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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLDDRUGTRACKER

Sitagliptin

 diabetes, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Sitagliptin
Jul 052015
 

Synthetic Communications: An International Journal for Rapid Communication of Synthetic Organic Chemistry

A practical and economical approach to synthesize sitagliptin

Volume 43, Issue 24, 2013

DOI:
10.1080/00397911.2013.773353

Kuaile Lina, Zhengyan Caia & Weicheng Zhoua*

pages 3281-3286

1Kuaile Lin, Zhengyan Cai, Weicheng Zhou*
State Key Lab of New Drug & Pharmaceutical Process, Shanghai Key Lab of
Anti-Infectives,
Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, State Institute
ofPharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai 200437, China
* Corresponding author: Weicheng Zhou, profzhouwc@yahoo.com.cn, Tel./fax: +8621 35052484
Economic syntheses of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate, acknowledged as the first dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, have been achieved in an overall yield of 42.4% in four steps from 1-{3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl}-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butane-1,3-dione. The key stereoselective reduction of this process was carried out by NaBH4/HCOOH instead of expensive and toxic catalysts or ligands.
 LOOK FOR SUPPLEMENTARY INFO IN ABOVE PAPER 
 

tga

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NMR
SEE AN ONLINE NMR BELOW




 

NMR…………http://file.selleckchem.com/downloads/nmr/S400205-Sitagliptin-phosphate-monohydrate-HNMR-Selleck.pdf





………………….

 
PAPER





Graphical abstract: Quantitative analysis of sitagliptin using the 19F-NMR method: a universal technique for fluorinated compound detection

 

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2014/an/c4an01681e#!divAbstract

Quantitative analysis of sitagliptin using the 19F-NMR method: a universal technique for fluorinated compound detection

*
Corresponding authors
a
State Key Laboratory of
Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, China
Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China E-mail:
ayanju@163.com
b
Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control, Shanghai 201203, China
c
Department of Chemistry
and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston,
Canada
d
Pharmaceutical Research
Institute, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China E-mail:
cpunmrswb@163.com
Analyst, 2015,140, 280-286


DOI:
10.1039/C4AN01681E

 


Vishva Shah, Royal Military College of Canada


 

CHECK OUT PREDICTIONS
UNDERSTAND THE SIGNALS
PREDICTIONS 1H NMR

Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 654671-77-9 NMR spectral analysis, Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate H-NMR spectrum

PREDICTIONS 13 C NMR
LOOK FOR DELTA VALUES OF GROUPS
Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 654671-77-9 NMR spectral analysis, Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate C-NMR spectrum
COSY NMR PREDICTION

BELOW PAPENT DESCIBES THIS DRUG WELL IS RANDOMLY CHOSEN


http://www.google.com/patents/EP2491040A2?cl=en

The present invention relates to a novel method of preparing sitagliptin, and intermediates used therein. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Sitagliptin phosphate is a selective inhibitor of the second generation dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) and used to maintain the systemic concentration of incretin hormone at an optimum level. Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate was approved in October 2006 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an adjuvant in dietetics or kinesiatrics for treatment of patients with type-2 diabetes and it is marketed in the United States and Korea under the trade name of JANUVIA™ (as a single agent).
Various methods for preparing sitagliptin and sitagliptin phosphate have been developed. For example, International Patent Publication WO 2003/004498 discloses a method of introducing a chiral-amine group using a chiral pyrazine derivative and to prepare sitagliptin by Arndt-Eistert Homologation using t-butoxylcarbonylamino-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-butyric acid as a sitagliptin intermediate, as shown in Reaction Scheme 1.
Reaction Scheme 1
Figure imgf000003_0001
Wherein,
Boc is tert-butoxycarbonyl, TEA is trimethylamine, HOBt is 1- hydroxybenzotriazole, EDC is N-ethyl-N’-(3- dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, and DIPEA is N,N-diisopropylethylamine.
International Patent Publication WO 2004/087650 discloses a method for preparing sitagliptin phosphate comprising the steps of: subjecting (2,4,5- trifluorophenyl)acetic acid to two-step reactions to obtain methyl 4-(2,4,5- trifluorophenyl)-3-oxophenylbutylate; conducting a stereoselective reduction of the resulting compound in the presence of (S)-BrNAP-RuCl2-Et3N under a high hydrogen pressure; hydrolyzing the reduced product to obtain (3S)-3-hydroxy- 4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-butyric acid, a key sitagliptin intermediate; and subjecting (3S)-3-hydroxy-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-butyric acid to seven-step processes to obtain sitagliptin phosphate, as shown in Reaction Scheme 2.
Reaction Scheme 2
Figure imgf000004_0001
Wherein,
BINAP is 2,2′-bis(diphenylphosphino)-l,l’-binaphthyl, EDC is N-ethyl-N’-(3- dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, Bn is benzyl, DIAD is diisopropyl azodicarboxylate, NMM is N-methylmorpholine, and ACN is acetonitrile.
Further, International Patent Publication WO 2004/085661 discloses a method for preparing sitagliptin by stereoselectively reducing an enamine using a platinum catalyst, PtO2, as shown in Reaction Scheme 3. Reaction Scheme 3
Figure imgf000005_0001

Further, WO 2005/097733 discloses a method for preparing sitagliptin by stereoselectively reducing an enamine employing a rhodium-based catalyst, [Rh(cod)Cl]2 having a chiral diphosphine ligand, as shown in Reaction Scheme 4.

Figure imgf000005_0002
The document [J. Am. Chem. Soc, 2009, 131, p.l 1316-11317] discloses a method for preparing sitagliptin by stereoselectively reducing an enamine using a ruthenium-based catalyst, Ru(OAc)2 having a chiral diphosphine ligand, and International Patent Publication WO 2009/064476 discloses a method for preparing sitagliptin by stereoselectively reducing an enamine using Ru(OAc)2and a chiral diphosphine ligand, or using a chiral acid together with a borohydride reducing agent (e.g., NaBH4).
Reaction Scheme 5
Figure imgf000009_0001
Example 1: Preparation of (2S)-2-(2,4,5-trifluorobenzyl)- oxirane
Figure imgf000013_0001
Step 1 : Preparation of (2S)-3-(2A5-trifluorophenyl)-l-chloro-2-propanol
Magnesium (Mg) (1.26 g) was suspended in tetrahydrofuran (THF) (10 ml), and a drop of 1,2-dibromoethane was added thereto. To the resulting mixture, 2,4,5-trifluorobenzene bromide (0.55 g) was added dropwise slowly and then stirred for 30 min. 2,4,5-trifluorobenzene bromide (9.0 g) dissolved in THF (50 ml) was added slowly dropwise to the resulting mixture for 30 min and then stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. Cul (0.72 g) was added to the resulting mixture and the reaction temperature was cooled to 0°C . (S)- epichlorohydrin (4.1 ml) dissolved in THF (40 ml) was added dropwise to the resulting mixture slowly over 30 min, heated to room temperature, and stirred for 2 hours. Satuated NH4CI (50 ml) and ethyl acetate (50 ml) were added to the resulting mixture, and the organic layer formed thereafter was separated. The separated organic layer was washed with 50 ml of satuated saline, dried over MgSO4, and filtered. The organic solvent was removed from the filtrate under a reduced pressure to obtain the title compound.
Step 2: Preparation of (2S)-2-(2,4,5-trifluorobenzyl)-oxirane
(2S)-3-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l-chloro-2-propanol obtained in step 1 was dissolved in methanol (50 ml), and NaOH (2.3 g) was added dropwise thereto. The resulting mixture was stirred for 1 hour and methanol was removed therefrom under a reduced pressure. Water (50 ml) and ethyl acetate (50 ml) were added to the resulting mixture, and the organic layer formed thereafter was separated. The separated organic layer was washed with satuated saline, dried over MgSO4, and filtered to remove MgSO4. The organic solvent was removed from the filtrate under a reduced pressure to obtain the title compound (6.8 g; yield: 80%).
1H-NMR(300MHz, CDC13): 6 7.17-7.05 (2H, m), 6.96-6.88 (2H, m), 3.16-3.13 (1H, m) 3.14 (1H, dd, J=4.68, 14.7), 2.82-2.77 (2H, m), 2.54-2.47 (1H, m). Preparation Example 2: Preparation of (2S)-2-(2,4,5-trifIuorobenzyl)- oxirane
Figure imgf000014_0001
Step 1 : Preparation of (2S)-3-(2A5-trifluorophenyl)-l-chloro-2-propanol
2N -PrMgCl (26 ml) suspended in THF was added dripwise to the 2,4,5-trifluorobenzene bromide (9.55 g) dissolved in THF (30 ml) at -15 °C for 60 min. Cul (0.72 g) was added thereto at -15 °C , and heated to -10 °C . (S)- epichlorohydrin (4.1 ml) dissolved in THF (40 ml) was added slowly to the resulting mixture, and stirred at 0 °C for 1 hour. Satuated NH4C1 (50 ml) and ethyl acetate (50 ml) were added to the resulting mixture, and the organic layer formed thereafter was separated. The separated organic layer was washed with 50 ml of satuated saline, dried over MgSO4, and filtered to remove MgSO4. The organic solvent was removed from the filtrate under a reduced pressure to obtain the title compound.
Step 2: Preparation of (2S)-2-(2,4,5-trifluorobenzyl)-oxirane (2S)-3-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l-chloro-2-propanol obtained in step 1 was dissolved in 50 ml of methanol, and NaOH (2.3 g) was added dropwise thereto. A mixture was stirred for 1 hour, and methanol was removed therefrom under a reduced pressure. Water (50 ml) and ethyl acetate (50 ml) were added thereto, and the organic layer formed thereafter was separated. The separated organic layer was washed with satuated saline, dried over MgSO4, and filtered to remove MgSO4. The organic solvent was removed from the filtrate under a reduced pressure to obtain the title compound (7.6 g; yield: 85%). Example 1: Preparation of Sitagliptin
Step 1: Preparation of (2R)-l-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl -4-pentene-2-ol
Figure imgf000015_0001
CuBr(CH3)2 (3.3 g) was added to a reactor under the nitrogen atmosphere and cooled to -78 °C . Vinylmagnesium bromide (240 ml) was added slowly to the reactor and stirred for 20 min. (2S)-2-(2,4,5- trifluorobenzyl)-oxirane (30 g) dissolved in THF (90 ml) was added dropwise slowly over 30 min, stirred at -78 °C for 30 min, and heated to 0 °C . 2N aqueous HC1 (300 ml) was added slowly to the resulting mixture, and the organic layer formed thereafter was separated. The separated organic layer was washed twice with satuated saline, dried over MgSO4, and filtered. The organic solvent was removed from the filtrate under a reduced pressure to obtain the title compound (34.5 g; yield: 100%).
1H-NMR(300MHz, CDC13): δ 7.15-7.06 (1H, m), 6.94-6.86 (1H, m), 5.85-5.79 (1H, m), 5.20-5.14 (2H, m), 3.90-3.85 (1H, m), 3.82 (1H, dd, J=4.6, 18.5), 2.69 (1H, dd, J=7.9, 14.0), 2.37-2.32 (1H, m), 2.24-2.17 (1H, m), 1.86(1H, Br). Step 2: Preparation of (2S)-l-(2-azido-4-pentenyl)-2A5-trifluorobenezene
Figure imgf000016_0001
Dichloromethane (300 ml) was added to the (2R)-1 -(2,4,5- trifluorophenyl)-4-pentene-2-ol obtained in step 1, and cooled to 0°C . Triethylamine (20.4 ml) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) (1.57 g) were added successively to the mixture, and methansulfonyl chloride (1 1.2 ml) was added dropwise thereto for 30 min. The resulting mixture was stirred for 1 hour, water (150 ml) was added, and the organic layer formed thereafter was separated. The separated organic layer was washed twice with satuated saline, dried over MgSO4, and filtered. The organic solvent was removed from the filtrate under a reduced pressure. The residue thus obtained was dissolved in DMF (300 ml), and NaN3 (9.91 g) was added thereto. The resulting mixture was heated to 70 °C , stirred for 2 hours, and cooled to room temperature. And then water (150 ml) and ethyl acetate (150 ml) were added to the resulting mixture, and the organic layer formed thereafter was separated. The organic layer was washed twice with 150 ml of satuated saline, dried over MgSO4, and filtered. The organic solvent was removed from the filtrate under a reduced pressure to obtain the title compound (31.5 g; yield: 94%).
1H-NMR(300MHz, CDC13): δ 7.11-7.02 (1H, m), 7.97-6.87 (1H, m), 5.89-5.80 (1H, m), 5.23-5.17 (1H, m), 3.63-3.59 (1H, m), 2.87 (1H, dd, J=4.7, 18.7), 2.68 (1H, dd, J=7.9, 13.7), 2.38-2.17 (2H, m). Step 3: Preparation of (3R)-3-azido-4-(2A5-trifluorophenyl)-butyric acid
Figure imgf000017_0001
Acetonitril (300 ml) and water (300 ml) were added to the (2S)-l-(2- azido-4-pentenyl)-2,4,5-trifluorobenezene obtained in step 2, and cooled to 0°C . RuCl3 (0.5 g) and NaIO4 (93 g) were added to the mixture successively, and stirred for 5 hours. Ethyl acetate (90 ml) was added to the resulting mixture, filtered and the organic layer formed thereafter was separated. The separated organic layer was washed with IN HC1 (300 ml), satuated aqueous Na2S2O3 (300 ml) and satuated saline (300 ml), successively, dried over MgSO4, and filtered. The organic solvent was removed from the filtrate under a reduced pressure to obtain the title compound (32.2 g; yield: 100%). 1H-NMR(300MHz, CDC13): 5 10.5 (1H, br), 7.17-7.05 (1H, m), 7.02-
6.87 (1H, m), 4.14-4.03 (1H, m), 2.94-2.78 (2H, m), 2.65-2.51 (2H, m).
Step 4: Preparation of (3R)-3-azido-l-(3-trifluoromethyl-5,6-dihydro-8H- [ 1 ,2,41triazolor4,3-alpyrazin-7-yl)-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-butan- 1 -one
Figure imgf000017_0002
(3R)-3-azido-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-buryric acid (5 g) obtained in step 3 and triazole derivative of formula (VI) (5.3 g) were added to DMF (40 ml) and water (20 ml), stirred for 15 min, and cooled to 10°C . N- methylmorpholine (2.4 ml) was added to the mixture, stirred for 10 min, and cooled to 0 °C . EDC (5.6 g) was added to the resulting mixture, and stirred for 1 hour. Ethyl acetate (50 ml) and water (25 ml) were added to the resulting mixture, and the organic layer formed thereafter was separated. The separated organic layer was washed four times with 50 ml of satuated saline, dried over MgSO4, and filtered. The organic solvent was removed from the filtrate under a reduced pressure to obtain the title compound (7.8 g; yield: 93%).
1H-NMR(300MHz, CDC13): δ 7.20-7.11 (1H, m), 6.99-6.90 (1H, m), 5.20-4.96 (2H, m), 4.28-4.05 (5H, m), 2.98-2.67 (4H, m).
Step 5: Preparation of sitagliptin
Figure imgf000018_0001
(3R)-3-azido- 1 -(3-trifluoromethyl-5,6-dihydro-8H-[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3- a]pyrazin-7-yl)-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-butan-l-one (6.4 g) obtained in step 4 and triphenylphosphin (4.3 g) were dissolved in THF (74 ml), heated to 50 °C , and stirred for 2 hours. An aqueous NH4OH (37 ml) was added to the resulting mixture and stirred for 10 hours. THF was removed from the resulting mixture under a reduced pressure, HCl (30 ml) and ethyl acetate (60 ml) were added threreto, and stirred. The water layer separated from the mixture was washed twice with 30 ml of n-hexane, satuated sodium bicarbonate was added to the water layer, and extracted three times with 60 ml of ethyl acetate. The resulting extracts were dried over MgSO4, and filtered. The organic solvent was removed from the filtrate under a reduced pressure to obtain the title compound (5.2 g; yield: 86%).
1H-NMR(300MHz, CDC13): δ 7.14-7.06 (1H, m), 7.00-6.88 (1H, m), 5.13-4.88 (2H, m), 4.24-3.80 (4H, m), 3.58 (1H, m), 2.85-2.66 (2H, m), 2.61-2.46 (2H, m), 2.11 (3H, br).
ABOVE IS ONLY ONE EXAMPLE LEADING TO SITAGLIPTIN



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(S)-Sitagliptin……….Synfacts by Thieme

 

For description see at synfacts

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0033-1340505

Contributor: Philip Kocienski

Philip Kocienski, Professor of Organic Chemistry.

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0033-1340505

 

Bao H, Bayeh L, Tambar UK * The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, USA
Catalytic Enantioselective Allylic Amination of Olefins for the Synthesis of ent-Sitagliptin.

Synlett 2013;
24: 2459-2463

 

 

P. J. Kocienski
School of Chemistry
University of Leeds
Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
p.kocienski@chem.leeds.ac.uk
http://www.chem.leeds.ac.uk

Philip J. Kocienski was born in Troy, New York, in 1946. His love for organic chemsitry, amply stimulated by Alfred Viola whilst an undergraduate at Northeastern University, was further developed at Brown University, where he obtained his PhD degree in 1971 under Joseph Ciabattoni. Postdoctoral study with George Büchi at MIT and later with Basil Lythgoe at Leeds University, England, confirmed his interest in the synthesis of natural products. He was appointed Brotherton Research lecturer at Leeds in 1979 and Professor of Chemistry at Southampton University in 1985. In 1990 he was appointed Glaxo Professor of Chemistry at Southampton University. He moved to the University of Glasgow in 1997, where he was Regius Professor of Chemistry and now he is a Professor of Chemistry at Leeds University.

In addition to Prof. Kocienski’s work as an author he is also a member of the SYNTHESIS Editorial Board and contributes greatly to the development of Thieme Chemistry’s journals

Furthermore, Prof. Kocienski has also contributed to the Science of Synthesis project where he was an author for Volume 4, Compounds of Group 15 (As, Sb, Bi) and Silicon Compounds.

Prof. Kocienski is also responsible for compiling a database called Synthesis Reviews. This resource is free and contains 16,257 English review articles (from journals and books) of interest to synthetic organic chemists. It covers literature from 1970 to 2002.

SITAGLIPTIN……………..

GREENING UP DRUGS Merck process chemists redesigned and significantly shortened the original synthesis of type 2 diabetes drug candidate sitagliptin (Januvia) to include an unprecedented efficient hydrogenation of an unprotected enamine.

MERCK was selected for the award in the greener synthetic pathways category for revising the synthesis for sitagliptin, a chiral β-amino acid derivative that is the active ingredient in Januvia, the company’s pending new treatment for type 2 diabetes. The breakthrough leading to the new synthesis was the discovery that the amino group of the key enamine intermediate doesn’t need to be protected prior to enantioselective catalytic hydrogenation of the double bond.

This development has solved a long-standing problem in the synthesis of β-amino acid derivatives, which are known for their pharmacological properties and are commonly used as chiral building blocks, noted Karl B. Hansen, a Merck process chemist involved with the synthetic effort. The outcome has been to slash the number of reaction steps in the sitagliptin synthesis from eight to three, leading to an equally dramatic reduction in the amount of chemicals and solvent needed and the amount of waste generated.

Merck’s first-generation synthesis of sitagliptin involved preparing a β-hydroxy carboxylic acid, which was converted to a protected β-lactam and then coupled to a triazole building block. Deprotecting the resulting intermediate provided the β-amino acid moiety, and sitagliptin was isolated as a phosphoric acid salt.

This synthesis involved a roundabout route involving four steps to introduce the pivotal chiral amino group of sitagliptin. The synthesis worked well to prepare more than 100 kg of the compound for clinical trials, and with modifications it was deemed to be a viable though not very green manufacturing process, Hansen pointed out. For example, the original synthesis required a number of distillations and aqueous extractions to isolate intermediates, leading to a large volume of waste to treat.

“Being environmentally friendly and economically savvy can, and does, go hand-in-hand.”

Merck process chemists recognized that a much more efficient process was possible by synthesizing the β-amino acid portion of the molecule directly from an enamine. But the protection-deprotection of the amine nitrogen with an acyl group during the hydrogenation is difficult on a large scale, and unprotected reactions generally result in lower yields and lower enantiomeric excesses, Hansen said.

Undaunted, the Merck scientists working on the revised synthesis discovered that the amino group could be efficiently introduced by an unprotected hydrogenation using a rhodium catalyst with a ferrocenyl phosphine ligand named Josiphos (C&EN, Sept. 5, 2005, page 40). Merck turned to Solvias, a Swiss company with experience in asymmetric hydrogenations that manufactures Josiphos, as a partner to help speed up the process development.

The new synthesis involves first coupling trifluorophenyl acetic acid and triazole building blocks to form a diketoamide, which in turn is converted to the enamine. This sequence is carried out without isolating intermediates. The enamine is then hydrogenated, sitagliptin is isolated and recrystallized as the phosphoric acid salt, and the rhodium Josiphos catalyst is recovered.

In sum, the revised synthesis increases the overall yield of sitagliptin by nearly 50% and reduces the amount of waste by more than 80%. A key difference is that the original synthesis produced more than 60 L of aqueous waste per kg of product, while the new synthesis completely eliminates aqueous waste. When tallied up, Merck expects these savings will prevent formation of 150,000 metric tons of solid and aqueous process waste over the lifetime of Januvia. Industry analysts speculate that regulatory approval of the drug will come by early next year and that it’s destined to become a top-selling drug.

The novel enamine hydrogenation “is arguably the most efficient means to prepare β-amino acid derivatives,” noted R. P. (Skip) Volante, Merck’s vice president of process research. The company currently is using the procedure to make several other exploratory drug candidates, he added. Overall, the redesigned synthesis of sitagliptin “is a green chemistry solution to the preparation of a challenging synthetic target and is an excellent example of a scientific innovation resulting in benefits to the environment,” Volante said.

First generation route to sitagliptin. BINAP = 2,2′-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1′-binaphthyl; EDC = N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride; DIAD = di-isopropyl azodicarboxylate; NMM = N-methylmorpholine……..http://www.technology.matthey.com/article/55/2/135-139/

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2011/cc/c1cc11592h#!divAbstract

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v485/n7397/fig_tab/nature11117_F4.html

 

 

PAPER


SITAGLIPTIN……………..

First Generation Process for the Preparation of the DPP-IV Inhibitor Sitagliptin

Department of Process Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, U.S.A.
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2005, 9 (5), pp 634–639
DOI: 10.1021/op0500786
Abstract Image

A new synthesis of sitagliptin (MK-0431), a DPP-IV inhibitor and potential new treatment for type II diabetes, suitable for the preparation of multi-kilogram quantities is presented. The triazolopyrazine fragment of sitagliptin was prepared in 26% yield over four chemical steps using a synthetic strategy similar to the medicinal chemistry synthesis. Key process developments were made in the first step of this sequence, the addition of hydrazine to chloropyrazine, to ensure its safe operation on a large scale. The beta-amino acid fragment of sitagliptin was prepared by asymmetric reduction of the corresponding beta-ketoester followed by a two-step elaboration to an N-benzyloxy beta-lactam. Hydrolysis of the lactam followed by direct coupling to the triazolopiperazine afforded sitagliptin after cleavage of the N-benzyloxy group and salt formation. The overall yield was 52% over eight steps.

Figure

Figure

Figure

The synthesis of 1 was completed using a four-step through-process (Scheme 4). Lactam 5 or ester 13 was hydrolyzed to amino acid 2bwith LiOH18 in THF/water by either stirring at room temperature or, in the case of 13, heating to 40 °C. While the benzyloxy group of 2b could be cleaved by hydrogenation and then protected with Boc2O to prevent side reactions during the coupling to triazole 3, the benzyloxy group of 2b was found to sufficiently protect the amino group to allow the desired amide to be formed. Thus, triazole 3 was coupled to2b at 0 °C using EDC−HCl and N-methylmorpholine (NMM) as base to afford 14in >99% assay yield. Following an aqueous workup, the organic extracts were distilled into ethanol and the solution was subjected to hydrogenation with 10% Pd on carbon. The presence of water in the hydrogenation was found to be crucial to the reaction success; anhydrous solutions of 14 hydrogenated with dry Pd on carbon proceeded only to low levels of conversion to 1, and addition of water to these reductions resulted in restored performance of the catalyst. Following hydrogenation, the catalyst was removed by filtration to provide an ethanol solution of 1. Sitagliptin was isolated in >99.5% purity as its anhydrous phosphoric acid salt by crystallizing from aqueous ethanol.

PATENT

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2003004498A1?cl=en

Scott D Edmondson, Michael H Fisher,Dooseop Kim, Malcolm Maccoss, Emma R Parmee, Ann E Weber, Jinyou Xu

MORE INFO………

Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate, a dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitor, is marketed by Merck & Co. for the once-daily oral treatment of type 2 diabetes. The product was first launched in Mexico followed by commercialization in the U.S. The compound has also been filed for approval in the U.S. as adjunct to diet and exercise and in combination with other therapies to improve glycemic control in the treatment of diabetes. In 2007, the product was approved by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) and is currently available in the U.K., Germany and Spain. In 2009, sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate was approved and launched in Japan. The product is also available in Japan for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in combination with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and in combination therapy with insulin. In 2012, the company filed for approval in Japan for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients with severe renal dysfunction, and in 2013 obtained the approval.

Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate boasts a much lower risk of hypoglycemia than currently available insulin-inducing products due to its novel mechanism of action. MSD KK (formed in 2010 following the merger of Banyu and Schering-Plough KK) and Ono are developing the drug candidate in Japan. In 2008, the compound was licensed to Almirall by Merck Sharp & Dohme for comarketing in Spain for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In 2010, FAES obtained a comarketing and commercialization license from Merck Sharp & Dohme in Spain for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Januvia (sitagliptin phosphate) is an antihyperglycaemic drug containing an orally active inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) enzyme. Developed by Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD), a UK subsidiary of Merck & Co, sitagliptin is used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. The drug has proved effective in lowering blood sugar levels of diabetes patients when taken alone or in combination with other oral diabetes medications such as metformin and thiazolidinedione.

Sitagliptin was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2006 and is marketed under the brand name Januvia in the US. Sitagliptin in combination with metformin was approved by the FDA in March 2007 and is marketed as Janumet in the US. In the EU, Januvia was approved in April 2007 and Janumet was approved in July 2008.

Sitagliptin is a triazolopiperazine based inhibitor of DPP-IV, which was discovered by
Merck. It is a potent (IC50= 18 nM) and highly selective over DPP-8 (48000 nM), DPP-9
(>100000 nM) and other isozymes.[16] It enhances the pancreatic β-cell functions, fasting and
post-prandial glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. In the crystal structure with DPP-IV,
unlike other substrate-based DPP-IV inhibitors, the binding orientation of the amide carbonyl of
sitagliptin is reversed, i.e. the aromatic trifluorophenyl moiety occupies S1 pocket and the β-
amino amide moiety fits into S2 pockets. The amino group forms a salt bridge and hydrogen
bonding interactions with Glu205 and Glu206, and Tyr662, respectively.The triazolopiperazinemoiety occupies the S2 extended pocket and stacks against Phe357. The exhibited binding
interactions of the trifluoromethyl group with the Arg358 and Ser209 are responsible for its high
selectivity profile. The presence of the trifluoromethyl group in the triazole ring also improves
the oral bioavailability in animal models. Sitagliptin inhibited the plasma DPP-IV up to 80% and
47% at 2 and 24 h, respectively, after a single dose of 25.0 mg in a dose-dependent manner. In a
24-week study, sitagliptin significantly decreased fasting glucose levels and HbA1c levels
(0.8%) at doses of 100 mg q.d. Thus, sitagliptin is well tolerated and body weight neutral. It is
the first DPP-IV inhibitor in the class approved by USFDA in 2006 and is used as either a
monotherapy or in combination with metformin

S2

 

 

 

S1

S3

 

In the first synthetic approach, the synthesis of sitagliptin was started with the reaction of a Schollkopf reagent 6 with 2,4,5-trifluorobenzyl bromide to afford the compound 7, which was converted to compound 9 via hydrolysis of ester 8. The resulting Boc-protected amino acid 9 was converted to diazoketone 11 through mix anhydride protocol by using diazomethane. The intermediate 11 was converted to desired β-amino acid 12 by sonication in the presence of silver benzoate.[21] The sitagliptin (14) was synthesized by coupling of β-amino acid 12 with triazolopiperazine intermediate 5 followed by Boc deprotection of amino group of 13, and its corresponding hemi fumarate salt was then prepared (Scheme 1).[16]

SYN1

 

The second approach for synthesis of sitagliptinwas started from asymmetric reduction of β-ketoester 15 using the (S)-BinapRuCl2 complex with a catalytic amount of HBr in methanol followed by hydrolysis afforded the β-hydroxy acid 16. Lactam 17 was synthesized by coupling of 16 with BnONH2 •HCl using N-(3- dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC), followed by cyclization reaction with diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (DIAD) and PPh3 . [22] Treatment of a catalytic amount of 0.1% NaOH with lactam 17 hydrolyzed and directly afforded the β-amino acid 18. This wascoupled withtriazolopiperazine 5 using EDC•HCl and N-methylmorpholine to provide the N-benzyloxy protected compound 19, which after hydrogenation using Pd/C and by consequent treatment with phosphoric acid provided the phosphate salt of sitagliptin (14) (Scheme 2).

 

SYN2

The third approach towards the synthesis of sitagliptin is outlined in scheme 3. Meldrum adduct 22 (Hunig’s base salt) was synthesized from trifluorophenylacetic acid 20 by the formation of a mixed anhydride with pivaloyl chloride in the presence of Meldrum’s acid 21, DIPEA and catalytic amount of dimethylamino pyridine (DMAP) in acetonitrile. Treatment of 22 with TFA resulted compound 23. β-keto amide 24 was formed on reaction of 23 with triazolopiperazine 5. β-keto amide 24 on treatment with ammonium acetate in methanol formed a key intermediate, dehydrositagliptin 25 (enamine amide). This intermediate contains the entire structure of sitagliptin 14 except two hydrogen atoms. Thus, sitagliptin 14 was synthesized by enantioselective hydrogenation of dehydrositagliptin 25 in the presence of [Rh(COD)2 OTf] 12,13 and t Bu JOSIPHOS in excellent yield with 95% ee.[23,24]

SYN3

http://www.cbijournal.com/paper-archive/may-june-2014-vol-3/Review-Paper-1.pdf

P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.

 

 

 

 

 REF

 

http://www.apiindia.org/medicine_update_2013/chap88.pdf

http://www.cbijournal.com/paper-archive/may-june-2014-vol-3/Review-Paper-1.pdf

 

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MELOGLIPTIN

 diabetes, phase 2, Uncategorized  Comments Off on MELOGLIPTIN
Jul 032015
 

 

GRC 8200; 868771-57-7, EMD-675992

4-fluoro-1-[2-[[(1R,3S)-3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)cyclopentyl]amino]acetyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile

4(S)-Fluoro-1-[2-[(1R,3S)-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)cyclopentylamino]acetyl]pyrrolidine-2(S)-carbonitrile

GRC-8200, a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-IV), is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials at Glenmark Pharmaceuticals and Merck KGaA for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In 2006, the compound was licensed by Glenmark Pharmaceuticals to Merck KGaA in Europe, Japan and N. America for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, however, these rights were reaquired by Glenmark in 2008.

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ALTERNATE……….

 

 

 

see gliptins at………….http://drugsynthesisint.blogspot.in/p/gliptin-series.html

http://organicsynthesisinternational.blogspot.in/p/gliptin-series-22.html

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Jul 032015
 

 

ChemSpider 2D Image | Evogliptin | C19H26F3N3O3

 

EVOGLIPTIN
CAS: 1222102-29-5 FREE

HCL……

Dong-A Pharmaceutical. Co., Ltd동아제약 주식회사
2-Piperazinone, 4-((3R)-3-amino-1-oxo-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butyl)-3-((1,1-dimethylethoxy)methyl)-, (3R)-
R)-4-((R)-3-Amino-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-butanoyl)-3-(t-butoxymethyl)-piperazin-2-one

4-[3(R)-Amino-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butyryl]-3(R)-(tert-butoxymethyl)piperazin-2-one hydrochloride

DA-1229

DA-1229 is a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) inhibitor currently being developed in phase III clinical studies at Dong-A for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

In 2014, Eurofarma aquired rights for product development and commercialization in Brazil.

Evogliptin Tartrate