AUTHOR OF THIS BLOG

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLDDRUGTRACKER

Biafungin, CD 101, a Novel Echinocandin for Vulvovaginal candidiasis

 orphan status  Comments Off on Biafungin, CD 101, a Novel Echinocandin for Vulvovaginal candidiasis
Aug 012016
 

STR1

 

 

str1

str1as  CH3COOH salt

UNII-W1U1TMN677.png

CD 101

Several structural representations above

Biafungin™; CD 101 IV; CD 101 Topical; CD101; SP 3025, Biafungin acetate, Echinocandin B

UNII-G013B5478J FRE FORM,

CAS 1396640-59-7 FREE FORM

MF, C63-H85-N8-O17, MW, 1226.4035

Echinocandin B,

1-((4R,5R)-4-hydroxy-N2-((4”-(pentyloxy)(1,1′:4′,1”-terphenyl)-4-yl)carbonyl)-5-(2-(trimethylammonio)ethoxy)-L-ornithine)-4-((4S)-4-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-L-allothreonine)-

Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections; Treat and prevent systemic Candida infections; Treat candidemia

2D chemical structure of 1631754-41-0

Biafungin acetate

CAS 1631754-41-0 ACETATE, Molecular Formula, C63-H85-N8-O17.C2-H3-O2, Molecular Weight, 1285.4472,

C63 H85 N8 O17 . C2 H3 O2
1-​[(4R,​5R)​-​4-​hydroxy-​N2-​[[4”-​(pentyloxy)​[1,​1′:4′,​1”-​terphenyl]​-​4-​yl]​carbonyl]​-​5-​[2-​(trimethylammonio)​ethoxy]​-​L-​ornithine]​-​4-​[(4S)​-​4-​hydroxy-​4-​(4-​hydroxyphenyl)​-​L-​allothreonine]​-​, acetate (1:1)

UNII: W1U1TMN677

CD101 – A novel echinocandin antifungal C. albicans (n=351) MIC90 = 0.06 µg/mL C. glabrata (n=200) MIC90 = 0.06 µg/mL  Echinocandins have potent fungicidal activity against Candida species

  • Originator Seachaid Pharmaceuticals
  • Developer Cidara Therapeutics
  • Class Antifungals; Echinocandins; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Glucan synthase inhibitors

 

BIAFUNGIN, CD 101

Watch this space as I add more info…………….

U.S. – Fast Track (Treat candidemia);
U.S. – Fast Track (Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections);
U.S. – Orphan Drug (Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections);
U.S. – Orphan Drug (Treat candidemia);
U.S. – Qualified Infectious Disease Program (Treat candidemia);
U.S. – Qualified Infectious Disease Program (Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections)

Fungal infections have emerged as major causes of human disease, especially among the immunocompromised patients and those hospitalized with serious underlying disease. As a consequence, the frequency of use of systemic antifungal agents has increased significantly and there is a growing concern about a shortage of effective antifungal agents. Although resistance rates to the clinically available antifungal agents remains low, reports of breakthrough infections and the increasing prevalence of uncommon fungal species that display elevated MIC values for existing agents is worrisome. Biafungin (CD101, previously SP 3025) is a novel echinocandin that displays chemical stability and long-acting pharmacokinetics that is being developed for once-weekly or other intermittent administration (see posters #A-693 and A- 694 for further information). In this study, we test biafungin and comparator agents against a collection of common Candida and Aspergillus species, including isolates resistant to azoles and echinocandins.

The echinocandins are an important class of antifungal agents, but are administered once daily by intravenous (IV) infusion. An echinocandin that could be administered once weekly could facilitate earlier hospital discharges and could expand usage to indications where daily infusions are impractical. Biafungin is a highly stable echinocandin for once-weekly IV administration. The compound was found to have a spectrum of activity and potency comparable to other echinocandins. In chimpanzees single dose pharmacokinetics of IV and orally administered biafungin were compared to IV anidulafungin, which has the longest half-life (T1/2 ) of the approved echinocandins.

Background  Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a highly prevalent mucosal infection  VVC is caused by Candida albicans (~85%) and non-albicans (~15%)  5-8% of women have recurrent VVC (RVVC) which is associated with a negative impact on work/social life  Oral fluconazole prescribed despite relapse, potential DDIs and increased risk to pregnant women  No FDA-approved therapy for RVVC and no novel agent in >20 years

str1

Cidara Therapeutics 6310 Nancy Ridge Drive, Suite 101 San Diego, CA 92121

The incidence of invasive fungal infections, especially those due to Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp., continues to increase. Despite advances in medical practice, the associated mortality from these infections continues to be substantial. The echinocandin antifungals provide clinicians with another treatment option for serious fungal infections. These agents possess a completely novel mechanism of action, are relatively well-tolerated, and have a low potential for serious drug–drug interactions. At the present time, the echinocandins are an option for the treatment of infections due Candida spp (such as esophageal candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, and candidemia). In addition, caspofungin is a viable option for the treatment of refractory aspergillosis. Although micafungin is not Food and Drug Administration-approved for this indication, recent data suggests that it may also be effective. Finally, caspofungin- or micafungin-containing combination therapy should be a consideration for the treatment of severe infections due to Aspergillus spp. Although the echinocandins share many common properties, data regarding their differences are emerging at a rapid pace. Anidulafungin exhibits a unique pharmacokinetic profile, and limited cases have shown a potential far activity in isolates with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations to caspofungin and micafungin. Caspofungin appears to have a slightly higher incidence of side effects and potential for drug–drug interactions. This, combined with some evidence of decreasing susceptibility among some strains ofCandida, may lessen its future utility. However, one must take these findings in the context of substantially more data and use with caspofungin compared with the other agents. Micafungin appears to be very similar to caspofungin, with very few obvious differences between the two agents.

Echinocandins are a new class of antifungal drugs[1] that inhibit the synthesis of glucan in the cell wall, via noncompetitive inhibition of the enzyme 1,3-β glucan synthase[2][3] and are thus called “penicillin of antifungals”[4] (a property shared with papulacandins) as penicillin has a similar mechanism against bacteria but not fungi. Beta glucans are carbohydrate polymers that are cross-linked with other fungal cell wall components (The bacterial equivalent is peptidoglycan). Caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin are semisynthetic echinocandin derivatives with clinical use due to their solubility, antifungal spectrum, and pharmacokinetic properties.[5]

List of echinocandins:[17]

  • Pneumocandins (cyclic hexapeptides linked to a long-chain fatty acid)
  • Echinocandin B not clinically used, risk of hemolysis
  • Cilofungin withdrawn from trials due to solvent toxicity
  • Caspofungin (trade name Cancidas, by Merck)
  • Micafungin (FK463) (trade name Mycamine, by Astellas Pharma.)
  • Anidulafungin (VER-002, V-echinocandin, LY303366) (trade name Eraxis, by Pfizer)

History

Discovery of echinocandins stemmed from studies on papulacandins isolated from a strain of Papularia sphaerosperma (Pers.), which were liposaccharide – i.e., fatty acid derivatives of a disaccharide that also blocked the same target, 1,3-β glucan synthase – and had action only on Candida spp. (narrow spectrum). Screening of natural products of fungal fermentation in the 1970s led to the discovery of echinocandins, a new group of antifungals with broad-range activity against Candida spp. One of the first echinocandins of the pneumocandin type, discovered in 1974, echinocandin B, could not be used clinically due to risk of high degree of hemolysis. Screening semisynthetic analogs of the echinocandins gave rise to cilofungin, the first echinofungin analog to enter clinical trials, in 1980, which, it is presumed, was later withdrawn for a toxicity due to the solvent system needed for systemic administration. The semisynthetic pneumocandin analogs of echinocandins were later found to have the same kind of antifungal activity, but low toxicity. The first approved of these newer echinocandins was caspofungin, and later micafungin and anidulafungin were also approved. All these preparations so far have low oral bioavailability, so must be given intravenously only. Echinocandins have now become one of the first-line treatments for Candida before the species are identified, and even as antifungal prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

CIDARA THERAPEUTICS DOSES FIRST PATIENT IN PHASE 2 TRIAL OF CD101 TOPICAL TO TREAT VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS

SAN DIEGO–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Jun. 9, 2016– Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq:CDTX), a biotechnology company developing novel anti-infectives and immunotherapies to treat fungal and other infections, today announced that the first patient has been dosed in RADIANT, a Phase 2 clinical trial comparing the safety and tolerability of the novel echinocandin, CD101, to standard-of-care fluconazole for the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). RADIANT will evaluate two topical formulations of CD101, which is Cidara’s lead antifungal drug candidate.

“There have been no novel VVC therapies introduced for more than two decades, so advancing CD101 topical into Phase 2 is a critical step for women with VVC and for Cidara,” said Jeffrey Stein, Ph.D., president and chief executive officer of Cidara. “Because of their excellent safety record and potency against Candida, echinocandin antifungals are recommended as first line therapy to fight systemic Candida infections. CD101 topical will be the first echinocandin tested clinically in VVC and we expect to demonstrate safe and improved eradication of Candida with rapid symptom relief for women seeking a better option over the existing azole class of antifungals.”

RADIANT is a Phase 2, multicenter, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, dose-ranging trial designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of CD101 in women with moderate to severe episodes of VVC. The study will enroll up to 125 patients who will be randomized into three treatment cohorts. The first cohort will involve the treatment of 50 patients with CD101 Ointment while a second cohort of 50 patients will receive CD101 Gel. The third cohort will include 25 patients who will be treated with oral fluconazole.

The primary endpoints of RADIANT will be the safety and tolerability of a single dose of CD101 Ointment and multiple doses of CD101 Gel in patients with acute VVC. Secondary endpoints include therapeutic efficacy in acute VVC patients treated with CD101. Treatment evaluations and assessments will occur on trial days 7, 14 and 28.

The RADIANT trial will be conducted at clinical trial centers across the United States. More information about the trial is available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT02733432.

About VVC and RVVC

Seventy-five percent of women worldwide suffer from VVC in their lifetime, and four to five million women in the United Statesalone have the recurrent form of the infection, which is caused by Candida. Many women will experience recurrence after the completion of treatment with existing therapies. Most VVC occurs in women of childbearing potential (the infection is common in pregnant women), but it affects women of all ages. In a recent safety communication, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration(FDA) advised caution in the prescribing of oral fluconazole for yeast infections during pregnancy based on a published study concluding there is an increased risk of miscarriage. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines recommend using only topical antifungal products to treat pregnant women with vulvovaginal yeast infections. Vaginal infections are associated with a substantial negative impact on day-to-day functioning and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased infant mortality in addition to predisposition to HIV/AIDS. According to the CDC, certain species of Candida are becoming increasingly resistant to existing antifungal medications. This emerging resistance intensifies the need for new antifungal agents.

About CD101 Topical

CD101 topical is the first topical agent in the echinocandin class of antifungals and exhibits a broad spectrum of fungicidal activity against Candida species. In May 2016, the FDA granted Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) and Fast Track Designation to CD101 topical for the treatment of VVC and the prevention of RVVC.

About Cidara Therapeutics

Cidara is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of novel anti-infectives for the treatment of diseases that are inadequately addressed by current standard-of-care therapies. Cidara’s initial product portfolio comprises two formulations of the company’s novel echinocandin, CD101. CD101 IV is being developed as a once-weekly, high-exposure therapy for the treatment and prevention of serious, invasive fungal infections. CD101 topical is being developed for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and the prevention of recurrent VVC (RVVC), a prevalent mucosal infection. In addition, Cidara has developed a proprietary immunotherapy platform, Cloudbreak™, designed to create compounds that direct a patient’s immune cells to attack and eliminate pathogens that cause infectious disease. Cidara is headquartered inSan Diego, California. For more information, please visit www.cidara.com.

REF http://ir.cidara.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=253962&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=2176474

CLIP

Cidara Therapeutics raises $42 million to develop once-weekly anti-fungal therapy

Cidara Therapeutics (formerly K2 Therapeutics) grabbed $42 million in a private Series B funding round Wednesday to continue developing its once-weekly anti-fungal therapy. Just in June 2014, the company completed a $32 million Series A financing led by 5AM Ventures, Aisling Capital, Frazier Healthcare and InterWest Partners, which was the fourth largest A round in 2014 for innovative startups[1]. FierceBiotech named the company as one of 2014 Fierce 15 biotech startups.

Cidara has an impressive executive team. The company was co-founded by Kevin Forrest, former CEO of Achaogen (NASDAQ: AKAO), and Shaw Warren. Jeffrey Stein, former CEO of Trius Therapeutics (NASDAQ: TSRX) and Dirk Thye, former president of Cerexa, have joined Cidara as CEO and CMO, respectively. Trius successfully developed antibiotic tedizolid and was acquired in 2013 by Cubist Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: CBST) for $818 million.

Cidara’s lead candidate, biafungin (SP3025), was acquired from Seachaid Pharmaceuticals for $6 million. Biafungin’s half-life is much longer than that of similar drugs known as echinocandins (e.g., caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin), which may allow it to be developed as a once-weekly therapy, instead of once daily. The company is also developing a topical formulation of biafungin, namely topifungin. Cidara intends to file an IND and initiate a Phase I clinical trial in the second half of 2015.

Merck’s Cancidas (caspofungin), launched in 2001, was the first of approved enchinocandins. The drug generated annual sales of $596 million in 2008. The approved echinocandins must be administered daily by intravenous infusion. Biafungin with improved pharmacokinetic characteristics has the potential to bring in hundreds of millions of dollars per year.

[1] Nat Biotechnol. 2015, 33(1), 18.

CLIP

Biafungin is a potent and broad-spectrum antifungal agent with excellent activity against wild-type and troublesome azole- and echinocandin-resistant strains of Candida spp. The activity of biafungin is comparable to anidulafungin. • Biafungin was active against both wild-type and itraconazole-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. from four different species. • In vitro susceptibility testing of biafungin against isolates of Candida and Aspergillus may be accomplished by either CLSI or EUCAST broth microdilution methods each providing comparable results. • The use of long-acting intravenous antifungal agents that could safely be given once a week to select patients is desirable and might decrease costs with long-term hospitalizations. Background: A novel echinocandin, biafungin, displaying long-acting pharmacokinetics and chemical stability is being developed for once-weekly administration. The activities of biafungin and comparator agents were tested against 173 fungal isolates of the most clinically common species. Methods: 106 CAN and 67 ASP were tested using CLSI and EUCAST reference broth microdilution methods against biafungin (50% inhibition) and comparators. Isolates included 27 echinocandin-resistant CAN (4 species) with identified fks hotspot (HS) mutations and 20 azole nonsusceptible ASP (4 species). Results: Against C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, the activity of biafungin (MIC50, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively by CLSI method) was comparable to anidulafungin (AND; MIC50, 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively) and caspofungin (CSP; MIC50, 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 μg/ml, respectively; Table). C. krusei strains were very susceptible to biafungin, showing MIC90 values of 0.06 μg/ml by both methods. Biafungin (MIC50/90, 1/2 μg/ml) was comparable to AND and less potent than CSP against C. parapsilosis using CLSI methodology. CLSI and EUCAST methods displayed similar results for most species, but biafungin (MIC50, 0.06 μg/ml) was eight-fold more active than CSP (MIC50, 0.5 μg/ml) against C. glabrata using the EUCAST method. Overall, biafungin was two- to four-fold more active against fks HS mutants than CSP and results were comparable to AND. Biafungin was active against A. fumigatus (MEC50/90, ≤0.008/0.015 μg/ml), A. terreus (MEC50/90, 0.015/0.015 μg/ml), A. niger (MEC50/90, ≤0.008/0.03 μg/ml) and A. flavus (MEC50/90, ≤0.008/≤0.008 μg/ml) using CLSI method. EUCAST results for ASP were also low for all echinocandins and comparable to CLSI results. Conclusions: Biafungin displayed comparable in vitro activity with other echinocandins against common wild-type CAN and ASP and resistant subsets that in combination with the long-acting profile warrants further development of this compound. 1. Arendrup MC, Cuenca-Estrella M, Lass-Florl C, Hope WW (2013). Breakpoints for antifungal agents: An update from EUCAST focussing on echinocandins against Candida spp. and triazoles against Aspergillus spp. Drug Resist Updat 16: 81-95. 2. Castanheira M, Woosley LN, Messer SA, Diekema DJ, Jones RN, Pfaller MA (2014). Frequency of fks mutations among Candida glabrata isolates from a 10-year global collection of bloodstream infection isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58: 577-580. 3. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2008). M27-A3. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts: third edition. Wayne, PA: CLSI. 4. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2008). M38-A2. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi: Second Edition. Wayne, PA: CLSI. 5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2012). M27-S4. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts: 4th Informational Supplement. Wayne, PA: CLSI. 6. European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (2014). Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 4.0, January 2014. Available at: http://www.eucast.org/clinical_breakpoints/. Accessed January 1, 2014. 7. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ (2010). Epidemiology of invasive mycoses in North America. Crit Rev Microbiol 36: 1-53. 8. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Andes D, Arendrup MC, Brown SD, Lockhart SR, Motyl M, Perlin DS (2011). Clinical breakpoints for the echinocandins and Candida revisited: Integration of molecular, clinical, and microbiological data to arrive at species-specific interpretive criteria. Drug Resist Updat 14: 164-176. ABSTRACT Activity of a Novel Echinocandin Biafungin (CD101) Tested against Most Common Candida and Aspergillus Species, Including Echinocandin- and Azole-resistant Strains M CASTANHEIRA, SA MESSER, PR RHOMBERG, RN JONES, MA PFALLER JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA C

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015035102A2?cl=en

BIAFUNGIN ACETATE IS USED AS STARTING MATERIAL

 

Example 30b: Synthesis of Compound 31

Step a. Nitration of Biafungin Acetate

To a stirring solution of biafungin (1 00 mg, 0.078 mmol) in glacial acetic acid(1 .5 ml_) was added sodium nitrite (1 1 mg, 0.159 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 20 hours. The mixture was applied directly to reversed phase H PLC (Isco CombiFlash Rf; 50g RediSep C1 8 column, 5 to 95% acetonitrile in Dl water containing 0.1 % formic acid: 15 minute gradient). The pure fractions were pooled and lyophilized to yield 85 mg of the desired product as a light yellow solid, formate salt. 1 H-NMR (300 M Hz, Methanol-d4) δ 8.58 (d, 1 H, J = 1 1 .7 Hz), 8.47 (t, 2H, J = 8.7Hz), 8.05 (d, 1 H, J = 2.1 Hz), 7.99 (d, 2H, J = 9.3 Hz), 7.82 (d, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz), 7.79-7.60 (m, 12H), 7.1 7 (d, 1 H, J = 8.7 Hz), 7.03 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 5.48 (d, 1 H, J = 6 Hz), 5.08 (dd, 1 H, J = 1 .2, 5.7 Hz), 4.95-4.73 (m, 5H), 4.68-4.56 (m, 2H), 4.53 (d, 1 H, J = 5.7 Hz), 4.48-4.39 (m, 2H), 4.31 -3.79 (m, 6H), 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 5.7 Hz), 3.72-3.44 (m,3H), 3.1 8 (s, 9H), 2.60-1 .99 (m, 5H), 1 .83 (m, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz), 1 .56-1 .35 (m, 5H), 1 .28 (d, 6H, J = 4.2 Hz), 1 .09 (d, 3H, J = 1 0.2 Hz), 0.99 (t, 3H, J = 8.7 Hz) ; LC/MS, [M/2+H]+: 635.79, 635.80 calculated.

Step b. Reduction of Nitro-Biafungin To Amino-Biafungin

To a stirring solution of Nitro-Biafungin (1 00 mg, 0.075 mmol) in glacial acetic acid(1 .5 ml_) was added zinc powder (50 mg, 0.77 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour. The mixture was filtered and applied directly to reversed phase HPLC (Isco CombiFlash Rf, 50g Redisep C18 column; 5 to 95% acetonitrile in Dl water containing 0.1 % formic acid: 15 minute gradient). The pure fractions were pooled and lyophilized to yield 55 mg of the desired product as a white solid, formate salt. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, Methanol-d4) 5 8.47 (bs, 1 H), 7.99 (d, 2H, J = 1 0.8Hz), 7.82 (d, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz), 7.80-7.67 (m, 6H), 7.62 (d, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz), 7.03 (d, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz), 6.77 (d, 1 H, J = 1 .9 Hz), 6.68 (d, 1 H, J = 8.2 Hz), 6.55 (dd, 2H, J = 8.2, 1 .9 Hz), 5.43 (d, 1 H, J = 2.5 Hz), 5.05 (d, 1 H, J = 3 Hz), 4.83-4.73 (m, 2H), 4.64- 4.56 (m, 2H), 4.43-4.34 (m, 2H), 4.31 -4.15 (m, 4H), 4.03-4.08 (m, 1 H), 4.1 1 -3.89 (m, 8H), 3.83 (d, 1 H, J = 1 0.8 Hz), 3.68-3.47 (m, 3H), 3.1 7 (s, 9H), 2.57-2.42 (m, 2H), 2.35-2.27 (m, 1 H), 2.14-1 .98 (m, 2H), 1 .83 (m, 2H, J = 6 Hz), 1 .56-1 .38 (m, 4H), 1 .28 (dd, 6H, J = 6.5, 2 Hz), 1 .09 (d, 3H, J = 7 Hz), 0.986 (t, 3H, J = 7 Hz); High Res LC/MS: [M+H]+ 1241 .61 63; 1241 .6136 calculated.

Step c. Reaction of Amino-Biafungin with lnt-2 to Produce Compound 31

To a stirring solution of Amino-Biafungin (50 mg, 0.04 mmol) in DM F (1 ml_) was added formyl-Met-Leu-Phe- -Ala-OSu (lnt-2) (36 mg, 0.06 mmol) and DI PEA (7 uL, 0.04 mmol). The reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 8 hours. The mixture was applied directly to reversed phase HPLC (Isco CombiFlash Rf; 50g Redisep C1 8 column; 5 to 95% acetonitrile in Dl water containing 0.1 % formic acid: 15 minute gradient). The pure fractions were pooled and lyophilized to yield 26 mg of a white solid as a formate salt. 1 H-NMR (300 M Hz, Methanol-d4) 5 8.55 (bs, 1 H), 8.44 (t, 1 H, J = 10 Hz), 8.1 8 (d, 1 H, J = 6 Hz), 8.1 1 (s, 1 H), 7.99 (d, 2H, J = 1 0 Hz), 7.84-7.70 (m, 6H), 7.63 (d, 2H, J = 7.8 Hz), 7.32-7.1 9 (m, 6H), 7.03 (d, 4H, J = 9 Hz), 6.87 (d, 1 H, J = 8.1 Hz), 5.44 (d, 1 H, J = 1 0.5 Hz), 5.05 (d, 1 H, J = 4.5 Hz), 4.83-4.74 (m, 2H), 4.66-4.50 (m, 6H), 4.45-4.29 (m, 10H), 4.1 9-3.82 (m, 1 0H), 3.67-3.57 (m, 6H), 3.1 7 (s, 9H), 2.64-2.46 (m, 6 H), 2.14-1 .92 (m, 6H), 1 .84 (m, 4H, J = 6 Hz), 1 .62-1 .40 (m, 8H), 1 .32-1 .22 (m, 6H), 1 .09 (d, 3H, J = 9 Hz), 0.99 (t, 3H, J = 7.5 Hz), 0.88 (m, 6H, J = 6.8 Hz) ; High Res LC/MS, [M/2+H]+ 865.4143, 865.4147 calculated.

REFERENCES

  1. Denning, DW (June 2002). “Echinocandins: a new class of antifungal.”. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 49 (6): 889–91. doi:10.1093/jac/dkf045. PMID 12039879.
  2.  Morris MI, Villmann M (September 2006). “Echinocandins in the management of invasive fungal infections, part 1”. Am J Health Syst Pharm 63 (18): 1693–703.doi:10.2146/ajhp050464.p1. PMID 16960253.
  3. Morris MI, Villmann M (October 2006). “Echinocandins in the management of invasive fungal infections, Part 2”. Am J Health Syst Pharm 63 (19): 1813–20.doi:10.2146/ajhp050464.p2. PMID 16990627.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b “Pharmacotherapy Update – New Antifungal Agents: Additions to the Existing Armamentarium (Part 1)”.
  5.  Debono, M; Gordee, RS (1994). “Antibiotics that inhibit fungal cell wall development”.Annu Rev Microbiol 48: 471–497. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.48.100194.002351.

17 Eschenauer, G; Depestel, DD; Carver, PL (March 2007). “Comparison of echinocandin antifungals.”. Therapeutics and clinical risk management 3 (1): 71–97. PMC 1936290.PMID 18360617.

///////////Biafungin™,  CD 101 IV,  CD 101 Topical,  CD101,  SP 3025, PHASE 2, CIDARA, Orphan Drug, Fast Track Designation, Seachaid Pharmaceuticals,  Qualified Infectious Disease Product, QIDP, UNII-G013B5478J, 1396640-59-7, 1631754-41-0, Vulvovaginal candidiasis, Echinocandin B, FUNGIN

FREE FORM

CCCCCOc1ccc(cc1)c2ccc(cc2)c3ccc(cc3)C(=O)N[C@H]4C[C@@H](O)[C@H](NC(=O)[C@@H]5[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C)CN5C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)C(NC(=O)[C@@H]6C[C@@H](O)CN6C(=O)C(NC4=O)[C@@H](C)O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)c7ccc(O)cc7)[C@@H](C)O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C

AND OF ACETATE

CCCCCOc1ccc(cc1)c2ccc(cc2)c3ccc(cc3)C(=O)N[C@H]4C[C@@H](O)[C@H](NC(=O)[C@@H]5[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C)CN5C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)C(NC(=O)[C@@H]6C[C@@H](O)CN6C(=O)[C@@H](NC4=O)[C@@H](C)O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)c7ccc(O)cc7)[C@@H](C)O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C.CC(=O)[O-]

Three antifungal drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin, are known to inhibit β-1 ,3-glucan synthase which have the structures shown below.

caspofungin

Anidulafungin

Other exemplary p-1 ,3-glucan synthase inhibitors include,

echinocandin B

cilofungin

pneumocandin A0

pneumocandin B0

L-705589

L-733560

A-174591

or a salt thereof,

Biafungin


or a salt thereof,

Amino-biafungin


or a salt thereof,

Amino-AF-053

ASP9726

Yet other exemplary p-1 ,3-glucan synthase inhibitors include, without limitation:

Papulacandin B

Ergokonin

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Ataluren (Translarna) drug for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

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Jun 302016
 

ChemSpider 2D Image | Ataluren | C15H9FN2O3

Ataluren (Translarna)

3-(5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)benzoic acid

3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid

CAS 775304-57-9

PTC Therapeutics (Originator)

  • Molecular FormulaC15H9FN2O3
  • Average mass284.242 Da
  • EC-000.2051
    NCGC00168759-02
    PTC-124, PTC124, 
    UNII:K16AME9I3V
  • EU 2014-07-31 APPROVED

Ataluren, formerly known as PTC124, is a pharmaceutical drug for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and potentially other genetic disorders. It was designed by PTC Therapeutics and is sold under the trade name Translarna in the European Union.

Ataluren was approved by European Medicine Agency (EMA) on July 31, 2014. It was developed and marketed as Translarna® by PTC Therapeutics.

Ataluren was regulator of nonsense mutations indicated for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy resulting from a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene, in ambulatory patients aged 5 years and older.

Translarna® is available as granules for oral use, containing 125 mg, 250 mg or 1000 mg of free Ataluren. The recommended dose is 10 mg/kg body weight in the morning, 10 mg/kg body weight at midday, and 20 mg/kg body weight in the evening.

Medical uses

Ataluren has been tested on healthy humans and humans carrying genetic disorders caused by nonsense mutations,[1][2] such as some people with cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. It is approved for the use in Duchenne in the European Union.

Mechanism of action

Ataluren makes ribosomes less sensitive to premature stop codons (referred to as “read-through”). This may be beneficial in diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy where the mRNA contains a mutation causing premature stop codons or nonsense codons. Studies have demonstrated that PTC124 treatment increases expression of full-length dystrophin protein in human and mouse primary muscle cells containing the premature stop codon mutation for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and rescues striated muscle function.[3] Studies in mice with the premature stop codon mutation for cystic fibrosis demonstrated increased CFTR protein production and function.[4] The European Medicines Agency review on the approval of ataluren concluded that “the non-clinical data available were considered sufficient to support the proposed mechanism of action and to alleviate earlier concerns on the selectivity of ataluren for premature stop codons.” [5]

In cystic fibrosis, early studies of ataluren show that it improves nasal potential difference.[6] Ataluren appears to be most effective for the stop codon ‘UGA’.[1]

History

Clinical trials

In 2010, PTC Therapeutics released preliminary results of its phase 2b clinical trial for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, with participants not showing a significant improvement in the six minute walk distance after the 48 weeks of the trial.[7] This failure resulted in the termination of a $100 million deal with Genzyme to pursue the drug.

Phase 2 clinical trials were successful for cystic fibrosis in Israel, France and Belgium.[8] Multicountry phase 3 clinical trials are currently in progress for cystic fibrosis in Europe and the USA.[9]

Approval

On 23 May 2014 ataluren received a positive opinion from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA).[10]Translarna was first available in Germany, the first EU country to launch the new medicine.[11]

In August 2014, ataluren received market authorization from the European Commission to treat patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A confirmatory phase III clinical trial is ongoing.[11] The drug does not yet have approval by the US Food and Drug Administration.

In October 2015, NICE asked for further evidence of benefit to justify the “very high cost”.[12] NICE estimated that for a typical patient, treatment would cost £220,256 per year.

In February 2016, FDA declined to approve or even discuss PTC Therapeutics application for ataluren because it deemed the data presented by the developer “insufficient to warrant a review”.[13]

Ataluren Molecule

PAPER

Auld, Douglas S.; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009, V106(9), P3585-3590

http://www.pnas.org/content/106/9/3585.full

http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2009/02/10/0813345106.DCSupplemental

http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2009/02/10/0813345106.DCSupplemental/Appendix_PDF.pdf

STR1

Samples were analyzed for purity on an Agilent 1200 series LC/MS equipped with a Luna® C18 reverse phase (3 micron, 3 x 75 mm) column having a flow rate of 0.8-1.0 mL/min. The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile (0.025% TFA) and H2O (0.05% TFA), and temperature was maintained at 50 °C. A gradient of 4% to 100% acetonitrile over 7 minutes was used during analytical analysis. Purity of final compounds was determined to be >95%, using a 5 μL injection with quantitation by AUC at 220 and 254 nM. High resolution mass spectra were obtained with an Agilent 6210 Time-of-Flight LC/MS with a 3.5 um Zorbax SB-C18 column (2.1 x 30 mm) (solvents are Water and ACN with 0.1% Formic Acid). A 3 minute gradient at 1 mL/min from 5% to 100% acetonitrile was used.

3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-[1,2,4]-oxadiazol-3-yl]-benzoic acid (1a, PTC124).

1 H NMR (d6-DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 13.15-13.68 (bs, 1H), 8.62 (s, 1H), 8.31 (d, 1H, JHH = 6.8 Hz), 8.24 (t, 1H, JHH = 7.2 Hz), 8.17 (d, 1H, JHH = 7.4 Hz), 7.77-7.82 (m, 1H), 7.73 (t, 1H, JHH = 7.6 Hz), 7.53 (dd, 1H, JHH = 10.8 Hz, JHH = 8.4 Hz), 7.48 (t, 1H, JHH = 6.8 Hz).

13C NMR (d6-DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 172.72 (d, JCF = 4.4 Hz), 167.39, 166.52, 159.95 (d, JCF = 258.0 Hz), 135.80 (d, JCF = 8.8 Hz), 132.28, 131.97, 131.97, 131.04, 130.94, 129.86, 127.76, 125.4 (d, JCF = 3.6 Hz), 117.2 (d, JCF = 20.4 Hz), 111.6 (d, JCF = 11.2 Hz). LC-

MS: rt (min) = 5.713; [M+H]+ 285.1;

HRMS: (CI+, m/z), calcd for C15H10FN2O3 (MH+ ), 285.06814; found, 285.06769.

 

CLIP

Ataluren (Translarna) Ataluren is a drug marketed under the trade name Translarna which was developed by PTC Therapeutics and approved by the European Union in May 2014 for the treatment of Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy (DMD) and potentially other genetic disorders.50

Ataluren renders ribosomes less sensitive to premature stop or ‘read-through’ codons, which are thought to be beneficial in diseases such as DMD and cystic fibrosis.51 Of the reported synthetic approaches to ataluren,52–55 the most likely process-scale approach consists of the sequence described in Scheme 7, which reportedly has been exemplified on kilogram scale.56

The sequence to construct ataluren, which was described by the authors at PTC Therapeutics, commenced with commercially available methyl 3-cyanobenzoate (38).56 This ester was exposed to hydroxylamine in aqueous tert-butanol and warmed gently until the reaction was deemed complete.

Then this mixture was treated with 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride dropwise and subsequently triethylamine dropwise. To minimize exotherm and undesired side products, careful control of the addition of reagents was achieved through slow dropwise addition of these liquid reagents.

Upon complete consumption of starting materials and formation of amidooxime 39, the aqueous reaction mixture was then heated to 85 C to facilitate 1,2,4-oxadiazole formation, resulting in the tricyclic ester 40 in excellent yield across the three steps.

Finally,saponification of ester 40 through the use of sodium hydroxide followed by acidic quench gave ataluren (V) in 96% over the two-step sequence.57

STR1

50. Welch, E. M.; Barton, E. R.; Zhuo, J.; Tomizawa, Y.; Friesen, W. J.; Trifillis, P.;Paushkin, S.; Patel, M.; Trotta, C. R.; Hwang, S.; Wilde, R. G.; Karp, G.; Takasugi,J.; Chen, G.; Jones, S.; Ren, H.; Moon, Y. C.; Corson, D.; Turpoff, A. A.; Campbell,J. A.; Conn, M. M.; Khan, A.; Almstead, N. G.; Hedrick, J.; Mollin, A.; Risher, N.;Weetall, M.; Yeh, S.; Branstrom, A. A.; Colacino, J. M.; Babiak, J.; Ju, W. D.;Hirawat, S.; Northcutt, V. J.; Miller, L. L.; Spatrick, P.; He, F.; Kawana, M.; Feng,H.; Jacobson, A.; Peltz, S. W.; Sweeney, H. L. Nature 2007, 447, 87.
51. Hirawat, S.; Welch, E. M.; Elfring, G. L.; Northcutt, V. J.; Paushkin, S.; Hwang,S.; Leonard, E. M.; Almstead, N. G.; Ju, W.; Peltz, S. W.; Miller, L. L. J. Clin.Pharmacol. 2007, 47, 430.

52Karp, G. M.; Hwang, S.; Chen, G.; Almstead, N. G. US Patent 2004204461A1,2004.
53. Andersen, T. L.; Caneschi, W.; Ayoub, A.; Lindhardt, A. T.; Couri, M. R. C.;Skrydstrup, T. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2014, 356, 3074.
54. Gupta, P. K.; Hussain, M. K.; Asad, M.; Kant, R.; Mahar, R.; Shukla, S. K.; Hajela,K. New J. Chem. 2014, 38, 3062.
55. Lentini, L.; Melfi, R.; Di Leonardo, A.; Spinello, A.; Barone, G.; Pace, A.; PalumboPiccionello, A.; Pibiri, I. Mol. Pharm. 2014, 11, 653.
56. Almstead, N. G.; Hwang, P. S.; Pines, S.; Moon, Y. -C.; Takasugi, J. J. WO Patent2008030570A1, 2008.
57. Almstead, N. G.; Chen, G.; Hirawat, S.; Hwang, S.; Karp, G. M.; Miller, L.; Moon,Y. C.; Ren, H.; Takasugi, J. J.; Welch, E. M.; Wilde, R. G. WO Patent2007117438A2, 2007.

CLIP

Ataluren trial success: trial aborted.

07 September 2011 – Pharma……..http://chem.vander-lingen.nl/info/item/September_2011/id/190/mid/140

Last week the newspaper NRC Handelsblad reported on a court case in which the parents of two young boys sued a pharmaceutical company over access to one of their developmental drugs. The drug in question wasAtaluren, the pharmaceutical companyPTC Therapeutics. The boys suffer from Duchenne muscular dystrophyand had taken part in a clinical trial. Whereas the results of this trial on the whole were inconclusive the boys did seriously benefit from the drug. Hardly any wonder the parents took action when the whole development program was canceled.

And the judge? He threw the case out arguing that doctors do not make the compound themselves and arguing that the compound is not commercially available. Are these arguments valid? and do the boys have options?

It is not that ataluren is a complex molecule. To judge from one of the patents, synthesis is straightforward starting from 2-cyanobenoic acid and 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride, both commercially available. The synthetic steps are methylation of 2-cyanobenoic acid (iodomethane), nitrile hydrolysis with hydroxylamine, esterification with the fluoro acid chloride using DIPEA, high-temperature dehydration to the oxadiazole and finally ester hydrolysis (NaOH).

Except for the fluorine atom in it the compound is unremarkable. If you have to believe the Internet many Chinese companies produce and sell it. Ataluren is also still in the running as a potential treatment for some other diseases. So if need be the compound will be around for some time to come.

CLIP

Ataluren [3-[5-(2-Fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid] is an orally available, small molecule compound that targets nonsense mutation. It is the first drug in its class and appears to allow cellular machinery to read through premature stop codons in mRNA, and thus enables the translation process to produce full-length, functional proteins.
Ataluren is developed and approved for the treatment of nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD) by EU in July 2014 [1].

Ataluren: 2D and 3D Structure

Nonsense Mutations as Target for DMD

A single nucleotide change in the DNA sequence that introduces a premature stop codon is known as a nonsense mutation, a subset of a major class of premature termination codon (PTC) mutations. Nonsense mutations cause premature termination of translation resulting in the production of truncated polypeptides, which in turn halts the ribosomal translation process at an earlier site than normal, producing a truncated, non-functional protein [1].

Nonsense mutations are implicated in 5-70 % of individual cases of most inherited diseases, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and cystic fibrosis. Ataluren appears to allow cellular machinery to read through premature stop codons in mRNA, enabling the translation process to produce full length, functional proteins.

Ataluren Synthesis

New J Chem 2014, 38, 3062-3070: The text reports one pot synthesis of Ataluren with an overall yield of 40%. It also reports few interesting and potent derivatives too.


WO 2007117438A2: It appears to be the industrial process. The patent also reports various pharmaceutically relevant assay and their results wrt Ataluren.
Identifications:

1H NMR (Estimated) for Ataluren

Experimental: 1H NMR (d6-DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 13.15-13.68 (bs, 1H), 8.62 (s, 1H), 8.31 (d, 1H, JHH= 6.8 Hz), 8.24 (t, 1H, JHH = 7.2 Hz), 8.17 (d, 1H, JHH = 7.4 Hz), 7.77-7.82 (m, 1H), 7.73 (t, 1H, JHH = 7.6 Hz), 7.53 (dd, 1H, JHH = 10.8 Hz, JHH = 8.4 Hz), 7.48 (t, 1H, JHH = 6.8 Hz).

13C-NMR (Estimated) for Ataluren

Experimental: 13C NMR (d6-DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 172.72 (d, JCF = 4.4 Hz), 167.39, 166.52, 159.95 (d, JCF = 258.0 Hz), 135.80 (d, JCF = 8.8 Hz), 132.28, 131.97, 131.97, 131.04, 130.94, 129.86, 127.76, 125.4 (d, JCF = 3.6 Hz), 117.2 (d, JCF = 20.4 Hz), 111.6 (d, JCF = 11.2 Hz)……https://ayurajan.blogspot.in/2016/05/ataluren-treatment-for-duchenne.html

 

CLIP

It is not that ataluren is a complex molecule. To judge from one of the patents, synthesis is straightforward starting from 2-cyanobenoic acid and 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride, both commercially available. The synthetic steps are methylation of 2-cyanobenoic acid (iodomethane), nitrile hydrolysis with hydroxylamine, esterification with the fluoro acid chloride using DIPEA, high-temperature dehydration to the oxadiazole and finally ester hydrolysis (NaOH).
CLIP

1. WO2004091502A2 / US6992096B2.

2. WO2008045566A1 / US2008114039A1.

3. WO2008030570A1 / US2008139818A1.

4. Mol. Pharmaceutics 2014, 11, 653-664.



CLIP

Carcinogenicity

Carcinogenicity bioassays in transgenic mice (26 weeks) and in rats (24 months):

●    For Tg.rasH2 mouse: Ataluren did not increase the incidence of tumors up to the HDs in males (600 mg/kg/day) and in females (300 mg/kg/day).  The non-neoplastic findings included endometrial hyperplasia and nephropathy in females.

●    For rats: Urinary bladder tumors (benign urothelial cell papilloma [2 rats] and malignant urothelial cell carcinoma [1 rat]) were observed in 3/60 female rats dosed at 300 mg/kg/day.  In addition, one case of malignant hibernoma was observed in 1/60 male rats at the dose of 300 mg/kg/day.  The non-neoplastic toxicity consisted of a decrease of body weight.

PATENT

Example 1 (prepared by known ataluren)

Method ataluren according to Patent Document 2 is described in Example W02004091502A2 prepared.

Specific methods of preparation:

To a solution of 0.6 l of DMF was 44. 14g3- cyano acid 62.19 g of potassium carbonate was added, followed by stirring at room temperature for 30 minutes. 20 minutes To the suspension was added 28 ml of methyl iodide (450mmol), and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. The reaction mixture was poured into 1.2 l of ice water, stirred for 30 minutes, the precipitate was filtered out thereof. The white cake was dissolved in 70 ml of methanol, and then reprecipitated in cold water. To give 79% yield of 3-cyano-benzoic acid methyl ester.

50 g of 3-cyano-benzoic acid methyl ester was dissolved in 500 ml of ethanol, to which was added 41 ml of 50% aqueous hydroxylamine (620mmol). 100 ° C and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1 hour, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. So that the oily residue is dissolved in 100 ml of 20/80 ethanol / toluene, concentrated again. To give 61 g 3- (N- hydroxy amidino (carbamimidoyl)) – benzoic acid methyl ester.

60 g of 3- (N- hydroxy amidino (carbamimidoyl)) – benzoic acid methyl ester was dissolved in 200 ml of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran, followed by adding thereto 75 ml of diisopropylethylamine (434 mmol), and then 20 minutes this mixture was added 48.1 ml 2- fluorobenzoyl chloride (403mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The precipitate was filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in 400 ml of ethyl acetate, washed with 400 ml of water and then twice. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, containing 60% ethyl acetate in hexane to give the desired product, generating 81 g 3- (N-2- amidino-fluorobenzoyl) – benzoate.

at 130 ° C with a Dean-Stark apparatus was dissolved in 500 ml of toluene was heated under reflux in 44 g of 3- (N-2- fluorobenzoyl) -1,2,3,4-_ benzoate 4 hours. 5 ° C and the reaction mixture was stirred for 18 hours. The white precipitate was filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated, recrystallized in toluene. To give 38 g of 3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [1,2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] – benzoic acid methyl ester.

33 g of 3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [1,2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] – benzoic acid methyl ester was dissolved in 400 ml of tetrahydrofuran, to which was added 100 ml of 1. 5M aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. At 100 ° C and the reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 2 hours. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure at 5 ° C the solution was stirred for 2 hours. The organic solvent was removed, washed with 50 mL of water. The aqueous solution was then acidified with hydrochloric acid to pH 1. The white precipitate was filtered off, the filter cake washed with cold water, then dried with a freeze dryer. To give 3.0 g of 3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [1,2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] benzoic acid. 1H-NMR (500MHz, d6-DMS0): 8. 31 (1H), 8 18 (2H), 8 08 (1H), 7 88 (2H), 7 51 (2H)….. Display: ataluren- Sample Preparation Example 1 prepared in Preparation Example 2 and TO2004091502A2 induced.

Each prepared in Example 2 (prepared according to known Form A)

Method [0084] A known polymorph according to Patent Document W02008039431A2 Example 5. 1. 1.1 prepared as described. Specifically: ataluren be prepared 1 100 mg Preparation Example, 60 ° C add 16.2 ml of isopropanol ultrasound clear solution, the solution by 2 square micron filter and the filtrate was kept covered with aluminum foil having a small hole. vial, 60 ° C and evaporated. The solid formed was isolated to give ataluren the A polymorph.

as needles.

its XRPD shown in Figure 1, the display ataluren polymorph A disclosed in Patent Document W02008039431A2 consistent.

SEE
European Journal of Organic Chemistry (2016), 2016(3), 438-442
Russian Chemical Bulletin (2015), 64(1), 142-145.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2015), 101, 236-244.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2014), 24(11), 2473-2476.
New Journal of Chemistry (2014), 38(7), 3062-3070.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2010), 107(11), 4878-4883, S4878/1-S4878/14.
WO 2008039431
WO 2008045566
WO 2008030570
WO 2007117438
WO 2006110483
WO 2007117438
WO 2006110483
US 20040204461
PATENT

novel crystalline forms of 3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-

[l,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]-benzoic acid, which has the following chemical structure (I):

 

Figure imgf000003_0001

(I)

In particular, crystalline forms of 3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-[l,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]- benzoic acid are useful for the treatment, prevention or management of diseases ameliorated by modulation of premature translation termination or nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, as described in U.S. Patent No. 6,992,096 B2, issued January 31, 2006, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In addition, the present provides a crystalline form of 3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-[l,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]-benzoic acid which is substantially pure, i.e., its purity greater than about 90%.

Processes for the preparation of 3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-[l,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]- benzoic acid are described in U.S. Patent No. 6,992,096 B2, issued January 31, 2006, and U.S. patent application no. 1 1/899,813, filed September 9, 2007, both of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

PATENT

CN101535284

https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/originalDocument?CC=CN&NR=101535284A&KC=A&FT=D&ND=&date=20090916&DB=&locale=

 

STR1

STR1

Example

3- ‘5- (2-fluorophenyl) – “1,2,41 oxadiazol-3-yl benzoate 1- Batch 1

The 3-cyano-benzoic acid methyl ester (105 kg) and t-butanol was added molten drying reactor. Under an inert atmosphere for about 2 hours 48 minutes, 50. /. Aqueous hydroxylamine (43L, 47.4 kg) was added to a clear solution of 3-cyano benzoic acid methyl ester in a molten in t-butanol. The addition of a 50% aqueous solution of hydroxylamine period, the maximum temperature batch of about 43 ° C. 50% aqueous solution of hydroxylamine addition rate of from about 9L / h when the changes start adding to about 30L / hr. To maintain the temperature of the batch by varying the reactor jacket set point. In particular, the set value is about 40.5 ° C, with the addition of a rate increase at the beginning join, change the setting to about 29.6 ° C. After about 40-45t stirred for about 4 hours, the reaction was deemed complete (i.e., less than about 0.5% ester).

The batch was transferred to a drying reactor, additional (chased through) approximately 10L molten tert-butanol. Jacket setpoint from about 33 when the batch was received when dried reactor. C is reduced to about 27 after the completion of the transfer. C. Batch crystallization was observed part, which does not adversely affect stirring. The batch was cooled to about 34.4 ° C, triethylamine (72.6 kg, IOOL) added to the reactor. The jacket temperature set value from about 20.4. C is increased to about 31.0 ° C, in order to maintain the batch temperature in the range of about 30-35t. With molten tert-butanol (IO L) was washed with a linear (line rinse) After the batch was added to the 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride (113.7 kg, 86.0L).Charge is added to the first third of the rate of about 25L / hr. In the meantime, the jacket inlet temperature was lowered to about 15 ° C, the batch temperature is maintained at about 34.6 ° C. In about 5.5 hours after the addition was complete.During the addition, the maximum temperature of the batch was about 38.8 ° C. Near the end of the addition, the addition rate slowed to about 11L / hr was added last 27 liters of 2-fluoro-benzoyl chloride. 30-35. C After stirring for about 2 hours, that the reaction was complete (i.e., less than about 0.5% of methyl 3-amidinophenoxy). Then, after about 1 hour 42 minutes, the batch was heated to reflux temperature (about 82 ° C), and then stirred for about 18 hours. During the stirring, a number of product partially crystallized to form a slurry. The slurry was cooled to about 40. C thus sampled, during which complete crystallization occurs. The batch was then heated to reflux temperature and stirred for about 1 hour 50 minutes.Then, after about two hours, the batch was cooled to about 69 ° C, and after about four hours and 15 minutes, slowly added 630L of pure water, while maintaining the batch temperature at about 66-69 ° C. After about 3 hours 14 minutes, the slurry was cooled to about 22.4 ° C, and transferred to 2x200L ceramic filter, the ceramic filter equipped 25-30n polypropylene mesh filter cloth. In about 55 minutes after the completion of material from the container to the filter transfer. With 50n /. The tert-butanol solution (210L) was washed cake was washed for about 10 minutes so that the cleaning liquid can penetrate into each cake. Then, the cake was dried in a vacuum for about 5-10 minutes. The purified water as a second washing (158L / cake) applied to the filter cake to remove residual t-butanol and triethylammonium chloride salt. Dried in a vacuum for about 5 minutes, the solution was removed. In vacuo and then the cake was dried for about 2 hours, and then sampled using liquid chromatography. The filter cake was measured by liquid chromatography purity of about 99.6%.

The filter cake was dried in vacuo for about 8 hours 25 minutes later, the wet cake (207.4kg) is transferred to an air oven. At about 50-55. C, the oven dried in air for about 52 hours. The product was isolated in a total yield of about 89.9% (174.65kg), in the calculation of cost of materials sampling, you can adjust the overall yield of about 90.7%.

Batch 2

The 3-cyano-benzoic acid methyl ester (105 kg) and t-butanol was added molten drying reactor. Under an inert atmosphere for about 3 hours 29 minutes, 50% aqueous solution of hydroxylamine (47.85 kg) was added to the reactor. During the addition, the temperature is maintained at about 40-45 ° C. At about 40-45. C After stirring for about 3 hours 16 minutes, that the reaction was complete (i.e., less than about 0.5% ester). As for the drying reactor, the batch was transferred to one of the batch in. The batch was cooled

To about 34.4 ° C, and triethylamine (72.6 kg, 100 L). During about 45 minutes was added, while maintaining the batch temperature between about 30-35 ° C. During the addition, the jacket inlet temperature of from about 31.4. C increased to about 32.6. C. After the molten tert-butanol linear washed, was added to the batch 2- fluorobenzoyl chloride (l 13.7 kg, 86.0 L). After about 3 hours, 27 minutes, add the acid chloride. 35. C under stirring for about 8 hours, that the reaction is not complete (i.e., more than about 0.5% residual 3-amidino-benzoyl ester). Then, 1.5% by weight of the original charge of triethylamine and 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride was added to the batch. Linear washed with tert-butanol (IO L) associated with each additional charge. During the addition of the acid chloride, no additional cooling. The batch was maintained at a temperature of about 30-35 ° C, the jacket inlet temperature range was maintained at about 30.3. C to about 33.0 ° C. After stirring for about 2 hours at 30-35t, that reaction was complete (i.e., less than 0.5% of methyl 3-amidinophenoxy).

After about 1 hour and 44 minutes, the batch was heated to reflux temperature (about 83 ° C), and stirred for about 18 hours.The same batch 1, during cooling the sample, the solid was completely crystallized. The batch was then heated to reflux temperature and stirred for about 1 hour and 2 minutes. Then, after about 2 hours and 20 minutes, the batch was cooled to about 69.2 ° C, and after about four hours and 30 minutes, slowly added 630 L of pure water, while the temperature of the batch was maintained at about 65.6-69.2 ° C. After about 3 hours and 30 minutes, the slurry was cooled to about 23.4 ° C, and, as for, the contents were transferred to one of the double batch of the ceramic filter. About 5 hours and 6 minutes, to complete the transfer of the material. With about 50% of t-butanol (2 volumes / cake) was washed filter cake was washed with 10 minutes to allow the cleaning liquid to penetrate into each cake, then dried in vacuo. About 1 hour and 40 minutes, the filter is completed. The purified water was added to a final wash the filter cake. The liquid was removed by drying under vacuum for about 10 minutes. In vacuo and then the cake was dried for about 2 hours and 5 minutes, and then sampled using liquid chromatography. The cake purity liquid chromatography were about 99.5% and 99.6%. After the cake was then dried in vacuo for about 2 hours and 5 minutes, the wet cake (191.5 kg) is transferred to an air oven. At about 50-55. C under dry in an air oven for about 48 hours. The product was isolated in a total yield of about 92.5% (179.7 kg).

Lot 3

The 3-cyano-benzoic acid methyl ester (52.5 kg) and molten tert-butanol (228 kg) added to the reaction vessel. The vessel was sealed, the batch temperature set of about 40-45 ° C, and the stirrer is started. Under an inert atmosphere, after 2 hours 40 minutes, 50% of the shoes amine solution (24 kg) was added to the reactor. During the addition, the temperature is maintained at about 40-45 ° C. In about 42. Under C, then further stirred for about 5 hours to complete the reaction.

The batch was cooled to 30-35 ° C, and after 15 minutes, was added triethylamine (36 kg). After about 2 hours 44 minutes, was added 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride (57 kg). During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at about 30-35 ° C.Under the 32t, the batch was stirred for 2 hours 10 minutes to complete the reaction.

After about 50 minutes, the batch was heated to reflux temperature (about 83-86 ° C), at about 8rc, stirred for about 18 hours. Then, over about two hours, the batch was cooled to about 65-70 ° C, and after about 6 hours 25 minutes, slowly added to purified water (315 L), while the batch temperature was maintained at about 65- 70 ° C. After about 2 hours and 15 minutes, the slurry was cooled to about 22 ° C, and the contents were transferred to a centrifuge filter (2 batches). About 1 hour and 40 minutes, the filter is completed. After about 20 minutes, with about 50% aqueous solution of tert-butyl alcohol (90 kg / cake), dried cake. The purified water (79 kg / cake) as the last added to the filter cake washed. At about 900 rpm drying the cake for about 1 hour and 5 minutes, then filled cylinder. Liquid chromatography wet cake (91.5 kg, LOD = 5% w / w) of a purity of about 99.75% area.

3- ‘5- (2-fluorophenyl) -fl, 2,41 oxadiazol-3-yl l- acid batch 1

3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [l, 2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] – benzoic acid methyl ester (74.0kg) added to the reaction vessel, the vessel is sealed, evacuated and purification. Jacket set value of about 35. C, start the stirrer in the container. Molten tert-butanol (222 L, 3 volumes) and purified water (355 L, 4.8 vol) was added to the vessel. After the addition was added 25.1% w / w aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (43.5 kg, 1.1 molar equivalents), and with additional purified water (100L, 1.35 mol) was washed linear. During the addition, the batch temperature from about 39.0t reduced to about 38.8 ° C. After about 1 hour and 54 minutes, the batch temperature to about 63-67. C, and then, after about 30 minutes, which was adjusted to about 68-72.C. About 68-72t, stirring the mixture for about 3 hours. Then, after about five hours 11 minutes, the solution was cooled to about 40-45 ° C. Then, after the above process, after about three hours 33 minutes, the solution was then heated to about 68-72. C.

Jacket temperature of the reaction vessel was set to about 60 ° C, the stirrer started, and at about 70 ° C, a slightly positive pressure of nitrogen (1.5 to 5.6 psig), the heat transfer liquid through a micron filter . During the transfer, the product temperature is reduced to about 64.3 ° C, the transfer is completed in about 45 minutes. Was added to the purified water container (61 L, 0.82 vol) and the contents were heated to about 68-72. C.

The batch temperature was adjusted to about 69.4 ° C, and after about four hours and 18 minutes, with 13.9% w / w sulfuric acid (100.7 kg, 1.15 mol equiv.). During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at about 68.0-70.8 ° C. After the addition of the acid, with purified water (50 L, 0.68 vol) line wash at about 68-72 ° C, the stirring was continued for 31 minutes.

After about 4 hours and 10 minutes, the batch in a linear fashion from about 69.2t cooled to about 41.2 ° C. The stirrer Rosenmund filter / dryer was elevated to the highest position and jacket set value is set at about 40 ° C. The slurry was transferred to the two portions of the filter / drier. Applying a constant nitrogen pressure to the first portion (less than about 15 psig). During the transfer, a pressure of about 23.9 to about 28.8 psi, the transfer is complete in about 1 hour and 5 minutes. The second part of the slurry was transferred onto the filter cake, and the composite was stirred briefly to homogenize the batch. Use about 26.1 to about 29.1 psi nitrogen pressure filters the second part, after about three hours, squeeze the cake so that it does not contain liquid. With about 38-42 ° C hot tert-butanol solution (352 kg, 5 volumes) and about 65-70 ° C in 3x hot purified water (370 L, 5 volumes) and the filter 々.

Said filter / dryer jacket temperature was set to about 43 ° C, the product was dried under vacuum for about 26 hours while stirring periodically. Determination of purity of about 99.7%. The product was isolated in a total yield of about 74.4% (52.45 kg).

Batch 2

Was added to the reactor vessel 3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [1,2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] – benzoic acid methyl ester (47 kg, wet cake) and melt-hyun tert-butyl alcohol (111.4 kg). A sealed container, and the batch temperature was set at 30-40t, and start the stirrer. The purified water (51.6 kg) was added to the vessel. After the addition was added 3.47% w / w aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (202.4 kg). After about l hour, the batch temperature to about 67-73. C, then, at about 7 (under TC, stirred for about three hours.

Under a slight positive pressure of nitrogen, with a 1 micron polypropylene bag filter the batch, and then transferred to the new reactor. Was added to the vessel pure water (146 kg), and heating the batch to about 68-72. C.

After about four hours, the 10.7% aqueous hydrochloric acid was added to the batch. During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at about 68-72 ° C. PH was measured by using the batch pH of about 2.2, and then stirring was continued at about 7 (under TC about 1 hour.

After about two hours, the batch in a linear fashion from about 70. C is cooled to about 60 ° C. After about two hours, about 60. C of the batch in a linear fashion from about 6 (TC was cooled to about 40 ° C. In 40t, the batch was stirred for 2 hours, and the slurry was transferred to a centrifuge filter. After about 30 minutes, filtered completion . After about 30 minutes, with about 42Mw / w in t-butanol solution (165kg) cake was washed. The purified water (118kg, 4 (TC) as the last added to the filter cake was washed. The filter cake was dried at about 900rpm about 1 hour, then filled cylinder.

The wet cake was transferred to a paddle dryer (a double cone drier also suitable for this step), the jacket temperature was set to about 70. C. At about 70. C, the product was dried under vacuum for about 48 hours while stirring periodically.Determination of purity of about 99.8%. The product was isolated overall yield of about 74% (68.5 kg).

Lot 3

To the reaction vessel was added 3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [1,2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] – benzoic acid methyl ester (10 g) and t-butanol fused (128mL ). The batch temperature was set to 30-40 ° C, and the stirrer is started. After about 30 minutes, the aqueous sodium hydroxide solution 4.48% w / w of (32.5 g) was added to the vessel. The batch was maintained at a temperature of about 40-50 ° C. After about l hour, the batch temperature is raised to about 78-82 ° C, and then, at about 78-82t, and then stirred for about one hour. Under positive pressure of nitrogen, a polyethylene bag with a 5 micron filter the batch, and then transferred to a new reaction vessel. The batch was maintained at a temperature of about 78-82 ° C.

It was added to a new vessel 37% aqueous hydrochloric acid (4 mL) and tert-butanol molten (8 mL). The temperature was maintained at about 30-40. Under C, and stirring the mixture for about 30 minutes.

After about four hours, using a metering pump was added to the batch of hydrochloric acid in tert-butanol. After about SO-SO minutes before adding half filled. The stirrer speed is set at about 200rpm. After about 3.5 hours, add the remaining charge. The stirrer speed is set at about 100 rpm. During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at about 78-82 ° C.PH meter with a final batch pH was adjusted to about 1.2, at about 78-82t, then continue stirring for about l hour. After about one hour, the batch in a linear fashion from about 78-82. C is cooled to about 70 ° C. After about four hours, about 7 (TC batches in a linear fashion from 70.C cooled to about 50 ° C, and the stirrer speed was set at about 80 rpm. After about four hours, about 50 ° C Batch linearly cooled from 50 ° C to about 40t, and stirrer speed was set at approximately 60rpm. In 40.C, the batch was stirred for a further 4 hours.

The temperature of the filter is set to about 40-45 ° C. The slurry was transferred to the filter. After about one minute to complete filtration. After about two minutes, with tert-butanol (50 mL, 50.C) washing the filter cake. The pure water (IOO mLx2, 60.C) as the last wash was added to the cake. Under vacuum at about 60-70 ° C the cake was dried for about 12 hours, and then loaded into the container.

Determination of HPLC purity of about 99.9% of the area. The yield of isolated product was about 94% (9.0g).

3- “5- (2-fluorophenyl) -” 1,2,41-oxadiazol-3-yl 1- acid: One-pot

The methyl 3-cyanophenyl Yue (7.35 g) and tert-butanol molten (100 mL) added to the reactor vessel. Sealed containers, the batch temperature was set to 60 ° C, and the stirrer is started. The suspension was stirred for 1 hour and then the batch temperature was set to 40. C. Under an inert atmosphere, after three hours, 50% aqueous solution of hydroxylamine (3.63 g) was added to the reactor. During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at 38-41 ° C. 40. C After stirring for 18 hours, to complete the reaction.

The batch was cooled to 27 ° C, and after two minutes, triethylamine (5.56 g). After 3 hours, was added 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride (7.82 g). During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at 24-27 ° C. 40. C, the batch was stirred for a further 4 hours.

After 30 minutes, the batch was heated to 79 ° C, and at about 79. C was stirred for 16 hours. After 3 hours, the white suspension was added to the water (IOO mL), while the batch temperature was maintained at 70 ° C. After 20 minutes, a 37% aqueous hydrochloric acid were added to the batch. PH was measured by using the batch pH of about 2.2, stirring was continued at about 70t for about 1 hour.

After three hours, the batch in a linear manner from 7 (TC cooled to 30 ° C, and the slurry is transferred to the filter. After 5 minutes, the filtering is done. After five minutes, with tert-butanol (50mL, 40 .C) filter cake was washed. The purified water (IOO mL, 60.C) is added to a final wash the filter cake. In 70.C of the filter cake was dried in a vacuum oven for 18 hours and then removed. Determination of purity approximately 98.68%. The total yield of isolated product of about 76% (10.8g).

PICS

A large-scale, multinational, phase 3 trial of the experimental drug ataluren has opened its first trial site, in Cincinnati, Ohio.
The trial is recruiting boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) caused by anonsense mutation —  also known as a premature stop codon — in the dystrophin gene. This type of mutation causes cells to stop synthesizing a protein before the process is complete, resulting in a short, nonfunctional protein. Nonsense mutations are believed to cause DMD or BMD in approximately 10 to 15 percent of boys with these disorders.
Ataluren — sometimes referred to as a stop codon read-through drug — has the potential to overcome the effects of a nonsense mutation and allow functional dystrophin — the muscle protein that’s missing in Duchenne MD and deficient in Becker MD — to be produced.
The orally delivered drug is being developed by PTC Therapeutics, a South Plainfield, N.J., biotechnology company, to whichMDA gave a $1.5 million grant in 2005.
PTC124 has been developed by PTC Therapeutics.

References

  1. Welch EM, Barton ER, Zhuo J, Tomizawa Y, Friesen WJ, Trifillis P, Paushkin S, Patel M, Trotta CR, Hwang S, Wilde RG, Karp G, Takasugi J, Chen G, Jones S, Ren H, Moon YC, Corson D, Turpoff AA, Campbell JA, Conn MM, Khan A, Almstead NG, Hedrick J, Mollin A, Risher N, Weetall M, Yeh S, Branstrom AA, Colacino JM, Babiak J, Ju WD, Hirawat S, Northcutt VJ, Miller LL, Spatrick P, He F, Kawana M, Feng H, Jacobson A, Peltz SW, Sweeney HL (May 2007). “PTC124 targets genetic disorders caused by nonsense mutations”. Nature 447 (7140): 87–91. Bibcode:2007Natur.447…87W.doi:10.1038/nature05756. PMID 17450125.
  2.  Hirawat S, Welch EM, Elfring GL, Northcutt VJ, Paushkin S, Hwang S, Leonard EM, Almstead NG, Ju W, Peltz SW, Miller LL (Apr 2007). “Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PTC124, a nonaminoglycoside nonsense mutation suppressor, following single- and multiple-dose administration to healthy male and female adult volunteers”. Journal of clinical pharmacology 47 (4): 430–444.doi:10.1177/0091270006297140. PMID 17389552.
  3.  Nature. 2007 May 3;447(7140):87-91.
  4.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 12;105(6):2064-9.
  5.  Neuromuscul Disord. 2015 Jan;25(1):5-13.
  6. Wilschanski, M. (2013). “Novel therapeutic approaches for cystic fibrosis”. Discovery Medicine 15 (81): 127–133. PMID 23449115.
  7.  “PTC Therapeutics and Genzyme Corporation announce preliminary results from the phase 2b clinical trial of ataluren for nonsense mutation Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (NASDAQ:PTCT)”. Ptct.client.shareholder.com. Retrieved 2013-11-28.
  8.  Wilschanski, M.; Miller, L. L.; Shoseyov, D.; Blau, H.; Rivlin, J.; Aviram, M.; Cohen, M.; Armoni, S.; Yaakov, Y.; Pugatsch, T.; Cohen-Cymberknoh, M.; Miller, N. L.; Reha, A.; Northcutt, V. J.; Hirawat, S.; Donnelly, K.; Elfring, G. L.; Ajayi, T.; Kerem, E. (2011). “Chronic ataluren (PTC124) treatment of nonsense mutation cystic fibrosis”. European Respiratory Journal 38 (1): 59–69. doi:10.1183/09031936.00120910. PMID 21233271.Sermet-Gaudelus, I.; Boeck, K. D.; Casimir, G. J.; Vermeulen, F.; Leal, T.; Mogenet, A.; Roussel, D.; Fritsch, J.; Hanssens, L.; Hirawat, S.; Miller, N. L.; Constantine, S.; Reha, A.; Ajayi, T.; Elfring, G. L.; Miller, L. L. (November 2010). “Ataluren (PTC124) induces cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein expression and activity in children with nonsense mutation cystic fibrosis”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 182 (10): 1262–1272. doi:10.1164/rccm.201001-0137OC. PMID 20622033.
  9.  “PTC Therapeutics Completes Enrollment of Phase 3 Trial of Ataluren in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (NASDAQ:PTCT)”. Ptct.client.shareholder.com. 2010-12-21. Retrieved2013-11-28.
  10. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/ptc-therapeutics-receives-positive-opinion-from-chmp-for-translarna-ataluren-2014-05-23
  11.  “PTC Therapeutics Announces Launch of Translarna™ (ataluren) in Germany”.marketwatch.com. 3 Dec 2014. Retrieved 27 Dec 2014.
  12.  “NICE asks for further evidence for the benefits of a new treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy to justify its very high cost”.
  13. http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-ptc-therapeutics-fda-idUKKCN0VW1FG

External links

References:
1. Ryan, N. J. Ataluren: first global approval. Drugs 2014, 74(14), 1709-14. (FMO only)
2. Gupta, P. K.; et. al. A metal-free tandem approach to prepare structurally diverse N-heterocycles: synthesis of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles and pyrimidinones. New J Chem 2014, 38, 3062-3070 (FMO only)
3. Almstead, N. G.; et. al. Methods for the production of functional protein from dna having a nonsense mutation and the treatment of disorders associated therewith. WO2007117438A2

WO2004091502A2 Apr 9, 2004 Oct 28, 2004 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. 1,2,4-oxadiazole benzoic acid compounds
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
US8486982 Jun 22, 2012 Jul 16, 2013 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. 1,2,4-oxadiazole benzoic acids
US8796322 Jun 19, 2013 Aug 5, 2014 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. Methods for using 1,2,4-oxadiazole benzoic acid compounds
US8975287 Jun 18, 2014 Mar 10, 2015 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. Methods for using 1,2,4-Oxadiazole benzoic acid compounds
US9205088 Jan 28, 2015 Dec 8, 2015 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. Compositions of 1,2,4-oxadiazol benzoic acid compounds and methods for their use
US9289398 Mar 29, 2007 Mar 22, 2016 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. Methods for the production of functional protein from DNA having a nonsense mutation and the treatment of disorders associated therewith
Preparation CN101535284A CN101535284B
10 Crystal CN101541770A
11 Crystal CN104341371A
12 Crystal CN102382075A
Formula CN1802360A CN1802360B
2 Combination CN104056278A
3 Indication CN101076703A
4 Indication CN101076332A
5 Indication CN101076337A
6 Indication CN101193632A
7 Formulation CN103720688A
8 Indication CN101505739A

Ataluren
Ataluren.svg
Ataluren ball-and-stick model.png
Names
IUPAC name

3-[5-(2-Fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid
Other names

PTC124
Identifiers
775304-57-9 
ChEMBL ChEMBL256997 Yes
ChemSpider 9394889 Yes
7341
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
KEGG D09323 Yes
PubChem 11219835
UNII K16AME9I3V Yes
Properties
C15H9FN2O3
Molar mass 284.24 g/mol
Pharmacology
M09AX03 (WHO)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

///////ORPHAN DRUG, Ataluren, Translarna, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, EU, 775304-57-9, PTC Therapeutics, PTC 124

O=C(O)c1cccc(c1)c2nc(on2)c3ccccc3F

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FDA approves new treatment for inhalation anthrax, Anthim (obiltoxaximab) ETI-204

 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES  Comments Off on FDA approves new treatment for inhalation anthrax, Anthim (obiltoxaximab) ETI-204
Mar 222016
 

Anthim (obiltoxaximab)

ETI-204

March 21, 2016

On Friday, March 18, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Anthim (obiltoxaximab) injection to treat inhalational anthrax in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs. Anthim is also approved to prevent inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or not appropriate.

Inhalational anthrax is a rare disease that can occur after exposure to infected animals or contaminated animal products, or as a result of an intentional release of anthrax spores. It is caused by breathing in the spores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. When inhaled, the anthrax bacteria replicate in the body and produce toxins that can cause massive and irreversible tissue injury and death. Anthrax is a potential bioterrorism threat because the spores are resistant to destruction and can be spread by release in the air.

“As preparedness is a cornerstone of any bioterrorism response, we are pleased to see continued efforts to develop treatments for anthrax,” said Edward Cox, M.D., M.P.H, director of the Office of Antimicrobial Products in FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Anthim is a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes toxins produced by B. anthracis. Anthim was approved under the FDA’s Animal Rule, which allows efficacy findings from adequate and well-controlled animal studies to support FDA approval when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct efficacy trials in humans.

Anthim’s effectiveness for treatment and prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax was demonstrated in studies conducted in animals based on survival at the end of the studies. More animals treated with Anthim lived compared to animals treated with placebo. Anthim administered in combination with antibacterial drugs resulted in higher survival outcomes than antibacterial therapy alone.

The safety of Anthim was evaluated in 320 healthy human volunteers. The most frequently reported side effects were headache, itching (pruritus), upper respiratory tract infections, cough, nasal congestion, hives, and bruising, swelling and pain at the infusion site.

Anthim carries a Boxed Warning alerting patients and health care providers that the drug can cause allergic reactions (hypersensitivity), including a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Anthim should be administered in settings where patients can be monitored and treated for anaphylaxis. However, given that anthrax is a very serious and often deadly condition, the benefit of Anthim for treating anthrax is expected to outweigh this risk.

Anthim was developed by Elusys Therapeutics, Inc. of Pine Brook, New Jersey, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.

Obiltoxaximab is a monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores (etiologic agent ofanthrax).[1]

This drug was developed by Elusys Therapeutics, Inc.

Infographic: What You Should Know About Anthrax

 

ANTHIM (obiltoxaximab) Data

The efficacy of ANTHIM for treatment and prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax was demonstrated in multiple studies in the cynomolgus macaque and NZW rabbit models of inhalational anthrax. These studies tested the efficacy of ANTHIM compared to placebo and the efficacy of ANTHIM in combination with antibacterial drugs relative to the antibacterial drugs alone. The primary endpoint was survival following challenge with B. anthracis.

Two studies in NZW rabbit and two studies in cynomolgus macaques evaluated treatment with ANTHIM 16mg/kg IV single dose compared to placebo in animals with systemic anthrax. Treatment with ANTHIM alone resulted in statistically significant improvement in survival relative to placebo in both species. Survival rates were 93% and 62% with ANTHIM compared to 0 placebo survivors in rabbits, and 47% and 31-35% survival with ANTHIM compared to 6% or 0% placebo survival in macaques.

ANTHIM administered in combination with antibacterial drugs (levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and doxycycline) for the treatment of systemic inhalational anthrax disease resulted in higher survival outcomes than antibacterial therapy alone in multiple studies where ANTHIM and antibacterial therapy was given at various doses and treatment times.

ANTHIM administered as prophylaxis resulted in higher survival outcomes compared to placebo in multiple studies where treatment was given at various doses and treatment times. ANTHIM administered as prophylaxis resulted in higher survival outcomes compared to placebo in multiple studies where treatment was given at various doses and treatment times. In one study, cynomolgus macaques were administered ANTHIM 16 mg/kg at 18 hours, 24 hours or 36 hours after exposure. Survival was 6/6 (100%) at 18 hours, 5/6 (83%) at 24 hours, and 3/6 (50%) at 36 hours. Another cynomolgus macaque study evaluated ANTHIM 16 mg/kg administered 72, 48 or 24 hours prior to exposure. Survival was 100% at all three time points (14/14, 14/14, 15/15, respectively) at day 56 (end of study).

Elusys Therapeutics

Elusys Therapeutics, Inc., a private company based in Pine Brook, NJ, is focused on the development of antibody therapeutics for the treatment of infectious disease.

In November 2015, Elusys was awarded a $45M delivery order from the U.S. government to produce ANTHIM® for the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile (SNS), the U.S. government’s repository of critical medical supplies for public health emergency preparedness. Elusys has received grants and contracts from the USG totaling over $240 million to support ANTHIM’s development.

In March 2016, ANTHIM (obiltoxaximab) Injection, the company’s monoclonal antibody (mAb) anthrax antitoxin, received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax due toBacillus anthracis in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs, and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax due to B. anthracis when alternative therapies are not available or not appropriate. ANTHIM should only be used for prophylaxis when its benefit for prevention of inhalational anthrax outweighs the risk of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis. The effectiveness of ANTHIM is based solely on efficacy studies in animal models of inhalational anthrax. There have been no studies of the safety or pharmacokinetics (PK) of ANTHIM in the pediatric population. Dosing in pediatric patients was derived using a population PK approach. ANTHIM does not have direct antibacterial activity. ANTHIM should be used in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs. ANTHIM is not expected to cross the blood-brain barrier and does not prevent or treat meningitis.

 

Company Elusys Therapeutics Inc.
Description High-affinity humanized mAb against the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen that inhibits binding of anthrax toxins
Molecular Target Bacillus anthracis protective antigen
Mechanism of Action Antibody
Therapeutic Modality Biologic: Antibody
Latest Stage of Development Approved
Standard Indication Anthrax
Indication Details Treat and prevent anthrax infection; Treat anthrax infection
Regulatory Designation U.S. – Fast Track (Treat and prevent anthrax infection);
U.S. – Orphan Drug (Treat and prevent anthrax infection)

///////////Anthim, obiltoxaximab, fda 2016, Orphan Drug,

 

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Plerixafor…………..an immunostimulant used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells in cancer patients.

 GENERIC, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Plerixafor…………..an immunostimulant used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells in cancer patients.
Aug 252014
 

JM 3100.svg

Plerixafor

cas 110078-46-1

CXCR4 chemokine antagonist

Stem cell mobilization [CXCR4 receptor antagonist]

A bicyclam derivate, highly potent & selective inhibitor of HIV-1 & HIV-2.

Bone marrow transplantation; Chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Chronic myelocytic leukemia; Myelodysplastic syndrome; Neutropenia; Sickle cell anemia

Plerixafor; Mozobil; AMD3100; 110078-46-1; Amd 3100; bicyclam JM-2987; AMD-3100; UNII-S915P5499N; JM3100
  • JKL 169
  • Mozobil
  • Plerixafor
  • SDZ SID 791
  • UNII-S915P5499N
Molecular Formula: C28H54N8
Molecular Weight: 502.78196
1,​4-​bis((1,​4,​8,​11-​tetraazacyclotetradecan-​1-​yl)methyl)benzene
1,4,8,11-Tetraazacyclotetradecane, 1,1′-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylene))bis-
1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]bis [1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane]
1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane
Johnson Matthey (Innovator)
Plerixafor is a hematopoietic stem cell mobilizer. It is used to stimulate the release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the blood in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma for the purpose of stimulating the immune system. These stem cells are then collected and used in autologous stem cell transplantation to replace blood-forming cells that were destroyed by chemotherapy. Plerixafor has orphan drug status in the United States and European Union; it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on December 15, 2008.

Mozobil (plerixafor injection) is a sterile, preservative-free, clear, colorless to pale yellow, isotonic solution for subcutaneous injection. Each mL of the sterile solution contains 20 mg of plerixafor. Each single-use vial is filled to deliver 1.2 mL of the sterile solution that contains 24 mg of plerixafor and 5.9 mg of sodium chloride in Water for Injection adjusted to a pH of 6.0 to 7.5 with hydrochloric acid and with sodium hydroxide, if required.

Plerixafor is a hematopoietic stem cell mobilizer with a chemical name l, 1′-[1,4phenylenebis (methylene)]-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane. It has the molecular formula C28H54N8. The molecular weight of plerixafor is 502.79 g/mol. The structural formula is provided in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Structural Formula

 

MOZOBIL (plerixafor) Structural Formula Illustration

 

Plerixafor is a white to off-white crystalline solid. It is hygroscopic. Plerixafor has a typical melting point of 131.5 °C. The partition coefficient of plerixafor between 1octanol and pH 7 aqueous buffer is < 0.1.

Plerixafor (hydrochloride hydrate)

(CAS 155148-31-5)
Formal Name 1,​4-​bis((1,​4,​8,​11-​tetraazacyclotetradecan-​1-​yl)methyl)benzene,​ octahydrochloride
CAS Number 155148-31-5
Molecular Formula C28H54N8 • 8HCl • [XH2O]
Formula Weight 794.5
The α-chemokine receptor, CXCR4, on CD4+ T-cells is used by CXCR4-selective HIV forms as a gateway for T-cell infection. In mammalian cell signaling, CXCR4 activation promotes the homing of hematopoietic stem cells, chemotaxis and quiescence of lymphocytes, and growth and metastasis of certain cancer cell types. Plerixafor (hydrochloride) is a macrocyclic compound that acts as an irreversible antagonist against the binding of CXCR4 with its ligand, SDF-1 (CXCL12). It suppresses infection by HIV with an IC50 value of 1-10 ng/ml with selectivity toward CXCR4-tropic virus. Plerixafor mobilizes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for transplant better than the ‘gold standard’, G-CSF alone 4and synergizes with G-CSF. It also increases T-cell trafficking in the blood and spleen as well as the central nervous system. Plerixafor regulates the growth of primary and metastic breast cancer cells7 and inhibits dissemination of ovarian carcinoma cells.
Plerixafor hydrochloride (AMD-3100), a chemokine CXCR4 (SDF-1) antagonist, is launched in the U.S. for the following indications: to enhance mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells for autologous transplantation in patients with lymphoma and to enhance mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma.
In 2009, the product was approved in EU for these indications.AnorMED filed an orphan drug application for AMD-3100 with the FDA in January 2003 and received approval in July 2003 as immunostimulation for increasing the stem cells available in patients with multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Orphan drug status was also granted by the EMEA in October 2004 as a treatment to mobilize progenitor cells prior to stem cell transplantation.
In 2011, orphan drug designation was assigned by the FDA for the treatment of AML and by the EMA for the adjunctive treatment to cytotoxic therapy in acute myeloid leukemia.

Plerixafor (rINN and USAN, trade name Mozobil) is an immunostimulant used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells in cancer patients. The stem cells are subsequently transplanted back to the patient. The drug was developed by AnorMED which was subsequently bought by Genzyme.

 

History

The molecule 1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]bis [1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane], consisting of two cyclam rings linked at the amine nitrogen atoms by a 1,4-xylyl spacer, was first synthesised by Fabbrizzi et al. in 1987 to carry out basic studies on the redox chemistry of dimetallic coordination compounds.[1] Then, it was serendipitously discovered by De Clercq that such a molecule, could have a potential use in the treatment of HIV[2] because of its role in the blocking of CXCR4, a chemokine receptor which acts as a co-receptor for certain strains of HIV (along with the virus’s main cellular receptor, CD4).[2]Development of this indication was terminated because of lacking oral availability and cardiac disturbances. Further studies led to the new indication for cancer patients.[3]

Indications

Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization, which is important as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation, is generally performed using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), but is ineffective in around 15 to 20% of patients. Combination of G-CSF with plerixafor increases the percentage of persons that respond to the therapy and produce enough stem cells for transplantation.[4] The drug is approved for patients with lymphoma and multiple myeloma.[5]

Contraindications

Pregnancy and lactation

Studies in pregnant animals have shown teratogenic effects. Plerixafor is therefore contraindicated in pregnant women except in critical cases. Fertile women are required to use contraception. It is not known whether the drug is secreted into the breast milk. Breast feeding should be discontinued during therapy.[5]

Adverse effects

Nauseadiarrhea and local reactions were observed in over 10% of patients. Other problems with digestion and general symptoms like dizziness, headache, and muscular pain are also relatively common; they were found in more than 1% of patients. Allergies occur in less than 1% of cases. Most adverse effects in clinical trials were mild and transient.[5][6]

The European Medicines Agency has listed a number of safety concerns to be evaluated on a post-marketing basis, most notably the theoretical possibilities of spleen rupture and tumor cell mobilisation. The first concern has been raised because splenomegaly was observed in animal studies, and G-CSF can cause spleen rupture in rare cases. Mobilisation of tumor cells has occurred in patients with leukaemia treated with plerixafor.[7]

Phase III clinical development in combination with G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) is under way at Genzyme (which acquired the product through its acquisition of AnorMED in late 2006) in a stem cell mobilization regimen in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). The trials are designed to evaluate the potential of plerixafor in combination with G-CSF, to rapidly increase the number of peripheral blood stem cells capable of engraftment, thereby increasing the proportion of patients reaching a peripheral blood stem cell target and, as a result, reducing the number of apheresis sessions required for patients to collect a target number of peripheral blood stem cells. A phase I safety trial had been under way for the treatment of renal cancer, however, no recent development for this indication has been reported. An IND has been filed in the U.S. seeking approval to initiate clinical evaluation of the drug candidate to help repair damaged heart tissue in patients who have suffered heart attacks. Currently, an investigator-sponsored study is ongoing to evaluate plerixafor as a single agent in allogeneic transplant. AMD-3100, in combination with mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine, is also in phase I/II clinical trials at the University of Washington for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

The University has also been conducting early clinical trials for increasing the stem cells available for transplantation in patients with advanced hematological malignancies, however, no recent developments on this trial have been reported. Genzyme has completed a phase I/II clinical study of plerixafor hydrochloride in combination with rituximab for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The former AnorMED had been developing plerixafor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but no clinical development has been reported as of late. AnorMED was also developing plerixafor for the treatment of HIV, but discontinued the trials in 2001 due to abnormal cardiac activity and lack of efficacy.

By blocking CXCR4, a specific cellular receptor, plerixafor triggers the rapid movement of stem cells out of the bone marrow and into circulating blood. Once in the circulating blood, the stem cells can be collected for use in stem cell transplant. In terms of use for cardiac applications, there is clinical evidence that the presence of stem cells circulating in the bloodstream or directly injected into the hearts of patients who have suffered a heart attack may result in improved cardiac function.

 

Chemical properties

Plerixafor is a macrocyclic compound and a bicyclam derivative.[4] It is a strong base; all eight nitrogen atoms accept protons readily. The two macrocyclic rings form chelate complexes with bivalent metal ions, especially zinccopper and nickel, as well as cobalt and rhodium. The biologically active form of plerixafor is its zinc complex.[8]

Synthesis

Chemical structure for JM 3100

Three of the four nitrogen atoms of the macrocycle 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecan are protected with tosyl groups. The product is treated with 1,4-dimethoxybenzene or 1,4-bis(brommethyl)benzene and potassium carbonate in acetonitrile. After cleaving of the tosyl groups with hydrobromic acid, plerixafor octahydrobromide is obtained.[9]

SEE   CHINESE JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY    2010 20 (6): 511-513   ISSN: 1005-0108   CN: 21-1313/R

DOWNLOAD………http://download.bioon.com.cn/upload/201207/24113552_9395.pdf

http://www.zgyhzz.cn/qikan/epaper/zhaiyao.asp?bsid=14753

( 1 ) BASE FORM
0155g ( 8016% ), m p 129 ~ 131 e 。
1H-NM R
( CDC l3 ) D: 7.28( s, 4H, A r-H ), 3.55 ( br s, 4H,A r-CH2 ), 2.82 ~ 2.52( m, 32H, NCH2, NHCH2 ),
1.86 ~ 1.68 ( m, 8H, CCH2C )。 ESI-M S m /z:
503.55 [M + H]+ 。

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SEE

http://doc.sciencenet.cn/upload/file/2011531154034454.pdf

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http://www.google.com/patents/US5756728

 

U.S. Pat. No. 5,021,409 is directed to a method of treating retroviral infections comprising administering to a mammal in need of such treatment a therapeutically effective amount of a bicyclic macrocyclic polyamine compound. Although the usefulness of certain alkylene and arylene bridged cyclam dimers is generically embraced by the teachings of the reference, no arylene bridged cyclam dimers are specifically disclosed.

WO 93/12096 discloses the usefulness of certain linked cyclic polyamines in combating HIV and pharmaceutical compositions useful therefor. Among the specifically disclosed compounds is 1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11 tetraazacyclotetradecane (and its acid addition salts), which compound is a highly potent inhibitor of several strains of human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2).

European Patent Appln. 374,929 discloses a process for preparing mono-N-alkylated polyazamacrocycles comprising reacting the unprotected macrocycle with an electrophile in a non-polar, relatively aprotic solvent in the absence of base. Although it is indicated that the monosubstituted macrocycle is formed preferentially, there is no specific disclosure which indicates that linked bicyclams can be synthesized by this process.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,047,527 is directed to a process for preparing a monofunctionalized (e.g., monoalkylated)cyclic tetramine comprising: 1) reacting the unprotected macrocycle with chrominum hexacarbonyl to obtain a triprotected tetraazacyloalkane compound; 2) reacting the free amine group of the triprotected compound prepared in 1) with an organic (e.g., alkyl) halide to obtain a triprotected monofunctionalized (e.g., monoalkylated) tetraazacycloalkane compound; and 3) de-protecting the compound prepared in 2) by simple air oxidation at acid pH to obtain the desired compound. In addition, the reference discloses alternative methods of triprotection employing boron and phosphorous derivatives and the preparation of linked compounds, including the cyclam dimer 1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, by reacting triprotected cyclam prepared as set forth in 1) above with an organic dihalide in a molar ratio of 2:1, and deprotecting the resultant compound to obtain the desired cyclam dimer.

J. Med. Chem., Vol. 38, No. 2, pgs. 366-378 (1995) is directed to the synthesis and anti-HIV activity of a series of novel phenylenebis(methylene)-linked bis-tetraazamacrocyclic analogs, including the known cyclam dimer 1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane. The cyclam dimers disclosed in this reference, including the afore-mentioned cyclam dimer, are prepared by: 1) forming the tritosylate of the tetraazamacrocycle; 2) reacting the protected tetraazamacrocycle with an organic dihalide, e.g., dibromo-p-xylene, in acetonitrile in the presence of a base such as potassium carbonate; and 3) de-protecting the bis-tetraazamacrocycle prepared in 2) employing freshly prepared sodium amalgam, concentrated sulfuric acid or an acetic acid/hydrobromic acid mixture to obtain the desired cyclam dimer, or an acid addition salt thereof.

Although the processes disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,047,527 and the J. Med. Chem. reference are suitable to prepare the cyclam dimer 1,1′- 1,4-phenylene bis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, they involve the use of cyclam as a starting material, a compound which is expensive and not readily available. Accordingly, in view of its potent anti-HIV activity, a number of research endeavors have been undertaken in an attempt to develop a more practical process for preparing 1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane.

 

EXAMPLE 1

a) Preparation of the 1,4-phenylenebis-methylene bridged hexatosyl acylic precursor of formula III

To a 4-necked, round-bottom flask, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, heating mantle, internal thermometer and addition funnel, is added 43.5 g (0.25 mol) of N,N’-bis(3-aminopropyl) ethylenediamine and 250 ml of tetrahydrofuran. To the resultant solution is added, over a period of 30 minutes with external cooling to maintain the temperature at 20° C., 113.6 g (0.8 mol) of ethyl trifluoroacetate. The reaction mixture is then stirred at room temperature for 4 hours, after which time 52.25 ml. (0.3 mol) of diisopropylethylamine is added. The resultant reaction mixture is warmed to 60° C. and, over a period of 2 hours, is added a solution of 33.0 g (0.125 mol) of α,α’-dibromoxylene in 500 ml. of tetrahydrofuran. The reaction mixture is then maintained at a temperature of 60° C., with stirring, for an additional 2 hours after which time a solution of 62.0 g. (1.55 mol) of sodium hydroxide in 250 ml. of water is added. The resultant mixture is then stirred vigorously for 2 hours, while the temperature is maintained at 60° C. A solution of 152.5 g. (0.8 mol) of p-toluenesulfonyl-chloride in 250 ml. of tetrahydrofuran is then added, over a period of 30 minutes, while the temperature is maintained at between 20° C. and 30° C. The reaction is then allowed to proceed for another hour at room temperature. To the reaction mixture is then added 1 liter of isopropyl acetate, the layers are separated and the organic layer is concentrated to dryness under vacuum to yield the desired compound as a foamy material.

b) Preparation of the hexatosyl cyclam dimer of formula IV

To a 4-necked, round-bottom flask, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, heating mantle, internal thermometer and addition funnel, is added 114.6 g. (0.10 mol) of the compound prepared in a) above and 2.5 liters of dimethylformamide. After the system is degassed, 22.4 g. (0.56 mol) of NaOH beads, 27.6 g (0.2 mol) of anhydrous potassium carbonate and 5.43 g. (0.016 mol) of t-butylammonium sulfate are added to the solution, and the resultant mixture is heated to 100° C. and maintained at this temperature for 2.5 hours. A solution of 111.0 g (0.3 mol) of ethyleneglycol ditosylate in 1 liter of dimethylformamide is then added, over a period of 2 hours, while the temperature is maintained at 100° C. After cooling the reaction mixture to room temperature, it is poured into 4 liters of water with stirring. The suspension is then filtered and the filter cake is washed with 1 liter of water. The filter cake is then thoroughly mixed with 1 liter of water and 2 liters of ethyl acetate. The solvent is then removed from the ethyl acetate solution and the residue is re-dissolved in 500 ml. of warm acetonitrile. The precipitate that forms on standing is collected by filtration and then dried to yield the desired compound as a white solid.

c) Preparation of 1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane

In a 4-necked, round-bottom flask, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, heating mantle, internal thermometer and addition funnel, is added 26.7 g.(0.02 mol) of the compound prepared in b) above, 300 ml. of 48% hydrobromic acid and 1 liter of glacial acetic acid. The resultant mixture is then heated to reflux and maintained at reflux temperature, with stirring, for 42 hours. The reaction mixture is then cooled to between 22° C. and 23° C. over a period of 4 hours, after which time it is stirred for an additional 12 hours. The solids are then collected using suction filtration and added to 400 ml. of deionized water. The resultant solution is then stirred for 25 to 30 minutes at a temperature between 22° C. and 23° C. and filtered using suction filtration. After washing the filter pad with a small amount of deionized water, the solution is cooled to between 10° C. and 15° C. 250 g. of a 50% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide is then added, over a period of 30 minutes, while the temperature is maintained at between 5° C. and 15° C. The resultant suspension is stirred for 10 to 15 minutes, while the temperature is maintained at between 10° C. and 15° C. The suspension is then warmed to between 22° C. and 23° C. and to the warmed suspension is added 1.5 liters of dichloromethane. The mixture is then stirred for 30 minutes, the layers are separated and the organic layer is slurried with 125 g. of sodium sulfate for 1 hour. The solution is then filtered using suction filtration, and the filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure (40°-45° C. bath temperature, 70-75 mm Hg) until approximately 1.25 liters of solvent is collected. To the slurry is then added 1.25 liters of acetone, and the filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure (40°-45° C. bath temperature, 70-75 mm Hg) until approximately 1.25 liters of solvent is collected. The slurry is then cooled to between 22° C. and 23° C. and the solids are collected using suction filtration. The solids are then washed with three 50 ml. portions of acetone and dried in a vacuum oven to obtain the desired compound as a white solid.

EXAMPLE 2

The following is an alternate procedure for the preparation of the 1,4-phenylenebis-methylene bridged hexatosyl acyclic precursor of formula III.

To a 3-necked, round-bottomed flask, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, heating mantle, internal thermometer and addition funnel, is added 3.48 g. (20 mmol) of N,N’-bis-(3-aminopropyl)ethylenediamine and 20 ml. of tetrahydrofuran. To the resultant solution is added, over a period of 20 minutes with external cooling to maintain the temperature at 20° C., 5.2 ml. (42 mmol) of ethyl trifluoroacetate. The reaction mixture is then stirred at room temperature for 1 hour, after which time a solution of 2.64 g. (10 mmol) of α,α’-dibromoxylene in 20 ml. of tetrahydrofuran is added. The resultant reaction mixture is then stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. A solution of 4.8 g. (120 mmol) of sodium hydroxide in 20 ml. of water is then added and the resultant mixture is warmed to 60° C. and maintained at this temperature, with vigorous stirring, for 2 hours. Over a period of 20 minutes, 13.9 g. (73 mmol) of p-toluenesulfonylchloride is then added portionwise, while the temperature is maintained at 20° C. The reaction is then allowed to proceed for another hour at room temperature. To the reaction mixture is then added 100 ml. of isopropyl acetate, the layers are separated and the organic layer is washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution. The solution is then condensed to 40 ml., cooled to 4° C. and kept at that temperature overnight. The resultant suspension is filtered and the solid is washed with 10 ml. of isopropyl acetate. The solvents are then removed from the filtrate to yield the desired compound as a brown gel.

…………………………

see

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of phenylenebis(methylene)linked bis-tetraazamacrocycles that inhibit HIV replication. Effects of macrocyclic ring size and substituents on the aromatic linker
J Med Chem 1995, 38(2): 366

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm00002a019

…………………………………………………

see

New bicyclam-AZT conjugates: Design, synthesis, anti-HIV evaluation, and their interaction with CXCR-4 coreceptor
J Med Chem 1999, 42(2): 229

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jm980358u

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CN 102584732

 http://www.google.com/patents/CN102584732B?cl=en

[0003]

Figure CN102584732BD00041

[0004] plerixafor (trade name Mozobil ™) was developed by the U.S. company Genzyme chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonist specificity. The drug is a hematopoietic stem (progenitor) cell activator, and can stimulate hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation into functional blood circulation.

[0005] As the non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (Korea) most of the cases and the progress of cases to alleviate the need for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, and plerixafor joint G-CSF can significantly improve the number of patients with ⑶ 34 + cells, about 60% of the patient’s peripheral blood can ⑶ 34 + cells increased to ensure that the NHL and MM patients with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation success.

[0006] U.S. FDA approval on December 15, 2008 its listing, clinical studies showed that the drug can greatly increase the number of white blood cells of patients and to promote hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow to the blood flow, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF ) have a synergistic effect; has been used in multiple myeloma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients with stem cell transplantation in clinical trials.

[0007] About plerixafor or synthetic analogs have some at home and abroad reported in the literature, there are J.0rg.Chem.2003, 68,6435-6436; J.Med Chem.1995, 38 (2): 366-378; J.SynthCommun.1998 ,28:2903-2906; Tetrahedron, 1989,45 (1) :219-226; Chinese Journal of Pharmaceuticals 2007,38 (6); World Patent W09634860A1; W09312096A1; U.S. Patent US5047527, US5606053, US5801281, US5064956, Chinese patent CN1466579A.

[0008] J.Med Chem.1995, 38 (2) = 366-378 relates to a preparation method comprises the following steps: a) forming a salt of trimethoxy benzene tetraaza macrocycles; 2) reacting the protected tetrazole hetero macrocycle in acetonitrile under the presence of a base such as potassium carbonate as dibromo-p-xylene is reacted with an organic dihalide; 3) using freshly prepared sodium amalgam, concentrated sulfuric acid or acetic acid / hydrobromic acid mixture deprotected target product.

[0009] US 5047527 relates to preparation of the cyclic four monofunctional amine, the method comprising: a) reacting the unprotected macrocycle of reaction with chromium hexacarbonyl to obtain protection tetraazadecalin three compounds; 2) 3 Protection of the free amino compound with an organic halide to obtain three-protected monofunctional tetraaza naphthenic compounds; 3) simple air oxidation, deprotection to obtain the desired product. [0010] J.Synth Commun.1998 ,28:2903-2906 describes an improved method for synthesizing intermediates Plerixafor, the method using phosphor protection, deprotection to give a smooth 1,1 ‘- [1,4 – phenylene bis (methylene)] _ two _1, 4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane fourteen burn.

[0011] US 5606053 relates to a process for preparing dimers 1, I ‘- [1,4 – phenylene bis (methylene)] – two -1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane method. The preparation of compounds include: 1) the four-amine as the starting material, obtained by acylation of toluene Juan acyclic intermediates and three xylene sulfonate and toluene sulfonate and toluene intermediates; 2) and xylene sulfonate and intermediates trimethylbenzene toluenesulfonic acid intermediates after alkylation separation dibromo xylene, toluene sulfonate and then obtain a non-cyclic dimers of six toluenesulfonic acylated; 3) six isolated bridged acyclic toluenesulfonic acid dimer form is reacted with ethylene glycol ditosylate three equivalents of cyclization; 4) deprotection to obtain the objective product was purified by hydrobromic acid and acetic acid.

[0012] US 5801281 relates to preparation of dimer 1, I ‘- [1,4 _-phenylene bis (methylene)] – two _1, 4,8,11

[0013] – tetraazacyclo tetradecane, comprising: a) reacting the acyclic tetraamine with 3 equivalents of ethyl trifluoroacetate, the reaction; 2) with 0.5 equivalents of the tri-dibromo-p-xylene-protected acyclic alkylation of the amine obtained form four non-cyclic dimers; 3) hydrolysis to remove the six trifluoroacetyl compound group; 4) acylation of the compound toluenesulfonic bridged tetraamine dimer; 5) B Juan xylene glycol ester cyclization; 6) and glacial acetic acid mixed with hydrobromic acid deprotection was the target product.

Under the [0014] US 5064956 discloses a multi-alkylated single-ring nitrogen of the compound prepared, the method involves reacting the unprotected macrocycle in an aprotic, relatively non-polar solvent in presence of alkali electrophilic reagent. Not mentioned in this document similar to the embodiment Seclin dimer synthesis.

[0015] Through the open Plerixafor synthetic route research and meta-analysis of the literature, mainly in the following four synthetic routes:

[0016] Route One, is 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane cyclotetradecane as raw material, NI, N4, N8 three protected with 1,4 – bis (halomethyl) benzene-bridged deprotection to obtain the finished product. The following reaction scheme, wherein R is p-toluenesulfonyl group, a methanesulfonyl group, a trifluoroacetyl group, a tert-butoxycarbonyl group and the like:

[0017]

Figure CN102584732BD00061

[0018] Route II is di (2 – aminopropyl) ethylenediamine as raw material, the ring and the reaction with 1,4 – bis (halomethyl) benzene-bridged, and then deprotection Bullock Suffolk.

[0019] Route 3 to 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane cyclotetradecane as raw material, under anhydrous, anaerobic conditions, after the ring protection with 1,4 – bis (halomethyl ) benzene bridging, and then deprotection plerixafor. Synthesis scheme below, wherein R is P, Ni, etc.;

Figure CN102584732BD00071

[0021] line four, based on acrylate as starting material, first with ethylene diamine as raw material by Michael addition of the amine solution, then with malonate cyclization 1,4,8,11 – Tetraaza _5, 7,12 – three oxo cyclotetradecane by α, α ‘- dibromo-p-xylene bridging, the final deprotection plerixafor. Reaction Roadmap follows:

[0022]

Figure CN102584732BD00081

[0023] The above synthesis route and the existing methods have the following disadvantages:

[0024] In an intermediate of the synthesis route, the existing technology, the need for column purification of the intermediates, low yield.

[0025] route to protect the stability of the two because of the strong, leading to the final deprotection step difficult, long production cycle, low yield, and finished organic residues can not be achieved within the standard limits.

Higher dry anaerobic demands [0026] Route 3 on, harsh reaction conditions, deprotection is not complete, intermediates need to repeatedly purified, low yield, after repeated recrystallization, finished monohetero difficult to control in 0.1% less.

[0027] Anhydrous ethylene diamine route and need four anhydrous THF, more stringent requirements on the process, and to use dangerous borane dimethyl sulfide, while the second step is only about 35% lower yield. Selectivity of the reaction is not high shortcomings, so do not be the most economical and reasonable synthetic route.

[0028] We prepared by Plerixafor prepared by methods disclosed above may Plerixafor single impurity of 0.1% or less is difficult to achieve, it is difficult to meet the quality requirements of the injection material, the same techniques can not reach the European Quality of ICH guidelines of the relevant technical requirements, low yield, high cost required for each step of the intermediate column to afford a large amount of solvent, time consuming, and the greater the elution solvent toxicity, is not suitable for industrial production.

(I) Preparation of 1,4,8 _ tris (p-toluenesulfonyl) -1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane: the raw 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane cyclotetradecane suspended in methylene chloride, in the role of acid binding agent, at a temperature 10 ~ 30 ° C, p-toluenesulfonyl chloride and 3 ~ 8h, filtered, and the filtrate was collected and concentrated to dryness to obtain a residue; will have The residue of said C ^ C3 alkyl group in a mixed solvent of alcohol and an aprotic solvent, purification, crystallization segment greater than 95% purity of 1,4,8 – tris (p-toluenesulfonyl) _1, 4,8,11 – tetraaza cyclotetradecane;

[0032] (2) Preparation of 1,1 ‘- [1,4 – (phenylene methylene)] – two – [4,8,11 – tris (p-toluenesulfonyl)] -1,4, 8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane: A (I) the resulting 1,4,8 – tris (p-toluenesulfonyl) _1, 4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane, α, α two bromo-p-xylene in place of anhydrous acetonitrile, was added acid-binding agent, the reaction was refluxed under nitrogen for 5 to 24 hours; After the reaction was cooled to room temperature, the reaction mixture was then collected by filtration and the filter cake was purified to obtain a mixed solvent I , I, – [1,4 – (phenylene methylene)] – two – [4,8,11 – tris (p-toluenesulfonyl)] _1, 4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane ten four alkyl;

[0033] (3) Synthesis Plerixafor: A (2) the resultant I, 1’-[1,4 _ (phenylene methylene)] – two – [4,8,11 – tris (p-toluene sulfonyl)] -1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane myristic acid solution was added to the mixture, stirred and dissolved, the reaction was warmed to reflux for 10 to 24 hours, cooled, filtered, and filter cake was collected; the filter cake was dissolved in purified water, adjusted with sodium hydroxide solution or potassium hydroxide solution to the PH-12, filtered, and the filtrate was extracted with a halogenated solvent, and the organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and then filtered, the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure P Le Suffolk crude;

[0034] (4) Purification Plerixafor: Plerixafor the crude was dissolved into a solvent and heated to reflux to dissolve, filtered, and the crystallization solvent is added dropwise at 40 ~ 45 ° C crystallization 30min, filtered and the filtrate then cooled to 20 ~ 25 ° C crystallization I hour at O ​​~ 5 ° C crystallization three hours, filtered, and the filter cake was dried Plerixafor.

Plerixafor Preparation: 6 [0075] Implementation

[0076] The starting material 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclo tetradecane (5g, 25mmol) was suspended in dichloromethane (50g) was added N, N-diisopropylethylamine (7.5ml) , a solution of p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (10.8g, 56.5mmol) and methylene chloride (50g) in a solution of, at 25 ~ 30 ° C reaction temperature 3h, filtered, and the filtrate was collected and concentrated to dryness and to the residue in methanol (30g), toluene (IOg) was heated to reflux, filtered, and the filtrate was cooled to 40 ° C crystallization 30min, filtered to remove impurities little over protection, and the filtrate was added methyl tert-butyl ether (30g), stirring rapidly cooled to O ~ 5 ° C crystallization 3h, filtered, and dried to give 1,4,8 – tris (p-toluenesulfonyl) -1, 4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane (9.6g, 61.9%), purity of 97.2%.

[0077] The 4,8 _ tris (p-toluenesulfonyl) _1, 4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane (9g, 13.6mmol) α, α ‘- dibromo-p-xylene (1.81 g, 6.8mmol) in dry acetonitrile was placed (90ml) was added potassium carbonate (15.0g, 108.5mmol), the reaction was refluxed under nitrogen for 5 hours. Cooled to room temperature and filtered to collect the filter cake, was added anhydrous methanol (10ml), ethyl acetate (30ml), dichloromethane (IOml) hot melt, whereby the cooling crystallization, filtration, and dried under reduced pressure to obtain white solid (16. lg, 83%), purity 97.5%.

[0078] The intermediate obtained above (5g, 3.5mmol) was added to glacial acetic acid (25ml) and concentrated hydrochloric acid (25ml) was stirred until dissolved in the mixed solution was heated to reflux for 24 hours, cooled, collected by filtration cake. The filter cake was dissolved in purified water (20ml), adjusting the PH value of the solution with sodium hydroxide to 12, filtered, and the filtrate was extracted with dichloromethane (50mlX3), the organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain sand Bullock Fu crude (1.4g, 79.5%), purity 98.6%.

[0079] The crude Plerixafor (1.4g) is placed in tetrahydrofuran (14g), heated to reflux to dissolve, filtered, and added dropwise n-hexane (42g), and 40 ~ 45 ° C crystallization 30min, filtered little solid, The filtrate was rapidly cooled to 20 ~ 25 ° C crystallization I hour and then at O ​​~ 5 ° C crystallization three hours, filtered, 45 ° C and dried under reduced pressure to obtain the finished Plerixafor (1.2g, 85.7%), purity 99.93 %, the largest single miscellaneous 0.04%.

………………………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/US8420626?cl=en

Figure US08420626-20130416-C00014

wherein, n is 0 or 1, Ts is tosyl radical, P is trifluoroacetyl or p-tosyl radical;
To the NaOH solution of the starting material 7 is dropwise added ether solution of tosyl chloride. The system is stirred over night. A white solid is formed and filtrated. The filter cake is washed with water and ethyl ether, respectively, recrystallized to give a white solid intermediate of formula 8. To the dried acetonitrile solution of the compound of formula 8 is slowly dropwise added dried acetonitrile solution of 1,2-di-p-tosyloxypropane under reflux state, refluxed for 2-4 days, stood until room temperature. A white solid is precipitated and filtrated. The filter cake is washed with water and ethyl acetate, respectively, recrystallized to give a white solid compound of formula 9. The compound of formula 9 is dissolved in 90% concentrated sulfuric acid, allowed to react at 100° C. for 24-48 hours, stood until room temperature. To the reaction solution are dropwise added successively ethanol and ethyl ether. A white solid is precipitated, filtrated, dried, and dissolved in NaOH solution. The aqueous phase is extracted with chloroform. The chloroform phase is combined, concentrated, recrystallized to give a white solid compound of formula 10. To the chloroform solution of the compound of formula 10 and triethylamine is dropwise added chloroform solution of tosyl chloride. The mixture is allowed to react at room temperature over night, concentrated and column separated (eluant: dichloromethane/methanol system) to give a white solid compound of formula 11 (protective group is tosyl); or to the methanol solution of the compound of formula 10 is dropwise added ethyl trifluoroacetate. The mixture is allowed to react at room temperature over night, concentrated and column separated (eluant: ethyl acetate) to give a white solid compound of formula 11 (protective group is trifluoroacetyl);

 

Pharmacokinetics

Following subcutaneous injection, plerixafor is absorbed quickly and peak concentrations are reached after 30 to 60 minutes. Up to 58% are bound to plasma proteins, the rest mostly resides in extravascular compartments. The drug is not metabolized in significant amounts; no interaction with the cytochrome P450 enzymes or P-glycoproteins has been found. Plasma half life is 3 to 5 hours. Plerixafor is excreted via the kidneys, with 70% of the drug being excreted within 24 hours.[5]

Pharmacodynamics

In the form of its zinc complex, plerixafor acts as an antagonist (or perhaps more accurately a partial agonist) of the alpha chemokine receptor CXCR4 and an allosteric agonist ofCXCR7.[10] The CXCR4 alpha-chemokine receptor and one of its ligandsSDF-1, are important in hematopoietic stem cell homing to the bone marrow and in hematopoietic stem cell quiescence. The in vivo effect of plerixafor with regard to ubiquitin, the alternative endogenous ligand of CXCR4, is unknown. Plerixafor has been found to be a strong inducer of mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow to the bloodstream as peripheral blood stem cells.[11]

Interactions

No interaction studies have been conducted. The fact that plerixafor does not interact with the cytochrome system indicates a low potential for interactions with other drugs.[5]

Legal status

Plerixafor has orphan drug status in the United States and European Union for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this indication on December 15, 2008.[12] In Europe, the drug was approved after a positive Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use assessment report on 29 May 2009.[7] The drug was approved for use in Canada by Health Canada on December 8, 2011.[13]

Research

Small molecule cancer therapy

Plerixafor was seen to reduce metastasis in mice in several studies.[14] It has also been shown to reduce recurrence of glioblastoma in a mouse model after radiotherapy. In this model, the cancer surviving radiation are critically depended on bone marrow derived cells for vasculogenesis whose recruitment mediated by SDF-1 CXCR4 interaction is blocked by plerixafor.[15]

Use in generation of other stem cells

Researchers at Imperial College have demonstrated that plerixafor in combination with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can produce mesenchymal stem cells andendothelial progenitor cells in mice.[16]

Other uses

Blockade of CXCR4 signalling by plerixafor (AMD3100) has also unexpectedly been found to be effective at counteracting opioid-induced hyperalgesia produced by chronic treatment with morphine, though only animal studies have been conducted as yet.[17]

Plerixafor
JM 3100.svg
JM 3100 3D.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1,1′-[1,4-Phenylenebis(methylene)]bis [1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane]
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com Consumer Drug Information
MedlinePlus a609018
Pregnancy cat. (US)
Legal status -only (US)
Routes Subcutaneous injection
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding Up to 58%
Metabolism None
Half-life 3–5 hours
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS number 110078-46-1
ATC code L03AX16
PubChem CID 65015
IUPHAR ligand 844
DrugBank DB06809
ChemSpider 58531 Yes
UNII S915P5499N Yes
 
Synonyms JM 3100, AMD3100
Chemical data
Formula C28H54N8 
Mol. mass 502.782 g/mol

http://www.google.com/patents/CN102653536A?cl=en

(Plerixafor), chemical name: 1, I ‘- [I, 4_ phenylene ni (methylene)] – ni -1,4,

8,11 – tetraazacyclo tetradecane, its molecular structure is as follows:

[0004]

Figure CN102653536AD00041

Synthesis of domestic and foreign literature in general, all require 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclo-tetradecane for 3 protection (eg of formula I), of the three methods are used to protect the p-toluenesulfonamide chloride, trifluoroacetic acid ko ko cool, tert-butyl carbonate ni. Use of p-toluenesulfonamide-protected deprotection step into strict step because deprotecting reagent (such as hydrobromic acid / glacial acetic acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, etc.) side reactions often occur.The use of trifluoroacetic acid ko ko ester protecting, since the trifluoromethyl group strongly polar ko, resulting fourth-NH unprotected decrease in activity, usually not fully reflect the subsequent reaction, thereby further into ー is introduced after deprotection difficult to remove impurities 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclo-tetradecane.

[0006] tert-butyl carbonate ni selective protection of the amino group is widely used (polyamines, amino acids, p printed tidic chains, etc.), but to use it for 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclo tetradecane rarely reported, abroad it for 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclo tetradecane protection coverage, we use the t-butyl carbonate brother attempted 3 protection, he was surprised to find that in certain conditions, the three protection up to 90% (see Figure I), with high selectivity, significantly higher than the reported domestic Boc protected

Selectivity of the reaction (see table below).

[0007]

Figure CN102653536AD00051

[0008] 2 by three protection product with quite different polarity protection products, flash column chromatography using silica gel column to separate the protector 3 of sufficient purity, and deprotection conditions milder (only hydrochloric acid solution), in a certain extent reduce the incidence of side effects, so capable of synthesizing high purity products.

[0009]

Figure CN102653536AD00052

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Figure CN102653536AD00053

 

Figure CN102653536AD00061

xample I: 3Boc protection 1,4,8,11 _ tetraazacyclo Preparation tetradecane

[0048] 1,4,8,11 taken tetraazacyclo tetradecane _ 10g (0.05mol), and acetone – water (2: l) 50ml, tris ko amine 10. 119g (0. Lmol), ni ko isopropyl amine 3. 225g (0. 025mol), at room temperature was added dropwise tert-butyl carbonate, brother 38. 194g (0. 175mol), dropwise at room temperature after stirring for 24 hours, HPLC monitoring of the reaction. After completion of the reaction 50 ° C under reduced pressure to dryness to give a pale yellow oil, 150g on a silica gel column, and eluted with ko acid esters ko collecting ko ko acid ester liquid evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure to give a white foam 23. 12g, yield of 92.36%. 1HNMR (400MHz, CDCl3, 6 ppm): 1. 74 (2H, q, 5. 5);

I. 96 (2H, q, 6. 5); 2. 66 (2H, t, 5. 5); 2. 82 (2H, t, 5. 5); 3. 33 (4H, m); 3. 34 (2H, m); 3. 37 (2H, m), 3. 43 (4H, m).

[0049] Implementation Example 2: 6Boc protection Bullock Suffolk Preparation

[0050] Take 3Boc protection 1,4,8,11 _ tetraazacyclo tetradecane 20. 03g (0. 04mol), dissolved in anhydrous ko nitrile 400ml, anhydrous potassium carbonate 20g, aa ‘ni chlorine ni toluene 3.5012g (0.02mol), sodium iodide 75mg, at reflux for 24 hours under nitrogen, TLC monitoring of the reaction. After completion of the reaction, cooled to room temperature, filtered, the filter cake was washed with 200ml of ko nitrile, nitrile ko combined solution was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure to give the protected Bullock 6Boc Suffolk 21. 20g, yield of 96.06%. Alcohol with ko – a mixed solvent of water and recrystallized to give a white solid. [0051] Implementation Example 3: Bullock Suffolk • 8HC1 • 3H20 Preparation of compounds

[0052] Protection Bullock Suffolk take 6Boc 20g, add methanol 200ml, stirring to dissolve, concentrated hydrochloric acid was added dropwise at room temperature, 60ml, was stirred at room temperature after the addition was complete 48 inches, TLC monitoring of the reaction. After completion of the reaction, filtration, the filter cake was dried 50 ° C under reduced pressure to give a white solid 13. 54g, yield of 88.04%.

 

Figure CN102653536AD00071

 

[0053] Implementation Example 4: Preparation of Suffolk Bullock…………Plerixafor BASE

[0054] Take Bullock Suffolk • 8HC1 • 3H20 compound 13. 54g, add water 40ml ultrasound to dissolve after stirring constantly with 50% sodium hydroxide solution to adjust the pH to 12 and filtered, the filter cake 50 ° C minus pressure and dried to give a white solid 7. 24g, yield 90.24 V0o

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3, 6 ppm): 1. 75 (4H, bs); 1. 87 (4H, bs); 2. 95-2. 51 (32H, m); 3. 54 (4H, s); 4. 23 (4H, bs); 7. 30 (4H, s). 

IR (KBr) 3280,2927,2883,2805,1458,1264,1117 cm,

 

 

NEW PATENT…………….WO-2014125499

Improved and commercially viable process for the preparation of high pure plerixafor base

Process for the preparation of more than 99.8% pure plerixafor base by HPLC. Also claims solid forms of plerixafor base and composition comprising the same. Appears to be the first filing from the assignee on this API. FDA Orange book lists US6987102 and US7897590, expire in July 2023.

3-5-1997
Process for preparing 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane
2-26-1997
Process for preparing 1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)]-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane
12-11-1996
Aromatic-linked polyamine macrocyclic compounds with anti-HIV activity
11-8-1996
PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,1′-[1,4-PHENYLENEBIS-(METHYLENE)]-BIS-1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE
10-4-1996
PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,1′-[1,4-PHENYLENEBIS-(METHYLENE)]-BIS-1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE
7-14-1995
CYCLIC POLYAMINES
6-25-1993
LINKED CYCLIC POLYAMINES WITH ACTIVITY AGAINST HIV

 

 

9-2-2005
Substituted benzodiazepines as inhibitors of the chemokine receptor CXCR4
2-4-2005
Methods and compositions for the treatment or prevention of human immunodeficiency virus and related conditions using cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors and antiviral agents
12-4-2002
Process for preparation of N-1 protected N ring nitrogen containing cyclic polyamines and products thereof
10-2-2002
Prodrugs
10-25-2001
PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,1′- 1,4-PHENYLENEBIS-(METHYLENE)]-BIS-1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE
9-29-2000
CHEMOKINE RECPETOR BINDING HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
8-11-2000
METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS TO ENHANCE WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT
1-15-1998
PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,1′- 1,4-PHENYLENEBIS-(METHYLENE) -BIS-1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE
3-19-1997
Process for preparing 1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)]-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane
3-7-1997
PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE

 

6-24-2011
BETULINIC ACID DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-HIV AGENTS
11-3-2010
Antiviral methods employing double esters of 2′, 3′-dideoxy-3′-fluoroguanosine
2-5-2010
Chemokine Receptor Modulators
1-29-2010
NOVEL POLYNITROGENATED SYSTEMS AS ANTI-HIV AGENTS
9-4-2009
Combination of CXCR4 Antagonist and Morphogen to Increase Angiogenesis
11-28-2008
Chemokine receptor modulators
10-24-2008
Chemokine receptor modulators
8-32-2006
Compositions and methods for treating tissue ischemia
7-5-2006
ANTIVIRAL METHODS EMPLOYING DOUBLE ESTERS OF 2′, 3′-DIDEOXY-3′-FLUOROGUANOSINE
12-14-2005
Treatment of viral infections using prodrugs of 2′,3-dideoxy,3′-fluoroguanosine

 

References

  1. Jump up^ Ciampolini, M.; Fabbrizzi, L.; Perotti, A.; Poggi, A.; Seghi, B.; Zanobini, F. (1987). “Dinickel and dicopper complexes with N,N-linked bis(cyclam) ligands. An ideal system for the investigation of electrostatic effects on the redox behavior of pairs of metal ions”.Inorganic Chemistry 26 (21): 3527. doi:10.1021/ic00268a022edit
  2. Jump up^ Davies, S. L.; Serradell, N.; Bolós, J.; Bayés, M. (2007). “Plerixafor Hydrochloride”.Drugs of the Future 32 (2): 123. doi:10.1358/dof.2007.032.02.1071897edit
  3. Jump up^ Davies, S. L.; Serradell, N.; Bolós, J.; Bayés, M. (2007). “Plerixafor Hydrochloride”.Drugs of the Future 32 (2): 123. doi:10.1358/dof.2007.032.02.1071897edit
  4. Jump up to:a b &Na; (2007). “Plerixafor”. Drugs in R & D 8 (2): 113–119. doi:10.2165/00126839-200708020-00006PMID 17324009edit
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e Haberfeld, H, ed. (2009). Austria-Codex (in German) (2009/2010 ed.). Vienna: Österreichischer Apothekerverlag. ISBN 3-85200-196-X.
  6. Jump up^ Wagstaff, A. J. (2009). “Plerixafor”. Drugs 69 (3): 319. doi:10.2165/00003495-200969030-00007PMID 19275275edit
  7. Jump up to:a b “CHMP Assessment Report for Mozobil”European Medicines Agency.
  8. Jump up^ Esté, J. A.; Cabrera, C.; De Clercq, E.; Struyf, S.; Van Damme, J.; Bridger, G.; Skerlj, R. T.; Abrams, M. J.; Henson, G.; Gutierrez, A.; Clotet, B.; Schols, D. (1999). “Activity of different bicyclam derivatives against human immunodeficiency virus depends on their interaction with the CXCR4 chemokine receptor”. Molecular Pharmacology 55 (1): 67–73.PMID 9882699edit
  9. Jump up^ Bridger, G.; et al. (1993). “Linked cyclic polyamines with activity against HIV. WO/1993/012096”.
  10. Jump up^ Kalatskaya, I.; Berchiche, Y. A.; Gravel, S.; Limberg, B. J.; Rosenbaum, J. S.; Heveker, N. (2009). “AMD3100 is a CXCR7 Ligand with Allosteric Agonist Properties”.Molecular Pharmacology 75: 1240. doi:10.1124/mol.108.053389.PMID 19255243edit
  11. Jump up^ Cashen, A. F.; Nervi, B.; Dipersio, J. (2007). “AMD3100: CXCR4 antagonist and rapid stem cell-mobilizing agent”. Future Oncology 3 (1): 19–27.doi:10.2217/14796694.3.1.19PMID 17280498edit
  12. Jump up^ “Mozobil approved for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma” (Press release). Monthly Prescribing Reference. December 18, 2008. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
  13. Jump up^ Notice of Decision for MOZOBIL
  14. Jump up^ Smith, M. C. P.; Luker, K. E.; Garbow, J. R.; Prior, J. L.; Jackson, E.; Piwnica-Worms, D.; Luker, G. D. (2004). “CXCR4 Regulates Growth of Both Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer”. Cancer Research 64 (23): 8604–8612. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1844PMID 15574767edit
  15. Jump up^ Kioi, M.; Vogel, H.; Schultz, G.; Hoffman, R. M.; Harsh, G. R.; Brown, J. M. (2010).“Inhibition of vasculogenesis, but not angiogenesis, prevents the recurrence of glioblastoma after irradiation in mice”Journal of Clinical Investigation 120 (3): 694–705. doi:10.1172/JCI40283PMC 2827954PMID 20179352edit
  16. Jump up^ Pitchford, S.; Furze, R.; Jones, C.; Wengner, A.; Rankin, S. (2009). “Differential Mobilization of Subsets of Progenitor Cells from the Bone Marrow”. Cell Stem Cell 4 (1): 62–72. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2008.10.017PMID 19128793edit
  17. Jump up^ Wilson NM, Jung H, Ripsch MS, Miller RJ, White FA (March 2011). “CXCR4 Signaling Mediates Morphine-induced Tactile Hyperalgesia”Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 25(3): 565–73. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2010.12.014PMC 3039030PMID 21193025.
  18. http://worlddrugtracker.blogspot.in/2013/11/plerixafor-new-treatment-approaches-for.html

External links

 

Synthetic routes to produce the novel chelators 2 and 3.

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2012/dt/c2dt31137b

Theranostics 03: 0047 image No. 04

Theranostics 03: 0047 image No. 18

 

http://www.thno.org/v03p0047.htm

 

SEE ALSO……….http://www.scipharm.at/download.asp?id=1427

 

SEE…………..https://www.academia.edu/5549712/2011531154034454SCHEME 15 IS SYNTHESIS OF PLEXIXAFOR

read

ncur_powerpoint Courtney.ppt

faculty.swosu.edu/tim.hubin/share/ncur_powerpoint%20Courtney.ppt 

… trials against cancer and for stem cell mobilization as “Mozobil” or “Plerixafor” …NMR studies of AMD-3100 suggest that complex configuration is important.

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With Persistence And Phase 3 Win, Amicus Nears First Drug Approval …….Migalastat

 Phase 3 drug, Uncategorized  Comments Off on With Persistence And Phase 3 Win, Amicus Nears First Drug Approval …….Migalastat
Aug 212014
 

Migalastat hydrochloride
CAS Number: 75172-81-5 hydrochloride

CAS BASE….108147-54-2

ABS ROT = (+)

+53.0 °
Conc: 1 g/100mL; Solv: water ;  589.3 nm; Temp: 24 °C

IN Van den Nieuwendijk, Adrianus M. C. H.; Organic Letters 2010, 12(17), 3957-3959 

3,4,5-Piperidinetriol,2-(hydroxymethyl)-, hydrochloride (1:1), (2R,3S,4R,5S)-

Molecular Structure:
Molecular Structure of 75172-81-5 (3,4,5-Piperidinetriol,2-(hydroxymethyl)-, hydrochloride (1:1), (2R,3S,4R,5S)-)
Formula: C6H14ClNO4
Molecular Weight:199.63
Synonyms:  3,4,5-Piperidinetriol,2-(hydroxymethyl)-, hydrochloride, (2R,3S,4R,5S)- (9CI);

3,4,5-Piperidinetriol,2-(hydroxymethyl)-, hydrochloride, [2R-(2a,3a,4a,5b)]-;

Migalastat hydrochloride;Galactostatin hydrochloride;

(2S,3R,4S,5S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine-3,4,5-triol hydrochloride;

  • 1-Deoxygalactonojirimycin
  • 1-Deoxygalactostatin
  • Amigal
  • DDIG
  • Migalastat
  • UNII-C4XNY919FW

Melting Point:160-2 °C………http://www.google.com/patents/DE3906463A1?cl=de
Boiling Point:382.7 °C at 760 mmHg
Flash Point:185.2 °C

Amicus Therapeutics, Inc. innovator

Aug 2014

http://www.xconomy.com/new-york/2014/08/20/with-persistence-and-phase-3-win-amicus-nears-first-drug-approval/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=with-persistence-and-phase-3-win-amicus-nears-first-drug-approval

Amicus Therapeutics was on the ropes in late 2012 when its pill for a rare condition called Fabry Disease108147-54-2 failed a late-stage trial. It had already put seven years of work into the drug, and the setback added even more development time and uncertainty to the mix. But the Cranbury, NJ-based company kept plugging away, and now it looks like all the effort could lead to its first approved drug.

Amicus (NASDAQ: FOLD) is reporting today that the Fabry drug, migalastat, succeeded in the second of two late-stage trials. It hit two main goals that essentially measured its ability to slow the decline of Fabry patients’ kidney function comparably to enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT)—the standard of care for the often-fatal disorder.

Amicus believes the results, along with those from an earlier Phase 3 trial comparing migalastat to a placebo, are good enough to ask regulators in the U.S. and Europe for market approval.

“These are the good days to be a CEO,” says Amicus CEO John Crowley (pictured above). “It’s great when a plan comes together and data cooperates.”

Crowley says Amicus will seek approval of migalastat first in Europe and is already in talks with regulators there. In the next few months, Amicus will begin talking with the FDA about a path for approval in the U.S. as well.

 

 

End feb 2013

About Amicus Therapeutics

Amicus Therapeutics  is a biopharmaceutical company at the forefront of therapies for rare and orphan diseases. The Company is developing orally-administered, small molecule drugs called pharmacological chaperones, a novel, first-in-class approach to treating a broad range of human genetic diseases. Amicus’ late-stage programs for lysosomal storage disorders include migalastat HCl monotherapy in Phase 3 for Fabry disease; migalastat HCl co-administered with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in Phase 2 for Fabry disease; and AT2220 co-administered with ERT in Phase 2 for Pompe disease.

About Migalastat HCl

Amicus in collaboration with GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) is developing the investigational pharmacological chaperone migalastat HCl for the treatment of Fabry disease. Amicus has commercial rights to all Fabry products in the United States and GSK has commercial rights to all of these products in the rest of world.

As a monotherapy, migalastat HCl is designed to bind to and stabilize, or “chaperone” a patient’s own alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A) enzyme in patients with genetic mutations that are amenable to this chaperone in a cell-based assay. Migalastat HCl monotherapy is in Phase 3 development (Study 011 and Study 012) for Fabry patients with genetic mutations that are amenable to this chaperone monotherapy in a cell-based assay. Study 011 is a placebo-controlled study intended primarily to support U.S. registration, and Study 012 compares migalastat HCl to ERT to primarily support global registration.

For patients currently receiving ERT for Fabry disease, migalastat HCl in combination with ERT may improve ERT outcomes by keeping the infused alpha-Gal A enzyme in its properly folded and active form thereby allowing more active enzyme to reach tissues.2Migalastat HCl co-administered with ERT is in Phase 2 (Study 013) and migalastat HCl co-formulated with JCR Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd’s proprietary investigational ERT (JR-051, recombinant human alpha-Gal A enzyme) is in preclinical development.

About Fabry Disease

Fabry disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of an enzyme called alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A). The role of alpha-Gal A within the body is to break down specific lipids in lysosomes, including globotriaosylceramide (GL-3, also known as Gb3). Lipids that can be degraded by the action of α-Gal are called “substrates” of the enzyme. Reduced or absent levels of alpha-Gal A activity leads to the accumulation of GL-3 in the affected tissues, including the kidneys, heart, central nervous system, and skin. This accumulation of GL-3 is believed to cause the various symptoms of Fabry disease, including pain, kidney failure, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke.

It is currently estimated that Fabry disease affects approximately 5,000 to 10,000 people worldwide. However, several literature reports suggest that Fabry disease may be significantly under diagnosed, and the prevalence of the disease may be much higher.

1. Bichet, et al., A Phase 2a Study to Investigate the Effect of a Single Dose of Migalastat HCl, a Pharmacological Chaperone, on Agalsidase Activity in Subjects with Fabry Disease, LDN WORLD 2012

2. Benjamin, et al.Molecular Therapy: April 2012, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 717–726.

http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01458119

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/129812511/migalastat-hcl

 

Migalastat hydrochloride is a pharmacological chaperone in phase III development at Amicus Pharmaceuticals for the oral treatment of Fabry’s disease. Fabry’s disease occurs as the result of an inherited genetic mutation that results in the production of a misfolded alpha galactosidase A (alpha-GAL) enzyme, which is responsible for breaking down globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) in the lysosome. Migalastat acts by selectively binding to the misfolded alpha-GAL, increasing its stability and promoting proper folding, processing and trafficking of the enzyme from the endoplasmic reticulum to the lysosome.

In February 2004, migalastat hydrochloride was granted orphan drug designation by the FDA for the treatment of Fabry’s disease.

The EMEA assigned orphan drug designation for the compound in 2006 for the treatment of the same indication. In 2007, the compound was licensed to Shire Pharmaceuticals by Amicus Therapeutics worldwide, with the exception of the U.S., for the treatment of Fabry’s disease.

In 2009, this license agreement was terminated. In 2010, the compound was licensed by Amicus Therapeutics to GlaxoSmithKline on a worldwide basis to develop, manufacture and commercialize migalastat hydrochloride as a treatment for Fabry’s disease, but the license agreement terminated in 2013.

 

Chemical Name: DEOXYGALACTONOJIRIMYCIN, HYDROCHLORIDE
Synonyms: DGJ;Amigal;Unii-cly7m0xd20;GALACTOSTATIN HCL;DGJ, HYDROCHLORIDE;Migalastat hydrochloride;Galactostatin hydrochloride;DEOXYGALACTONOJIRIMYCIN HCL;1-DEOXYGALACTONOJIRIMYCIN HCL;1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-d-galactitol

DEOXYGALACTONOJIRIMYCIN, HYDROCHLORIDE Structure

 

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Links

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO1999062517A1?cl=en

Example 1

A series of plant alkaloids (Scheme 1, ref. 9) were used for both in vitro inhibition and intracellular enhancement studies of α-Gal A activity. The results of inhibition experiments are shown in Fig. 1 A.

 

f^

 

Among the tested compounds, 1-deoxy-galactonojirimycin (DGJ, 5) known as a powerful competitive inhibitor for α-Gal A, showed the highest inhibitory activity with IC50 at 4.7 nM. α-3,4-Di-epi-homonojirimycin (3) was an effective inhibitor with IC50 at 2.9 μM. Other compounds showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 ranging from 0.25 mM (6) to 2.6 mM (2). Surprisingly, these compounds also effectively enhanced α-Gal A activity in COS-1 cells transfected with a mutant α-Gal A gene (R301Q), identified from an atypical variant form of Fabry disease with a residual α- Gal A activity at 4% of normal. By culturing the transfected COS-1 cells with these compounds at concentrations cat 3 – 10-fold of IC50 of the inhibitors, α-Gal A activity was enhanced 1.5 – 4-fold (Fig. 1C). The effectiveness of intracellular enhancement paralleled with in vitro inhibitory activity while the compounds were added to the culture medium at lOμM

concentration (Fig. IB).

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Links

WO 2008045015

or  http://www.google.com/patents/EP2027137A1?cl=enhttp://www.google.com/patents/US7973157?cl=en

This invention relates to a process for purification of imino or amino sugars, such as D-1-deoxygalactonojirimycin hydrochloride (DGJ’HCl). This process can be used to produce multi-kilogram amounts of these nitrogen-containing sugars.

Sugars are useful in pharmacology since, in multiple biological processes, they have been found to play a major role in the selective inhibition of various enzymatic functions. One important type of sugars is the glycosidase inhibitors, which are useful in treatment of metabolic disorders. Galactosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages and are important in the metabolism of complex carbohydrates. Galactosidase inhibitors, such as D-I- deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ), can be used in the treatment of many diseases and conditions, including diabetes (e.g., U.S. Pat. 4,634,765), cancer (e.g., U.S. Pat. 5,250,545), herpes (e.g. , U.S. Pat. 4,957,926), HIV and Fabry Disease (Fan et al, Nat. Med. 1999 5:1, 112-5).

Commonly, sugars are purified through chromatographic separation. This can be done quickly and efficiently for laboratory scale synthesis, however, column chromatography and similar separation techniques become less useful as larger amounts of sugar are purified. The size of the column, amount of solvents and stationary phase (e.g. silica gel) required and time needed for separation each increase with the amount of product purified, making purification from multi-kilogram scale synthesis unrealistic using column chromatography.

Another common purification technique for sugars uses an ion- exchange resin. This technique can be tedious, requiring a tedious pre-treatment of the ion exchange resin. The available ion exchange resins are also not necessarily able to separate the sugars from salts (e.g., NaCl). Acidic resins tend to remove both metal ions found in the crude product and amino- or imino-sugars from the solution and are therefore not useful. Finding a resin that can selectively remove the metal cations and leave amino- or imino-sugars in solution is not trivial. In addition, after purification of a sugar using an ion exchange resin, an additional step of concentrating the diluted aqueous solution is required. This step can cause decomposition of the sugar, which produces contaminants, and reduces the yield.

U.S. Pats. 6,740,780, 6,683,185, 6,653,482, 6,653,480, 6,649,766, 6,605,724, 6,590,121, and 6,462,197 describe a process for the preparation of imino- sugars. These compounds are generally prepared from hydroxyl-protected oxime intermediates by formation of a lactam that is reduced to the hexitol. However, this process has disadvantages for the production on a multi-kg scale with regard to safety, upscaling, handling, and synthesis complexity. For example, several of the disclosed syntheses use flash chromatography for purification or ion-exchange resin treatment, a procedure that is not practicable on larger scale. One particularly useful imino sugar is DGJ. There are several DGJ preparations disclosed in publications, most of which are not suitable for an industrial laboratory on a preparative scale (e.g., >100 g). One such synthesis include a synthesis from D-galactose (Santoyo-Gonzalez, et al, Synlett 1999 593-595; Synthesis 1998 1787-1792), in which the use of chromatography is taught for the purification of the DGJ as well as for the purification of DGJ intermediates. The use of ion exchange resins for the purification of DGJ is also disclosed, but there is no indication of which, if any, resin would be a viable for the purification of DGJ on a preparative scale. The largest scale of DGJ prepared published is 13 g (see Fred-Robert Heiker, Alfred Matthias Schueller, Carbohydrate Research, 1986, 119-129). In this publication, DGJ was isolated by stirring with ion-exchange resin Lewatit MP 400 (OH) and crystallized with ethanol. However, this process cannot be readily scaled to multi- kilogram quantities.

Similarly, other industrial and pharmaceutically useful sugars are commonly purified using chromatography and ion exchange resins that cannot easily be scaled up to the purification of multi-kilogram quantities.

Therefore, there is a need for a process for purifying nitrogen- containing sugars, preferably hexose amino- or imino-sugars that is simple and cost effective for large-scale synthesis

FIG. 1. HPLC of purified DGJ after crystallization. The DGJ is over 99.5% pure.

 

 

FIG. 2A. 1H NMR of DGJ (post HCl extraction and crystallization), from 0 – 15 ppm in DMSO.

FIG. 2B. 1H NMR of DGJ (post HCl extraction and crystallization), from 0 – 5 ppm, in DMSO.

 

FIG. 3 A. 1H NMR of purified DGJ (after recrystallization), from 0 – 15 ppm, in D2O. Note OH moiety has exchanged with OD.

FIG. 3B. 1H NMR of purified DGJ (after recrystallization), from 0 –

4 ppm, in D2O. Note OH moiety has exchanged with OD.

 

FIG. 4. 13C NMR of purified DGJ, (after recrystallization), 45 – 76 ppm.

 

One amino-sugar of particular interest for purification by the method of the current invention is DGJ. DGJ, or D-l-deoxygalactonojirimycin, also described as (2R,3S,4R,5S)-2-hydroxymethyl-3,4,5-trihydroxypiperidine and 1- deoxy-galactostatin, is a noj irimycin (5-amino-5-deoxy-D-galactopyranose) derivative of the form:

Figure imgf000011_0001

Example 1: Preparation and Purification of DGJ

A protected crystalline galactofuranoside obtained from the technique described by Santoyo-Gonzalez. 5-azido-5-deoxy-l,2,3,6-tetrapivaloyl-α-D- galactofuranoside (1250 g), was hydrogenated for 1-2 days using methanol (10 L) with palladium on carbon (10%, wet, 44 g) at 50 psi of H2. Sodium methoxide (25% in methanol, 1.25 L) was added and hydrogenation was continued for 1-2 days at 100 psi ofH2. Catalyst was removed by filtration and the reaction was acidified with methanolic hydrogen chloride solution (20%, 1.9 L) and concentrated to give crude mixture of DGJ • HCl and sodium chloride as a solid. The purity of the DGJ was about 70% (w/w assay), with the remaining 30% being mostly sodium chloride.

The solid was washed with tetrahydrofuran (2 x 0.5 L) and ether (I x 0.5 L), and then combined with concentrated hydrochloric acid (3 L). DGJ went into solution, leaving NaCl undissolved. The obtained suspension was filtered to remove sodium chloride; the solid sodium chloride was washed with additional portion of hydrochloric acid (2 x 0.3 L). All hydrochloric acid solution were combined and slowly poured into stirred solution of tetrahydrofuran (60 L) and ether (11.3 L). The precipitate formed while the stirring was continued for 2 hours. The solid crude DGJ* HCl, was filtered and washed with tetrahydrofuran (0.5 L) and ether (2 x 0.5 L). An NMR spectrum is shown in FIGS. 2A-2B.

The solid was dried and recrystallized from water (1.2 mL /g) and ethanol (10 ml/1 ml of water). This recrystallization step may be repeated. This procedure gave white crystalline DGJ* HCl, and was usually obtained in about 70- 75% yield (320 – 345 g). The product of the purification, DGJ-HCl is a white crystalline solid, HPLC >98% (w/w assay) as shown in FIG. 1. FIGS. 3A-3D and FIG. 4 show the NMR spectra of purified DGJ, showing the six sugar carbons.

Example 2: Purification of 1-deoxymannojirimycin 1 -deoxymannojirimycin is made by the method described by Mariano

(J. Org. Chem., 1998, 841-859, see pg. 859, herein incorporated by reference). However, instead of purification by ion-exchange resin as described by Mariano, the 1-deoxymannojirimycin is mixed with concentrated HCl. The suspension is then filtered to remove the salt and the 1-deoxymannojirimycin hydrochloride is precipitated crystallized using solvents known for recrystallization of 1- deoxymannojirimycin (THF for crystallization and then ethanol/water.

Example 3: Purification of (+)-l-deoxynojirimycin

(+)-l-deoxynojirimycin is made by the method Kibayashi et al. (J. Org. Chem., 1987, 3337-3342, see pg. 334I5 herein incorporated by reference). It is synthesized from a piperidine compound (#14) in HCl/MeOH. The reported yield of 90% indicates that the reaction is essentially clean and does not contain other sugar side products. Therefore, the column chromatography used by Kibayashi is for the isolation of the product from non-sugar related impurities. Therefore, instead of purification by silica gel chromatography, the (+)-l-deoxynojirimycin is mixed with concentrated HCl. The suspension is then filtered to remove the salt and the nojirimycin is crystallized using solvents known for recrystallization of nojirimycin.

Example 4: Purification of Nojirimycin

Nojirimycin is made by the method described by Kibayashi et al. (J.

Org. Chem., 1987, 3337-3342, see pg. 3342). However, after evaporating of the mixture at reduced pressure, instead of purification by silica gel chromatography with ammonia-methanol-chloroform as described by Kibayashi, the nojirimycin is mixed with concentrated HCl. The suspension is then filtered to remove the impurities not dissolved in HCl and the nojirimycin is crystallized using solvents known for recrystallization of nojirimycin.

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Links

Synthesis of (+)-1-deoxygalactonojirimycin and a related indolizidine
Tetrahedron Lett 1995, 36(5): 653

Amido-alcohol 1 is transformed via aminal 2 into 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin (3) and the structurally related indolizidine 4.

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Links

Synthesis of D-galacto-1-deoxynojirimycin (1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-galactitol) starting from 1-deoxynojirimycin
Carbohydr Res 1990, 203(2): 314

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Synthesis of (+)-1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-galactitol, a potent alpha-D-galactosidase inhibitor
Carbohydr Res 1987, 167: 305

 

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Links

SEE

Monosaccharides containing nitrogen in the ring, XXXVII. Synthesis of 1,5-didexy-1,5-imino-D-galactitol
Chem Ber 1980, 113(8): 2601

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Links

Org. Lett., 2010, 12 (17), pp 3957–3959
DOI: 10.1021/ol101556k

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ol101556k

+53.0 °
Conc: 1 g/100mL; Solv: water ;  589.3 nm; Temp: 24 °C

IN

van den Nieuwendijk, Adrianus M. C. H.; Organic Letters 2010, 12(17), 3957-3959 

Abstract Image

The chemoenzymatic synthesis of three 1-deoxynojirimycin-type iminosugars is reported. Key steps in the synthetic scheme include a Dibal reduction−transimination−sodium borohydride reduction cascade of reactions on an enantiomerically pure cyanohydrin, itself prepared employing almond hydroxynitrile lyase (paHNL) as the common precursor. Ensuing ring-closing metathesis and Upjohn dihydroxylation afford the target compounds.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ol101556k/suppl_file/ol101556k_si_002.pdf

COMPD 18

D-galacto-1-deoxynojirimicin.HCl (18).

D-N-Boc-6-OBn-galacto-1-deoxynojirimicin (159 mg, 0.450 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of MeOH
(10 mL) and 6 M HCl (2 mL). The flask was purged with argon, Pd/C-10% (20 mg) was added and a balloon
with hydrogen gas was placed on top of the reaction. The mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature.
Pd/C was removed by filtration and the filtrate evaporated to yield the crude product (90 mg, 100%) as a
white foam that needed no further purification.
[α]24D = + 53.0 (c = 1, H2O);

[lit4a [α]24D = +44.6 (c = 0.9, H2O); lit4b [α]20D = +46.1 (c = 0.9, H2O)].
HRMS calculated for [C6H13NO4 + H]+164.09173; Found 164.09160.
1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O) δ 4.20 (dd, J = 2.7, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 4.11 (ddd, J = 11.4, 9.7, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 3.88 (ddd,
J = 20.9, 12.2, 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.68 (dd, J = 9.7, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.55 (dd, J = 12.5, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 3.46 (ddd, J = 8.6,
4.8, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 2.97 – 2.86 (t, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H). [lit4c supporting information contains 1
H NMR-spectrumof an authentic sample].
13C NMR (101 MHz, D2O) δ 73.01, 66.97, 64.69, 60.16, 59.15, 46.15

4a) Ruiz, M.; Ruanova, T. M.; Blanco, O.; Núñez, F.; Pato, C.; Ojea, V. J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 2240
– 2255.

4b) Paulsen, H.; Hayauchi, Y.; Sinnwell, V. Chem. Ber. 1980, 113, 2601 – 2608. c)
McDonnell, C.; Cronin, L.; O’Brien, J. L.; Murphy, P. V. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 3565 – 3568.

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(- ) FORM………… BE CAREFUL

Short and straightforward synthesis of (-)-1-deoxygalactonojirimycin
Org Lett 2010, 12(6): 1145

 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ol100037c

Abstract Image

The mildness and low basicity of vinylzinc species functioning as a nucleophile in addition to α-chiral aldehydes is characterized by lack of epimerization of the vulnerable stereogenic center. This is demonstrated by a highly diastereoselective synthesis of 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin in eight steps from commercial starting materials with overall yield of 35%.

Figure

Figure 1. Structures of nojirimycin (1) and DGJ (2).

SEE SUPP INFO

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ol100037c/suppl_file/ol100037c_si_001.pdf

(-)-1-deoxygalactojirimycin hydrochloride as transparent colorless needles.
[α]D -51.4 (D2O, c 1.0)

1H-NMR (D2O) δ ppm 4.09 (dd, 1H, J 2.9 Hz, 1.3 Hz), 4.00 (ddd, 1H, J = 11.3 Hz, 9.7 Hz, 5.3 Hz),
3.80 (dd, 1H, J = 12,1 Hz, 8.8 Hz), 3.73 (dd, 1H, J = 12.1 Hz, 8.8 Hz), 3.56 (dd, 1H, J = 9.7 Hz, 2.9
Hz), 3.44 (dd, 1H, J = 12.4 Hz, 5.3 Hz), 3.34 (ddd, 1H, J = 8.7 Hz, 4.8 Hz, 1.0 Hz), 2.8 (app. t, 1H,
J = 12.0 Hz)
13C-NMR (D2O, MeOH iSTD) δ 73.6, 67.5, 65.3, 60.7, 59.7, 46.7
HRMS Measured 164.0923 (M + H – Cl) Calculated 164.0923 (C6H13NO4 + H – Cl)

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Links

Concise and highly stereocontrolled synthesis of 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin and its congeners using dioxanylpiperidene, a promising chiral building block
Org Lett 2003, 5(14): 2527

 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ol034886y

Abstract Image

A concise and stereoselective synthesis of the chiral building block, dioxanylpiperidene 4 as a precursor for deoxyazasugars, starting from the Garner aldehyde 5 using catalytic ring-closing metathesis (RCM) for the construction of the piperidine ring is described. The asymmetric synthesis of 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin and its congeners 13 was carried out via the use of 4in a highly stereocontrolled mode.

 

mp 135-135.5 °C [lit.3mp 137-139 °C];

[α]D25 +27.8° (c 0.67, H2O)
[lit.3[α]D23 +28° (c 0.5, H2O)];

1H NMR (300 MHz, D2O) δ 2.59–2.65 (m, 1H), 2.81–2.87 (m, 1H),
3.02–3.08 (m, 1H), 3.46–3.48 (m, 2H), 3.59–3.66 (m, 3H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, D2O) δ 44.7, 57.1,

58.4, 70.9, 71.4, 73.3 [lit4 13C NMR (125 MHz, D2O) δ 44.5, 56.8, 58.3, 70.1, 70.7, 72.3];

HRMScalcd for C6H13NO4 (M+) 163.0855, Found 163.0843. Anal. calcd for C6H13NO4: C, 44.16; N,
8.58; H, 8.03. Found: C, 44.31; N, 8.55; H, 7.71.

3. Schaller, C.; Vogel, P.; Jager, V. Carbohydrate Res. 1998, 314, 25-35.
4. Lee, B. W.; Jeong, Ill-Y.; Yang, M. S.; Choi, S. U.; Park, K. H. Synthesis 2000, 1305-1309.

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Links

Applications and limitations of the I2-mediated carbamate annulation for the synthesis of piperidines: Five- versus six-membered ring formation
J Org Chem 2013, 78(19): 9791

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo401512h

Abstract Image

A protecting-group-free synthetic strategy for the synthesis of piperidines has been explored. Key in the synthesis is an I2-mediated carbamate annulation, which allows for the cyclization of hydroxy-substituted alkenylamines into piperidines, pyrrolidines, and furans. In this work, four chiral scaffolds were compared and contrasted, and it was observed that with both d-galactose and 2-deoxy-d-galactose as starting materials, the transformations into the piperidines 1-deoxygalactonorjirimycin (DGJ) and 4-epi-fagomine, respectively, could be achieved in few steps and good overall yields. When d-glucose was used as a starting material, only the furan product was formed, whereas the use of 2-deoxy-d-glucose resulted in reduced chemo- and stereoselectivity and the formation of four products. A mechanistic explanation for the formation of each annulation product could be provided, which has improved our understanding of the scope and limitations of the carbamate annulation for piperidine synthesis.

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Links

Ruiz, Maria; Journal of Organic Chemistry 2008, 73(6), 2240-2255 

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo702601z

ROT  +44.6 °  Conc: 0.9 g/100mL; Solv: water ;  589.3 nm; Temp: 24 °C

Abstract Image

A general strategy for the synthesis of 1-deoxy-azasugars from a chiral glycine equivalent and 4-carbon building blocks is described. Diastereoselective aldol additions of metalated bislactim ethers to matched and mismatched erythrose or threose acetonides and intramolecular N-alkylation (by reductive amination or nucleophilic substitution) were used as key steps. The dependence of the yield and the asymmetric induction of the aldol addition with the nature of the metallic counterion of the azaenolate and the γ-alkoxy protecting group for the erythrose or threose acetonides has been studied. The stereochemical outcome of the aldol additions with tin(II) azaenolates has been rationalized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In accordance with DFT calculations with model glyceraldehyde acetonides, hightrans,syn,anti-selectivitity for the matched pairs and moderate to low trans,anti,anti-selectivity for the mismatched ones may originate from (1) the intervention of solvated aggregates of tin(II) azaenolate and lithium chloride as the reactive species and (2) favored chair-like transition structures with a Cornforth-like conformation for the aldehyde moiety. DFT calculations indicate that aldol additions to erythrose acetonides proceed by an initial deprotonation, followed by coordination of the alkoxy-derivative to the tin(II) azaenolate and final reorganization of the intermediate complex through pericyclic transition structures in which the erythrose moiety is involved in a seven-membered chelate ring. The preparative utility of the aldol-based approach was demonstrated by application in concise routes for the synthesis of the glycosidase inhibitors 1-deoxy-d-allonojirimycin, 1-deoxy-l-altronojirimycin, 1-deoxy-d-gulonojirimycin, 1-deoxy-d-galactonojirimycin, 1-deoxy-l-idonojirimycin and 1-deoxy-d-talonojirimycin.

 

 

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Links

J. Org. Chem., 1991, 56 (2), pp 815–819
DOI: 10.1021/jo00002a057

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo00002a057

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Links

Hinsken, Werner; DE 3906463 A1 1990

http://www.google.com/patents/DE3906463A1?cl=de

Example 1 Preparation of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-glucitol hydrobromide

A suspension of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-glucitol (500 g) in isopropanol (2 l) with 48% hydrochloric acid, bromine (620 g). The suspension is stirred for 2 hours at 40 ° C, cooled to 0 ° C and the product isolated by filtration.

Yield: 700 g (93% of theory),
mp: 184 ° C.

Example 2 Preparation of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-mannitol hydrobromide

The prepared analogously to Example 1 from 1,5-dideoxy 1,5-imino-D-mannitol and 48% hydrobromic acid.

Yield: 89% of theory;

C₆H₁₄NO₄Br (244.1)
Ber .: C 29.5%; H 5.8%; N 5.7%; Br 32.7%;
vascular .: C 29.8%; H 5.8%; N 5.8%; Br 32.3%.

Example 3 Preparation of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-Galactitol- hydrochloride

The preparation was carried out analogously to Example 1 from 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-galactitol and corresponding mole ratios of 37% hydrochloric acid.
yield: 91% of theory
, mp: 160-162 ° C.

 

Amat et al., “Eantioselective Synthesis of 1-deoxy-D-gluonojirimycin From A Phenylglycinol Derived Lactam,” Tetrahedron Letters, pp. 5355-5358, 2004.
2 Chernois, “Semimicro Experimental Organic Chemistry,” J. de Graff (1958), pp. 31-48.
3 Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Ed., 1995, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 14: p. 737-741.
4 Heiker et al., “Synthesis of D-galacto-1-deoxynojirimycin (1, 5-dideoxy-1, 5-imino-D-galactitol) starting from 1-deoxynojirimycin.” Carbohydrate Research, 203: 314-318, 1990.
5 Heiker et al., 1990, “Synthesis of D-galacto-1-deoxynojirimycin (1,5-dideoxy-1, 5-imino-D-galactitol) starting from 1-deoxynojirimycin,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 203: p. 314-318.
6 * Joseph, Carbohydrate Research 337 (2002) 1083-1087.
7 * Kinast et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 20 (1998), No. 9, pp. 805-806.
8 * Lamb, Laboratory Manual of General Chemistry, Harvard University Press, 1916, p. 108.
9 Linden et al., “1-Deoxynojirimycin Hydrochloride,” Acta ChrystallographicaC50, pp. 746-749, 1994.
10 Mellor et al., Preparation, biochemical characterization and biological properties of radiolabelled N-alkylated deoxynojirimycins, Biochem. J. Aug. 15, 2002; 366(Pt 1):225-233.
11 * Mills, Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Hydrochloric Acid, 2001 John Wily & Sons.
12 Santoyo-Gonzalez et al., “Use of N-Pivaloyl Imidazole as Protective Reagent for Sugars.” Synthesis 1998 1787-1792.
13 Schuller et al., “Synthesis of 2-acetamido-1, 2-dideoxy-D-galacto-nojirimycin (2-acetamido-1, 2, 5-trideoxy-1, 5-imino-D-galacitol) from 1-deoxynojirimycin.” Carbohydrate Res. 1990; 203: 308-313.
14 Supplementary European Search Report dated Mar. 11, 2010 issued in corresponding European Patent Application No. EP 06 77 2888.
15 Uriel et al., A Short and Efficient Synthesis of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-galactitol (1-deoxy-D-galactostatin) and 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-L-altritol (1-deoxy-L-altrostatin) From D-galactose, Synlett (1999), vol. 5, pp. 593-595.

 

1-Deoxygalactonojirimycin:

(a) Liguchi, T.; Tajiri, K.; Ninomiya, I.; Naito, T. Tetrahedron200056, 5819−5833.

(b) Mehta, G.; Mohal, N. Tetrahedron Lett200041, 5741−5745.

(c) Asano, K.; Hakogi, T.; Iwama, S.; Katsumura, S. Chem. Commun1999, 41−42.

(d) Johnson, C. R.; Golebiowsky, A.; Sundram, H.; Miller, M. W.; Dwaihy, R. L. TetraherdonLett199536, 653−654.

(e) Uriel, C.; Santoyo-Gonzalez, F. Synlett 1999, 593−595.

(f) Ruiz, M.; Ruanova, T. M.; Ojea, V.; Quintela, J. M. Tetrahedron Lett199940, 2021−2024.

(g) Shilvock, J. P.; Fleet, G. W. J. Synlett 1998, 554−556.

(h) Chida, N.; Tanikawa, T.; Tobe, T.; Ogawa, S. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun1994, 1247−1248.

(i) Aoyagi, S.; Fujimaki, S.; Yamazaki, N.; Kibayashi, C. J. Org. Chem. 199156, 815−819.

(j) Kajimoto, T.; Chen, L.; Liu, K. K. C.; Wong, C. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc1991113, 6678−6680.

(k) Bernotas, R. C.; Pezzone, M. A.; Ganem, B. Carbohydr. Res1987167, 305−311. 1-Deoxyidonojirimycin:

(l) Singh, O. V.; Han, H. Tetrahedron Lett. 200344, 2387−2391.

(m) Schaller, C.; Vogel, P.; Jager, V. Carbohydr. Res1998314, 25−35.

(n) Fowler, P. A.; Haines, A. H.; Taylor, R. J. K.; Chrystal, E. J. T.; Gravestock, M. B. Carbohydr. Res1993,246 377−381.

(o) Liu, K. K. C.; Kajimoto, T.; Chen, L.; Zhong, Z.; Ichikawa, Y.; Wong, C. H.J. Org. Chem199156, 6280−6289. 1-Deoxygulonojirimycin:  ref 5l.

(p) Haukaas, M. H.; O’Doherty, G. A. Org. Lett. 20013, 401−404.

(q) Ruiz, M.; Ojea, V.; Ruanova, T. M.; Quintela, J. M. Tetrahedron:  Asymmetry 200213, 795−799. (r) Liao, L.-X.; Wang, Z.-M.; Zhang, H.-X.; Zhou, W.-S. Tetrahedron:  Asymmetry 199910, 3649−3657.

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Jun 102014
 

2D chemical structure of 1393477-72-9

Selinexor (KPT-330)

1393477-72-9

Karyopharm Therapeutics, Inc.

WO2011109799A1

WO2013019548A1

  • 443.3099

Synonyms

Karyopharm Announces Initiation of Phase 2 Study of Selinexor (KPT-330) in Patients with

MarketWatch

“These patients were treated in our Phase 1 clinical trial of Selinexor in … Additional Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies are ongoing or currently planned and … the discovery and development of novel first-in-class drugs directed against …

Selinexor, a Exportin-1 (CRM1/XPO1) agonist, is in phase II clinical trials at Karyopharm for the treatment of advanced or metastatic gynecological malignancies (cervical, ovarian and uterine carcinomas) and recurrent glioblastomas. The company is also evaluating the compound in early clinical trials for the treatment of advanced solid tumors, hematological cancer (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia), soft tissue or bone sarcoma, relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

In 2014, orphan drug designation was assigned in U.S. for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

 

Cells from most major human solid and hematologic malignancies exhibit abnormal cellular localization of a variety of oncogenic proteins, tumor suppressor proteins, and cell cycle regulators (Cronshaw et al. 2004, Falini et al 2006). For example, certain p53 mutations lead to localization in the cytoplasm rather than in the nucleus. This results in the loss of normal growth regulation, despite intact tumor suppressor function. In other tumors, wild-type p53 is sequestered in the cytoplasm or rapidly degraded, again leading to loss of its suppressor function. Restoration of appropriate nuclear localization of functional p53 protein can normalize some properties of neoplastic cells (Cai et al. 2008; Hoshino et al. 2008; Lain et al. 1999a; Lain et al. 1999b; Smart et al. 1999), can restore sensitivity of cancer cells to DNA damaging agents (Cai et al. 2008), and can lead to regression of established tumors (Sharpless & DePinho 2007, Xue et al. 2007). Similar data have been obtained for other tumor suppressor proteins such as forkhead (Turner and Sullivan 2008) and c-Abl (Vignari and Wang 2001). In addition, abnormal localization of several tumor suppressor and growth regulatory proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases (Davis 2007, Nakahara 2009). CRMl inhibition may provide particularly interesting utility in familial cancer syndromes (e.g. , Li-Fraumeni Syndrome due to loss of one p53 allele,

BRCA1 or 2 cancer syndromes), where specific tumor suppressor proteins (TSP) are deleted or dysfunctional and where increasing TSP levels by systemic (or local) administration of CRMl inhibitors could help restore normal tumor suppressor function. Specific proteins and R As are carried into and out of the nucleus by specialized transport molecules, which are classified as importins if they transport molecules into the nucleus, and exportins if they transport molecules out of the nucleus (Terry et al. 2007;

Sorokin et al. 2007). Proteins that are transported into or out of the nucleus contain nuclear import/localization (NLS) or export (NES) sequences that allow them to interact with the relevant transporters. Chromosomal Region Maintenance 1 (Crml or CRM1), which is also called exportin-1 or Xpol, is a major exportin.

Overexpression of Crml has been reported in several tumors, including human ovarian cancer (Noske et al. 2008), cervical cancer (van der Watt et al. 2009), pancreatic cancer (Huang et al. 2009), hepatocellular carcinoma (Pascale et al. 2005) and osteosarcoma (Yao et al. 2009) and is independently correlated with poor clinical outcomes in these tumor types.

Inhibition of Crml blocks the exodus of tumor suppressor proteins and/or growth regulators such as p53, c-Abl, p21, p27, pRB, BRCA1, IkB, ICp27, E2F4, KLF5, YAP1, ZAP, KLF5, HDAC4, HDAC5 or forkhead proteins (e.g., FOX03a) from the nucleus that are associated with gene expression, cell proliferation, angiogenesis and epigenetics. Crml inhibitors have been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells even in the presence of activating oncogenic or growth stimulating signals, while sparing normal (untransformed) cells. Most studies of Crml inhibition have utilized the natural product Crml inhibitor Leptomycin B (LMB). LMB itself is highly toxic to neoplastic cells, but poorly tolerated with marked gastrointestinal toxicity in animals (Roberts et al. 1986) and humans (Newlands et al. 1996). Derivatization of LMB to improve drug-like properties leads to compounds that retain antitumor activity and are better tolerated in animal tumor models (Yang et al. 2007, Yang et al. 2008, Mutka et al. 2009). Therefore, nuclear export inhibitors could have beneficial effects in neoplastic and other proliferative disorders.

In addition to tumor suppressor proteins, Crml also exports several key proteins that are involved in many inflammatory processes. These include IkB, NF-kB, Cox-2, RXRa, Commdl, HIFl, HMGBl, FOXO, FOXP and others. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB/rel) family of transcriptional activators, named for the discovery that it drives immunoglobulin kappa gene expression, regulate the mRNA expression of variety of genes involved in inflammation, proliferation, immunity and cell survival. Under basal conditions, a protein inhibitor of NF-kB, called IkB, binds to NF-kB in the nucleus and the complex IkB-NF-kB renders the NF-kB transcriptional function inactive. In response to inflammatory stimuli, IkB dissociates from the IkB-NF-kB complex, which releases NF-kB and unmasks its potent transcriptional activity. Many signals that activate NF-kB do so by targeting IkB for proteolysis (phosphorylation of IkB renders it “marked” for ubiquitination and then proteolysis). The nuclear IkBa-NF-kB complex can be exported to the cytoplasm by Crml where it dissociates and NF-kB can be reactivated. Ubiquitinated IkB may also dissociate from the NF-kB complex, restoring NF-kB transcriptional activity. Inhibition of Crml induced export in human neutrophils and macrophage like cells (U937) by LMB not only results in accumulation of transcriptionally inactive, nuclear IkBa-NF-kB complex but also prevents the initial activation of NF-kB even upon cell stimulation (Ghosh 2008, Huang 2000). In a different study, treatment with LMB inhibited IL-Ιβ induced NF-kB DNA binding (the first step in NF-kB transcriptional activation), IL-8 expression and intercellular adhesion molecule expression in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (Walsh 2008). COMMDl is another nuclear inhibitor of both NF-kB and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIFl) transcriptional activity. Blocking the nuclear export of COMMDl by inhibiting Crml results in increased inhibition of NF-kB and HIFl transcriptional activity (Muller 2009).

Crml also mediates retinoid X receptor a (RXRa) transport. RXRa is highly expressed in the liver and plays a central role in regulating bile acid, cholesterol, fatty acid, steroid and xenobiotic metabolism and homeostasis. During liver inflammation, nuclear RXRa levels are significantly reduced, mainly due to inflammation-mediated nuclear export of RXRa by Crml . LMB is able to prevent IL-Ιβ induced cytoplasmic increase in RXRa levels in human liver derived cells (Zimmerman 2006).

The role of Crml -mediated nuclear export in NF-kB, HIF-1 and RXRa signalling suggests that blocking nuclear export can be potentially beneficial in many inflammatory processes across multiple tissues and organs including the vasculature (vasculitis, arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatic, atherosclerosis), dermatologic (see below), rheumatologic

(rheumatoid and related arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, crystal arthropathies, systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease, myositis syndromes, dermatomyositis, inclusion body myositis, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, Sjogren’s syndrome, scleroderma and overlap syndromes, etc.).

CRM1 inhibition affects gene expression by inhibiting/activating a series of transcription factors like ICp27, E2F4, KLF5, YAP1, and ZAP.

Crml inhibition has potential therapeutic effects across many dermatologic syndromes including inflammatory dermatoses (atopy, allergic dermatitis, chemical dermatitis, psoriasis), sun-damage (ultraviolet (UV) damage), and infections. CRMl inhibition, best studied with LMB, showed minimal effects on normal keratinocytes, and exerted anti-inflammatory activity on keratinocytes subjected to UV, TNFa, or other inflammatory stimuli (Kobayashi & Shinkai 2005, Kannan & Jaiswal 2006). Crml inhibition also upregulates NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2) activity, which protects keratinocytes (Schafer et al. 2010, Kannan & Jaiswal 2006) and other cell types (Wang et al. 2009) from oxidative damage. LMB induces apoptosis in keratinocytes infected with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) strains such as HPV 16, but not in uninfected keratinocytes (Jolly et al. 2009).

Crml also mediates the transport of key neuroprotectant proteins that may be useful in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). For example, by (1) forcing nuclear retention of key neuroprotective regulators such as NRF2 (Wang 2009), FOXA2 (Kittappa et al. 2007), parking in neuronal cells, and/or (2) inhibiting NFKB transcriptional activity by sequestering IKB to the nucleus in glial cells, Crml inhibition could slow or prevent neuronal cell death found in these disorders. There is also evidence linking abnormal glial cell proliferation to abnormalities in CRMl levels or CRMl function (Shen 2008).

Intact nuclear export, primarily mediated through CRMl, is also required for the intact maturation of many viruses. Viruses where nuclear export, and/or CRMl itself, has been implicated in their lifecycle include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), adenovirus, simian retrovirus type 1, Borna disease virus, influenza (usual strains as well as H1N1 and avian H5N1 strains), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, human papillomavirus (HPV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Dungee, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV). (Bhuvanakantham 2010, Cohen 2010, Whittaker 1998). It is anticipated that additional viral infections reliant on intact nuclear export will be uncovered in the future.

The HIV-1 Rev protein, which traffics through nucleolus and shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, facilitates export of unspliced and singly spliced HIV transcripts containing Rev Response Elements (RRE) RNA by the CRMl export pathway. Inhibition of Rev-mediated RNA transport using CRMl inhibitors such as LMBor PKF050-638 can arrest the HIV-1 transcriptional process, inhibit the production of new HIV-1 virions, and thereby reduce HIV-1 levels (Pollard 1998, Daelemans 2002). Dengue virus (DENV) is the causative agent of the common arthropod-borne viral disease, Dengue fever (DF), and its more severe and potentially deadly Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). DHF appears to be the result of an over exuberant inflammatory response to DENV. NS5 is the largest and most conserved protein of DENV. CRMl regulates the transport of NS5 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where most of the NS5 functions are mediated. Inhibition of CRMl -mediated export of NS5 results in altered kinetics of virus production and reduces induction of the inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8), presenting a new avenue for the treatment of diseases caused by DENV and other medically important flaviviruses including hepatitis C virus (Rawlinson 2009).

Other virus-encoded RNA-binding proteins that use CRMl to exit the nucleus include the HSV type 1 tegument protein (VP 13/14, or hUL47), human CMV protein pp65, the SARS Coronavirus ORF 3b Protein, and the RSV matrix (M) protein (Williams 2008, Sanchez 2007, Freundt 2009, Ghildyal 2009).

Interestingly, many of these viruses are associated with specific types of human cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to chronic HBV or HCV infection, cervical cancer due to HPV, and Merkel cell carcinoma associated with MCV. CRMl inhibitors could therefore have beneficial effects on both the viral infectious process as well as on the process of neoplastic transformation due to these viruses.

CRMl controls the nuclear localization and therefore activity of multiple DNA metabolizing enzymes including histone deacetylases (HDAC), histone acetyltransferases (HAT), and histone methyltransferases (HMT). Suppression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with irreversible CRMl inhibitors has been demonstrated and is believed to be linked to nuclear retention (and activation) of HDAC 5, an enzyme known to suppress a hypertrophic genetic program (Monovich et al. 2009). Thus, CRMl inhibition may have beneficial effects in hypertrophic syndromes, including certain forms of congestive heart failure and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies.

CRMl has also been linked to other disorders. Leber’s disorder, a hereditary disorder characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and visual loss, is associated with inaction of the CRMl switch (Gupta N 2008). There is also evidence linking

neurodegenerative disorders to abnormalities in nuclear transport.

…………………………………………

PATENT

 

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2013019548A1?cl=en

 

To date, however, small-molecule, drug-like Crml inhibitors for use in vitro and in vivo are uncommon. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, useful as nuclear transport modulators. The invention also provides

pharmaceutically acceptable compositions comprising compounds of the present invention and methods of using said compounds and compositions in the treatment of various disorders, such as those associated with abnormal cellular responses triggered by improper nuclear transport..

In one embodiment of the invention, the compounds are represented by formula I:

 

Figure imgf000013_0001

 http://www.google.com/patents/WO2013019548A1?cl=en

HERE IT REFERS AS 1-16  READER PLEASE CHECKABOVE AND BELOW FOR ERROR

 

Figure imgf000101_0001

HERE IT REFERS AS 1-18  READER PLEASE CHECK

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2013019548A1?cl=en

 

Example 1 : Synthesis of Intermediate (Z)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l,2,4- triazol-l-yl)acrylic acid.

 

Synthesis of 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzothioamid

 

A 2-L, 3-necked, round-bottomed flask was charged with a solution of 3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile (200 g) in DMF (1 L). The solution was then treated with NaSH (123.7 g, 2.0 eq.) and MgCl2 (186.7 g, 1.0 eq.) and the reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 3 hours. The mixture was poured into an ice-water slurry (10 L) and the compound was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 1 L). The combined organic layers were washed with aqueous saturated brine (3 x 100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 205 g of desired crude 3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)benzothioamide (yield: 90 %), which wasused without purification in the following step.

Synthesi -(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l 2,4-triazole:

 

A 5-L, 3-necked, round-bottomed flask was charged with a solution of 3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)benzothioamide (205.65 g) in DMF (1.03 L). Hydrazine hydrate (73.2 mL, 2.0 eq.) was added dropwise and the reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 1 h. HCOOH (1.03 L) was added dropwise and the reaction mixture was refluxed at 90 °C for 3 hours. After being allowed to cool to RT, the reaction mixture was poured into saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (7 L) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 1 L). The combined organic layers were washed with aqueous saturated brine (3 x 500 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure (35 °C, 20 mmHg) to afford 180 g of crude compound. This crude material was stirred with petroleum ether (3 x 500 mL) , filtered and dried to obtain 160 g. of 3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH- 1,2,4-triazole obtained as a pale yellow solid (yield: 75%).

Synthesis of (Z)-isopropyl 3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazol-l- yl)acrylate:

 

A 2-L, 3-necked, round-bottomed flask was charged with a solution of 3-(3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l ,2,4-triazole (160 g) in DMF (960 mL). The solution was treated with DABCO (127.74 g, 2 eq.) and stirred for 30 min before adding (Z)-isopropyl 3- iodoacrylate (150.32 g, 1.1 eq.) dropwise. After ca. 1 hour, the reaction mixture was poured into an ice-water slurry (5 L) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 1 L). The combined organic layers were washed with aqueous saturated brine (3 x 100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure (35 °C, 20 mmHg) to afford 250 g of crude compound that was purified by column chromatography (60/120 silica gel) using a ethyl acetate/n-hexane gradient (the column was packed in hexane and the desired compound started eluting from 2% EtOAC/n-hexane). Fractions containing the desired compounds were combined to afford 138 g the pure desired compound (yield: 61%).

Synthesis of (Z)-3 -(3 -(3 ,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,4-triazol- 1 -yl)acrylic acid:

 

In a 5-L, 3-necked, round-bottomed flask, (Z)-isopropyl 3-(3-(3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazol-l-yl)acrylate (130 g, 1.0 eq.) was dissolved in THF (1.3 L). A solution of LiOH (69.3 g, 5.0 eq.) in water (1.3 L) was added dropwise to the solution and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 h before being quenched with 400 mL ice-water slurry and made acidic (pH = 2-3) with dilute aqueous HC1. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 1 L) and the combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 110 g of desired carboxylic acid (yield: 94 %) (cis content = 90.0%, trans content = 8.2% by LCMS).

Example 17: Synthesis of (E)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazol-l-yl)- ‘-(pyrazin-2-yl)acrylohydrazide

 

Synthesis of 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzothioamide:

 

A 2-L, 3 -necked, round-bottomed flask, charged with a solution of 3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile (200 g) in DMF (1 L), was treated with NaSH (123.7 g, 2.0 eq.) and MgCl2 (186.7 g, 1 eq.). The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 3 h before being poured into an ice-water slurry (10 L) and was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 1 L). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine (3 x 100 niL), dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure (25 °C, 20 mmHg) to afford 205 g of crude compound (yield: 90 %), which was used in the following step without further purification.

Synthesis of 3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazole:

 

A 5-L, 3-necked, round-bottomed flask, charged with a solution of 3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)benzothioamide (205.65 g) in DMF (1.03 L) was treated with hydrazine hydrate (73.16 mL, 2.0 eq.) added dropwise. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h before being treated with HCOOH (1.028 L) added dropwise. The reaction mixture was refluxed at 90°C for 3 h then cooled to room temperature and poured into saturated aqueous NaHC03 solution (7 L) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 1L). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (3 x 500 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure (35°C, 20 mmHg) to afford 180 g of a solid. The solid was suspended in petroleum ether and the suspension was stirred, filtered and dried to afford the desired triazole as a pale yellow solid (160 g, yield: 75%).

Synthesis of (Z)-isopropyl 3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazol-l- yl)acrylate and (E)-isopropyl 3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazol-l- yl)acrylate:

 

A 2-L, 3-necked, round-bottomed flask, charged with a solution of 3-(3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazole (160 g,) in DMF (0.96 L, 6V), was treated with DAB CO (127.74 g, 2 eq.) and stirred for 30 min. (Z)-isopropyl 3-iodoacrylate (150.32 g, 1.1 eq.) was added dropwise to the above reaction mixture and stirred for 1 h before being poured into an ice-water slurry (5 L) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 1 L). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine (3 x 100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure (35°C, 20 mmHg) to afford 250 g of crude compound. Purification by column chromatography (Si02, 60/120 mesh, elution with EtOAc:hexanes gradient; the desired compounds started eluting in 2-2.5 % EtOAc in hexanes) afforded pure cis ester (138 g, yield: 61.6%) and pure trans ester (11.6 g, yield: 5.2%). Synthesis of (E)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-l-yl);

acid:

 

A 500-mL, 3 -necked, round-bottomed flask was charged with a solution of (E)- isopropyl 3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-l-yl)acrylate (5.0 g) in THF (50 mL). The solution was treated with a solution of LiOH (2.66 g, 5.0 eq.) in water (50 mL) and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 h. before being diluted with 40 mL water, acidified (pH = 2-3) with dilute aqueous HC1 and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 100 mL). The organic extract was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 2.75 g of the desired unsaturated carboxylic acid (yield: 61.6 %, purity: 99.0 % by LCMS).

Synthesis of (E)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazol-l-yl)-N’- (pyrazin-2-yl)acrylohydrazide :

 

To a solution of (E)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazol-l- yl)acrylic acid (0.75 g,) in EtOAc (25 mL) and THF (12.5 mL) was added a solution of 2- hydrazinopyrazine (0.23 g) in 12 mL THF at room temperature. T3P (50% in ethyl acetate, 1.52 mL) and DIPEA (1.46 mL) were added dropwise and simultaneously and the reaction mixture was stirred for 30 min at room temperature before being quenched with ice-cold water and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 25 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure (35°C, 20 mmHg), affording 0.698 g of a crude solid. Trituration first with petroleum ether then with Et20 afforded 275 mg (yield: 29%) (E)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifiuoromethyl) phenyl)- 1H- 1,2,4- triazol-l-yl)-N’-(pyrazin-2-yl)acrylohydrazide. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ,10.3 (s, 1H), 9.15 (s, 2H), 8.59 (s, 2H), 8.30-8.26 (d, J= 14.8 Hz, 1H), 8.13 (s, 1H), 8.06-8.07 (m, 1H), 6.98-6.95 (d, J= 13.4 Hz, 1H); LCMS for Ci7H12F6N70 [M+H]+ 443.31 ; found 444.19 (RT 2.625 min, purity: 99.06%).

MY SUGESTION TO U

 http://www.google.com/patents/WO2013019548A1?cl=en

(Z)-isopropyl 3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazol-l- yl)acrylate  IS THE INTERMEDIATE

any discussion   mail  amcrasto@gmail.com

NOTE IF U USE Z OR CIS STARTING  INTERMEDIATE U WILL GET Z ISOMER

…………………………………………………………

int 75 in

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2011109799A1?cl=en

Figure imgf000307_0001

Exam le 75

 

Molecular Weight: 239.12 Molecular Weight: 273.2 Molecular Weight: 281 .2

 

Molecular Weight: 393.3

[00715] Synthesis of Intermediate 1)

 

Molecular Weight: 239.12 Molecular Weight: 273.2

[00716] In a 100-mL, 3N round-bottomed flask equipped with nitrogen inlet, and a rubber septum, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile (5.0 g,1.0 eq) dissolved in DMF (50 mL,10V),Added NaSH(3.09 g,2.0eq) and MgC12 (4.24 g,l eq).Reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 2-3h. The progress of reaction was followed by TLC analysis on silica gel with 40%EtOAc- hexane as mobile phase. SM Rf=0.5 and Product Rf=0.3. Reaction mixture was poured in to ice water (250mL) and extracted with EtOAc ( 3x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine solution (3xl00mL), dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated by rotary evaporation (25°C, 20mmHg) to afford 5.0g of Crude compound which was used for next step without any purification, Yield (87.5%). Mass [M+l]+: 273.8

[00717] Synthesis of Intermediate-2

 

Molecular Weight: 273.20 Molecular Weight: 281 .16

[00718] In a 250-mL, 3N round-bottomed flask equipped with nitrogen inlet, and a rubber septum, Intermediate- 1(5.0 g, 1.0 eq.) was dissolved in DMF (50 mL,10V),added NH2NH2.H20 (25.0 mL,5V). The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 1 h. To this reaction mixture HCOOH (25.0 mL, 5V) was added and reaction mixture was refluxed at 90 0 for 2-3 h. The progress of reaction was followed by TLC analysis on silica gel with 50% Ethyl acetate-n-Hexane as mobile phase. SM Rf=0.50 and Product Rf=0.3. Reaction mixture was poured into ice water (500 mL) and neutralized with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The reaction mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3×100 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine solution,(3xl00mL), dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated by rotary evaporation (25°C, 20mmHg) to afford 4.6g of crude compound, yield (89.49%). Mass: 279.6(-ve mode).

 

Molecular Weight: 281.2 Molecular Weight: 393.3

[00719] In a 100-mL, 3N round-bottomed flask equipped with nitrogen inlet, and a rubber septum, Intermediate-2(4.5 g, 1.0 eq.) was dissolved in DCM(45 mL,10V),added TEA (2.10 g, 1.3 eq) and isopropyl propiolate (2.33 g, 1.3 eq). The Reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 30 min. The progress of reaction was followed by TLC analysis on silica gel with 50% Ethyl acetate-Hexane as mobile phase, SM f=0.30 and Product Rf=0.5. Reaction mixture was concentrated by rotary evaporation (25°C, 20mmHg) to afford 5.8 g of Crude compound. The crude reaction mixture was purified by column chromatography using silica 60/120 using Ethyl acetate: Hexane as mobile phase. The column (5x10cm) was packed in Hexane and started eluting in Ethyl acetate in gradient manner starting with fraction collection(50-mL fractions) from 5 % to 20 % Ethyl acetate in hexane. Compound started eluting with 20% Ethyl acetate in Hexane. Fraction containing such TLC profile was collected together to obtain pure compound (1.4 g), Yield (22.26%).1H NMR: CDC13, 400 MHz) δ 9.74(s,lH),5 8.63(s,2H),5 7.95(s,lH),5 7.28-7.3 l(d,J: 12.0 Hz,lH),55.75-5.78(d,J: 11.2 Ηζ,ΙΗ) δ 5.14-5.17 (m,lH),5 1.27-1.35(m,6H). LCMS of Ci6Hi3F6N302(M+l)+:393.28 found 393.77 at 4.707 min (LCMS 99.25%).

[00720] General method for Example 76, Example 77, Example 78, Example 79, Example 83: A mixture of 5-(3-Chlorophenyl)-l,2,4-triazole (0.50 g, 3.4 mmol), respective propiolate (0.52 ml, 5.1 mmol) and some drops of triethylamine in acetonitrile under nitrogen was stirred at room temperature for 12-16 h. Acetonitrile was removed under reduced pressure to give a residual oil, which was purified by flash chromatography (3-5%> EtOAc/hexanes) to afford the both cis and trans isomers. Cis isomer was isolated 10-30%) and trans was isolated in 30-50%) with overall yield of 50-80%.

 

 

WO2011109799A1 * Mar 5, 2011 Sep 9, 2011 Karyopharm Therapeutics, Inc. Nuclear transport modulatiors and uses thereof
US20110275607 Mar 5, 2011 Nov 10, 2011 Karyopharm Therapeutics, Inc. Nuclear transport modulators and uses thereof
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Panobinostat

 orphan status, Phase 3 drug, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Panobinostat
Jan 232014
 

 

Panobinostat

HDAC inhibitors, orphan drug

cas 404950-80-7 

2E)-N-hydroxy-3-[4-({[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino}methyl)phenyl]acrylamide

N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide (alternatively, N-hydroxy-3-(4-{[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethylamino]-methyl}-phenyl)-acrylamide)

Molecular Formula: C21H23N3O2   Molecular Weight: 349.42622

  • Faridak
  • LBH 589
  • LBH589
  • Panobinostat
  • UNII-9647FM7Y3Z

A hydroxamic acid analog histone deacetylase inhibitor from Novartis.

NOVARTIS, innovator

Histone deacetylase inhibitors

Is currently being examined in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, CML and breast cancer.

clinical trials click here  phase 3

DRUG SUBSTANCE–LACTATE AS IN  http://www.google.com/patents/US7989639  SEE EG 31

Panobinostat (LBH-589) is an experimental drug developed by Novartis for the treatment of various cancers. It is a hydroxamic acid[1] and acts as a non-selective histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDAC inhibitor).[2]

panobinostat

Panobinostat is a cinnamic hydroxamic acid analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Panobinostat selectively inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC), inducing hyperacetylation of core histone proteins, which may result in modulation of cell cycle protein expression, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis. In addition, this agent appears to modulate the expression of angiogenesis-related genes, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1a) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thus impairing endothelial cell chemotaxis and invasion. HDAC is an enzyme that deacetylates chromatin histone proteins. Check for

As of August 2012, it is being tested against Hodgkin’s Lymphomacutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL)[3] and other types of malignant disease in Phase III clinical trials, against myelodysplastic syndromesbreast cancer and prostate cancer in Phase II trials, and against chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) in a Phase I trial.[4][5]

Panobinostat is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor which was filed for approval in the U.S. in 2010 for the oral treatment of relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma in adult patients. The company is conducting phase II/III clinical trials for the oral treatment of multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia. Phase II trials are also in progress for the treatment of primary myelofibrosis, post-polycythemia Vera, post-essential thrombocytopenia, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) and for the treatment of pancreatic cancer progressing on gemcitabine therapy. Additional trials are under way for the treatment of hematological neoplasms, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), malignant mesothelioma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, head and neck cancer and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Early clinical studies are also ongoing for the treatment of HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer. Additionally, phase II clinical trials are ongoing at Novartis as well as Neurological Surgery for the treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas as are phase I/II initiated for the treatment of acute graft versus host disease. The National Cancer Institute had been conducting early clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma; however, these trials were terminated due to observed dose-limiting toxicity. In 2009, Novartis terminated its program to develop panobinostat for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. A program for the treatment of small cell lung cancer was terminated in 2012. Phase I clinical trials are ongoing for the treatment of metastatic and/or malignant melanoma and for the treatment of sickle cell anemia. The University of Virginia is conducting phase I clinical trials for the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent chordoma in combination with imatinib. Novartis is evaluating panobinostat for its potential to re-activate HIV transcription in latently infected CD4+ T-cells among HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy.

Mechanistic evaluations revealed that panobinostat-mediated tumor suppression involved blocking cell-cycle progression and gene transcription induced by the interleukin IL-2 promoter, accompanied by an upregulation of p21, p53 and p57, and subsequent cell death resulted from the stimulation of caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways and an increase in the mitochondrial outer membrane permeability. In 2007, the compound received orphan drug designation in the U.S. for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and in 2009 and 2010, orphan drug designation was received in the U.S. and the E.U., respectively, for the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. This designation was also assigned in 2012 in the U.S. and the E.U. for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and during the last decades it has also become a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. An estimated 80 million American adults (one in three) have one or more expressions of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, or stroke. Mortality data show that CVD was the underlying cause of death in 35% of all deaths in 2005 in the United States, with the majority related to myocardial infarction, stroke, or complications thereof. The vast majority of patients suffering acute cardiovascular events have prior exposure to at least one major risk factor such as cigarette smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, and low-grade inflammation.

Pathophysiologically, the major events of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke are caused by a sudden arrest of nutritive blood supply due to a blood clot formation within the lumen of the arterial blood vessel. In most cases, formation of the thrombus is precipitated by rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which exposes chemical agents that activate platelets and the plasma coagulation system. The activated platelets form a platelet plug that is armed by coagulation-generated fibrin to form a biood clot that expands within the vessel lumen until it obstructs or blocks blood flow, which results in hypoxic tissue damage (so-called infarction). Thus, thrombotic cardiovascular events occur as a result of two distinct processes, i.e. a slowly progressing long-term vascular atherosclerosis of the vessel wall, on the one hand, and a sudden acute clot formation that rapidly causes flow arrest, on the other. This invention solely relates to the latter process.

Recently, inflammation has been recognized as an important risk factor for thrombotic events. Vascular inflammation is a characteristic feature of the atherosclerotic vessel wall, and inflammatory activity is a strong determinant of the susceptibility of the atherosclerotic plaque to rupture and initiate intravascular clotting. Also, autoimmune conditions with systemic inflammation, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and different forms of vasculitides, markedly increase the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke.

Traditional approaches to prevent and treat cardiovascular events are either targeted 1) to slow down the progression of the underlying atherosclerotic process, 2) to prevent clot formation in case of a plaque rupture, or 3) to direct removal of an acute thrombotic flow obstruction. In brief, antiatherosclerotic treatment aims at modulating the impact of general risk factors and includes dietary recommendations, weight loss, physical exercise, smoking cessation, cholesterol- and blood pressure treatment etc. Prevention of clot formation mainly relies on the use of antiplatelet drugs that inhibit platelet activation and/or aggregation, but also in some cases includes thromboembolic prevention with oral anticoagulants such as warfarin. Post-hoc treatment of acute atherothrombotic events requires either direct pharmacological lysis of the clot by thrombolytic agents such as recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator or percutaneous mechanical dilation of the obstructed vessel.

Despite the fact that multiple-target antiatherosclerotic therapy and clot prevention by antiplatelet agents have lowered the incidence of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, such events still remain a major population health problem. This shows that in patients with cardiovascular risk factors these prophylactic measures are insufficient to completely prevent the occurrence of atherothrombotic events.

Likewise, thrombotic conditions on the venous side of the circulation, as well as embolic complications thereof such as pulmonary embolism, still cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Venous thrombosis has a different clinical presentation and the relative importance of platelet activation versus plasma coagulation are somewhat different with an preponderance for the latter in venous thrombosis, However, despite these differences, the major underlying mechanisms that cause thrombotic vessel occlusions are similar to those operating on the arterial circulation. Although unrelated to atherosclerosis as such, the risk of venous thrombosis is related to general cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation and metabolic aberrations.

Panobinostat can be synthesized as follows: Reduction of 2-methylindole-3-glyoxylamide (I) with LiAlH4 affords 2-methyltryptamine (II). 4-Formylcinnamic acid (III) is esterified with methanolic HCl, and the resulting aldehyde ester (IV) is reductively aminated with 2-methyltryptamine (II) in the presence of NaBH3CN (1) or NaBH4 (2) to give (V). The title hydroxamic acid is then obtained by treatment of ester (V) with aqueous hydroxylamine under basic conditions.

Panobinostat is currently being used in a Phase I/II clinical trial that aims at curing AIDS in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In this technique panobinostat is used to drive the HI virus’s DNA out of the patient’s DNA, in the expectation that the patient’s immune system in combination with HAART will destroy it.[6][7]

panobinostat

Panobinostat has been found to synergistically act with sirolimus to kill pancreatic cancer cells in the laboratory in a Mayo Clinic study. In the study, investigators found that this combination destroyed up to 65 percent of cultured pancreatic tumor cells. The finding is significant because the three cell lines studied were all resistant to the effects of chemotherapy – as are many pancreatic tumors.[8]

Panobinostat has also been found to significantly increase in vitro the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein levels in cells of patients suffering fromspinal muscular atrophy.[9]

Panobinostat was able to selectively target triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells by inducing hyperacetylation and cell cycle arrest at the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint; partially reversing the morphological changes characteristic of breast cancer cells.[10]

Panobinostat, along with other HDAC inhibitors, is also being studied for potential to induce virus HIV-1 expression in latently infected cells and disrupt latency. These resting cells are not recognized by the immune system as harboring the virus and do not respond to antiretroviral drugs.[11]

Panobinostat inhibits multiple histone deacetylase enzymes, a mechanism leading to apoptosis of malignant cells via multiple pathways.[1]

The compound N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide (alternatively, N-hydroxy-3-(4-{[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethylamino]-methyl}-phenyl)-acrylamide) has the formula

 

Figure US07989639-20110802-C00001

 

as described in WO 02/22577. Valuable pharmacological properties are attributed to this compound; thus, it can be used, for example, as a histone deacetylase inhibitor useful in therapy for diseases which respond to inhibition of histone deacetylase activity. WO 02/22577 does not disclose any specific salts or salt hydrates or solvates of N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide.

The compounds described above are often used in the form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, when appropriate, pharmaceutically acceptable base addition salts and acid addition salts, for example, metal salts, such as alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, ammonium salts, organic amine addition salts, and amino acid addition salts, and sulfonate salts. Acid addition salts include inorganic acid addition salts such as hydrochloride, sulfate and phosphate, and organic acid addition salts such as alkyl sulfonate, arylsulfonate, acetate, maleate, fumarate, tartrate, citrate and lactate. Examples of metal salts are alkali metal salts, such as lithium salt, sodium salt and potassium salt, alkaline earth metal salts such as magnesium salt and calcium salt, aluminum salt, and zinc salt. Examples of ammonium salts are ammonium salt and tetramethylammonium salt. Examples of organic amine addition salts are salts with morpholine and piperidine. Examples of amino acid addition salts are salts with glycine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and lysine. Sulfonate salts include mesylate, tosylate and benzene sulfonic acid salts.

……………………………..

GENERAL METHOD OF SYNTHESIS

ADD YOUR METHYL AT RIGHT PLACE

WO2002022577A2

 

As is evident to those skilled in the art, the many of the deacetylase inhibitor compounds of the present invention contain asymmetric carbon atoms. It should be understood, therefore, that the individual stereoisomers are contemplated as being included within the scope of this invention.

The hydroxamate compounds of the present invention can be produced by known organic synthesis methods. For example, the hydroxamate compounds can be produced by reacting methyl 4-formyl cinnamate with tryptamine and then converting the reactant to the hydroxamate compounds. As an example, methyl 4-formyl cinnamate 2, is prepared by acid catalyzed esterification of 4-formylcinnamic acid 3 (Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 1995; 68:2355-2362). An alternate preparation of methyl 4-formyl cinnamate 2 is by a Pd- catalyzed coupling of methyl acrylate 4 with 4-bromobenzaldehyde 5.

CHO

 

Figure imgf000020_0001

Additional starting materials can be prepared from 4-carboxybenzaldehyde 6, and an exemplary method is illustrated for the preparation of aldehyde 9, shown below. The carboxylic acid in 4-carboxybenzaldehyde 6 can be protected as a silyl ester (e.g., the t- butyldimethylsilyl ester) by treatment with a silyl chloride (e.g., f-butyldimethylsilyl chloride) and a base (e.g. triethylamine) in an appropriate solvent (e.g., dichloromethane). The resulting silyl ester 7 can undergo an olefination reaction (e.g., a Horner-Emmons olefination) with a phosphonate ester (e.g., triethyl 2-phosphonopropionate) in the presence of a base (e.g., sodium hydride) in an appropriate solvent (e.g., tetrahydrofuran (THF)). Treatment of the resulting diester with acid (e.g., aqueous hydrochloric acid) results in the hydrolysis of the silyl ester providing acid 8. Selective reduction of the carboxylic acid of 8 using, for example, borane-dimethylsuflide complex in a solvent (e.g., THF) provides an intermediate alcohol. This intermediate alcohol could be oxidized to aldehyde 9 by a number of known methods, including, but not limited to, Swern oxidation, Dess-Martin periodinane oxidation, Moffatt oxidation and the like.

 

Figure imgf000020_0002

The aldehyde starting materials 2 or 9 can be reductively aminated to provide secondary or tertiary amines. This is illustrated by the reaction of methyl 4-formyl cinnamate 2 with tryptamine 10 using sodium triacetoxyborohydride (NaBH(OAc)3) as the reducing agent in dichloroethane (DCE) as solvent to provide amine 11. Other reducing agents can be used, e.g., sodium borohydride (NaBH ) and sodium cyanoborohydride (NaBH3CN), in other solvents or solvent mixtures in the presence or absence of acid catalysts (e.g., acetic acid and trifluoroacetic acid). Amine 11 can be converted directly to hydroxamic acid 12 by treatment with 50% aqueous hydroxylamine in a suitable solvent (e.g., THF in the presence of a base, e.g., NaOH). Other methods of hydroxamate formation are known and include reaction of an ester with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and a base (e.g., sodium hydroxide or sodium methoxide) in a suitable solvent or solvent mixture (e.g., methanol, ethanol or methanol/THF).

 

Figure imgf000021_0001

 

NOTE ….METHYL SUBSTITUENT ON 10 WILL GIVE YOU PANOBINOSTAT

……………………………….

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011 ,  vol. 54,  13  pg. 4694 – 4720

(E)-N-Hydroxy-3-(4-{[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethylamino]-methyl}-phenyl)-acrylamide
lactate

(34, panobinostat, LBH589)

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jm2003552

 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jm2003552/suppl_file/jm2003552_si_001.pdf

for str see above link

α-methyl-β-(β-bromoethyl)indole (29) was made according to method reported by Grandberg et al.(2. Grandberg, I. I.; Kost, A. N.; Terent’ev, A. P. Reactions of hydrazine derivatives. XVII. New synthesis of α-methyltryptophol. Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii 1957, 27, 3342–3345. )

The bromide 29 was converted to amine 30 by using similar method used by Sletzinger et al.(3. Sletzinger, M.; Ruyle, W. V.; Waiter, A. G. (Merck & Co., Inc.). Preparation of tryptamine
derivatives. U.S. Patent US 2,995,566, Aug 8, 1961.)

To a 500 mL flask, crude 2-methyltryptamine 30 (HPLC purity 75%, 1.74 g, 7.29 mmol) and 3-(4-
formyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid methyl ester 31 (HPLC purity 84%, 1.65 g, 7.28 mmol) were added,
followed by DCM (100 mL) and MeOH (30 mL). The clear solution was stirred at room temp for 30
min, then NaBH3CN (0.439 g, 6.99 mmol) was added in small portions. The reaction mixture was
stirred at room temp overnight. After removal of the solvents, the residue was diluted with DCM and
added saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution, extracted with DCM twice. The DCM layer was dried
and concentrated, and the resulting residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica, 0–10%
MeOH in DCM) to afford 33 as orange solid (1.52 g, 60%). LC–MS m/z 349.2 ([M + H]+). 33 was
converted to hydroxamic acid 34 according to procedure D (Experimental Section), and the freebase
34 was treated with 1 equiv of lactic acid in MeOH–water (7:3) to form lactic acid salt which was
further recrystallized in MeOH–EtOAc to afford the lactic acid salt of 34as pale yellow solid. LC–MS m/z 350.2 ([M + H − lactate]+).

= DELTA

1H NMR (DMSO-d6)  10.72 (s, 1H, NH), 7.54 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.44 (d, J = 16 Hz, 1H), 7.43 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H), 7.38 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 6.97 (td, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.44 (d, J = 15.8 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H), 7.08 (d, J = 7.8Hz, 2H), 7.01 (t, J = 7.4, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 6.91 (td, J = 7.4, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 6.47 (d, J = 15.2 Hz, 1H), 3.94(q, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H, lactate CH), 3.92 (s, 2H), 2.88 and 2.81 (m, each, 4H, AB system, CH2CH2),2.31 (s, 3H), 1.21 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H).;

13C NMR (DMSO-d6)  176.7 (lactate C=O), 162.7, 139.0,
137.9, 135.2, 134.0, 132.1, 129.1, 128.1, 127.4, 119.9, 119.0, 118.1, 117.2, 110.4, 107.0, 66.0, 51.3,
48.5, 22.9, 20.7, 11.2.

…………………………………………..

PANOBINOSTAT DRUG SUBSTANCE SYNTHESIS AND DATA

http://www.google.com/patents/US7989639

Figure US07989639-20110802-C00002

 

A flow diagram for the synthesis of LBH589 lactate is provided in FIG. A. A nomenclature reference index of the intermediates is provided below in the Nomenclature Reference Index:

 

Nomenclature reference index
Compound Chemical name
1 4-Bromo-benzaldehyde
2 Methyl acrylate
3 (2E)-3-(formylphenyl)-2-propenoic acid, methyl ester
4 3-[4-[[[2-(2-Methyl-1H-indol-3-
yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2-
propenoic acid, methyl ester, monohydrochloride
5 (2E)-N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-
yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2-propenamide
6 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, compd. with 2(E)-N-
hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-
indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2-propenamide
Z3a 2-Methyl-1H-indole-3-ethanamine
Z3b 5-Chloro-2-pentanone
Z3c Phenylhydrazine

The manufacture of LBH589 lactate (6) drug substance is via a convergent synthesis; the point of convergence is the condensation of indole-amine Z3a with aldehyde 3.

The synthesis of indole-amine Z3a involves reaction of 5-chloro-2 pentanone (Z3b) with phenylhydrazine (Z3c) in ethanol at reflux (variation of Fischer indole synthesis).

Product isolation is by an extractive work-up followed by crystallization. Preparation of aldehyde 3 is by palladium catalyzed vinylation (Heck-type reaction; Pd(OAc)2/P(o-Tol)3/Bu3N in refluxing CH3CN) of 4-bromo-benzyladehyde (1) with methyl acrylate (2) with product isolation via precipitation from dilute HCl solution. Intermediates Z3a and 3 are then condensed to an imine intermediate, which is reduced using sodium borohydride in methanol below 0° C. (reductive amination). The product indole-ester 4, isolated by precipitation from dilute HCl, is recrystallized from methanol/water, if necessary. The indole ester 4 is converted to crude LBH589 free base 5 via reaction with hydroxylamine and sodium hydroxide in water/methanol below 0° C. The crude LBH589 free base 5 is then purified by recrystallization from hot ethanol/water, if necessary. LBH589 free base 5 is treated with 85% aqueous racemic lactic acid and water at ambient temperature. After seeding, the mixture is heated to approximately 65° C., stirred at this temperature and slowly cooled to 45-50° C. The resulting slurry is filtered and washed with water and dried to afford LBH589 lactate (6).

If necessary the LBH589 lactate 6 may be recrystallised once again from water in the presence of 30 mol % racemic lactic acid. Finally the LBH589 lactate is delumped to give the drug substance. If a rework of the LBH589 lactate drug substance 6 is required, the LBH589 lactate salt is treated with sodium hydroxide in ethanol/water to liberate the LBH589 free base 5 followed by lactate salt formation and delumping as described above.

All starting materials, reagents and solvents used in the synthesis of LBH589 lactate are tested according to internal specifications or are purchased from established suppliers against a certificate of analysis.

 

EXAMPLE 7 Formation of Monohydrate Lactate Salt

About 40 to 50 mg of N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide free base was suspended in 1 ml of a solvent as listed in Table 7. A stoichiometric amount of lactic acid was subsequently added to the suspension. The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature and when a clear solution formed, stirring continued at 4° C. Solids were collected by filtration and analyzed by XRPD, TGA and 1H-NMR.

 

TABLE 7
LOD, %
Physical Crystallinity (Tdesolvation)
Solvent T, ° C. Appear. and Form Tdecomposit. 1H-NMR
IPA 4 FFP excellent 4.3 (79.3)
HA 156.3
Acetone 4 FFP excellent 4.5 (77.8) 4.18 (Hbz)
HA 149.5

 

The salt forming reaction in isopropyl alcohol and acetone at 4° C. produced a stoichiometric (1:1) lactate salt, a monohydrate. The salt is crystalline, begins to dehydrate above 77° C., and decomposes above 150° C.

EXAMPLE 18 Formation of Anhydrous Lactate Salt

DL-lactic acid (4.0 g, 85% solution in water, corresponding to 3.4 g pure DL-lactic acid) is diluted with water (27.2 g), and the solution is heated to 90° C. (inner temperature) for 15 hours. The solution is allowed to cool down to room temperature and is used as lactic acid solution for the following salt formation step.

N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide free base (10.0 g) is placed in a 4-necked reaction flask with mechanical stirrer. Demineralized water (110.5 g) is added, and the suspension is heated to 65° C. (inner temperature) within 30 minutes. The DL-lactic acid solution is added to this suspension during 30 min at 65° C. During the addition of the lactate salt solution, the suspension converted into a solution. The addition funnel is rinsed with demineralized water (9.1 g), and the solution is stirred at 65° C. for an additional 30 minutes. The solution is cooled down to 45° C. (inner temperature) and seed crystals (10 mg N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide lactate monohydrate) are added at this temperature. The suspension is cooled down to 33° C. and is stirred for additional 20 hours at this temperature. The suspension is re-heated to 65° C., stirred for 1 hour at this temperature and is cooled to 33° C. within 1 hour. After additional stirring for 3 hours at 33° C., the product is isolated by filtration, and the filter cake is washed with demineralized water (2×20 g). The wet filter-cake is dried in vacuo at 50° C. to obtain the anhydrous N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide lactate salt as a crystalline product. The product is identical to the monohydrate salt (form HA) in HPLC and in 1H-NMR, with the exception of the integrals of water signals in the 1H-NMR spectra.

In additional salt formation experiments carried out according to the procedure described above, the product solution was filtered at 65° C. before cooling to 45° C., seeding and crystallization. In all cases, form A (anhydrate form) was obtained as product.

EXAMPLE 19 Formation of Anhydrous Lactate Salt

DL-lactic acid (2.0 g, 85% solution in water, corresponding to 1.7 g pure DL-lactic acid) is diluted with water (13.6 g), and the solution is heated to 90° C. (inner temperature) for 15 hours. The solution was allowed to cool down to room temperature and is used as lactic acid solution for the following salt formation step.

N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide free base (5.0 g) is placed in a 4-necked reaction flask with mechanical stirrer. Demineralized water (54.85 g) is added, and the suspension is heated to 48° C. (inner temperature) within 30 minutes. The DL-lactic acid solution is added to this suspension during 30 minutes at 48° C. A solution is formed. Seed crystals are added (as a suspension of 5 mg N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide lactate salt, anhydrate form A, in 0.25 g of water) and stirring is continued for 2 additional hours at 48° C. The temperature is raised to 65° C. (inner temperature) within 30 minutes, and the suspension is stirred for additional 2.5 hours at this temperature. Then the temperature is cooled down to 48° C. within 2 hours, and stirring is continued at this temperature for additional 22 hours. The product is isolated by filtration and the filter cake is washed with demineralized water (2×10 g). The wet filter-cake is dried in vacuo at 50° C. to obtain anhydrous N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide lactate salt (form A) as a crystalline product.

EXAMPLE 20 Conversion of Monohydrate Lactate Salt to Anhydrous Lactate Salt

DL-lactic acid (0.59 g, 85% solution in water, corresponding to 0.5 g pure DL-lactic acid) is diluted with water (4.1 g), and the solution is heated to 90° C. (inner temperature) for 15 hours. The solution is allowed to cool down to room temperature and is used as lactic acid solution for the following salt formation step.

10 g of N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide lactate salt monohydrate is placed in a 4-necked reaction flask. Water (110.9 g) is added, followed by the addition of the lactic acid solution. The addition funnel of the lactic acid is rinsed with water (15.65 g). The suspension is heated to 82° C. (inner temperature) to obtain a solution. The solution is stirred for 15 minutes at 82° C. and is hot filtered into another reaction flask to obtain a clear solution. The temperature is cooled down to 50° C., and seed crystals are added (as a suspension of 10 mg N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide lactate salt, anhydrate form, in 0.5 g of water). The temperature is cooled down to 33° C. and stirring is continued for additional 19 hours at this temperature. The formed suspension is heated again to 65° C. (inner temperature) within 45 minutes, stirred at 65° C. for 1 hour and cooled down to 33° C. within 1 hour. After stirring at 33° C. for additional 3 hours, the product is isolated by filtration and the wet filter cake is washed with water (50 g). The product is dried in vacuo at 50° C. to obtain crystalline anhydrous N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl) ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide lactate salt (form A).

EXAMPLE 21 Formation of Anhydrous Lactate Salt

DL-lactic acid (8.0 g, 85% solution in water, corresponding to 6.8 g pure DL-lactic acid) was diluted with water (54.4 g), and the solution was heated to 90° C. (inner temperature) for 15 hours. The solution was allowed to cool down to room temperature and was used as lactic acid solution for the following salt formation step.

N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide (20 g) is placed in a 1 L glass reactor, and ethanol/water (209.4 g of a 1:1 w/w mixture) is added. The light yellow suspension is heated to 60° C. (inner temperature) within 30 minutes, and the lactic acid solution is added during 30 minutes at this temperature. The addition funnel is rinsed with water (10 g). The solution is cooled to 38° C. within 2 hours, and seed crystals (20 mg of N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide lactate salt, anhydrate form) are added at 38° C. After stirring at 38° C. for additional 2 hours, the mixture is cooled down to 25° C. within 6 hours. Cooling is continued from 25° C. to 10° C. within 5 hours, from 10° C. to 5° C. within 4 hours and from 5° C. to 2° C. within 1 hour. The suspension is stirred for additional 2 hours at 2° C., and the product is isolated by filtration. The wet filter cake is washed with water (2×30 g), and the product is dried in vacuo at 45° C. to obtain crystalline anhydrous N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide lactate salt (form A).

EXAMPLE 28 Formation of Lactate Monohydrate Salt

3.67 g (10 mmol) of the free base monohydrate (N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl) ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide) and 75 ml of acetone were charged in a 250 ml 3-neck flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer and an addition funnel. To the stirred suspension were added dropwise 10 ml of 1 M lactic acid in water (10 mmol) dissolved in 20 ml acetone, affording a clear solution. Stirring continued at ambient and a white solid precipitated out after approximately 1 hour. The mixture was cooled in an ice bath and stirred for an additional hour. The white solid was recovered by filtration and washed once with cold acetone (15 ml). It was subsequently dried under vacuum to yield 3.94 g of the lactate monohydrate salt of N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]-2E-2-propenamide (86.2%).

 

References

  1. Revill, P; Mealy, N; Serradell, N; Bolos, J; Rosa, E (2007). “Panobinostat”Drugs of the Future 32 (4): 315. doi:10.1358/dof.2007.032.04.1094476ISSN 0377-8282.
  2.  Table 3: Select epigenetic inhibitors in various stages of development from Mack, G. S. (2010). “To selectivity and beyond”. Nature Biotechnology 28 (12): 1259–1266.doi:10.1038/nbt.1724PMID 21139608edit
  3.  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00425555 Study of Oral LBH589 in Adult Patients With Refractory Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
  4.  ClinicalTrials.gov: LBH-589
  5.  Prince, HM; M Bishton (2009). “Panobinostat (LBH589): a novel pan-deacetylase inhibitor with activity in T cell lymphoma”Hematology Meeting Reports (Parkville, Australia: Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne) 3 (1): 33–38.
  6.  Simons, J (27 April 2013). “Scientists on brink of HIV cure”. The Telegraph.
  7.  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01680094 Safety and Effect of The HDAC Inhibitor Panobinostat on HIV-1 Expression in Patients on Suppressive HAART (CLEAR)
  8.  Mayo Clinic Researchers Formulate Treatment Combination Lethal To Pancreatic Cancer Cells
  9.  Garbes, L; Riessland, M; Hölker, I; Heller, R; Hauke, J; Tränkle, Ch; Coras, R; Blümcke, I; Hahnen, E; Wirth, B (2009). “LBH589 induces up to 10-fold SMN protein levels by several independent mechanisms and is effective even in cells from SMA patients non-responsive to valproate”Human Molecular Genetics 18 (19): 3645–3658. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp313.PMID 19584083.
  10.  Tate, CR; Rhodes, LV; Segar, HC; Driver, JL; Pounder, FN; Burow, ME; and Collins-Burow, BM (2012). “Targeting triple-negative breast cancer cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat”Breast Cancer Research 14 (3).
  11.  TA Rasmussen, et al. Comparison of HDAC inhibitors in clinical development: Effect on HIV production in latently infected cells and T-cell activation. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 9:5, 1-9, May 2013.
  12. Drugs of the Future 32(4): 315-322 (2007)
  13. WO 2002022577…
  14. WO 2007146718
  15. WO 2013110280
  16. WO 2010009285
  17. WO 2010009280
  18. WO 2005013958
  19. WO 2004103358
  20. WO 2003048774…
  21. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011 ,  vol. 54,  13  pg. 4694 – 4720
  22. 11-26-2012
    Selective histone deacetylase 6 inhibitors bearing substituted urea linkers inhibit melanoma cell growth.
    Journal of medicinal chemistry
  23. 7-14-2011
    Discovery of (2E)-3-{2-butyl-1-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl}-N-hydroxyacrylamide (SB939), an orally active histone deacetylase inhibitor with a superior preclinical profile.
    Journal of medicinal chemistry
  24. 4-28-2011
    Discovery, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of spiropiperidine hydroxamic acid based derivatives as structurally novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors.
    Journal of medicinal chemistry
  25. 4-23-2009
    Identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors of a class I histone deacetylase from Plasmodium falciparum.
    Journal of medicinal chemistry
  26. 1-1-2005
    The American Society of Hematology–46th Annual Meeting and Exposition. HDAC, Flt and farnesyl transferase inhibitors.
    IDrugs : the investigational drugs journal
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    PROCESS FOR MAKING SALTS OF N-HYDROXY-3-[4-[[[2-(2-METHYL-1H-INDOL-3-YL)ETHYL]AMINO]METHYL]PHENYL]-2E-2-PROPENAMIDE
    11-12-2010
    SALTS OF N-HYDROXY-3-[4-[[[2-(2-METHYL-1H-INDOL-3-YL)ETHYL]AMINO]METHYL]PHENYL]-2E-2-PROPENAMIDE
    7-16-2010
    Use of HDAC Inhibitors for the Treatment of Bone Destruction
    6-25-2010
    USE OF HDAC INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF MYELOMA
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    USE OF HDAC INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF GASTROINTESTINAL CANCERS
    12-11-2009
    PROCESS FOR MAKING N-HYDROXY-3-[4-[[[2-(2-METHYL-1H-INDOL-3-YL)ETHYL]AMINO]METHYL]PHENYL]-2E-2-PROPENAMIDE AND STARTING MATERIALS THEREFOR
    11-13-2009
    USE OF HDAC INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF LYMPHOMAS
    10-23-2009
    Combination of a) N–4-(3-pyridyl)-2-pyrimidine-amine and b) a histone deacetylase inhibitor for the treatment of leukemia
    8-7-2009
    SALTS OF N-HYDROXY-3-[4-[[[2-(2-METHYL-1H-INDOL-3-YL)ETHYL]AMINO]METHYL]PHENYL]-2E-2-PROPENAMIDE
    1-9-2009
    Method of Use of Deacetylase Inhibitors
12-26-2008
Combination of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Radiation
9-12-2008
Use of Hdac Inhibitors for the Treatment of Myeloma
7-25-2008
DEACETYLASE INHIBITORS
8-25-2006
Deacetylase inhibitors
6-28-2006
Deacetylase inhibitors
5-12-2006
Combination of a) n-{5-[4-(4-methyl-piperazino-methyl)-benzoylamido]2-methylphenyl}-4- (3-pyridyl)-2-pyrimidine-amine and b) a histone deacetylase inhibitor for the treatment of leukemia
12-22-2004
Deacetylase inhibitors
4-23-2003
Deacetylase inhibitors
GB776693A Title not available
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WO2002022577A2 Aug 30, 2001 Mar 21, 2002 Kenneth Walter Bair Hydroxamate derivatives useful as deacetylase inhibitors
WO2003016307A1 Aug 6, 2002 Aug 19, 1993 Jolie Anne Bastian β3 ADRENERGIC AGONISTS
WO2003039599A1 Nov 5, 2002 May 15, 2003 Ying-Nan Pan Chen Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor/histone deacetylase inhibitor combination
WO2005105740A2 Apr 26, 2005 Nov 10, 2005 Serguei Fine Preparation of tegaserod and tegaserod maleate
WO2006021397A1 Aug 22, 2005 Mar 2, 2006 Recordati Ireland Ltd Lercanidipine salts

…………………………………..

extras

5. Mocetinostat (MGCD0103), including pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. Balasubramanian et al., Cancer Letters 280: 211-221 (2009).
Mocetinostat, has the following chemical structure and name:

 

Figure US20130266649A1-20131010-C00007
,………………………………

Vorinostat, including pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. Marks et al., Nature Biotechnology 25, 84 to 90 (2007); Stenger, Community Oncology 4, 384-386 (2007).
Vorinostat has the following chemical structure and name:

 

Figure US20130266649A1-20131010-C00003
………………………

Belinostat (PXD-101 , PX-105684)

(2E)-3-[3-(anilinosulfonyl)phenyl]-N-hydroxyacrylamide

Figure imgf000014_0001

……………………………………………….

Dacinostat (LAQ-824, NVP-LAQ824,)

((E)-N-hydroxy-3-[4-[[2-hydroxyethyl-[2-(1 H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]prop-2-enamide

 

Figure imgf000014_0002
…………………………………………

Entinostat (MS-275, SNDX-275, MS-27-275)

4-(2-aminophenylcarbamoyl)benzylcarbamate

Figure imgf000015_0001
………………….

(a) The HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat™ or a salt, hydrate, or solvate thereof.

Figure imgf000270_0001

Vorinostat………………..

 

(b) The HDAC inhibitor Givinostat or a salt, hydrate, or solvate thereof.

Figure imgf000270_0002

Givinostat or a salt, hydrate, or solvate thereof.

……………………………………………

…………………………..
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MIDOSTAURIN

(9S,10R,11R,13R)-2,3,10,11,12,13-Hexahydro-10-methoxy-9-methyl-11-(methylamino)-9,13-epoxy-1H,9H-diindolo[1,2,3-gh:3′,2′,1′-lm]pyrrolo[3,4-j][1,7]benzodiamzonine-1-one

N-[(9S,10R,11R,13R)-2,3,10,11,12,13-Hexahydro-10-methoxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,13-epoxy-1H,9H-diindolo[1,2,3-gh:3′,2′,1′-lm]pyrrolo[3,4-j][1,7]benzodiazonin-11-yl]-N-methylbenzamide

N-((9S,10R,11R,13R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-methoxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,13-epoxy-1H,9H-diindolo(1,2,3-gh:3′,2′,1′-lm)pyrrolo(3,4-j)(1,7)benzodiazonin-11-yl)-N-methyl-,

N-[(2R,4R,5R,6S)-5-methoxy-6-methyl-18-oxo-29-oxa-1,7,17-triazaoctacyclo[12.12.2.12,6.07,28.08,13.015,19.020,27.021,26]nonacosa-8,10,12,14(28),15(19),20(27),21(26),22,24-nonaen-4-yl]-N-methylbenzamide hydrate

N-benzoyl staurosporine

NOVARTIS ONCOLOGY ORIGINATOR

Chemical Formula: C35H30N4O4

Exact Mass: 570.22671

Molecular Weight: 570.63710

Elemental Analysis: C, 73.67; H, 5.30; N, 9.82; O, 11.22

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors

PKC 412。PKC412A。CGP 41251。Benzoylstaurosporine;4′-N-Benzoylstaurosporine;Cgp 41251;Cgp 41 251.

120685-11-2 CAS

PHASE 3

  • 4′-N-Benzoylstaurosporine
  • Benzoylstaurosporine
  • Cgp 41 251
  • CGP 41251
  • CGP-41251
  • Midostaurin
  • PKC 412
  • PKC412
  • UNII-ID912S5VON

Midostaurin is an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, and VEGF. Midostaurin inhibits cell growth and phosphorylation of FLT3, STAT5, and ERK. It is a potent inhibitor of a spectrum of FLT3 activation loop mutations.

it  is prepared by acylation of the alkaloid staurosporine (I) with benzoyl chloride (II) in the presence of diisopropylethylamine in chloroform.Production Route of Midostaurin

Midostaurin is a synthetic indolocarbazole multikinase inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Midostaurin inhibits protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) tyrosine kinases, which may result in disruption of the cell cycle, inhibition of proliferation, apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis in susceptible tumors.

MIDOSTAURIN

Derivative of staurosporin, orally active, potent inhibitor of FLT3 tyrosine kinase (fetal liver tyrosine kinase 3). In addition Midostaurin inhibits further molecular targets such as VEGFR-1 (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1), c-kit (stem cell factor receptor), H-and K-RAS (Rat Sarcoma Viral homologue) and MDR (multidrug resistance protein).

Midostaurin inhibits both wild-type FLT3 and FLT3 mutant, wherein the internal tandem duplication mutations (FLT3-ITD), and the point mutation to be inhibited in the tyrosine kinase domain of the molecule at positions 835 and 836.Midostaurin is tested in patients with AML.

Midostaurin, a protein kinase C (PKC) and Flt3 (FLK2/STK1) inhibitor, is in phase III clinical development at originator Novartis for the oral treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Novartis is conducting phase III clinical trials for the treatment of aggressive systemic mastocytosis or mast cell leukemia. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is conducting phase I/II trials with the drug for the treatment of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

Massachusetts General Hospital is conducting phase I clinical trials for the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the rectum in combination with radiation and standard chemotherapy.

MIDOSTAURIN

Midostaurin (PKC412) is a multi-target protein kinase inhibitor being investigated for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). It is a semi-synthetic derivative of staurosporine, an alkaloid from the bacterium Streptomyces staurosporeus, and is active in patients with mutations of CD135 (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor).[1]

After successful Phase II clinical trials, a Phase III trial for AML has started in 2008. It is testing midostaurin in combination with daunorubicin and cytarabine.[2] In another trial, the substance has proven ineffective in metastatic melanoma.[3]

Midostaurin has also been studied at Johns Hopkins University for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but no recent progress reports for this indication have been made available. Trials in macular edema of diabetic origin were discontinued at Novartis.

In 2004, orphan drug designation was received in the E.U. for the treatment of AML. In 2009 and 2010, orphan drug designation was assigned for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and for the treatment of mastocytosis, respectively, in the U.S. In 2010, orphan drug designation was assigned in the E.U. for the latter indication.

MIDOSTAURIN

References

  1.  Fischer, T.; Stone, R. M.; Deangelo, D. J.; Galinsky, I.; Estey, E.; Lanza, C.; Fox, E.; Ehninger, G.; Feldman, E. J.; Schiller, G. J.; Klimek, V. M.; Nimer, S. D.; Gilliland, D. G.; Dutreix, C.; Huntsman-Labed, A.; Virkus, J.; Giles, F. J. (2010). “Phase IIB Trial of Oral Midostaurin (PKC412), the FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 Receptor (FLT3) and Multi-Targeted Kinase Inhibitor, in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Either Wild-Type or Mutated FLT3”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 28 (28): 4339–4345. doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.28.9678PMID 20733134edit
  2.  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00651261 Daunorubicin, Cytarabine, and Midostaurin in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia
  3.  Millward, M. J.; House, C.; Bowtell, D.; Webster, L.; Olver, I. N.; Gore, M.; Copeman, M.; Lynch, K.; Yap, A.; Wang, Y.; Cohen, P. S.; Zalcberg, J. (2006). “The multikinase inhibitor midostaurin (PKC412A) lacks activity in metastatic melanoma: a phase IIA clinical and biologic study”British Journal of Cancer 95 (7): 829–834. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603331PMC 2360547PMID 16969355.
    1. Midostaurin product page, Fermentek
    2.  Wang, Y; Yin, OQ; Graf, P; Kisicki, JC; Schran, H (2008). “Dose- and Time-Dependent Pharmacokinetics of Midostaurin in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus”. J Clin Pharmacol 48 (6): 763–775. doi:10.1177/0091270008318006PMID 18508951.
    3.  Ryan KS (2008). “Structural studies of rebeccamycin, staurosporine, and violacein biosynthetic enzymes”Ph.D. Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1994, 4(3): 399

US 5093330

EP 0657164

EP 0711556

EP 0733358

WO 1998007415

WO 2002076432

WO 2003024420

WO 2003037347

WO 2004112794

WO 2005027910

WO 2005040415

WO 2006024494

WO 2006048296

WO 2006061199

WO 2007017497

WO 2013086133

WO 2012016050

WO 2011000811

 

8-1-2013
Identification of potent Yes1 kinase inhibitors using a library screening approach.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
 
3-1-2013
Evaluation of potential Myt1 kinase inhibitors by TR-FRET based binding assay.
European journal of medicinal chemistry
2-23-2012
Testing the promiscuity of commercial kinase inhibitors against the AGC kinase group using a split-luciferase screen.
Journal of medicinal chemistry
 
1-26-2012
VX-322: a novel dual receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia.
Journal of medicinal chemistry
1-1-2012
H2O2 production downstream of FLT3 is mediated by p22phox in the endoplasmic reticulum and is required for STAT5 signalling.
PloS one
10-27-2011
Discovery of 3-(2,6-dichloro-3,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-1-{6-[4-(4-ethyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenylamino]-pyrimidin-4-yl}-1-methyl-urea (NVP-BGJ398), a potent and selective inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinase.
Journal of medicinal chemistry
 
6-1-2011
Discovery, synthesis, and investigation of the antitumor activity of novel piperazinylpyrimidine derivatives.
European journal of medicinal chemistry
3-1-2010
Colony stimulating factor-1 receptor as a target for small molecule inhibitors.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry

 

7-18-2012
Staurosporine Derivatives as Inhibitors of FLT3 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activity
6-13-2012
Crystal form of N-benzoyl-staurosporine
12-14-2011
COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATMENT OF SYSTEMIC MASTOCYTOSIS
7-6-2011
Staurosporine derivatives as inhibitors of flt3 receptor tyrosine kinase activity
7-6-2011
Staurosporine Derivatives for Use in Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma
12-10-2010
Pharmaceutical Compositions for treating wouds and related methods
11-5-2010
COMBINATIONS OF JAK INHIBITORS
7-23-2010
COMBINATIONS COMPRISING STAUROSPORINES
3-5-2010
COMBINATION OF IAP INHIBITORS AND FLT3 INHIBITORS
1-29-2010
ANTI-CANCER PHOSPHONATE ANALOGS
1-13-2010
Therapeutic phosphonate compounds
11-20-2009
Use of Staurosporine Derivatives for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma
7-17-2009
KINASE INHIBITORY PHOSPHONATE ANALOGS
6-19-2009
Organic Compounds
3-20-2009
Use of Midostaurin for Treating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
11-21-2008
PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING A POORLY WATER-SOLUBLE ACTIVE INGREDIENT, A SURFACTANT AND A WATER-SOLUBLE POLYMER
11-19-2008
Anti-cancer phosphonate analogs
9-12-2008
Multi-Functional Small Molecules as Anti-Proliferative Agents
9-5-2008
Sensitization of Drug-Resistant Lung Caners to Protein Kinase Inhibitors
8-29-2008
Organic Compounds

 

8-27-2008
Kinase inhibitory phosphonate analogs
4-25-2008
Treatment Of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors With Imatinib And Midostaurin
12-28-2007
Pharmaceutical Uses of Staurosporine Derivatives
12-7-2007
Kinase Inhibitor Phosphonate Conjugates
8-17-2007
Combinations comprising staurosporines
10-13-2006
Staurosporine derivatives for hypereosinophilic syndrome
7-15-2005
Phosphonate substituted kinase inhibitors
10-20-2004
Staurosporin derivatives

MIDOSTAURIN HYDRATE

 

 

Midostaurin according to the invention is N-[(9S,10R,11R,13R)-2,3,10,11,12,13-hexahydro-10-methoxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,13-epoxy-1H,9H-diindolo[1,2,3-gh:3′,2′,1′-lm]pyrrolo[3,4-j][1,7]benzodiazonin-11-yl]-N-methylbenzamide of the formula (II):

 

 

or a salt thereof, hereinafter: “Compound of formula II or midostaurin”.

Compound of formula II or midostaurin [International Nonproprietary Name] is also known as PKC412.

Midostaurin is a derivative of the naturally occurring alkaloid staurosporine, and has been specifically described in the European patent No. 0 296 110 published on Dec. 21, 1988, as well as in U.S. Pat. No.  5093330 published on Mar. 3, 1992, and Japanese Patent No. 2 708 047.

 

………………….

https://www.google.co.in/patents/EP0296110B1

The nomenclature of the products is, on the complete structure of staurosporine ([storage]-NH-CH ₃derived, and which is designated by N-substituent on the nitrogen of the methylamino group

Figure imgb0028

 

Example 18:

     N-Benzoyl-staurospor

  • A solution of 116.5 mg (0.25 mmol) of staurosporine and 0.065 ml (0.38 mmol) of N, N-diisopropylethylamine in 2 ml of chloroform is added at room temperature with 0.035 ml (0.3 mmol) of benzoyl chloride and 10 stirred minutes.The reaction mixture is diluted with chloroform, washed with sodium bicarbonate, dried over magnesium sulfate and evaporated. The crude product is chromatographed on silica gel (eluent methylene chloride / ethanol 30:1), mp 235-247 ° with brown coloration.
  • cut paste may not be ok below

Staurosporine the formula [storage]-NH-CH ₃ (II) (for the meaning of the rest of [storage] see above) as the basic material of the novel compounds was already in 1977, from the cultures of Streptomyces staurosporeus AWAYA, and TAKAHASHI

O ¯

Figure imgb0003

MURA, sp. nov. AM 2282, see Omura, S., Iwai, Y., Hirano, A., Nakagawa, A.; awayâ, J., Tsuchiya, H., Takahashi, Y., and Masuma, R. J. Antibiot. 30, 275-281 (1977) isolated and tested for antimicrobial activity. It was also found here that the compound against yeast-like fungi and microorganisms is effective (MIC of about 3-25 mcg / ml), taking as the hydrochloride = having a LD ₅ ₀ 6.6 mg / kg (mouse, intraperitoneal). Stagnated recently it has been shown in extensive screening, see Tamaoki, T., Nomoto, H., Takahashi, I., Kato, Y, Morimoto, M. and Tomita, F.: Biochem. and Biophys. Research Commun. 135 (No. 2), 397-402 (1986) that the compound exerts a potent inhibitory effect on protein kinase C (rat brain)

 

…………………

 

https://www.google.co.in/patents/US5093330

EXAMPLE 18 N-benzoyl-staurosporine

0.035 ml (0.3 mmol) of benzoyl chloride is added at room temperature to a solution of 116.5 mg (0.25 mmol) of staurosporine and 0.065 ml (0.38 mmol) of N,N-diisopropylethylamine in 2 ml of chloroform and the whole is stirred for 10 minutes. The reaction mixture is diluted with chloroform, washed with sodium bicarbonate solution, dried over magnesium sulphate and concentrated by evaporation. The crude product is chromatographed on silica gel (eluant:methylene chloride/ethanol 30:1); m.p. 235

…………………….

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1994, 4(3): 399

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0960894X94800049

Full-size image (2 K)

……………………

http://www.google.com/patents/WO1998007415A2

A variety of PKC inhibitors are available in the art for use in the invention. These include bryostatin (U.S. Patent 4,560,774), safinogel (WO 9617603), fasudil (EP 187371), 7- hydoxystaurosporin (EP 137632B), various diones described in EP 657458, EP 657411 and WO9535294, phenylmethyl hexanamides as described in WO9517888, various indane containing benzamides as described in WO9530640, various pyrrolo [3,4-c]carbazoles as described in EP 695755, LY 333531 (IMSworld R & D Focus 960722, July 22, 1996 and Pharmaprojects Accession No. 24174), SPC-104065 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 22568), P-10050 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 22643), No. 4432 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 23031), No. 4503 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 23252), No. 4721 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 23890), No. 4755 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 24035), balanol (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 20376), K-7259 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 16649), Protein kinase C inhib, Lilly (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 18006), and UCN-01 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 11915). Also see, for example, Tamaoki and Nakano (1990) Biotechnology 8:732-735; Posada et al. (1989) Cancer Commun. 1:285-292; Sato et al. (1990) Biochem Biophys. Res. Commun. 173:1252-1257; Utz et al. (1994) Int. J. Cancer 57:104-110; Schwartz et al. (1993) J. Na . Cancer lnst. 85:402-407; Meyer et al. (1989) Int. J. Cancer 43:851-856; Akinaga et al. (1991) Cancer Res. 51:4888-4892, which disclosures are herein incorporated by reference. Additionally, antisense molecules can be used as PKC inhibitors. Although such antisense molecules inhibit mRNA translation into the PKC protein, such antisense molecules are considered PKC inhibitors for purposes of this invention. Such antisense molecules against PKC inhibitors include those described in published PCT patent applications WO 93/19203, WO 95/03833 and WO 95/02069, herein incorporated by reference. Such inhibitors can be used in formulations for local delivery to prevent cellular proliferation. Such inhibitors find particular use in local delivery for preventing rumor growth and restenosis.

N-benzoyl staurosporine is a benzoyl derivative of the naturally occurring alkaloid staurosporine. It is chiral compound ([a]D=+148.0+-2.0°) with the formula C35H30R1O4 (molecular weight 570.65). It is a pale yellow amorphous powder which remains unchanged up to 220°C. The compound is very lipophilic (log P>5.48) and almost insoluble in water (0.068 mg/1) but dissolves readily in DMSO.

……………………….

staurosporine

Staurosporine (antibiotic AM-2282 or STS) is a natural product originally isolated in 1977 from the bacterium Streptomyces staurosporeus. It was the first of over 50 alkaloids to be isolated with this type of bis-indole chemical structure. The chemical structure of staurosporine was elucidated by X-ray analysis of a single crystal and the absolute stereochemical configuration by the same method in 1994.

Staurosporine was discovered to have biological activities ranging from anti-fungal to anti-hypertensive. The interest in these activities resulted in a large investigative effort in chemistry and biology and the discovery of the potential for anti-cancer treatment

Synthesis of Staurosporine

Staurosporine is the precursor of the novel protein kinase inhibitor midostaurin(PKC412). Besides midostaurin, staurosporine is also used as a starting material in the commercial synthesis of K252c (also called staurosporine aglycone). In the natural biosynthetic pathway, K252c is a precursor of staurosporine.

Indolocarbazoles belong to the alkaloid sub-class of bisindoles. Of these carbazoles the Indolo(2,3-a)carbazoles are the most frequently isolated; the most common subgroup of the Indolo(2,3-a)carbazoles are the Indolo(2,3-a)pyrrole(3,4-c)carbazoles which can be divided into two major classes – halogenated (chlorinated) with a fully oxidized C-7 carbon with only one indole nitrogen containing a β-glycosidic bond and the second class consists of both indole nitrogen glycosilated, non-halogenated, and a fully reduced C-7 carbon. Staurosporine is part of the second non-halogenated class.

The biosynthesis of staurosporine starts with the amino acid L-tryptophan in its zwitterionic form. Tryptophan is converted to an imineby enzyme StaO which is an L-amino acid oxidase (that may be FAD dependent). The imine is acted upon by StaD to form an uncharacterized intermediate proposed to be the dimerization product between 2 imine molecules. Chromopyrrolic acid is the molecule formed from this intermediate after the loss of VioE (used in the biosynthesis of violacein – a natural product formed from a branch point in this pathway that also diverges to form rebeccamycin. An aryl aryl coupling thought to be catalyzed by a cytochrome P450enzyme to form an aromatic ring system occurs

Staurosporine 2

This is followed by a nucleophilic attack between the indole nitrogens resulting in cyclization and then decarboxylation assisted by StaC exclusively forming staurosporine aglycone or K252c. Glucose is transformed to NTP-L-ristoamine by StaA/B/E/J/I/K which is then added on to the staurosporine aglycone at 1 indole N by StaG. The StaN enzyme reorients the sugar by attaching it to the 2nd indole nitrogen into an unfavored conformation to form intermediated O-demethyl-N-demethyl-staurosporine. Lastly, O-methylation of the 4’amine by StaMA and N-methylation of the 3′-hydroxy by StaMB leads to the formation of staurosporine

 

US4107297 * 28 Nov 1977 15 Aug 1978 The Kitasato Institute Antibiotic compound
US4735939 * 27 Feb 1987 5 Apr 1988 The Dow Chemical Company Insecticidal activity of staurosporine
ZA884238A * Title not available

 

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