete hydrogenation was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was filtered over Celite and washed with 2- propanol (40 mL) . To this solution, K2HPO4 (458 mg, 2.63 mmol) was added. The mixture was cooled at 0-5 0C and a solution of 4.07 g of 40% aqueous glyoxal diluted with water (14.5 mL) was added slowly. The resulting solution was stirred 2 hours at this temperature and overnight at room temperature. The complete conversion was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was concentrated under vacuum to a volume of 68 mL and water (128 mL) was added drop-wise. The resulting suspension was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature, 1 hour in a ice/water bath, filtered, washed with water (20 mL) and dried m a oven at 50 0C to obtain the product, 7.16 g of compound of formula (IV) with a 99.9% purity by HPLC. C) Preparation of varenicline L-tartrate (compound of formula ( I) )

Thrs example rs based on International Patent No. WO/2006/090236. A 250 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, and magnetic stirring was charged with a solution of NaOH (2.89 g, 72.23 mmol) in water (36 mL) , compound of formula (IV) (7.15 g, 23.3 mmol) and toluene (50 mL) . The mixture was heated to 40 0C and stirred for 4 hours. The complete hydrolysis was confirmed by GC analysis. Toluene (71 mL) was added and the reaction was cooled. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (36 mL) . The organic phases were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in MeOH (110 mL) and evaporated again. The final residue was dissolved in 164 mL of MeOH. 750 mg of activated carbon “Darco G-60 100 mesh” were added and the mixture was stirred for 30 min and filtered through Celite to obtain a yellow solution. This solution was added drop- wise over a solution of L-tartaric acid (3.84 g, 25.6 mmol) in MeOH (50 mL) . The slurry was stirred for 14 hours at room temperature, filtered, washed with MeOH and dried under vacuum, to obtain varenicline L-tartrate

(7.04 g) as an off-white solid with a >99.9% purity by HPLC (unknown impurity A not detected) . Colour L: 94.39, a*: 2.27, b*:9.02.

Post-marketing surveillance

No evidence for increased risks of cardiovascular events, depression, or self-harm with varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy has been found in one post-marketing surveillance study.[23]

Mechanism of action

Varenicline displays full agonism on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.[24][25] And it is a partial agonist on the α4β2, α3β4, and α6β2 subtypes.[26] In addition, it is a weak agonist on the α3β2 containing receptors.

Varenicline’s partial agonism on the α4β2 receptors rather than nicotine’s full agonism produces less effect of dopamine release than nicotine’s. This α4β2 competitive binding, reduces the ability of nicotine to bind and stimulate the mesolimbic dopamine system – similar to the method of action of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid addiction.[3]

Pharmacokinetics

Most of the active compound is excreted by the kidneys (92–93%). A small proportion is glucuronidated, oxidised, N-formylated or conjugated to a hexose.[27] The elimination half-life is about 24 hours.

History

Use of Cytisus plant as a smoking substitute during World War II[28] led to use as a cessation aid in eastern Europe and extraction of cytisine.[29] Cytisine analogs led to varenicline at Pfizer.[30][31][32]

Varenicline received a “priority review” by the US FDA in February 2006, shortening the usual 10-month review period to 6 months because of its demonstrated effectiveness inclinical trials and perceived lack of safety issues.[33] The agency’s approval of the drug came on May 11, 2006.[4] On August 1, 2006, varenicline was made available for sale in the United States and on September 29, 2006, was approved for sale in the European Union.[34]

SEE

Busch FR, Concannon PE, Handfield RE, McKinley JD, McMahon ME, Singer RA, Watson TJ, Withbroe GJ, Stivanello M, Leoni L, Bezze C. Synthesis of (1 (Aminomethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-3-yl)methanol: Structural Confirmation of the Main Band Impurity Found in Varenicline® Starting Material.Synth Commun. 2008;38:441–447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00397910701771231.
Varenicline standards and impurity controls. www.freepatentsonline.com/US2007/0224690.html.
N-formyl and N-methyl degradation products. www.freepatentsonline.com/y2004/0235850.html.
Methods of reducing degradant formation in pharmaceutical compositions of Varenicline.www.freepatentsonline.com/y2008/0026059.html.
Varenicline standards and impurity controls. www.freepatentsonline.com/EP2004186.html.
Satheesh B, Kumarpulluru S, Raghavan V, Saravanan D. UHPLC Separation and Quantification of Related Substances of Varenicline Tartrate Tablet. Acta Chromatogr. 2010;22:207–218.http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/AChrom.22.2010.2.4.
STR1
US6410550 Nov 13, 1998 Jun 25, 2002 Pfizer Inc Aryl fused azapolycyclic compounds
WO2009155403A2 * Jun 18, 2009 Dec 23, 2009 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Processes for the preparation of varenicline and intermediates thereof
Reference
1 * BHUSHAN, VIDYA; RATHORE, RAJENDRA; CHANDRASEKARAN, S.: “A Simple and Mild Method for the cis-Hydroxylation of Alkenes with Cetyltrimethylammonium Permanganate” SYNTHESIS, no. 5, 1984, pages 431-433, XP002581198
2 * BROOKS P R ET AL: “Synthesis of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,5-methano-1H-3-benzaz epine via oxidative cleavage and reductive amination strategies” SYNTHESIS 20040803 DE, no. 11, 3 August 2004 (2004-08-03), pages 1755-1758, XP002581197 ISSN: 0039-7881
3 * SORBERA L A ET AL: “Varenicline tartrate: Aid to smoking cessation nicotinic [alpha]4[beta]2 partial agonist” DRUGS OF THE FUTURE 200602 ES LNKD- DOI:10.1358/DOF.2006.031.02.964028, vol. 31, no. 2, February 2006 (2006-02), pages 117-122, XP002581199 ISSN: 0377-8282 DOI: 10.1358/dof.2006.031.02.964028
WO2001062736A1 * Feb 8, 2001 Aug 30, 2001 Pfizer Products Inc. Aryl fused azapolycyclic compounds
WO2002085843A2 * Mar 4, 2002 Oct 31, 2002 Pfizer Products Inc. Process for the preparation of 1,3-substituted indenes and aryl-fused azapolycyclic compounds
WO2006090236A1 * Feb 21, 2006 Aug 31, 2006 Pfizer Products Inc. Preparation of high purity substituted quinoxaline
WO2008060487A2 * Nov 9, 2007 May 22, 2008 Pfizer Products Inc. Polymorphs of nicotinic intermediates
Reference
1 * COE J W ET AL: “Varenicline: an alpha4beta2 Nicotinic Receptor Partial Agonist for Smoking Cessation” JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, WASHINGTON., US, vol. 48, no. 10, 1 January 2005 (2005-01-01), pages 3474-3477, XP002474642 ISSN: 0022-2623 cited in the application
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
WO2010005643A1 * May 28, 2009 Jan 14, 2010 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Processes for purifying varenicline l-tartrate salt and preparing crystalline forms of varenicline l-tartrate salt
WO2011110954A1 * Mar 8, 2011 Sep 15, 2011 Actavis Group Ptc Ehf Highly pure varenicline or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof substantially free of methylvarenicline impurity
WO2011154586A3 * Jun 13, 2011 Mar 22, 2012 Medichem, S. A. Improved methods for the preparation of quinoxaline derivatives
EP2581375A2 * Jun 13, 2011 Apr 17, 2013 Medichem, S.A. Improved methods for the preparation of quinoxaline derivatives
US8039620 May 21, 2009 Oct 18, 2011 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Varenicline tosylate, an intermediate in the preparation process of varenicline L-tartrate
US8178537 Jun 22, 2010 May 15, 2012 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Solid state forms of varenicline salts and processes for preparation thereof

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  16.  Takagi, H; Umemoto, T (Sep 6, 2011). “Varenicline: quantifying the risk”. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association 183 (12): 1404. doi:10.1503/cmaj.111-2063.PMC 3168634. PMID 21896705.
  17. Jump up^ Samuels, L (Sep 6, 2011). “Varenicline: cardiovascular safety”. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association 183 (12): 1407–08. doi:10.1503/cmaj.111-2073. PMC 3168639.PMID 21896709.
  18.  “European Medicine Agency confirms positive benefit-risk balance for Champix.”. 2011-07-21.
  19. ^ Jump up to:a b Prochaska JJ, Hilton JF (2012). “Risk of cardiovascular serious adverse events associated with varenicline use for tobacco cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis”. BMJ (Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis) 344: e2856.doi:10.1136/bmj.e2856. PMC 3344735. PMID 22563098.
  20.  Mills EJ, Thorlund K, Eapen S, Wu P, Prochaska JJ (January 2014). “Cardiovascular events associated with smoking cessation pharmacotherapies: a network meta-analysis”.Circulation (Network Meta-Analysis) 129 (1): 28–41.doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003961. PMID 24323793.
  21.  cessation in cardiovascular patients”. Evidence-Based Medicine (Review & Commentary) 19 (5): 193. doi:10.1136/eb-2014-110030.PMID 24917603.
  22.  Rowland K (April 2014). “ACP Journal Club. Review: Nicotine replacement therapy increases CVD events; bupropion and varenicline do not”. Annals of Internal Medicine(Review & Commentary) 160 (8): JC2. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-160-8-201404150-02002.PMID 24733219.
  23. Jump up^ Kotz D, Viechtbauer W, Simpson C, van Schayck OC, West R, Sheikh A (2015).“Cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric risks of varenicline: a retrospective cohort study”.Lancet Respir Med (retrospective cohort) 3: 761–768. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00320-3. PMC 4593936. PMID 26355008.
  24. Jump up^ Mihalak KB, Carroll FI, Luetje CW; Carroll; Luetje (2006). “Varenicline is a partial agonist at alpha4beta2 and a full agonist at alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptors”. Mol. Pharmacol.70 (3): 801–805. doi:10.1124/mol.106.025130. PMID 16766716.
  25. Jump up^ Mineur YS, Picciotto MR; Picciotto (December 2010). “Nicotine receptors and depression: revisiting and revising the cholinergic hypothesis”. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 31 (12): 580–6. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2010.09.004. PMC 2991594. PMID 20965579.
  26.  Tanuja Bordia. “Varenicline Is a Potent Partial Agonist at α6β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Rat and Monkey Striatum”. aspetjournals.org.
  27.  Obach, RS; Reed-Hagen, AE; Krueger, SS; Obach, BJ; O’Connell, TN; Zandi, KS; Miller, S; Coe, JW (2006). “Metabolism and disposition of varenicline, a selective alpha4beta2 acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in vivo and in vitro”. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 34 (1): 121–130.doi:10.1124/dmd.105.006767. PMID 16221753.
  28.  “[Cytisine as an aid for smoking cessation].”. Med Monatsschr Pharm 15 (1): 20–1. Jan 1992. PMID 1542278.
  29.  Prochaska, BMJ 347:f5198 2013 http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f5198
  30.  Coe JW, Brooks PR, Vetelino MG, Wirtz MC, Arnold EP, Huang J, Sands SB, Davis TI, Lebel LA, Fox CB, Shrikhande A, Heym JH, Schaeffer E, Rollema H, Lu Y, Mansbach RS, Chambers LK, Rovetti CC, Schulz DW, Tingley FD 3rd, O’Neill BT (2005). “Varenicline: an alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist for smoking cessation”. J. Med. Chem. 48(10): 3474–3477. doi:10.1021/jm050069n. PMID 15887955.
  31. Schwartz JL (1979). “Review and evaluation of methods of smoking cessation, 1969–77. Summary of a monograph”. Public Health Rep 94 (6): 558–63. PMC 1431736.PMID 515342.
  32.  Etter JF (2006). “Cytisine for smoking cessation: a literature review and a meta-analysis”. Arch. Intern. Med. 166 (15): 1553–1559. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.15.1553.PMID 16908787.
  33.  Kuehn BM (2006). “FDA speeds smoking cessation drug review”. JAMA 295 (6): 614–614.doi:10.1001/jama.295.6.614. PMID 16467225.
  34.  European Medicines Agency (2011-01-28). “EPAR summary for the public. Champix varenicline”. London. Retrieved 2011-02-14.

External links

Manufacturer’s website USA

STR1

Varenicline
Varenicline.svg
Varenicline ball-and-stick model.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
7,8,9,10-Tetrahydro-6,10-methano-6H-pyrazino[2,3-h] [3]benzazepine
Clinical data
Trade names Chantix
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a606024
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding <20%
Metabolism Limited (<10%)
Biological half-life 24 hours
Excretion Renal (81–92%)
Identifiers
CAS Number 249296-44-4 Yes 375815-87-5
ATC code N07BA03 (WHO)
PubChem CID 5310966
IUPHAR/BPS 5459
DrugBank DB01273 Yes
ChemSpider 4470510 Yes
UNII W6HS99O8ZO Yes
KEGG D08669 
ChEBI CHEBI:84500 
ChEMBL CHEMBL1076903 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C13H13N3
Molar mass 211.267 g/mol

////////////Varenicline, Chantix™, FDA 2006, 249296-44-4, 375815-87-5,  Champix , Pfizer, バレニクリン酒石酸塩

n1c2cc3c(cc2ncc1)[C@@H]4CNC[C@H]3C4

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PF-06282999

 phase 1, Uncategorized  Comments Off on PF-06282999
Jul 052016
 

  Figure imgf000061_0002

PF 6282999

Alternative Names: PF-06282999; PF-6282999, PF-06282999

Cas 1435467-37-0

[2-(6-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide]

2-(6-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide

MF C13H12ClN3O3S
Molecular Weight: 325.767
Elemental Analysis: C, 47.93; H, 3.71; Cl, 10.88; N, 12.90; O, 14.73; S, 9.84

Irreversible inactivator of myeloperoxidase

Currently in clinical trials for the potential treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Phase I

  • Phase I Acute coronary syndromes

Most Recent Events

  • 01 Mar 2015 Pfizer terminates phase I trial in Healthy volunteers in USA (NCT01965600)
  • 10 Sep 2014 Pfizer completes enrolment in its phase I trial in Healthy volunteers in USA (NCT01965600)
  • 01 Feb 2014 Phase-I clinical trials in volunteers in USA (PO)

A drug potentially for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

img

PF-06282999 is a potent and selective myeloperoxidase Inhibitor which is potential useful for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases. PF-06282999 displayed excellent oral pharmacokinetics in preclinical species and robust irreversible inhibition of plasma MPO activity both in human blood stimulated exogenously and in plasma collected after oral (po) administration to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated cynomolgus monkeys.

PF-06282999 has been advanced into first-in-human pharmacokinetics and safety studies. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme peroxidase that catalyzes the production of hypochlorous acid. Clinical evidence suggests a causal role for MPO in various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders including vasculitis and cardiovascular and Parkinson’s diseases, implying that MPO inhibitors may represent a therapeutic treatment option

The thiouracil derivative PF-06282999 [2-(6-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide] is an irreversible inactivator of myeloperoxidase and is currently in clinical trials for the potential treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns over idiosyncratic toxicity arising from bioactivation of the thiouracil motif to reactive species in the liver have been largely mitigated through the physicochemical (molecular weight, lipophilicity, and topological polar surface area) characteristics of PF-06282999, which generally favor elimination via nonmetabolic routes.

To test this hypothesis, pharmacokinetics and disposition studies were initiated with PF-06282999 using animals and in vitro assays, with the ultimate goal of predicting human pharmacokinetics and elimination mechanisms. Consistent with its physicochemical properties, PF-06282999 was resistant to metabolic turnover from liver microsomes and hepatocytes from animals and humans and was devoid of cytochrome P450 inhibition. In vitro transport studies suggested moderate intestinal permeability and minimal transporter-mediated hepatobiliary disposition. PF-06282999 demonstrated moderate plasma protein binding across all of the species.

Pharmacokinetics in preclinical species characterized by low to moderate plasma clearances, good oral bioavailability at 3- to 5-mg/kg doses, and renal clearance as the projected major clearance mechanism in humans. Human pharmacokinetic predictions using single-species scaling of dog and/or monkey pharmacokinetics were consistent with the parameters observed in the first-in-human study, conducted in healthy volunteers at a dose range of 20-200 mg PF-06282999.

In summary, disposition characteristics of PF-06282999 were relatively similar across preclinical species and humans, with renal excretion of the unchanged parent emerging as the principal clearance mechanism in humans, which was anticipated based on its physicochemical properties and supported by preclinical studies.

STR1

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2015), 58(21), 8513-8528.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00963

Discovery of 2-(6-(5-Chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide (PF-06282999): A Highly Selective Mechanism-Based Myeloperoxidase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases

Abstract Image

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme peroxidase that catalyzes the production of hypochlorous acid. Clinical evidence suggests a causal role for MPO in various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders including vasculitis and cardiovascular and Parkinson’s diseases, implying that MPO inhibitors may represent a therapeutic treatment option. Herein, we present the design, synthesis, and preclinical evaluation of N1-substituted-6-arylthiouracils as potent and selective inhibitors of MPO. Inhibition proceeded in a time-dependent manner by a covalent, irreversible mechanism, which was dependent upon MPO catalysis, consistent with mechanism-based inactivation. N1-Substituted-6-arylthiouracils exhibited low partition ratios and high selectivity for MPO over thyroid peroxidase and cytochrome P450 isoforms. N1-Substituted-6-arylthiouracils also demonstrated inhibition of MPO activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human whole blood. Robust inhibition of plasma MPO activity was demonstrated with the lead compound 2-(6-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide (PF-06282999, 8) upon oral administration to lipopolysaccharide-treated cynomolgus monkeys. On the basis of its pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profile, PF-06282999 has been advanced to first-in-human pharmacokinetic and safety studies.

tan solid (mp = 165.3 °C).

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.85 (s, 1 H), 7.57 (dd, J = 9.03, 2.68 Hz, 1 H), 7.33 (s, 1 H), 7.17–7.23 (m, 2 H), 7.10 (s, 1 H), 5.89 (d, J = 1.71 Hz, 1 H), 5.41 (br s, 1 H), 3.89 (br s, 1 H), 3.84 (s, 3 H).

MS (ES+) m/z: 326.0 [M + H]+. HRMS: m/z calcd for C13H13ClN3O3S [M + H]+ 326.0366, found 326.0361.

Anal. Calcd for C13H12ClN3O3S: C, 47.93; H, 3.71; N, 12.90; S, 9.84. Found: C, 47.81; H, 3.70; N, 12.83; S, 9.83. HPLC purity: >95%.

PATENT

WO 2013068875

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2013068875A1?cl=en

Beta Keto Ester Route Section

A. Carboxylic Acid Route Section

Preparation 1

Figure imgf000060_0001

Ethyl 3-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxopropanoate

A 3000 mL 3-necked round-bottomed flask flushed with nitrogen was charged with magnesium ethoxide (67.46 g, 589.51 mmoles) and THF (1 100 mL), and the resulting mixture was stirred as ethyl hydrogen malonate (162.26 g, 1 .18 moles; 145.00 mL diluted in 100 ml of THF) was added and the mixture was heated at 45 °C for 4 hours. Meanwhile, a 2000 mL 3-necked round-bottomed flask flushed with nitrogen was charged with 5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (100 g, 536 mmoles) and THF (600 mL). To this mixture stirring at room temperature was added 1 , 1 ‘-carbonyldiimidazole (95.59 g, 589.5 mmoles) in portions to avoid excess foaming. After stirring for 3 hours at room temperature the second solution was added gradually to the first solution. After addition the reaction mixture was heated to 45 °C. After 20 hours, the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure before adding ethyl acetate (1 L) followed by 2 N HCI (500 mL). After mixing, the layers were separated and the organic phase was washed sequentially with 2 N HCI (500 mL), saturated sodium bicarbonate (500 mL), and water (500 mL). The organic phase was concentrated under reduced pressure, the residue taken up in ethyl acetate (1000 mL) and concentrated again to afford the title compound (104.94 g).

MS (ES+) 257.2 [M+1 ]+. 1 H NMR showed product as a 7.5:1 keto:enol mixture. For the keto tautomer: 1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 7.85 (d, J=2.93 Hz, 1 H) 7.45 (dd, J=8.90, 2.81 Hz, 1 H) 6.92 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 1 H) 4.18 (q, J=7.16 Hz, 2 H) 3.95 (s, 2 H) 3.90 (s, 3 H) 1 .24 (t, J=7.07 Hz, 3 H). Preparation 2

Figure imgf000061_0001

(Z)-Ethyl 3-((2-amino-2-oxoethyl)amino)-3-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)acrylate A 5-L reaction vessel was charged with methanol (3.3 L), sodium methoxide (102.4 g, 1.8 moles), and glycinamide hydrochloride (202 g, 1.8 moles). The mixture was heated at 65 °C for 1 hour before cooling to 50 °C and adding acetic acid (514.25 mmoles, 30.88 g, 29.47 ml.) and ethyl 3-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxopropanoate (300 g, 1.03 mole). After heating to reflux for 16 hours, the reaction mixture was stirred as it was cooled to 10 °C. After 30 min the resulting solid was collected by vacuum filtration, pulling dry to form a cake that was dried in a vacuum oven (20 mm Hg, 65 °C) for 14 hours to afford the title compound (339.4 g).

MS (ES+) 313.2 [M+1]+. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 8.80 (t, J=5.00 Hz, 1 H) 7.47 (dd, J=8.90, 2.81 Hz, 1 H) 7.27 (br. s., 1 H) 7.22 (d, J=2.68 Hz, 1 H) 7.14 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 1 H) 7.09 (br. s., 1 H) 4.30 (s, 1 H) 4.03 (q, J=7.07 Hz, 2 H) 3.80 (s, 3 H) 3.56 (br. s., 1 H) 3.45 (br. s., 1 H) 1.18 (t, J=7.07 Hz, 3 H).

Example 1

Figure imgf000061_0002

2-( 6-(5-Chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3, 4-dihydropyrimidin

acetamide

A reaction vessel equipped with an efficient stirrer was charged with (Z)-ethyl 3-((2- amino-2-oxoethyl)amino)-3-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (15 g, 50.2 mmol), butyl acetate (150 ml.) and trimethylsilyl isothiocyanate (160.7 mmole, 21 .1 g, 22.7 ml.) and the mixture was heated to reflux. After 15 hours, the mixture was cooled to 30 °C and treated with 1 N aqueous sodium hydroxide (1 12.5 ml_, 1 12.5 mmoles). After 30 min, the organic layer was separated and extracted with another portion of 1 N sodium hydroxide (37.5 ml_, 37.5 mmoles). The combined aqueous phases were extracted twice with dichloromethane (2 x 45 mL), filtered, and treated with 6N HCI until a pH of 2.5 was achieved. After stirring for 1 hour, the resulting solid was isolated by vacuum filtration, resuspended in 100 mL of a 1 :1 methanol-water solution, heated with stirring at 50 °C for 2 hours, and cooled to room temperature before collecting the solid by vacuum filtration, pulling dry and drying in a vacuum oven (20 mm Hg, 50 °C) for 12 hours to afford 8.7 g of the desired product as a tan solid.

MS (ES+) 326.0 [M+1]+. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.85 (s, 1 H) 7.57 (dd, J=9.03, 2.68 Hz, 1 H) 7.33 (s, 1 H) 7.17 – 7.23 (m, 2 H) 7.10 (s, 1 H) 5.89 (d, J=1.71 Hz, 1 H) 5.41 (br. s, 1 H) 3.89 (br. s, 1 H) 3.84 (s, 3 H).

Alternative Preparation of Example 1

Figure imgf000062_0001

2-( 6-( 5-Chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3, 4-dihydropyrimidin- 1 ( 2H)-yl) acetamide A slurry of (Z)-ethyl 3-((2-amino-2-oxoethyl)amino)-3-(5-chloro-2- methoxyphenyl)acrylate (20 g, 63 mmol) in a mixture of butyl acetate (140 mL) and DMF (38 mL) was treated with trimethylsilyl isothiocyanate (16.8 g, 125 mmol) and the mixture was heated at 1 15-120 °C for 5-6 hours. The mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C, butyl acetate (100 mL) was added and the mixture was slurried for 8 hours. The formed solids were filtered, and the filter cake was washed with butyl acetate (2 x 100 mL). The solid was dried in a vacuum oven at 50 °C for 12 hours to a tan solid. The solid was dissolved in a 5:1 mixture of DMF and water at room temperature and additional water was added slowly to crystallize the material. The slurry was cooled to 10 °C and stirred for 8 hours, followed by filtration and washing with water. The filter cake was dried in a vacuum oven at 50 °C for 8 hours. The solid was dissolved in a 1 :1 mixture of methanol and water and the slurry was heated to 50 °C and held at this temperature for 2 hours. After cooling to 10 °C over 30 minutes, the slurry was held at this temperature for 1 hour, filtered and washed with water and dried in a vacuum oven at 50 °C for 8 hours to give the title compound as a white solid. MS (ES+) 326.0 [M+1]+.1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.85 (s, 1 H) 7.57 (dd, J=9.03, 2.68 Hz, 1 H) 7.33 (s, 1 H) 7.17 – 7.23 (m, 2 H) 7.10 (s, 1 H) 5.89 (d, J=1.71 Hz, 1 H) 5.41 (br. s, 1 H) 3.89 (br. s, 1 H) 3.84 (s, 3 H).

 

 

REFERENCES

1: Ruggeri RB, Buckbinder L, Bagley SW, Carpino PA, Conn EL, Dowling MS, Fernando DP, Jiao W, Kung DW, Orr ST, Qi Y, Rocke BN, Smith A, Warmus JS, Zhang Y, Bowles D, Widlicka DW, Eng H, Ryder T, Sharma R, Wolford A, Okerberg C, Walters K, Maurer TS, Zhang Y, Bonin PD, Spath SN, Xing G, Hepworth D, Ahn K, Kalgutkar AS. Discovery of 2-(6-(5-Chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide (PF-06282999): A Highly Selective Mechanism-Based Myeloperoxidase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases. J Med Chem. 2015 Oct 28. [Epubahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26509551.

////////////PF 06282999, 1435467-37-0, PFIZER, PHASE 1, PF-06282999; PF-6282999, PF06282999, ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

O=C(N)CN(C(N1)=S)C(C2=CC(Cl)=CC=C2OC)=CC1=O

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PF 06650833

 Uncategorized  Comments Off on PF 06650833
Mar 292016
 

str1

.

Picture credit….

PF  06650833

MFC18H20FN3O4, MW361.37

1-{[(2S,3S,4S)-3-ethyl-4-fluoro-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl]methoxy}-7-methoxyisoquinoline-6-carboxamide

6-​Isoquinolinecarboxam​ide, 1-​[[(2S,​3S,​4S)​-​3-​ethyl-​4-​fluoro-​5-​oxo-​2-​pyrrolidinyl]​methoxy]​-​7-​methoxy-

CAS 1817626-54-2

WO 2015150995

1st disclosures is @pfizer‘s  on inflammatory disease treatment targeting IRAK4

IRAK4 inhibitor

Phase I Lupus vulgaris

  • 01 Feb 2016 Pfizer completes a phase I pharmacokinetics trial in Healthy volunteers in USA (PO) (NCT02609139)
  • 01 Nov 2015 Pfizer initiates a phase I pharmacokinetics trial in Healthy volunteers in USA (PO) (NCT02609139)
  • 01 Jun 2015 Pfizer completes a phase I trial for Lupus (In volunteers) in USA (PO) (NCT02224651)

Compounds useful for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases associated with lnterleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase (IRAK) and more particularly compounds that modulate the function of IRAK4.

Protein kinases are families of enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of specific residues in proteins, broadly classified in tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. Inappropriate activity arising from dysregulation of certain kinases by a variety of mechanisms is believed to underlie the causes of many diseases, including but not limited to, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, allergies, asthma, respiratory diseases, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, bone diseases, metabolic disorders, and neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. As such, potent and selective inhibitors of kinases are sought as potential treatments for a variety of human diseases.

There is considerable interest in targeting the innate immune system in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and sterile inflammation. Receptors of the innate immune system provide the first line of defense against bacterial and viral insults. These receptors recognize bacterial and viral products as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines and thereby initiate a signaling cascade that ultimately results in the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines such as TNFa, IL6, and interferons. Recently it has become apparent that self-generated ligands such as nucleic acids and products of inflammation such as high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) and Advanced Glycated End-products (AGE) are ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are key receptors of the innate immune system (O’Neill 2003, Kanzler et al 2007, Wagner 2006). This demonstrates the role of TLRs in the initiation and perpetuation of inflammation due to autoimmunity.

lnterleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 4 (I RAK4) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase involved in the regulation of innate immunity (Suzuki & Saito 2006). IRAK4 is responsible for initiating signaling from TLRs and members of the I L- 1/18 receptor family. Kinase-inactive knock-ins and targeted deletions of IRAK4 in mice were reported to cause reductions in TLR and IL-1 induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (Kawagoe et al 2007; Fraczek et al. 2008; Kim et al. 2007). IRAK4 kinase-dead knock-in mice have also been shown to be resistant to induced joint inflammation in the antigen-induced-arthritis (AIA) and serum transfer-induced (K/BxN) arthritis models (Koziczak-Holbro 2009). Likewise, humans deficient in IRAK4 also appear to display the inability to respond to challenge by Toll ligands and IL-1 (Hernandez & Bastian 2006). However, the immunodeficient phenotype of IRAK4-null individuals is narrowly restricted to challenge by gram positive bacteria, but not gram negative bacteria, viruses or fungi. This gram positive sensitivity also lessens with age, implying redundant or compensating mechanisms for innate immunity in the absence of IRAK4 (Lavine et al 2007).

These data indicate that inhibitors of IRAK4 kinase activity should have therapeutic value in treating cytokine driven autoimmune diseases while having minimal immunosuppressive side effects. Additional recent studies suggest that targeting IRAK4 may be useful in other inflammatory pathologies such as atherosclerosis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Rekhter et al 2008; Ngo et al 2011). Therefore, inhibitors of IRAK4 kinase activity are potential therapeutics for a wide variety of diseases including but not limited to autoimmunity, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases. See the following references for additional information: N. Suzuki and T. Saito, Trends in Immunology, 2006, 27, 566. T. Kawagoe, S. Sato, A. Jung, M. Yamamoto, K. Matsui, H. Kato, S. Uematsu, O. Takeuchi and S. Akira, Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2007, 204, 1013. J. Fraczek, T. W. Kim, H. Xiao, J. Yao, Q. Wen, Y. Li, J.-L. Casanova, J. Pryjma and X. Li, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2008, 283, 31697. T. W. Kim, K. Staschke, K. Bulek, J. Yao, K. Peters, K.-H. Oh, Y. Vandenburg, H. Xiao, W. Qian, T. Hamilton, B. Min, G. Sen, R. Gilmour and X. Li, Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2007, 204, 1025. M. Koziczak-Holbro, A. Littlewood- Evans,

B. Pollinger, J. Kovarik, J. Dawson, G. Zenke, C. Burkhart, M. Muller and H. Gram, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 2009, 60, 1661. M. Hernandez and J. F. Bastian, Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 2006, 6, 468. E. Lavine, R. Somech, J. Y. Zhang, A. Puel, X. Bossuyt, C. Picard, J. L. Casanova and C. M. Roifman, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2007, 120, 948. M. Rekhter, K. Staschke, T. Estridge, P. Rutherford, N. Jackson, D. Gifford-Moore, P. Foxworthy,

C. Reidy, X.-d. Huang, M. Kalbfleisch, K. Hui, M.S. Kuo, R. Gilmour and C. J. Vlahos, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2008, 367, 642. O’Neill, L. A. (2003). “Therapeutic targeting of Toll-like receptors for inflammatory and infectious diseases.” Curr Opin Pharmacol 3(4): 396. Kanzler, H et al. (2007) “Therapeutic targeting of innate immunity with toll-like receptor agonists and antagonists.” Nature Medicine 13:552. Wagner, H. (2006) “Endogenous TLR ligands and autoimmunity” /Advances in Immunol 91 : 159. Ngo, V. N. et al. (2011) “Oncogenically active MyD88 mutations in human lymphoma” Nature 470: 115.

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2015150995&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

Preparation 1 : 1-chloro-7-methoxyisoquinoline-6-carbonitrile (P1) Step 1. Synthesis of methyl 4-iodo-3-methoxybenzoate (CAS 35387-92-9. CD.

To a solution of 3-hydroxy-4-iodobenzoic acid (CAS 58123-77-6, C12) (10800 g, 40.9 moles) in DMF (65 L) was added K2C03 (25398 g, 184 moles), followed by the slow addition of dimethyl sulfate (11352 g, 90 moles). This mixture was heated to about 50 °C for over night. The reaction mixture was cooled to about 25 °C, diluted with EtOAc (50 L) and filtered through a plug of Celite®. The solid was thoroughly washed with EtOAc (10 L X 3). The combined EtOAc filtrates were poured into water. After stirring for about 30 min, the EtOAc layer was separated and it was further washed sequentially with water, 1 M NaOH and brine. The EtOAc layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated to provide the title compound C1. Yield: 11750 g (98%).

Step 2. Synthesis of (4-iodo-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol (CAS 244257-61-2, C2).

To a solution of compound C1 (11750 g, 40.2 moles) in THF (35 L) was added NaBH4 (7645 g, 201.09 moles) and refluxed. While refluxing, MeOH (25 L) was slowly added into the reaction mixture at a rate of about 1 L per hour. After completion of the reaction, it was poured into a solution of cold dilute HCI. Once the excess of NaBH4was quenched, the solution was filtered and extracted with EtOAc (2.5 L X 3). The combined EtOAc extracts were washed sequentially with water, brine and dried over Na2S04. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure and the resulting crude material was treated with MTBE. The resulting solid was filtered and filtrate was washed with water, brine, dried over Na2S0 , and filtered. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure to provide the title compound C2. Yield: 9900 g (93%).

Step 3. Synthesis of 4-iodo-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (CAS 121404-83-9, C3).

To a solution of compound C2 (9900 g, 34.5 moles) in CHCI3 (186 L), was added manganese dioxide (18000 g, 207 moles) and the resulting mixture was refluxed for about 16 h. The mixture was cooled to about 25 °C and filtered through a Celite pad, which was then washed thoroughly with CHCI3. The CHCI3 was evaporated under reduced pressure to provide the title compound C3. Yield: 9330 g (95%). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3): δ 9.95 (s, 1 H), 7.99 (d, 1 H), 7.14 (dd, 1 H), 3.95 (s, 3 H).

Step 3. Synthesis of 6-iodo-7-methoxyisoquinoline (CAS 244257-63-4. C4).

To a solution of compound C3 (9300 g, 35 moles) in toluene (60 L) was added amino acetaldehyde dimethyl acetal (5590 g, 53 moles) and the mixture was refluxed for about 4 h, while removing the liberated water by the use of a Dean – Stark water separator. The reaction mixture was cooled to about 0 °C, after which trifluoroacetic anhydride (22305 g, 106 moles) followed by BF3-Et20 (15080 g, 106 moles) were added, keeping internal temperature below 5 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at about 25 °C for about 16 h and quenched by pouring into a mixture of ice and ammonium hydroxide. The product was extracted with EtOAc (10 L X 3), and the combined EtOAc extracts were washed sequentially with water and brine. The combined EtOAc extracts were dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to afford a dark tan colored residue. This was treated with a mixture of MTBE and hexane (1 :1 v/v, 30 L), followed by 6 M HCI (9 L), with stirring. The precipitated solid was filtered and washed with MTBE. The solid was suspended in EtOAc (5 L) and made alkaline with ammonium hydroxide. The EtOAc layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to afford crude compound C4 as a brown solid. HPLC (230 nm) showed it to be about 83% pure.

The crude material (1000 g) was taken in AcOH (2.5 L) and stirred for about 90 min at about 25 °C. The solid was filtered and washed with AcOH (500 ml_). The filtrate was neutralized with saturated aqueous Na2C03 solution. The resulting precipitated solid was filtered, washed with water (4 L), and oven dried at about 70 – 75 °C for about 5 h to afford about 780 g of pure C4. Similarly, the remaining crude C4 (4 kg) was purified to provide the title compound C4. Yield: 4300 g (42%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3): δ 9.15 (s, 1 H), 8.45 (d, 1 H), 8.35 (s, 1 H), 7.45 (d, 1 H), 7.15 (s, 1 H) 4.00 (s, 3 H).

Step 4. Synthesis of 7-methoxyisoquinoline-6-carbonitrile (C5).

To a solution of compound C4 (4300 g , 15 moles) in DMSO (39 L) was added copper(l) cyanide (2954 g, 33 moles) and the mixture was heated to about 120 °C for about 3 h. The reaction mixture was quenched by pouring into a mixture of ice and ammonium hydroxide (40 L) and filtered. The filtrate was extracted with EtOAc (10 L X 2). While stirring, the solid residue was again treated with ammonium hydroxide solution (10 L) and EtOAc (10 L). After filtration, the precipitated material was repeatedly washed with a mixture of MeOH and CHCI3 (1 :9, v/v) several times and the combined extracts were washed with brine. The extracts were dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting crude material was triturated with hexane to provide the title compound C5. Yield: 2250 g (87%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3): δ 9.25 (br. s, 1 H), 8.55 (br. s, 1 H), 8.15 (s, 1 H), 7.60 (d, 1 H), 7.30 (s, 1 H), 4.05 (s, 3 H).

A solution of a reactant such as 1-(((2S,3S,4S)-3-ethyl-4-fluoro-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl)methoxy)-7-methoxyisoquinoline-6-carbonitrile (200 mg, 0.5 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (1.5 ml.) was warmed to about 55 °C for about two hours, then cooled to about 20 °C. The reaction mixture was added dropwise with vigorous stirring to 7.3 ml_ of ice cold concentrated ammonium hydroxide with cooling in ice. The precipitated solid was filtered and washed with water, heptane, ether, and dried under vacuum. The residue may be used directly for subsequent work, or it may be purified by chromatography or HPLC.

 

ABSTRACTS

251st Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (March 13-17, San Diego) 2016, Abst MEDI 261

STR2STR2

STR2

 

str1

 

 

//////////PF  06650833, IRAK4 inhibitor, inflammatory disease treatment , PFIZER, 1817626-54-2

N1C([C@H](C([C@H]1COc3c2cc(c(cc2ccn3)C(=O)N)OC)CC)F)=O

 

NC(=O)c2cc3ccnc(OC[C@H]1NC(=O)[C@@H](F)[C@H]1CC)c3cc2OC

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PF 06650808

 cancer, MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES, Uncategorized  Comments Off on PF 06650808
Mar 252016
 

=.

Picture credit….

PF 06650808

Phase 1

compound inspired by auristatins

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02129205

http://www.pfizer.com/sites/default/files/product-pipeline/8_7_2014_Pipeline_Update.pdf

ALL DATA COMING………

Notch-3 receptor antagonists

Neoplasms
Breast

Pfizer

 

 

Cancer

PF-06650808, is currently being examined in a Ph1 clinical trial (Protocol B7501001).

Notch3
Researchers are also exploring the use of Notch3 targeting. “The Notch pathway plays an important role in the growth of several solid tumours, including breast and ovarian cancer and melanoma,” explained Joerger. “In particular, Notch3 alterations such as gene amplification and upregulation are associated with poor patient survival. Research using Notch3 targeting as an innovative approach to treat solid malignancies included 27 patients unselected for Notch3 who received increasing doses of the anti-Notch3 antibody-drug conjugate PF-06650808. Responses were seen in two breast cancer patients (LBA 30). While preliminary, targeting Notch3 may become a new treatment approach in patients with selected solid tumours.”

The anti-Notch3 antibody-drug conjugate PF-06650808 is being developed by Pfizer.

  • 31 Jul 2014 Phase-I clinical trials in Solid tumours (Late-stage disease) in USA (Parenteral)
  • 30 Apr 2014 Preclinical trials in Solid tumours in USA (Parenteral)
  • 30 Apr 2014 Pfizer plans a phase I trial for Solid tumours (late-stage disease, second-line therapy or greater) in USA (NCT02129205)

 

 

251st Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (March 13-17, San Diego) 2016, Abst MEDI 262

 

str1 STR2

/////////PF 06650808, PF-06650808, PF-6650808, monoclonal antibody, pfizer, phase 1, Solid tumours , Notch-3 receptor antagonists

 

C1(C(N(C(C1)=O)CCCCCC(=O)NC([C@H](C)C)C(=O)NC(C(=O)Nc2ccc(cc2)COC(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)[N@](C)C(C(CC)C)[C@@H](OC)CC(=O)N3CCC[C@H]3C(OO)C(C)C(=O)N[C@H](c4nccs4)CC)CCCNC(=O)N)=O)SC

 

 

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I , Dr A.M.Crasto is writing this blog to share the knowledge/views, after reading Scientific Journals/Articles/News Articles/Wikipedia. My views/comments are based on the results /conclusions by the authors(researchers). I do mention either the link or reference of the article(s) in my blog and hope those interested can read for details. I am briefly summarising the remarks or conclusions of the authors (researchers). If one believe that their intellectual property right /copyright is infringed by any content on this blog, please contact or leave message at below email address amcrasto@gmail.com. It will be removed ASAP

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PF-06747775 (Pfizer) Third generation covalent EGFR inhibitors

 Uncategorized  Comments Off on PF-06747775 (Pfizer) Third generation covalent EGFR inhibitors
Mar 232016
 

Full-size image (4 K) imgPF-06747775 ≥98% (HPLC)

PF-06747775 (Pfizer)

PF06747775; PF06747775; PF 06747775; PF6747775; PF 6747775; PF6747775.  PFE-X775

N-((3R,4R)-4-fluoro-1-(6-((3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-9-methyl-9H-purin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)acrylamide

N-((3R,4R)-4-fluoro-1-(6-((3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-9-methyl-9H-purin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)acrylamide

CAS 1776112-90-3
Chemical Formula: C18H22FN9O2
Exact Mass: 415.188

Recruiting, Phase I/II (NTC02349633)

Epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists

Antineoplastics

Non-small cell lung cancer

Dose escalation study to evaluate safety, PK, PD and efficacy in advanced EGFRm+ NSCLC

  • 02 May 2015Phase-I clinical trials in Non-small cell lung cancer (Metastatic disease, Second-line therapy or greater) in USA (PO) (NCT02349633)
  • 05 Feb 2015Pfizer plans a phase I trial for Non-small cell lung cancer (Second-line therapy or greater) in USA (NCT02349633)
  • 05 Jan 2015Preclinical trials in Non-small cell lung cancer in USA (PO)

SYNTHESIS COMING…………

PF-06747775 is an orally available inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant form T790M, with potential antineoplastic activity. EGFR T790M inhibitor PF-06747775 specifically binds to and inhibits EGFR T790M, a secondarily acquired resistance mutation, which prevents EGFR-mediated signaling and leads to cell death in EGFR T790M-expressing tumor cells. Compared to some other EGFR inhibitors, PF-06747775 may have therapeutic benefits in tumors with T790M-mediated drug resistance.

for the oral treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic EGFR mutant (del19 or L858R) non-small cell lung cancer

Kinetic mechanism for two-step covalent inhibition of EGFR.

Kinetic mechanism for two-step covalent inhibition of EGFR

 

 

 

PATENT

US 20150141402

Example 7

(Scheme F): Preparation of N-((3R,4R)-4-fluoro-1-(6-((3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-9-methyl-9H-purin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)acrylamide

Step 1: Preparation of 2-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-9H-purin -6-amine

      A suspension of 6-chloro-2-fluoro-9H-purine (5.49 g, 31.8 mmol, 1.00 eq), 3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-amine hydrochloride (6.60 g, 40.34 mmol, 1.26 eq), and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (16.6 mL, 95.5 mmol, 3.00 eq) in DMSO (31.8 mL) was stirred at ambient temperature for 19 hr. The reaction mixture was then concentrated in vacuo at 50° C., poured into water (250 mL), and stirred vigorously at 0° C. for 1 hr. The resulting solids were filtered off, washed with ice cold water (20 mL), and dried for 16 hr at 50° C. to give the title compound (7.26 g, 87% yield, 96% purity) as a light yellow solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 13.03 (br. s., 1 H) 9.21 (br. s., 1 H) 8.18 (br. s., 1 H) 7.74 (br. s., 1 H) 3.81 (br. s., 3 H) 3.71 (s, 3H). m/z (APCI+) for C10H11FN7O 264.2 (M+H)+.

Step 2: Preparation of 2-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-9-methyl -9H-purin-6-amine

      To a vigorously stirred suspension of 2-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine (7.25 g, 27.5 mmol, 1.00 eq) and potassium carbonate (7.61 g, 55.1 mmol, 2.00 eq) in 1,4-dioxane (92.0 mL), was added dimethyl sulfate (2.90 mL, 30.3 mmol, 1.10 eq) in a dropwise manner over 3 min. After 4 hr, additional portions of 1,4-dioxane (50.0 mL), potassium carbonate (3.80 g, 27.5 mmol, 1.00 eq), and dimethyl sulfate (1.00 mL, 10.4 mmol, 0.30 eq) were added to the reaction mixture. After a further 16 hr, the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo, diluted with water (120 mL), and stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hr. The resulting solids were filtered, washed with water (20 mL), and dried for 16 hr at 60° C. to give the title compound (6.42 g, 84% yield, >95% purity) as a light yellow solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.23 (br. s., 1 H) 8.13 (br. s., 1 H) 7.67 (s, 1 H) 3.78 (s, 3 H) 3.70 (s, 3 H) 3.69 (br. s., 3 H). m/z (APCI+) for C11H13FN7O 278.2 (M+H)+.

Step 3: Preparation of N-((3R,4R)-4-fluoro-1-(6-((3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol -4-yl)amino)-9-methyl-9H-purin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)acrylamide

      To a stirred suspension of 2-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-9-methyl-9H-purin-6-amine (554 mg, 2.00 mmol, 1.00 eq) and N-((3R,4R)-4-fluoropyrrolidin-3-yl)-3-(methylsulfonyl)propanamide (500 mg, 2.10 mmol, 1.05 eq) in DMSO (4.2 mL) was added N,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.83 mL, 5.00 mmol, 2.50 eq). The reaction mixture was then heated at 100° C. for 16 hr, cooled to ambient temperature, diluted with THF (4 mL), and treated with potassium tert-butoxide (4.00 mL, 1 M in THF, 2.00 eq). After 1 hr, an additional portion of potassium tert-butoxide (0.50 mL, 1 M in THF, 0.25 eq) was added to the reaction mixture. After a further 1 hr, the reaction mixture was poured into phosphate buffer (50 mL, pH=7) and water (50 mL), and extracted with ethyl acetate (5×40 mL). The combined organic layers were combined, dried (Na2SO4), and concentrated under reduced pressure. This crude product was then dissolved in ethyl acetate (40 mL) at 60° C. and then treated with heptanes (20 mL), at which point the solution became cloudy and was allowed to cool to ambient temperature and then to 0° C. After 16 hr at 0° C., the resulting solids were filtered and dried at ambient temperature to give the title compound (620.5 mg, 75% yield) as a white powder. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 8.44 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 1 H) 7.97 (s, 1 H) 7.82 (s, 1 H) 7.78 (s, 1 H) 6.23 (dd, J=10.0, 17.0 Hz, 1 H) 6.14 (dd, J=2.8, 17.0 Hz, 1 H) 5.62 (dd, J=2.8, 10.0 Hz, 1 H) 5.12 (d, J=51.0 Hz, 1 H) 4.46 (td, J=6.0, 11.9 Hz, 1 H) 3.88-3.6 (m, 4 H) 3.82 (s, 3 H) 3.71 (s, 3 H) 3.62 (s, 3 H). m/z (APCI+) for C18H23FN9O2 416.3 (M+H)+.

Example 7A

(Scheme F): Preparation of N-((3R,4R)-4-fluoro-1-(6-((3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-9-methyl-9H-purin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)acrylamide

Preparation Step 1A: Preparation of (3R,4R)-1-benzyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine-2,5-dione

      A mixture of xylene, (1.2 L), benzylamine (120 g, 1.10 mol, 1.0 eq) and L-(+)-tartaric acid (173 g, 1.15 mol, 1.05 eq) were heated at 135° C. for 12 hr (flask jacket temperature). Upon reaction completion, the mixture was cooled to 65° C. and MeOH (120 mL, 1 vol) was added. The resulting mixture was stirred for 1 hr and the resulting suspension was cooled to 20° C. followed by the addition of EtOAc (480 mL). Stirring was continued at 10° C. for 2 hr. The crude product was isolated by filtration and washed with EtOAc (120 mL) and dried on the filter. The crude product was then taken up in MeOH (480 mL) and heated at a gentle reflux for 1 hr, then cooled to 20° C. and granulated for 1 hr. The suspension was filtered and the precipitate washed with MeOH (240 mL) and dried to give the title compound (191 g, 864 mmol, 79%) as a white granular solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 7.38-7.30 (m, 2H) 7.30-7.22 (m, 3 H) 6.32 (br. s., 1 H) 4.59 (d, J=14.8 Hz, 1 H) 4.53 (d, J=14.8 Hz, 1 H) 4.40 (br. D., J=4.3 Hz, 2 H). m/z (EI+) for C11H11NO4 221.0 (M)+.

Preparation Step 2A: Preparation of (3S,4S)-1-benzylpyrrolidine-3,4-diol

      To a mixture of (3R,4R)-1-benzyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine-2,5-dione (44 g, 199 mmol, 1.0 eq) and THF (176 mL) at 20° C. (vessel jacket temperature) was added borane-tetrahydrofuran complex (1.0 mol/L) in THF (800 mL, 800 mmol, 1.0 mol/L, 4.0 eq) at a rate to maintain the temperature between 20° C. and 25° C. Over 1 hr, the jacket temperature was ramped to 60° C. and then held for 1 hr. Upon completion, the reaction was cooled to 30° C. and quenched by the slow dropwise addition of MeOH (97 mL, 12 eq) to the mixture at a rate to control off gassing. The reaction mixture was then heated to reflux and concentrated to a low stir volume. The reaction solvent THF was then replaced by a constant volume displacement with MeOH (total of 1.5 L). Once the THF content had been reduced to less than 1 wt %, MeOH was replaced by a constant volume displacement with EtOAc (total of 1.5 L) to reduce the MeOH content to less than 1 wt %. The total volume of EtOAc was then readjusted to about 250 mL (6 vol) and then cooled to 5° C. to crystallize the product. The desired product was isolated by filtration, washed with cold EtOAc (88 mL) and dried to give title compound (27.0 g, 140 mmol, 70%). A second crop of product was isolated by concentration of the combined filtrate and cake wash to half volume, which was then cooled to 5° C., filtered and washed with cold EtOAc (50 mL) to afford additional title compound (4.5 g, 23 mmol, 12%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 7.33-7.26 (m, 4 H) 7.25-7.20 (m, 1 H) 4.48 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2 H) 3.38-3.31 (m, 2 H), 3.57 (d, J=13.0 Hz, 1 H) 3.46 (d, J=13.0 Hz, 1 H) 2.74 (dd, J=9.4, 5.9 Hz, 2 H) 2.30 (dd, J=9.4, 4.4 Hz, 2 H). m/z (EI+) for C11H15NO2 194.2 (M+H)+.

Preparation Step 3A: Preparation of (3aR,6aS)-5-benzyl-2,2-dioxo-tetrahydro-1-oxa-2λ6-thia-3-5-diaza-pentalene-3-carboxylic acid t-butyl ester

      To a 5 L jacketed reactor (Reactor 1) was added 1,4-dioxane (1.8 L), (3S,4S)-1-benzylpyrrolidine-3,4-diol (180 g, 0.932 mol, 1.0 eq) and TEA (792 mL, 5.68 mol, 6.1 eq) and the resulting mixture stirred at 10° C.
      To a 2 L jacketed reactor (Reactor 2) was added 1,4-dioxane (1.6 L) and chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (596 g, 2.80 mol, 3.0 eq) and the resulting solution was cooled to 10° C. A solution of tert-butanol (211 g, 2.85 mol, 3.05 eq) in 1,4-dioxane (180 mL) was added over 45 min while maintaining the temperature between 10° C. and 20° C., and the resulting solution was then stirred for 15 min at 10° C.
      The solution in Reactor 2 was transferred to Reactor 1 over 50 min while controlling the internal temperature of Reactor 1 from 10° C. to 20° C. Once the addition was complete, the jacket temperature was warmed at 20° C. and the resulting mixture was stirred for 16 hr. When UPLC analysis confirmed that the bis-alkylated intermediate was fully formed (target <3% mono-alkylated intermediate), the entire batch was filtered and the filtrate was sent into a clean reactor. The residual TEA-HCl cake was washed with dioxane (300 mL) and the wash was combined with the filtrate. The resulting dioxane solution was then heated to 80° C. and held for 3 hr. After sampling for reaction completion (<1% intermediate remaining), the batch was distilled (pot temp=80° C.) under partial vacuum (400 mbar) to less than half volume. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc (2 L) and washed twice with water (2×2 L). The mixture was then washed with 0.5 N sodium bicarbonate (2 L) and then dried over sodium sulfate (360 g, 2 wt eq) and filtered into a clean dry reactor. The EtOAc solution was concentrated under partial vacuum to about 400 mL total volume resulting in the formation of a thick slurry. The mixture was cooled to 0° C. and stirred for 1 hr and then filtered and washed with cold EtOAc (200 mL) and then dried in a vacuum oven at 40° C. to give 173 g of the title compound. A second crop of product was isolated by concentrating the filtrate and then cooling, granulating and filtering to give an additional 28.4 g of the desired product. In total, the title compound was isolated in 61% yield (201 g, 568 mmol). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 7.37-7.29 (m, 4 H) 7.29-7.23 (m, 1 H) 5.36 (dd, J=7.3, 3.8 Hz, 1 H) 4.79-4.73 (m, 1 H) 4.48 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2 H) 3.38-3.31 (m, 2 H), 3.70 (d, J=13.4 Hz, 1 H) 3.62 (d, J=13.4 Hz, 1 H) 3.13-2.99 (m, 2 H) 2.48-2.40 (m, 2 H) 1.46 (s, 9 H). m/z (EI+) for C16H22N2O5S 355.2 (M+H)+.

Preparation Step 4A: Preparation of (3R,4R)-1-benzyl-4-fluoropyrrolidin-3-amine bis-tosylate

      A solution of 1M tetrabutylammonium fluoride in THF (1.27 L, 1.27 mol, 2.5 eq) and (3aR,6aS)-5-benzyl-2,2-dioxo-tetrahydro-1-oxa-2λ6-thia-3-5-diaza-pentalene-3-carboxylic acid t-butyl ester (180 g, 0.508 mol, 1.0 eq) were heated at 60° C. (jacket temperature) for 2 hr. Upon reaction completion, the mixture was partially distilled under vacuum to remove the THF. After concentration to a low stir volume, THF was displaced with EtOAc (2×500 mL). After again reducing to a low stir volume, EtOAc (3.6 L) and p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (396 g, 2.10 mol, 4.1 eq) were charged and heated at 80° C. for 2 hr. The mixture was cooled to 10° C. over 1.5 hr and then granulated at 10° C. for 2 hr. The solid product was filtered and washed with EtOAc (2×900 mL) and dried at 50° C. in a vacuum oven for 12 hr. The title compound was isolated as an air stable crystalline solid in 83% yield (231 g, 419 mmol). 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O) δ ppm 7.69-7.61 (m, 4 H) 7.56-7.42 (m, 5 H) 7.36-7.29 (m, 4 H) 5.65-5.49 (m, 1 H) 4.47 (br. s., 2H) 4.37-4.23 (m, H) 4.15 (ddd, J=12.8, 8.2, 1.4 Hz, 1 H) 3.88 (dd, J=19.1, 1.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.74 (ddd, J=33.2, 14.0, 5.5 Hz, 1 H) 3.44 (dd, J=12.8, 8.2 Hz, 1 H) 2.34 (s, 6 H). m/z (EI+) for C11H15FN2 194.8 (M+H)+.

Preparation Step 5A: N-((3R,4R)-1-benzyl-4-fluoropyrrolidin-3-yl)-3-(methylsulfonyl)propanamide

      A suspension of 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole (73.0 g, 441 mmol, 1.1 eq) in acetonitrile (3.3 L) was stirred at 20° C. until a clear solution was obtained. 3-(methylsulfonyl)propanoic acid (67.0 g, 440 mmol, 1.1 eq) was then added and the mixture was stirred at 25° C. for 3 hr. (3R,4R)-1-benzyl-4-fluoropyrrolidin-3-amine bis-tosylate (220 g, 400 mmol, 1.0 eq) was added and the mixture was stirred at 25° C. for 16 hr resulting in a fine white slurry. The solids were filtered off and the byproduct cake washed with acetonitrile (600 mL). The acetonitrile solution was then concentrated to a low stir volume and then taken up in EtOAc (2.0 L) and washed with 1 N aqueous sodium bicarbonate (1.3 L). The aqueous layer was back extracted with EtOAc (500 mL) and the combined EtOAc layers were washed with water (1.0 L). The resulting EtOAc solution was distilled to remove about 2.0 L of distillate and then displaced with 2-propanol under atmospheric conditions until the internal temperature rose to 78° C. while maintaining a total volume of 2 L. The batch was then cooled to 20° C. and granulated at 20° C. for 12 hr resulting in product crystallization. The desired product was isolated by filtration and the cake washed with 2-propanol (600 mL), then dried in an oven at 40° C. under reduced pressure for 12 hr. The title compound (108 g, 308 mmol) was isolated in 77% yield. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 8.36 (br. d., J=7.0 Hz, 1 H) 7.37-7.29 (m, 4 H) 7.29-7.23 (m, 1 H) 4.90 (ddt, J=53.4, 5.3, 2×1.7 Hz, 1 H) 4.25 (dddd, J=26.4, 13.9, 7.0, 1.4 Hz, 1 H) 3.61 (d, J=13.2 Hz, 1 H) 3.57 (d, J=13.2 Hz, 1 H) 3.36-3.28 (m, 2 H) 3.03 (dd, J=9.3, 7.5 Hz, 1 H) 2.97 (s, 3 H) 2.80 (dd, J=24.0, 11.6 Hz, 1 H) 2.66 (ddd, J=30.6, 11.6, 5.3 Hz, 1 H) 2.57 (td, 2×7.7, 1.4 Hz, 2 H) 2.18 (dd, J=9.4, 6.7 Hz, 1 H). m/z (EI+) for C15H21FN2O3S 329.7 (M+H)+.

Preparation Step 6A: N-((3R,4R)-4-fluoropyrrolidin-3-yl)-3-(methylsulfonyl)propanamide

      To a Parr reactor was added N-((3R,4R)-1-benzyl-4-fluoropyrrolidin-3-yl)-3-(methylsulfonyl)propanamide (86.5 g, 263 mmol, 1.0 eq), palladium hydroxide (20% on carbon, 2.59 g, 3.69 mmol, 3 wt/wt %) and MeOH (430 mL). The reactor was purged three times with nitrogen (50 psi) and then purged three times with hydrogen (20 psi). The reactor was heated at 50° C. and then pressurized to 50 psi while stirring at 1200 rpm. The material was hydrogenated for 7 hr and then cooled to 20° C. and purged with nitrogen. The mixture was filtered to remove the catalyst and the cake was washed with MeOH (173 mL). The combined filtrate and wash were concentrated to about 200 mL followed by addition of MTBE (200 mL) and then concentrated to a low stir volume. Additional MTBE (200 mL) was added and the resulting slurry granulated at 20° C. for 16 hr. The desired product was isolated by filtration, washed with MTBE (300 mL) and then dried in an oven at 40° C. for 12 hr. The title compound was isolated in 90% yield (53.3 g, 224 mmol) as a white crystalline solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 8.15 (br. d., J=6.8 Hz, 1 H) 4.96-4.78 (m, 1 H) 4.14-4.01 (m, 1 H) 3.32 (dd, J=8.0, 7.3 Hz, 2 H) 3.13 (dd, J=11.8, 6.8 Hz, 1 H) 3.01-2.93 (m, 1 H) 2.98 (s, 3 H) 2.88 (d, J=3.0 Hz, 1 H) 2.60 (br. s., 1 H) 2.5 7-2.52 (m, 3 H). m/z (EI+) for C8H15FN2O3S 239.1 (M+H)+.

Step 1: Preparation of 2-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine

      A suspension of 6-chloro-2-fluoro-9H-purine (88% potency, 5.90 kg, 30.20 mol, 1.00 eq), 3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-amine hydrochloride (98% potency, 5.55 kg, 33.22 mol, 1.10 eq), and sodium bicarbonate (10.1 kg, 120.81 mol, 4.00 eq) in EtOAc (106 L) was stirred at 50° C. for 12 hr. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 20° C., granulated for 1 hr, filtered, and the solids were washed with EtOAc (18 L) and dried on the filter. The crude product was charged back into the reactor and suspended in water (106 L) and stirred at 35° C. for 2 hr. The resulting slurry was cooled to 20° C. and the desired product was isolated by filtration and the cake was washed with water (30 L) and then with EtOAc (30 L) and dried for 16 hr at 50° C. to give the title compound (6.26 kg, 23.8 mol, 79% yield) as a light yellow solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 13.03 (br. s., 1 H) 9.21 (br. s., 1 H) 8.18 (br. s., 1 H) 7.74 (br. s., 1 H) 3.81 (br. s., 3 H) 3.71 (s, 3 H). m/z (APCI+) for C10H11FN7O 264.2 (M+H)+.

Step 2: Preparation of 2-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-9-methyl-9H-purin-6-amine

      To a 100 L reactor fitted with a caustic scrubber was added 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (44.0 L), 2-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine (2.20 kg, 8.36 mol, 1.00 eq) and potassium phosphate tribasic (7.10 kg, 33.43 mol mmol, 4.00 eq). The resulting mixture was stirred at 5° C. and dimethyl sulfate (1.42 kg, 11.28 mol, 1.35 eq) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 5° C. for 1 hr. The reaction was warmed from 5° C. to 15° C. over 2 hr and then held at 15° C. for 20 hr. The reaction mixture was cooled to 5° C. and quenched with water (44.0 L) while maintaining the internal temperature below 10° C. The mixture was then heated at 50° C. for 2 hr and then cooled to 10° C. and granulated for 2 hr. The product was isolated by filtration and washed with water (11.0 L) and then with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (11.0 L). The cake was dried under vacuum at 40° C. for 8 hr to give the title compound (1.99 kg, 7.18 mol, 86% yield) as an off white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.23 (br. s., 1 H) 8.13 (br. s., 1 H) 7.67 (s, 1 H) 3.78 (s, 3 H)3.70 (s, 3 H) 3.69 (br. s., 3 H). m/z (APCI+) for C11H13FN7O 278.2 (M+H)+.

Step 3: Preparation of N-((3R,4R)-4-fluoro-1-(6-((3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-9-methyl-9H-purin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)acrylamide

      To a 200 L Hastelloy reactor heated to 40° C. was added sulfolane (22.4 L) and N-((3R,4R)-4-fluoropyrrolidin-3-yl)-3-(methylsulfonyl)propanamide (4.03 kg, 16.9 mol, 1.05 eq) and stirred the resulting mixture until all solids were dissolved. To this solution was added 2-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-9-methyl-9H-purin-6-amine (4.47 kg, 16.1 mol, 1.00 eq) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (8.50 L, 48.7 mol, 3.0 eq) and the mixture heated at 115° C. for 16 hr. The reaction mixture was cooled to 30° C., and a solution of potassium hydroxide (2.26 kg, 40.3 mol, 2.5 eq) in water (44.7 L) was added. After stirring for 4 hr, the reaction mixture was cooled to 20° C., water (44.7 L) was added and the resulting mixture granulated for 12 hr. The crude product was isolated on a Nutsche filter and washed with water (27 L) and then dried under nitrogen on the filter. The reactor was cleaned and then charged with water (35.8 L) and acetone (53.6 L). The crude product cake was charged back into the reactor and heated to 60° C. until all of the solids had dissolved. The batch was then cooled to 40° C. and then transferred into a speck free 100 L reactor via an in-line 10 μm filter. The 200 L reactor, line and filter were rinsed with acetone (5 L) and sent into the 100 L reactor. The batch was concentrated with the jacket temperature set at 70° C. under partial vacuum until the acetone content reduced to 5 wt %, as determined by gas chromatography head space. The batch was then cooled to 20° C. and granulated for 4 hr. The product was filtered, washed with water (18 L) and dried in a vacuum oven at 55° C. for 8 hr. The title compound (3.942 kg, 9.49 mol, 59%) was isolated as a white crystalline solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 8.44 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 1 H) 7.97 (s, 1 H) 7.82 (s, 1 H) 7.78 (s, 1 H) 6.23 (dd, J=10.0, 17.0 Hz, 1 H) 6.14 (dd, J=2.8, 17.0 Hz, 1 H) 5.62 (dd, J=2.8, 10.0 Hz, 1 H) 5.12 (d, J=51.0 Hz, 1 H) 4.46 (td, J=6.0, 11.9 Hz, 1 H) 3.88-3.6 (m, 4 H) 3.82 (s, 3 H) 3.71 (s, 3 H) 3.62 (s, 3 H). m/z (APCI+) for C18H23FN9O2 416.3 (M+H)+.

 

Summary of 1st generation and 2nd generation EGFR inhibitors.

Summary of 1st generation and 2nd generation EGFR inhibitors

Image for unlabelled figure

REFERENCES

Planken, S.; Murray, B. W.; Lafontaine, J.; Weinrich, S.; Hemkens, M.; Kath, J. C.; Nair, S. K.; Johnson, T. O.; Cheng, H.; Sutton, S. C.; Zientek, M.; Yin, M. -J.; Solowiej, J.; Nagata, A.; Gajiwala, K. Abstracts of Papers, 249th ACS National Meeting & Exposition, Denver, CO, United States, March 22–26, 2015; MEDI-248

//////Third generation,  covalent EGFR inhibitors, PF-06747775, Pfizer,  PFE-X775

Compound name  AND  SMILES string
Rociletinib COC(C=C(N1CCN(C(C)=O)CC1)C=C2)=C2NC3=NC=C(C(F)(F)F)C(NC4=CC=CC(NC(C=C)=O)=C4)=N3
Osimertinib CN(CCN(C)C)C(C(NC(C=C)=O)=C1)=CC(OC)=C1NC2=NC=CC(C3=CN(C)C4=C3C=CC=C4)=N2
EGF816 ClC1=C2C(N=C(NC(C3=CC(C)=NC=C3)=O)N2[C@H]4CN(C(/C=C/CN(C)C)=O)CCCC4)=CC=C1
PF-06747775 CN1C2=NC(N3C[C@@H](NC(C=C)=O)[C@H](F)C3)=NC(NC4=CN(C)N=C4OC)=C2N=C1
PF-06459988 CN(N=C1)C=C1NC2=NC3=C(C(Cl)=CN3)C(OC[C@H]4CN(C(C=C)=O)C[C@@H]4OC)=N2
WZ4002 ClC1=CN=C(NC2=C(OC)C=C(N3CCN(C)CC3)C=C2)N=C1OC4=CC=CC(NC(C=C)=O)=C4

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ChemSpider 2D Image | gosogliptin | C17H24F2N6O

GOSOGLIPTIN

CAS 869490-23-3 FREE BASE

DIHYDROCHLORIDE..869490-47-1

GOSOGLIPTIN; UNII-GI718UO477;  PF-00734200; PF-734200;

(3,3-difluoropyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-4-(4-pyrimidin-2-ylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]methanone

Molecular Formula: C17H24F2N6O
Molecular Weight: 366.408866 g/mol
Company Pfizer Inc.
Description Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor
Molecular Target Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) (CD26) 
Mechanism of Action Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor
Latest Stage of Development Phase II
Standard Indication Diabetes
Indication Details Treat Type II diabetes

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia coupled with a gradual decline in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is released post-prandially from the L-cells of the intestine, stimulates the release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. However, GLP-1 is rapidly degraded in vivo by peptidases, including dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4), which is a widely distributed serine protease that specifically cleaves N-terminal dipeptides from polypeptides with proline or alanine at the penultimate position.

In vivo administration of DPP-4 inhibitors to human subjects results in higher circulating concentrations of endogenous GLP-1 and subsequent decrease in plasma glucose. Long term treatment with a DPP-4 inhibitor leads to a reduction in circulating HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin). DPP-4 inhibition also offers the potential to improve the insulin producing function of the pancreas through either β-cell preservation or regeneration. Therefore, DPP-4 inhibition has emerged as a promising new treatment of Type 2 diabetes

PF-734200 is a potent, selective, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor. It had been in phase II clinical development at Pfizer for the treatment of type 2 diabetes; however, in 2010 the company discontinued these trials. In 2012, the product was licensed to SatRx, a spin-off of the ChemRar High Tech Center, by Pfizer on an exclusive worldwide basis (with the exception of China) for the development and commercialization as monotherapy or in combination with other therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. SatRx is conducting phase II clinical trials for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

GOSOGLIPTIN.png

……………………….

PAPER

New synthetic route to a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor
Org Process Res Dev 2012, 16(3): 409

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op200309z

Abstract Image

A new synthetic route to a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor was developed and demonstrated on a multigram scale. This approach takes advantage of the cheap and readily available Boc-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline methyl ester as starting material which was derivatized through an SN2 reaction. Several leaving groups were studied, and the nosylate group showed superiority over other derivatives. Formation of an amide using the most costly starting material, 3,3-difluoropyrrolidine, was performed late in the synthesis to minimize its economical impact on the overall cost of the API.

(3,3-Difluoropyrrolidin-1-yl)-(2S,4S)-4-(4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)methanone.FREE BASE

Mp 149 °C (decomp).

[α]d = −31.1 (T = 24 °C, c = 1, CHCl3). Specific rotation of product 4 prepared using the initial route: [α]d = −31.5 (T = 24 °C, c = 1, CHCl3). 

1H NMR (400 MHz; CDCl3) δ 8.30 (d, J = 4 Hz, 2H), 6.48 (t, J = 4 Hz, 1H), 3.95–3.6 (m, 9H), 3.25–2.85 (m, 4H), 2.6–2.25 (m, 7H), 1.75–1.6 (m, 1H). 

13C NMR (100 MHz; CDCl3) δ 172.28; 161.55; 157.70; 127.22 (t, 1J C–F = 248 Hz), 126.22 (t, 1J C–F = 246 Hz), 109.95; 66.54; 58.87; 57.99; 52.71 (t, 2 J C–F = 32 Hz); 52.00; 50.41; 43.03; 34.46, 34.37, 34.25; 19F NMR (377 MHz, CDCl3) δ −102.1 (m, 2F).

IR (neat): 2951w, 2864w, 2799w, 2759w, 1630s, 1585vs, 1547m, 1449m, 1172m, 1254m, 1129m, 982w, 923m, 796m, 638w.

HRMS (ES, N2) Calcd for C17H24F2N6O: 367.20524, found: 367.20592.

……………………….

PAPER

(3,3-difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-((2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yl)-methanone: A potent, selective, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor
Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009, 19(7): 1991

 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X09001966?np=y

  • Pfizer Global Research & Development, Groton/New London Laboratories, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT 06340, United States

A series of 4-substituted proline amides was evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl pepdidase IV for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yl]-methanone (5) emerged as a potent (IC50 = 13 nM) and selective compound, with high oral bioavailability in preclinical species.

Full-size image (4 K)

SEE………….https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencedirect.com%2Fscience%2FMiamiMultiMediaURL%2F1-s2.0-S0960894X09001966%2F1-s2.0-S0960894X09001966-mmc1.doc%2F271398%2Fhtml%2FS0960894X09001966%2Fce1f70bd989d6d4b79b40c26570693d2%2Fmmc1.doc

………………….

PATENT

WO 2005116014

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2005116014A1?cl=en

Example 113 (3.3-Difluoropyrrolidin-1-yl)-((2S,4S)-4-(4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)-methanone

 

Figure imgf000030_0001

Step 1 – (S)-2-(3.3-Difluoro-pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-4-oxo-pyrrolidine-1 -carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

(S)-4-Oxo-pyrrolidine-1 ,2-dicarboxylic acid 1-tert-butyl ester (6.6 kg, 1.0 equivalent) was charged to a reactor, followed by addition of dichloromethane (15 volumes). The reaction mixture was cooled to 0°C. Triethylamine (4.82 liters, 1.2 equiv) was added over 30 minutes. The mixture turned from suspension to a clear solution at the end of triethylamine addition. The mixture was held at 0°C to 5°C for 10 minutes. Pivaloyl chloride (3.65 kg, 1.05 equivalents) was added slowly while keeping the reaction temperature at 0°C to 5°C. The reaction mixture turned back to aslurry. The reaction mixture was sampled for completion by HPLC (using diethylamine to derivatize) after held for 1 hour at 0°C to 5°C.

3,3-Difluoro- pyrrolidine hydrochloride (4.13 kg, 1.0 equivalent) was charged to the above mixture over 10 minutes at – 10°C to 0°C. Triethylamine (4.0 liters, 1.0 equiv) was introduced slowly over 70 minutes at -10°C to 0°C. Upon completion of triethylamine addition, the mixture was stirred for 1h at 0 to 5°C. The reaction was complete by HPLC assay (-1% starting material). The reaction was quenched with water (10 volumes) at 0°C to 5 °C. The mixture was heated to 20°C to 25 °C. The layers were separated, and the organic layer was washed with 0.5 M HCI (5 volumes). The organic layer was again washed with combined 5% NaHC03 (2 volumes) and half saturated brine solution (1.64 M, 3 volumes). The organic solution was concentrated atmospherically to a low stirrable volume (approximately 20 liters). Ethyl acetate (12.6 volumes, 82.8 liters) was added, the solution was concentrated atmospherically to -6 volumes. The mixture was held at 60°C to 65 °C for 2 hours and cooled to room temperature over 3 hours. The mixture was held at 20°C to 25 °C for 8 hours. Heptane (8 volumes) was added, and the mixture was granulated for a minimum of 2 hours. The solid was filtered, rinsed with 2:1 heptane/ethyl acetate (1 volume), and dried in a tray dryer at 25°C to 35°C for a minimum of 12 h. Yield: 7.26 kg, 79%. HPLC purity: 99.7%. The mother liquor (86 liters) was concentrated to 12 liters under partial vacuum at 65°C to 70°C. The mixture was cooled to 60°C to 65 °C. Ethyl acetate (4.0 liters) was added slowly over 15 minutes. The mixture was cooled to 20°C to 25 °C over 2 hours and was held at that temperature for at least 2 hours. The solid was filtered and rinsed with heptane/ethyl acetate (3:1 v/v, 1.7 liters). Drying in a tray dryer for 12 hours at 35°C to 45 °C yielded 435 grams of product. HPLC purity: 96.4%.

Step 2 – (2S.4S)-2-(3.3-Dif luoro-pyrrolidine-1 -carbonyl)-4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1 -yl)-pyrrolidine-1 – carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester A reactor was charged with THF (20 volumes), 2-piperazin-1-yl-pyrimidine (2.17 kg, 1.05 equivalents) and the product from Step 1 (4.00 kg, 1.0 equivalent). The mixture was held at 20°C to 25°C until all material was dissolved over 30 minutes. Acetic acid (0.792 kg, 1.05 equivalents) as added. The mixture was stirred for 1 hour during which the reaction mixture turned to cloudy. The reaction mixture was refluxed for 30 minutes and then concentrated at 60°C to 70°C until a steady temperature of 66.9°C was observed in the overheads indicating complete removal of water from the system. More THF was added as necessary. At the end, THF was added to bring the total volume in the reactor to 15 volumes of the limit reagent. The reaction mixture was cooled to -3°C to 7°C and sampled for complete formation of imine by HPLC (using sodium triacetoxyborohydride to reduce imine). Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (5.33 kg, 2.0 equivalents) was added portion-wise to the suspension at -5°C to 15°C. The reaction mixture was heated to 20°C to 25°C and held for 12 hours. HPLC results confirmed the reaction was complete by 99.8%. Sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution (10% w/w, 10 volumes) was added. The slurry was concentrated to remove 10 volumes of THF under partial vacuum at 30°C to 60°C. Ethyl acetate (10 volumes) was added to the suspension after it cooled to 20°C to 25CC. The organic phase was separated and the aqueous phase was checked by HPLC. It contained less than 2% of the product. The organic phase was washed with water (5 volumes), saturated brine solution (5 volumes) and concentrated to a small volume (2 volumes) under partial vacuum at 45°C to 50°C. To the slurry was added heptane (10 volumes) at 45°C to 50°C over 30 minutes. The mixture was cooled to 20°C to 25°C and granulated for 2 hours. Solid was collected by filtration, rinsed with heptane (2 volumes). Drying in a tray dryer for 12 hours at 35°C to 45°C yield 5.35 kg (91.3%) of the product. Step 3 – (3.3-Dif luoro-pyrrolidin-1 -yl)-f(2S.4S)-4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1 -yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yll- methanone Water (19 liters, 2 volumes) was charged to a reactor followed by the product from Step 2 (9.57 kg,

1.0 equivalent). To the slurry was added concentrated HCI (37 wt% in water, 19.1 liters, 2 volumes) slowly at 20°C to 30°C over 4 hours. The slurry went into solution after 12 liters of HCI was added. After the addition completion, the reaction was complete by HPLC assay. The reaction mixture was cooled to 5°C to 15°C. To the mixture was added 50% NaOH aqueous solution slowly with agitation to pH 10 to pH 11. The pH was monitored with a pH meter closely during the neutralization. The total volume of 50% NaOH added was 12.45 liters. The mixture was warmed to 20°C to 25°C and extracted with ethyl acetate twice (115 liters, 12 volumes and 57 liters, 6 volumes, respectively). The sample from aqueous layer after second extraction was analyzed by HPLC and showed only 1% of the product in that aqueous solution.

The organic layers were combined and treated with magnesium sulfate (5 kg) for 1 hour. The mixture was filtered. The filter cake was rinsed with ethyl acetate (10 liters). The filtrate was charged back to the reactor via a 0.2 micron in-line filter for speck free operation. (The following operations were performed under speck free conditions.) The solution was concentrated to 20 liters (2 volumes) under partial vacuum at 50°C to 60°C. The mixture was cooled to 20°C to 25°C over 30 minutes. Upon cooling to room temperature, crystallization occurred. The mixture was held for 30 minutes. Hexanes (20 liters, 2 volumes) was added slowly over 1 hour. The mixture was granulated for 2 hours. The solid product was collected by filtration and rinsed with hexanes/ethyl acetate (10 liters, 1 :1 v/v). The filter was blown dry with nitrogen for a minimum of 2 hours. The product was dried in a tray dryer at 44°C for 12 hours.

Yield: 5.7 kg, 75.9%.

m.p. 156°C. MS m/z 367 (MH+).

Figure imgf000030_0001FREE BASE

1H NMR (400 MHz, D20): δ 8.15 (d, 2H, J = 5.0 Hz, CH of pyrimidine), 6.55 (t, 1 H, J = 4.8 Hz, CH of pyrimidine), 3.87-3.81 (dd, 1 H, H2b of proline, rotomeric), 3.78-3.50 (m, 4H, N-CH2 of pyrrolidide), 3.55-3.40 (m, 4H, N-CH2 of piperazine), 2.97 (dd, 1 H, J = 10.2, 6.6 Hz, H5a of proline), 2.85-2.75 (m, 1 H, H4b of proline), 2.69 (dd, 1 H, J = 10.0, 9.1 Hz, H5b of proline), 2.55-2.20 (m, 7H, overlapping N-CH2 of piperazine, CH2 of pyrrolidide and H3b of proline), 1.47-1.38 (m, 1 H, H3a of proline).

Alternatively, the dihydrochloride salt of the titled compound was prepared according to the method of Example 1.

………………

US 2005/0256310

http://www.google.com/patents/US20050256310

Figure

 

This approach begins with Nt-Boc-4-oxo-l-proline (1) that undergoes a mixed anhydride activation with pivaloyl chloride at 0 °C, followed by amidation with 3,3-difluoropyrrolidine to yield the intermediate 2. Reductive amination with 1-(2-pyrimidyl)piperazine using sodium triacetoxyborohydride in THF/AcOH provided the desired stereoisomer 3 in high yield and selectivity, the undesired diastereomer being completely removed by crystallization. Deprotection of 3 with 6 N HCl, followed by neutralization with 50% NaOH and extraction provided PF-734200 (4) in good yield.

EXAMPLE 113 (3,3-Difluoropyrrolidin-1-yl)-((2S,4S)-4-(4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)-methanone

 

Figure US20050256310A1-20051117-C00011

 

Step 1—(S)-2-(3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-4-oxo-pyrrolidine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl

(S)-4-Oxo-pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylic acid 1-tert-butyl ester (6.6 kg, 1.0 equivalent) was charged to a reactor, followed by addition of dichloromethane (15 volumes). The reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C. Triethylamine (4.82 liters, 1.2 equiv) was added over 30 minutes. The mixture turned from suspension to a clear solution at the end of triethylamine addition. The mixture was held at 0° C. to 5° C. for 10 minutes. Pivaloyl chloride (3.65 kg, 1.05 equivalents) was added slowly while keeping the reaction temperature at 0° C. to 5° C. The reaction mixture turned back to a slurry. The reaction mixture was sampled for completion by HPLC (using diethylamine to derivatize) after held for 1 hour at 0° C. to 5° C. 3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidine hydrochloride (4.13 kg, 1.0 equivalent) was charged to the above mixture over 10 minutes at −10° C. to 0° C. Triethylamine (4.0 liters, 1.0 equiv) was introduced slowly over 70 minutes at −10° C. to 0° C. Upon completion of triethylamine addition, the mixture was stirred for 1 h at 0 to 5° C. The reaction was complete by HPLC assay (˜1% starting material). The reaction was quenched with water (10 volumes) at 0° C. to 5 ° C. The mixture was heated to 20° C. to 25 ° C. The layers were separated, organic layer was washed with 0.5 M HCl (5 volumes). The organic layer was again washed with combined 5% NaHCO(2 volumes) and half saturated brine solution (1.64 M, 3 volumes). The organic solution was concentrated atmospherically to a low stirrable volume (approximately 20 liters). Ethyl acetate (12.6 volumes, 82.8 liters) was added, the solution was concentrated atmospherically to ˜6 volumes. The mixture was held at 60° C. to 65° C. for 2 hours and cooled to room temperature over 3 hours. The mixture was held at 20° C. to 25 ° C. for 8 hours. Heptane (8 volumes) was added, and the mixture was granulated for a minimum of 2 hours. The solid was filtered, rinsed with 2:1 heptane/ethyl acetate (1 volume), and dried in a tray dryer at 25° C. to 35° C. for a minimum of 12 h. Yield: 7.26 kg, 79%. HPLC purity: 99.7%. The mother liquor (86 liters) was concentrated to 12 liters under partial vacuum at 65° C. to 70° C. The mixture was cooled to 60° C. to 65° C. Ethyl acetate (4.0 liters) was added slowly over 15 minutes. The mixture was cooled to 20° C. to 25° C. over 2 hours and was held at that temperature for at least 2 hours. The solid was filtered and rinsed with heptane/ethyl acetate (3:1 v/v, 1.7 liters). Drying in a tray dryer for 12 hours at 35° C. to 45° C. yielded 435 grams of product. HPLC purity: 96.4%.

Step 2—(2S,4S)-2-(3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

A reactor was charged with THF (20 volumes), 2-piperazin-1-yl-pyrimidine (2.17 kg, 1.05 equivalents) and the product from Step 1 (4.00 kg, 1.0 equivalent). The mixture was held at 20° C. to 25° C. until all material was dissolved over 30 minutes. Acetic acid (0.792 kg, 1.05 equivalents) as added. The mixture was stirred for 1 hour during which the reaction mixture turned to cloudy. The reaction mixture was refluxed for 30 minutes and then concentrated at 60° C. to 70° C. until a steady temperature of 66.9° C. was observed in the overheads indicating complete removal of water from the system. More THF was added as necessary. At the end, THF was added to bring the total volume in the reactor to 15 volumes of the limit reagent. The reaction mixture was cooled to −3° C. to 7° C. and sampled for complete formation of imine by HPLC (using sodium triacetoxyborohydride to reduce imine). Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (5.33 kg, 2.0 equivalents) was added portion-wise to the suspension at −5° C. to 15° C. The reaction mixture was heated to 20° C. to 25° C. and held for 12 hours. HPLC results confirmed the reaction was complete by 99.8%. Sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution (10% w/w, 10 volumes) was added. The slurry was concentrated to remove 10 volumes of THF under partial vacuum at 30° C. to 60° C. Ethyl acetate (10 volumes) was added to the suspension after it cooled to 20° C. to 25° C. The organic phase was separated and the aqueous phase was checked by HPLC. It contained less than 2% of the product. The organic phase was washed with water (5 volumes), saturated brine solution (5 volumes) and concentrated to a small volume (2 volumes) under partial vacuum at 45° C. to 50° C. To the slurry was added heptane (10 volumes) at 45° C. to 50° C. over 30 minutes. The mixture was cooled to 20° C. to 25° C. and granulated for 2 hours. Solid was collected by filtration, rinsed with heptane (2 volumes). Drying in a tray dryer for 12 hours at 35° C. to 45° C. yield 5.35 kg (91.3%) of the product.

Step 3—(3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yl]-methanone

Water (19 liters, 2 volumes) was charged to a reactor followed by the product from Step 2 (9.57 kg, 1.0 equivalent). To the slurry was added concentrated HCl (37 wt % in water, 19.1 liters, 2 volumes) slowly at 20° C. to 30° C. over 4 hours. The slurry went into solution after 12 liters of HCl was added. After the addition completion, the reaction was complete by HPLC assay. The reaction mixture was cooled to 5° C. to 15° C. To the mixture was added 50% NaOH aqueous solution slowly with agitation to pH 10 to pH 11. The pH was monitored with a pH meter closely during the neutralization. The total volume of 50% NaOH added was 12.45 liters. The mixture was warmed to 20° C. to 25° C. and extracted with ethyl acetate twice (115 liters, 12 volumes and 57 liters, 6 volumes, respectively). The sample from aqueous layer after second extraction was analyzed by HPLC and showed only 1% of the product in that aqueous solution. The organic layers were combined and treated with magnesium sulfate (5 kg) for 1 hour. The mixture was filtered. The filter cake was rinsed with ethyl acetate (10 liters). The filtrate was charged back to the reactor via a 0.2 micron in-line filter for speck free operation. (The following operations were performed under speck free conditions.) The solution was concentrated to 20 liters (2 volumes) under partial vacuum at 50° C. to 60° C. The mixture was cooled to 20° C. to 25° C. over 30 minutes. Upon cooling to room temperature, crystallization occurred. The mixture was held for 30 minutes. Hexanes (20 liters, 2 volumes) was added slowly over 1 hour. The mixture was granulated for 2 hours. The solid product was collected by filtration and rinsed with hexanes/ethyl acetate (10 liters, 1:1 v/v). The filter was blown dry with nitrogen for a minimum of 2 hours. The product was dried in a tray dryer at 44° C. for 12 hours.

Yield: 5.7 kg, 75.9%. m.p. 156° C. MS m/z 367 (MH+).

1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O): δ 8.15 (d, 2H, J=5.0 Hz, CH of pyrimidine), 6.55 (t, 1H, J=4.8 Hz, CH of pyrimidine), 3.87-3.81 (dd, 1H, H2b of proline, rotomeric), 3.78-3.50 (m, 4H, N—CHof pyrrolidide), 3.55-3.40 (m, 4H, N—CHof piperazine), 2.97 (dd, 1H, J=10.2, 6.6 Hz, H5a of proline), 2.85-2.75 (m, 1H, H4b of proline), 2.69 (dd, 1H, J=10.0, 9.1 Hz, H5b of proline), 2.55-2.20 (m, 7H, overlapping N—CHof piperazine, CHof pyrrolidide and H3b of proline), 1.47-1.38 (m, 1H, H3a of proline).

Alternatively, the dihydrochloride salt of the titled compound was prepared according to the method of Example 1.

……………..

PAPER

Full-size image (21 K)

Scheme 1.

Reagents and conditions: (a) 3,3-difluoropyrrolidine hydrochloride, EDC, HOBt, TEA, DCM, rt; (b) NaBH4, MeOH, (c) (1) trifluoromethane-sulphonyl chloride, DIPEA, DCM; (2) 2-(1-piperazinyl)pyrimidine, DCM, −10 °C; (d) 4 N HCl in dioxane, rt; (e) 2-(1-piperazinyl)pyrimidine, NaBH(OAc)3, AcOH, DCE; (f) R1R2NH hydrochloride, EDC, HOBt TEA, DCM, 0–rt; (g) N-heterocyclic piperazine, NaBH(OAc)3, AcOH, DCE.

……………………….

 

Patent Submitted Granted
Therapeutic compounds [US7291618] 2005-11-17 2007-11-06
(2S,4S)-4-(piperazin-1-yl)pyrrolidine-2-methanone derivatives [US7465732] 2007-05-03 2008-12-16
THERAPEUTIC COMPOUNDS [US2007161664] 2007-07-12
Therapeutic compounds [US2006079498] 2006-04-13

 

see gliptins at………….http://drugsynthesisint.blogspot.in/p/gliptin-series.html

http://organicsynthesisinternational.blogspot.in/p/gliptin-series-22.html

see gliptins at…………http://drugsynthesisint.blogspot.in/p/gliptin-series.html

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Pfizer 2013 and beyond

 companies  Comments Off on Pfizer 2013 and beyond
Oct 252013
 

Pfizer

Pfizer gets a lot of coverage in the financial papers–even if some of it turns out to be misguided.

For example, Pfizer got the media coverage all drug companies desire on May 4 from Seeking Alpha, http://seekingalpha.com/article/560531-pfizer-alzheimers-drugs-will-carry-stock-to-new-highs-in-2013

a stock market blog that provides free stock market analysis. A piece entitled “Pfizer: Alzheimer’s Drugs Will Carry Stock To New Highs In 2013” had a subheading “strong pipeline.”

Turns out that was too optimistic, as Pfizer’s Alzheimer’s drug–along with Johnson and Johnson’s–both failed to produce. But many stock analysts still hold hope that Pfizer has a new ‘cash cow’ coming down the pipeline.

Daily Finance http://www.dailyfinance.com/2012/09/07/a-peek-at-pfizers-pipeline/

notes that Pfizer currently has 87 drugs in its pipeline. While its true that most are in the early stages, 11 are ready to be reviewed by the FDA.

That number puts it ahead of most of its rivals, with Eli Lilly, a close second, having 63 drugs in Phases 1-3, plus one currently being reviewed. Bristol-Myers Squibb has 46 drugs in development, 7 under review, Merck has 35 drugs in Phase 2 or 3 with two under review, and Johnson and Johnson has 18 drugs that are already in Phase 3 clinical trials or up for FDA approval.

But, of course, as the journal points out, “Quality trumps quantity. . . . One or two blockbusters can be better than several lower-revenue drugs.”

So what does Pfizer have up its sleeve that might begin to fill the very big shoes of Lipitor?

Well, the company has diversified the therapeutic areas under research, with 26% of R&D efforts going toward oncology treatments, 20% to neuroscience and pain, 17% to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, 14% to inflammation and immunology, 5% to vaccines, and 18% toward ‘other.’

Pfizer has several medicines for diabetes alone coming up, in Phase I and Phase II trials, almost all meant to treat type 2 diabetes.

But, notes Seeking Alpha,http://seekingalpha.com/article/560531-pfizer-alzheimer-s-drugs-will-carry-stock-to-new-highs-in-2013

its blockbuster potential in this area is limited by the existing treatments of Merck and Sanofi. 10% of Sanofi’s total sales come from Lantus,

Lantus

a diabetes drug useful for both types 1 and 2, and Merck made $1.3 billion off its Januvia

januvia

franchise in the first quarter of this year alone.

So hopes are pinned on Pfizer’s tofacitinib, currently under FDA review, as the treatment with the potential to earn $1 billion or more in sales, easing the gaping wound left by Lipitor. Tofacitinib prompts such high hopes because it might possibly treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and irritable bowel syndrome. Some analysts have pinned this as the cash cow Pfizer so badly needs to replace treatments lost to the patent cliff.

Tofacitinib

http://seekingalpha.com/article/812981-pfizers-success-with-its-jak-inhibitor

If it gets approved, Tofacitinib would be first treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a new class of medicines (known as Jenus kinase, or JAK, inhibitors), and the first JAK inhibitor approved for rheumatoid arthritis.

Tofacitinib showed statistically significant improvement compared to placebo in decreasing the symptoms of RA (as measured by 20% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology scale), in improving physical function (as measured by mean change in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index), and in leading to remission (as measured by Disease Activity Score 28 ESR).

Joel Kremer, MD, chief of medicine at Albany Medical College in N.Y., after analyzing the data, commented, “Tofacitinib appears to reduce the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis very quickly. We hope that after carefully considering the benefit/risk equation, this compound will provide an additional valuable treatment option for patients who have experienced inadequate response to prior treatments.”

Pfizer also believes its blood thinner Eliquis, which it is developing with Bristol-Myers Squibb (see below) could be a big money-maker.

apixaban, eliquis

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