Jan 122018

Green Chem., 2018, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC03325G, Paper
Evaldas Klumbys, Ziga Zebec, Nicholas J. Weise, Nicholas J. Turner, Nigel S. Scrutton
Cascade biocatalysis and metabolic engineering provide routes to cinnamyl alcohol.

Bio-derived production of cinnamyl alcohol via a three step biocatalytic cascade and metabolic engineering

* Corresponding authors

Prof Nigel ScruttonScD, FRSC, FRSB

Professor of Enzymology and Biophysical Chemistry


The construction of biocatalytic cascades for the production of chemical precursors is fast becoming one of the most efficient approaches to multi-step synthesis in modern chemistry. However, despite the use of low solvent systems and renewably resourced catalysts in reported examples, many cascades are still dependent on petrochemical starting materials, which as of yet cannot be accessed in a sustainable fashion. Herein, we report the production of the versatile chemical building block cinnamyl alcohol from the primary metabolite and the fermentation product L-phenylalanine. Through the combination of three biocatalyst classes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, carboxylic acid reductase and alcohol dehydrogenase) the target compound could be obtained in high purity, demonstrable at the 100 mg scale and achieving 53% yield using ambient temperature and pressure in an aqueous solution. This system represents a synthetic strategy in which all components present at time zero are biogenic and thus minimises damage to the environment. Furthermore we extend this biocatalytic cascade by its inclusion in an L-phenylalanine overproducing strain of Escherichia coli. This metabolically engineered strain produces cinnamyl alcohol in mineral media using glycerol and glucose as the carbon sources. This study demonstrates the potential to establish green routes to the synthesis of cinnamyl alcohol from a waste stream such as glycerol derived, for example, from lipase treated biodiesel.

(R)-3-amino-3-(3-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid (1c) 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ 7.16-7.31 (m, 5H, ArH), 6.50-6.54 (d, 1H, J = 16 Hz, C=CH), 6.23-6.30 (dt, 1H, J = 16, 8 Hz, C=CHCH2 ), 4.21-4.23 (dd, 2H, J = 8, 4 Hz, C=CHCH2); 13C NMR (CDCl3): 136.70, 131.09, 128.60, 128.54, 127.69, 126.48, 63.65.



////////////cinnamyl alcohol,  biocatalytic, metabolic engineering

Dec 282017


Green Chem., 2018, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC03437G, Communication
Thanh Binh Nguyen, Pascal Retailleau
An aniline/acid-catalyzed method for constructing thiophenes 2 from inexpensive ketones 1 and elemental sulfur is reported.

Sulfurative self-condensation of ketones and elemental sulfur: a three-component access to thiophenes catalyzed by aniline acid–base conjugate pairs

Author affiliations


A sulfurative self-condensation method for constructing thiophenes 2 by a reaction between ketones 1 and elemental sulfur is reported. This reaction, which is catalyzed by anilines and their salts with strong acids, starts from readily available and inexpensive materials, and releases only water as a by-product.



2,4-Di-p-tolylthiophene (2b)2

2 M. Arisawa, T. Ichikawa, and M. Yamaguchi, Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 8821


Eluent heptane:toluene 9:1. 190 mg, 72%.

1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.60-7.54 (m, 5H), 7.34 (s, 1H), 7.27-7.23 (m, 4H), 2.42 (s, 6H).

13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 145.3, 143.3, 137.8, 137.2, 133.5, 131.9, 129.9, 129.8, 126.5, 126.0, 122.1, 118.9, 21.5, 21.5.



Binh Thanh Nguyen at French National Centre for Scientific Research

Binh Thanh Nguyen

CV Binh Nguyen

CNRS Research Associate CR1 ( ORCID , ResearchGate )


1, avenue de la Terrasse

91190 Gif-sur-Yvette France

+33 1 69 82 45 49

- Education and work experience2015: Habilitation to Direct Research (HDR)

2011 – present: CNRS research associate at ICSN – Paris-Saclay University

2009 – 2011: Post-doctoral Fellow at ICSN (Dr. Françoise Guéritte and Dr. Qian Wang)

2003 – 2006: Ph.D. student at the UCO2M Organic Synthesis Laboratory (University of Maine, Le Mans, France, Dr. Gilles Dujardin, Dr. Arnaud Martel, Professor Robert Dhal)

- Research Interests

Green chemistry (Atom, step and redox economic transformation), green synthetic tools: O2, S8, photochemistry, iron catalyst

Elemental sulfur as a synthetic tool (building block, oxidant, reductant, catalyst)

Iron-sulfur catalysts

Heterocycle synthesis

- Scientific Communications

47 publications

- Selected recent publications ( complete list )

[1] Adv. Synth. Catal. 2017 , 359 , 1106.

[2] Asian J. Org. Chem. 2017 , 6 , 477.

[3] Org. Lett. 2016 , 18 , 2177.

[4] Org. Process Res. Dev. 2016 , 20 , 319.

[5] Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014 , 53 , 13808.

[6] J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013 , 135 , 118.


Dec 252017

Image result for Artemisia Annua L

Artemisia Annua L

Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Artemisinin from Artemisia Annua L. Using Monoether based Solvents


Artemisinin is a kind of natural antimalarial drug exhibiting low toxicity with a very fast action against malaria. Solvent extraction is the most widely used method to separate artemisinin from the Chinese medicinal herb Artemisia annua L. In this study, a series of monoether based solvents have been proposed to extract artemisinin and propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME) was found to be the most appropriate one for this extraction. Ultrasonic irradiation was demonstrated to be able to assist artemisinin extraction. Influences of extraction conditions, including liquid/solid ratio, extraction temperature, ultrasonic time, ultrasonic power, on the extraction efficiency were discussed by single factor experiments, and the main influence factors were optimized by responds surface method. The extraction mechanism was explored with spectroscopic characterizations, and kinetics of this process was also studied. Results indicate that ultrasonic assisted extraction using PGME has faster extraction rate than conventional solvents, and ultrasonic can significantly enhance mass transfer. Compared with conventional extraction, the process developed here exhibited higher efficiency (13.79 mg/g vs. 13.29 mg/g) and short extraction time (decreased from 8 h to 0.5 h) at a relatively low temperature. In addition, PGME has low toxicity and volatility, making the extraction process more safe and reliable. Therefore, this proposed method demonstrates that PGME based ultrasonic assisted extraction is a rapid, efficient, simple and safe technique for natural product extraction.!divAbstract

/////////// Artemisinin,  Artemisia Annua L, extraction


A roadmap towards green packaging: the current status and future outlook for polyesters in the packaging industry

 Formulation, PROCESS  Comments Off on A roadmap towards green packaging: the current status and future outlook for polyesters in the packaging industry
Oct 172017

DOI: 10.1039/C7GC02521A, Tutorial Review
M. Rabnawaz, I. Wyman, R. Auras, S. Cheng
Approximately 99% of the plastics used in the packaging industry today are petroleum-based. However, the adoption of biobased plastics could help to greatly reduce the environmental footprint of packaging materials and help to conserve our non-renewable petroleum resources. This tutorial review provides an overview of renewable polyesters and their potential packaging materials.

A roadmap towards green packaging: the current status and future outlook for polyesters in the packaging industry

 Author affiliations

Muhammad Rabnawaz

Assistant Professor

Muhammad Rabnawaz
Telephone: 517-432-4870

Rabnawaz’s Research Group
School of Packaging

Shouyun Cheng at Michigan State University

Shouyun Cheng

Doctor of Philosophy
Research Associate
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI, United States

Dr. Cheng earned his PhD from South Dakota State University in May 2017. He has extensive research experiences in biomass pyrolysis and liquefaction, bio-oil catalytic cracking and hydrodeoxygenation, catalyst design, preparation, characterization and evaluation, food extruding, nano cellulose and protein peptides production, polymer synthesis, characterization and application.

Project Titles worked on: Innovation for Improved Sustainability: Scalable Approach for the Preparation of Thermoplastic Starches and their Composites for Applications in Biodegradable Packaging .

Duration in the group: August 2017- Present

Areas of Interest: Polycarbonates and polyesters synthesis, characterization and application.

MSU email Id:

Ian Wyman

Education: Ph.D., Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario
M.Sc., St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia
B.Sc. Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia



Approximately 99% of the plastics produced today are petroleum-based, and the packaging industry alone consumes over 38% of these plastics. In this review, we argue that renewable polyesters can provide a key milestone as renewable plastics in the route toward green packaging. This review describes different classes of polyesters with particular regard to their potential use as packaging materials. Some of the families of polyesters discussed include poly(ethylene terephthalate) and its renewable analogs, poly(lactic acid), poly(hydroxyalkanoates), and poly(epoxy anhydrides). The synthesis of polyesters is discussed from a green chemistry perspective. A structure–property correlation among the various polyesters is also discussed. The challenges that currently hinder the widespread adoption of polyesters as leading packaging materials are reviewed. The environmental footprint and end of life scenario of polyesters are discussed. Finally, future research directions are summarized as a possible roadmap towards the widespread adoption of renewable polyesters as sustainable packaging materials.


Muhammad Rabnawaz

Assistant Professor

Muhammad Rabnawaz
Telephone: 517-432-4870

Michigan State University white graphic

Rabnawaz’s Research Group
School of Packaging

Research Interests

I have published more than 20 research articles in the field of polymer and materials sciences. Our initial endeavors can be divided into three broad categories:

  1. Polymer synthesis from renewable feedstocks.
  2. Design and preparation of smart materials.
  3. Polymer composites.

Our projects are highly applied, and we expect close collaboration with world-leading industries. These partnerships will offer unique training and career opportunities for the group members.


  • Assistant Professor, School of Packaging, Michigan State University (2016-currrent)
  • Postdoctorate, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2015-2016
  • Postdoctorate, Queen’s University, Canada, 2013-2015


  • Ph.D., Chemistry, Queen’s University, Canada, 2013
  • M.Sc., Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Pakistan, 2004



Synthesis of isosorbide: an overview of challenging reactions

 PROCESS, SYNTHESIS  Comments Off on Synthesis of isosorbide: an overview of challenging reactions
Oct 162017



Green Chem., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC01912B, Tutorial Review
C. Dussenne, T. Delaunay, V. Wiatz, H. Wyart, I. Suisse, M. Sauthier
This review gives an overview of the catalysts and technologies developed for the synthesis of isosorbide, a platform molecule derived from biomass (sorbitol and cellulose).

Synthesis of isosorbide: an overview of challenging reactions

 Author affiliations


Isosorbide is a diol derived from sorbitol and obtained through dehydration reactions that has raised much interest in the literature over the past few decades. Thus, this platform chemical is a biobased alternative to a number of petrosourced molecules that can find applications in a large number of technical specialty fields, such as plasticizers, monomers, solvents or pharmaceuticals. The synthesis of isosorbide is still a technical challenge, as several competitive reactions must be simultaneously handled to promote a high molar yield and avoid side reactions, like degradation and polymerization. In this purpose, many studies have proposed innovative and varied methods with promising results. This review gives an overview of the synthesis strategies and catalysts developed to access this very attractive molecule, pointing out both the results obtained and the remaining issues connected to isosorbide synthesis.


Up to now, isosorbide has been used to access a large panel of molecules with relevant applicative properties and industrial reality (Scheme 2).12 Isosorbide dinitrate is used since several decades as vasodilator.13, 14 The dimethyl isosorbide is for example used as solvent in cosmetics15-17 and isosorbide diesters18-22 are actually industrially produced and commercialized as surfactants23-27 and PVC plasticizer28, 29 . The rigid scaffold associated to the bifunctionality of the molecule has attracted a strong interest in the field of polymers chemistry. Isosorbide and derivatives have thus been shown as suitable monomers for the industrial production of polycarbonates30, 31, polyesters32-41 or polyamides42-44, with attractive applicative properties. For example, isosorbide allows the increase of Tg, improves the scratch resistance and gives excellent optical properties to polymers. Polyesters and polycarbonates containing isosorbide have now commercial developments in food packaging, spray container, automotive, material for electronic devices … .


Isosorbide is a versatile platform molecule that shows key features to make it a credible alternative to petro-based products. The molecule is already available on large industrial scale (tens of thousands tons per years), which allows its development in commercial products such as active pharma ingredient, additive for cosmetic, speciality chemicals and polymers (ex: polycarbonates – polyesters). The development of more selective and higher yields syntheses of isosorbide are greatly needed to consolidate isosorbide production in view of a large expansion of its uses. Sorbitol conversion to isosorbide, relying on a starch route, is already a tough challenge. In a farther future, development of a credible path to isosorbide relying on cellulose source could even be thought of, provided that very versatile innovative catalysts will be developed in the next years. In all cases, a key issue is to develop catalysts that will avoid the massive production of “oligomeric/polymeric” by-products in order to access more sustainable processes by limiting the amounts of wastes produced during the synthesis. For this purpose, more selective homogeneous catalysts than the conventional Brønsted acids or alternative reaction conditions would be of strong interest. Selective and recyclable heterogeneous catalysts would be even more profitable as they would allow the continuous production of catalyst free isosorbide. This latter approach faces strong limitations due to the need of high reaction temperatures that often result in high amounts of side-products and the need of frequent and often tedious catalyst regeneration. Innovation concerning isosorbide synthesis is still an open field on which the design of efficient and robust catalysts, either homogeneous or heterogeneous, is a key issue. Such developments would pave the way to high scale effective processes considering altogether synthesis and purification of isosorbide.




Isosorbide is a heterocyclic compound that is derived from glucose. Isosorbide and its two isomers, namely isoidide and isomannide, are 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols. It is a white solid that is prepared from the double dehydration of sorbitol. Isosorbide is a non-toxic diolproduced from biobased feedstocks, that is biodegradable and thermally stable. It is used in medicine and has been touted as a potential biofeedstock.


Hydrogenation of glucose gives sorbitol. Isosorbide is obtained by double dehydration of sorbitol:

(CHOH)4(CH2OH)2 → C6H10O2(OH)2 + 2 H2O

An intermediate in the dehydration is the monocycle sorbitan.[1]


Isosorbide is used as a diuretic, mainly to treat hydrocephalus, and is also used to treat glaucoma.[2] Other medications are derived from isosorbide, including isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide mononitrate, are used to treat angina pectoris. Other isosorbide-based medicines are used as osmotic diuretics and for treatment of esophageal varices. Like other nitric oxide donors (see biological functions of nitric oxide), these drugs lower portal pressure by vasodilation and decreasing cardiac output. Isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazineare the two components of the anti-hypertensive drug isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine (Bidil).

Isosorbide is also used as a building block for bio based polymers such as polyesters.[3]


  1. Jump up^ M. Rose, R. Palkovits (2012). “Isosorbide as a Renewable Platform chemical for Versatile Applications—Quo Vadis?”. ChemSusChem5 (1): 167–176. PMID 22213713doi:10.1002/cssc.201100580.
  2. Jump up^ CID 12597 from PubChem
  3. Jump up^ Bersot J.C. (2011). “Efficiency Increase of Poly (ethylene terephthalate‐co‐isosorbide terephthalate) Synthesis using Bimetallic Catalytic Systems”. Macromol. Chem. Phys212 (19): 2114–2120. doi:10.1002/macp.201100146.
Other names

D-Isosorbide; 1,4:3,6-Dianhydro-D-sorbitol; 1,4-Dianhydrosorbitol
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.010.449
PubChem CID
Molar mass 146.14 g·mol−1
Appearance Highly hygroscopic white flakes
Density 1.30 at 25 °C
Melting point 62.5 to 63 °C (144.5 to 145.4 °F; 335.6 to 336.1 K)
Boiling point 160 °C (320 °F; 433 K) at 10 mmHg
in water (>850 g/L), alcoholsand ketones
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

From the net





1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of PTMG, isosorbide, HDI, and polyurethane.HDI: hexamethylene diisocyanate; PTMG: poly(tetramethylene glycol).

1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of PTMG, isosorbide, HDI, and polyurethane.HDI: hexamethylene diisocyanate; PTMG: poly(tetramethylene glycol).




Synthesis of five- and six-membered heterocycles by dimethyl carbonate with catalytic amount of nitrogen bicyclic bases!divAbstract

F. Aricò, a,*S. Evaristoa and P. Tundoa,*

Catalytic amount of a nitrogen bicyclic base, i.e., DABCO, DBU and TBD is effective for the one-pot synthesis of heterocycles from 1,4-, 1,5-diols and 1,4-bifunctional compounds via dimethyl carbonate chemistry under neat conditions. Nitrogen bicyclic bases, that previously showed to enhance the reactivity of DMC in methoxycarbonylation reaction by BAc2 mechanism, are herein used for the first time as efficient catalysts for cyclization reaction encompassing both BAc2 and BAl2 pathways. This synthetic procedure was also applied to a large scale synthesis of cyclic sugars isosorbide and isomannide starting from D-sorbitol and D-mannitol, respectively. The resulting anhydro sugar alcohols were obtained as pure crystalline compounds that did not require any further purification or crystallization.


Larger scale synthesis of isosorbide: In a round bottom flask equipped with a reflux condenser, D-sorbitol (0.05 mol, 1.00 mol. eq.), DMC (0.44 mol, 8.00 mol. eq.), DBU (2.70 mmol, 0.05 mol. eq.) and MeOH (20.00 mL) were heated at reflux while stirring. The progress of the reaction was monitored by NMR. After 48 hours the reaction was stopped, cooled at room temperature and the mixture was filtered over Gooch n°4. Finally, DMC was evaporated under vacuum and the product was obtained as pure in 98% yield (7.90 g, 0.05 mol). Characterization data were consistent with those obtained for the commercially available compound.




File:Isosorbide dinitrate synthesis.png






A Fully Continuous-Flow Process for the Synthesis of p-Cresol: Impurity Analysis and Process Optimization

 PROCESS, spectroscopy, SYNTHESIS  Comments Off on A Fully Continuous-Flow Process for the Synthesis of p-Cresol: Impurity Analysis and Process Optimization
Oct 092017

Abstract Image

A fully continuous-flow diazotization–hydrolysis protocol has been developed for the preparation of p-cresol. This process started from the diazotization of p-toluidine to form diazonium intermediate. The reaction was then quenched by urea and subsequently followed by a hydrolysis to give the final product p-cresol. Three types of byproducts were initially found in this reaction sequence. After an optimization of reaction conditions (based on impurity analysis), side reactions were eminently inhibited, and a total yield up to 91% were ultimately obtained with a productivity of 388 g/h. The continuous-flow methodology was used to avoid accumulation of the highly energetic and potentially explosive diazonium salt to realize the safe preparation for p-cresol.



1H NMR (400 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ/ppm: 9.06 (br s, 1H, −OH), 6.94 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H, Ar–H), 6.62 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H, Ar–H), 2.17 (s, 3H, −CH3).

13C NMR (CDCl3) δ/ppm: 153.0, 129.9, 115.1, 20.5.


Literature data:(3b) 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ/ppm: 7.03 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 6.73 (dd, J = 8.2, 2.0 Hz, 2H), 4.75 (s, 1H, OH), 2.27 (s, 3H, CH3).

13C NMR (CDCl3) δ/ppm: 153.2, 130.2, 115.2, 20.6.

3(b) TaniguchiT.ImotoM.TakedaM.NakaiT.MiharaM.IwaiT.ItoT.MizunoT.NomotoA.OgawaA. Heteroat. Chem. 201526411– 416 DOI: 10.1002/hc.21275

A Fully Continuous-Flow Process for the Synthesis of p-Cresol: Impurity Analysis and Process Optimization

National Engineering Research Center for Process Development of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients, Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Key Laboratory for Green Pharmaceutical Technologies and Related Equipment of Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, P. R. China
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.7b00250
*Tel.: (+86)57188320899. E-mail:





Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride, a known carcinogen

 PROCESS  Comments Off on Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride, a known carcinogen
Mar 142017
Dimethylcarbamoylchlorid Strukturformel.svg
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.099
PubChem 6598

Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride


Mechanisms for the Formation of Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride

Thionyl chloride is the most common reagent in process chemistry for the conversion of a carboxylic acid to an acid chloride. One of the primary factors is cost, since the reagent is inexpensive and represents one of the most cost-efficient ways of preparing acid chlorides. However, one disadvantage of thionyl chloride is the potential formation of dimethylcarbamoyl chloride, a known carcinogen in animal models, when used in combination with DMF as catalyst.

Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride is a reagent for transferring a dimethylcarbonyl group to alcoholic or phenolic hydroxyl groups forming dimethyl carbamates, usually having pharmacological or pesticidal activities. Because of its high toxicity and its carcinogenic properties shown in animal experiments and presumably also in humans,[1] dimethylcarbamoyl chloride can only be used under stringent safety precautions.

Production and occurrence

The production of dimethylcarbamoyl chloride from phosgene and dimethylamine (DMA) was reported as early as 1879 (reported as “Dimethylharnstoffchlorid” – dimethylurea chloride).[2]

Synthese von Dimethylcarbamoylchlorid (DMCC) mit Dimethylamin

Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride can be produced in high yields (90%) at 275 °C by reacting phosgene with gaseous dimethylamine in a flow reactor.[3] To suppress the formation of ureas excessive phosgene is used (in a 3:1 ratio).

The reaction can also be carried out at the laboratory scale with diphosgene or triphosgene and a aqueous dimethylamine solution in the two-phase system benzene+xylene/water in a stirred reactor with sodium hydroxide as an acid scavenger. However, considerably lower yields (56%) are achieved due to the hydrolysis sensitivity of dimethylcarbamoyl chloride .[4]

Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride is also formed (together with methyl chloride) when reacting phosgene with trimethylamine.[5]

Synthese von Dimethylcarbamoylchlorid (DMCC) mit Trimethylamin

A more recent process is based on dimethylamine chloride, which is converted practically quantitatively to dimethylcarbamoyl chloride on a palladium catalyst under pressure with carbon monoxide at room temperature.[6]

Synthese von Dimethylcarbamoylchlorid (DMCC) aus Chloramin

Dicarbamoyl chloride can also be formed in small amounts (0-20 ppm) from dimethylformamide (DMF) in the Vilsmeier-Haack reaction[7] or when DMF is used as a catalyst in the reaction of carboxylic acids with thionyl chloride to the corresponding carboxylic acid chlorides.[8]

Synthese von Dimethylcarbamoylchlorid (DMCC) mit Dimethylformamid (DMF)

The tendency towards dicarbamoyl chloride formation depends on the chlorination reagent (thionyl chloride> oxalyl chloride> phosphorus oxychloride) and is higher in the presence of a base. However, dicarbamoyl chloride hydrolyses very quickly to dimethylamine, hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide (with a half-life of about 6 minutes at 0 °C) so that less than 3 ppm of dicarbamoyl chloride are found in the Vilsmeier product after aqueous work-up.[9]


Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride is a clear, colorless, corrosive and flammable liquid with a pungent odor and a tear-penetrating effect, which decomposes rapidly in water.[10]Because of its unpleasant, toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties[11][12] it has to be used under extreme precautions.

Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride behaves like an acid chloride whose chlorine atom can be exchanged for other nucleophiles. Therefore, it reacts with alcohols, phenols and oximes to the corresponding N, N-dimethylcarbamates, with thiols to thiolourethanes, with amines and hydroxylamine to substituted ureas, and with imidazoles and triazoles to carbamoylazoles.[13]

Reaktionen von Dimethylcarbamoylchlorid (DMCC) mit Nukleophilen

Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride is less reactive and less selective to substrates with multiple nucleophilic centers than conventional acid chlorides.

Unsaturated conjugated aldehydes such as (2E)-butenal react with dimethylcarbamoyl chloride forming dienyl carbamates, which can be used as dienes in Diels-Alder reactions.[14]

Synthese von Dienylcarbamaten mit Dimethylcarbamoylchlorid (DMCC)

Alkali metal carboxylates react with dimethylcarbamoyl chloride forming the corresponding dimethylamides. Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride reacts with anhydrous sodium carbonate[15] or with excess dimethylamine to tetramethylurea.[16]

The reaction of dimethylcarbamoyl chloride with DMF forms tetramethylformamidinium[17] chloride which is a major intermediate in the preparation of tris(dimethylamino)methane, a reagent for the introduction of enamine functions in conjunction with activated methylene groups[18] and the preparation of amidines.[19]

Synthese von Tris(dimethylamino)methan mit Diemthylcarbamoylchlorid (DMCC)

Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride is a starting material for the insecticide class of the dimethyl carbamates[20] which act as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, including dimetilane,[21]and the related compounds isolane, pirimicarb and triazamate.

Synthesis of Dimetilan mit Dimethylcarbamoylchlorid

The quaternary ammonium compounds neostigmine[22] finds pharmaceutical applications as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. It is obtained from 3-dimethylaminophenol and dimethylcarbamoyl chloride and subsequent quaternization with methyl bromide or dimethyl sulfate[23]

Synthese von Neostigmin mit Dimethylcarbamoylchlorid

and pyridostigmine, which is obtainable from 3-hydroxypyridine and dimethylcarbamoyl chloride and subsequent reaction with methyl bromide.[24]

Synthese von Pyridostigmin mit dimethylcarbamoylchlorid

Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride is also used in the synthesis of the benzodiazepine camazepam.[25]

Synthese von Camazepam mit Dimethylcarbamoylchlorid

Image result for Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride

13c NMR




  1. Jump up^ R.P. Pohanish (2011) (in German), Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 6th Edition, Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 1045–1047, ISBN 978-1437778694
  2. Jump up^ W. Michler; C. Escherich (1879), “Ueber mehrfach substituirte Harnstoffe” (in German), Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 12 (1): pp. 1162–1164, doi:10.1002/cber.187901201303
  3. Jump up^ R.J. Slocombe; E.A. Hardy; J.H. Saunders; R.L. Jenkins (1950), “Phosgene derivatives. The preparation of isocyanates, carbamyl chlorides and cyanuric acid” (in German), J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72 (5): pp. 1888–1891, doi:10.1002/ja01161a009
  4. Jump up^ G. Karimipour; S. Kowkabi; A. Naghiha (2015), “New aminoporphyrins bearing urea derivative substituents: synthesis, characterization, antibacterial and antifungal activity” (in German), Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 58 (3), doi:10.1590/S1516-891320500024
  5. Jump up^ H. Babad; A.G. Zeiler (1973), “Chemistry of Phosgene” (in German), Chem. Rev. 73 (1): pp. 75–91, doi:10.1021/cr60281a005
  6. Jump up^ T. Saegusa; T. Tsuda; Y. Isegawa (1971), “Carbamoyl chloride formation from chloramine and carbon monoxide” (in German), J. Org. Chem. 36 (6): pp. 858–860, doi:10.1021/jo00805a033
  7. Jump up^ M. Stare; K. Laniewski; A. Westermark; M. Sjögren; W. Tian (2009), “Investigation on the formation and hydrolysis of N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl chloride (DMCC) in Vilsmeier reactions using /GC/MS as the analytical detection method” (in German), Org. Process Res. Dev. 13 (5): pp. 857–862, doi:10.1021/op900018f
  8. Jump up^ D. Levin (1997), “Potential toxicological concerns associated with carboxylic acid chlorination and other reactions” (in German), Org. Process Res. Dev. 1 (2): pp. 182, doi:10.1021/op970206t
  9. Jump up^ A. Queen (1967), “Kinetics of the hydrolysis of acyl chlorides in pure water” (in German), Canad. J. Chem. 45 (14): pp. 1619–1629, doi:10.1139/v67-264
  10. Jump up^ C.B. Kreutzberger; R.A. Olofson (2001), “Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride” (in German), e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, doi:10.1002/047084289X.rd319
  11. Jump up^ P. Jäger; C.N. Rentzea; H. Kieczka (2014) (in German), Carbamates and Carbamoyl Chloride, in Ullmann’s Fine Chemicals, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, pp. 57–58, ISBN 978-3-527-33477-3
  12. Jump up^ “Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride, CAS No. 79-44-7” (PDF). Report on Carcinogens, Thirteenth Edition (in German). National Toxicology Program, Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  13. Jump up^ C.B. Kreutzberger, R.A. Olofson (2007-02-01). “Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride” (in German). John Wiley&Sons, Ltd. Retrieved 2016-09-27.
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A catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C,N-cyclic azomethine imines and 3-nitroindoles: an easy access to five-ring-fused tetrahydroisoquinolines

 PROCESS, spectroscopy, SYNTHESIS  Comments Off on A catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C,N-cyclic azomethine imines and 3-nitroindoles: an easy access to five-ring-fused tetrahydroisoquinolines
Jan 062017

Graphical abstract: A catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C,N-cyclic azomethine imines and 3-nitroindoles: an easy access to five-ring-fused tetrahydroisoquinolines


We have reported herein a catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C,N-cyclic azomethine imines and 3-nitroindoles by which a series of five-ring-fused tetrahydroisoquinolines featuring an indoline scaffold were obtained as single diastereomers in moderate to high yields without any additives under mild conditions. Moreover, the current method provides a novel and convenient approach for the efficient incorporation of two biologically important scaffolds (tetrahydroisoquinoline and indoline).!divAbstract

A catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C,N-cyclic azomethine imines and 3-nitroindoles: an easy access to five-ring-fused tetrahydroisoquinolines

Xihong Liu,a   Dongxu Yang,a   Kezhou Wang,a  Jinlong Zhanga and   Rui Wang*ab  
*Corresponding authors
aSchool of Life Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P. R. China
bState Key Laboratory of Chiroscience, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, P. R. China
Green Chem., 2017,19, 82-87

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02517J


 ethyl 13b-nitro-8-tosyl-8,8a,13b,13c-tetrahydro-5H-indolo[2′,3′:3,4]pyrazolo[5,1- a]isoquinoline-9(6H)-carboxylate: White solid, m.p. 153 – 154 oC; 94% yield;
1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.86 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.78 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.30 – 7.13 (m, 5H), 7.1 (s, 1H), 7.05 – 6.94 (m, 1H), 6.94 – 6.87 (m, 1H), 6.59 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 3H), 6.28 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.78 (s, 1H), 4.37 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 2.80 – 2.58 (m, 2H), 2.33 (s, 3H), 2.31 – 2.11 (m, 2H), 1.41 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H) ppm;
13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 152.1, 144.6, 142.6, 134.0, 132.1, 129.3, 129.0, 128.7, 128.3, 127.5, 127.3, 126.2, 122.8, 121.1, 115.5, 104.5, 84.9, 70.7, 62.8, 48.5, 29.1, 21. 6, 14.3 ppm;
HRMS (ESI): C27H26N4NaO6S [M + Na]+ calcd: 557.1465, found: 557.1476.

“ALL FOR DRUGS” CATERS TO EDUCATION GLOBALLY, No commercial exploits are done or advertisements added by me. This article is a compilation for educational purposes only.

P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent

/////////// catalyst-free,  1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, C,N-cyclic azomethine imines,  3-nitroindoles,  five-ring-fused tetrahydroisoquinolines

Towards automation of chemical process route selection based on data mining

 PROCESS  Comments Off on Towards automation of chemical process route selection based on data mining
Jan 062017

Graphical abstract: Towards automation of chemical process route selection based on data mining

A methodology for chemical routes development and evaluation on the basis of data-mining is presented. A section of the Reaxys database was converted into a network, which was used to plan hypothetical synthesis routes to convert a bio-waste feedstock, limonene, to a bulk intermediate, benzoic acid. The route evaluation considered process conditions and used multiple indicators, including exergy, E-factor, solvent score, reaction reliability and route redox efficiency, in a multi-criteria environmental sustainability evaluation. The proposed methodology is the first route evaluation based on data mining, explicitly using reaction conditions, and is amenable to full automation.


In the field of process and synthetic chemistry ‘clean synthesis’ has become one of the standard criteria for good, commercially viable synthesis routes. As a result synthetic and process chemists must be equipped with adequate methodologies for quantification of ‘cleanness’ or ‘greenness’ of alternative routes at the early phases of the development cycle. These new criteria, and the traditional criteria of cost, security of supply, health and safety (H&S), and risk, provide a balanced picture of sustainability of a future technology. Thus, there are two separate aspects to process chemistry: developing the chemistry and the process, and evaluating the overall process, which must occur in parallel. Evaluation of the proposed routes requires data. As data science rapidly evolves, chemistry will inevitably use more of the new tools of data mining and data analysis to automate the routine tasks, such as evaluation of process metrics. In this paper we show some initial results in automation of process evaluation based on deep data mining of process chemistry and multi-criteria decision making.

The evaluation of greenness is a mature field, with a large number of published and standardised approaches, of which many are adopted by industry. 1 However, all published methods are highly case-specific and rather labour-intensive. In the field of synthetic routes development one of the most exciting new areas is the potential for automation of synthesis planning using data mining.2 What has never been attempted before is to automate route generation and evaluation in a coherent methodology, which would aid process development at the early, data-lean, stages. For this we show how to automatically generate process options using a network representation of a section of Reaxys database,3 followed by their screening using multi-criteria decision making, see Fig. 1. As the methods mature and become commercially available, such integration and automation will produce significant savings of time, and would deliver a far more detailed view of the competing synthesis route options than is generally possible at the early stages of design.

To date, obtaining the data, assembling the network and finding potential synthesis routes can already be carried out in a fully automated fashion. Due to issues around data availability the connection to the analysis of the routes still has to be initiated manually, involving a data curation step. The subsequent analysis and multi-criteria decision making have been largely automated in this study. To our knowledge this is the first example of the analysis of synthesis routes generated from the network representation of Reaxys obtained through datamining, using reaction conditions and process data.

image file: c6gc02482c-f2.tif

Fig. 2 A section of a network of organic chemistry. Dots are species and arrows represent reactions.
  1. D. J. C. Constable, C. Jimenez-Gonzalez and A. Lapkin, in Green Chemistry Metrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2009, pp. 228–247 
  2. S. Szymkuć, E. P. Gajewska, T. Klucznik, K. Molga, P. Dittwald, M. Startek, M. Bajczyk and B. A. Grzybowski, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2016, 55, 5904–5937 
  3. Reed Elsevier Properties SA, Login – Reaxys Login Page [Internet], 2014 [accessed 2014 Jun 8]. Available from: Reaxys is a trademark, copyright owned by Relex Intellectual properties SA and used under licence.

Towards automation of chemical process route selection based on data mining

*Corresponding authors
aDepartment of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA, UK
Green Chem., 2017,19, 140-152

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02482C,!divAbstract

Professor Alexei Lapkin, FRSC

Professor Alexei Lapkin FRSC

Professor of Sustainable Reaction Engineering

Fellow of Wolfson College

Catalytic Reaction Engineering

Sustainable Chemical Technologies

Office Phone: 330141

University of Cambridge
Image result for Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA, UK


MChem in Biochemistry, Novosibirsk State University, 1994

PhD in Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, 2000

Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk, Russia (1994-1997)

University of Bath, Department of Chemical Engineering, Research Officer (1997-2000)

University of Bath, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lecturer-SL-Reader (2000-2009)

University of Warwick, School of Engineering, Professor of Engineering (2009-2013)

Research Interests

Reaction Engineering group

Our group is developing cleaner manufacturing processes within chemical and chemistry using industries. We are mainly focusing on liquid- and multi-phase catalytic and biochemical processes. Within the group we have pursued projects on developing functional materials for catalysts, adsorbents and reactors, design of multi-functional intensive reactors, modelling of reaction kinetics and integrated processes, linking reaction kinetics with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and linking process modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA), integration of reactions and separation.

Public funding:

The group is currently involved in an EU project ‘RECOBA’ (, in which our group collaborates with Materials and Electronic Engineering at Cambridge to work on innovative measurement techniques for monitoring processes under reaction conditions.

We are involved in the EPSRC project on developing novel routes to platform and functional molecules from waste terpenes, led by University of Bath.

We are involved in “Dial a Molecule 2” network funded by EPSRC.


  • Reaction Engineering
  • flow
  • sustainability
  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • catalysis

Key Publications

J. Zakrzhewski, A.P. Smalley, M. Kabeshov, A. Lapkin, M. Gaunt, Continuous flow synthesis and derivatization of aziridines via palladium-catalyzed C(sp3)-H activation, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 55 (2016) 8878-8883.

P. Yaseneva, P. Hodgson, J. Zakrzewski, S. Falss, R.E. Meadows, A.A. Lapkin, Continuous flow Buchwald-Hartwig amination of a pharmaceutical intermediate, React. Chem. Eng., 1 (2016) 229-238.

P. Yaseneva, D. Plaza, X. Fan, K. Loponov, A. Lapkin, Synthesis of the antimalarial API artemether in a flow reactor, Catal. Today, 239 (2015) 90-96.

N. Peremezhney, E. Hines, A. Lapkin, C. Connaughton, Combining Gaussian processes, mutual information and a generic algorithm for multi-targeted optimisation of expensive-to-evaluate functions, Engineering Optimisation, 46 (2014) 1593-1607.

P. Yaseneva, C.F. Marti, E. Palomares, X. Fan, T. Morgan,P.S. Perez, M. Ronning, F. Huang,T. Yuranova, L. Kiwi-Minsker, S. Derrouiche, A.A. Lapkin, Efficient reduction of bromates using carbon nanofibre supported catalysts: experimental and a comparative life cycle assessment study, Chem. Eng. J., 248 (2014) 230-241

K.N. Loponov, J. Lopes, M. Barlog, E.V. Astrova, A.V. Malkov, A.A. Lapkin, Optimization of a Scalable Photochemical Reactor for Reactions with Singlet Oxygen, Org.Process Res.Dev., 18 (2014) 1443-1454.

X. Fan, V. Sans, P. Yaseneva, D. Plaza, J.M.J. Williams, A.A. Lapkin, Facile Stoichiometric Reductions in Flow: an Example of Artemisinin, Org.Process Res.Dev., 16 (2012) 1039-1042.

M.V. Sotenko, M. Rebros, V.S. Sans, K.N. Loponov, M.G. Davidson, G. Stephens, A.A. Lapkin, Tandem transformation of glycerol to esters, J. Biotechnol., 162 (2012) 390-397.

A.A. Lapkin, A. Voutchkova, P. Anastas, A conceptual framework for description of complexity in intensive chemical processes, Chem. Eng. Processing. Process intensification, 50 (2011) 1027-1034.

Lapkin, A., Peters, M., Greiner, L., Chemat, S., Leonhard, K., Liauw, M. A. and Leitner, W., Screening of new solvents for artemisinin extraction process using ab-initio methodology, Green Chem., 12 (2010) 241-251.

Lapkin, A. A. and Plucinski, P. K., Engineering factors for efficient flow processes in chemical industries, in Chemical reactions and processes under flow conditions, pp. 1- 43, Eds: Luis, S. V. and Garcia-Verdugo, E., Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2010.

Iwan, A., Stephenson, H., Ketchie, W. C. and Lapkin, A. A., High temperature sequestration of CO2 using lithium zirconates, Chem. Eng. J., 146 (2009) 249-258.

Constable, D. J. C., Jimenez-Gonzalez, C. and Lapkin A., ‘Process metrics’, in Green chemistry metrics: measuring and monitoring sustainable processes, pp.  228- 247, Eds.: Lapkin, A. and Constable, D. J. C., Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2008.

L.Torrente-Murciano, A.Lapkin, D.V. Bavykin, F.C. Walsh, K. Wilson, Highly selective Pd/titanate nanotubes catalysts for the double bond migration reaction, J. Catal., 245 (2007) 270-276.

A. Lapkin, P. Plucinski, Comparative assessment of technologies for extraction of artemisinin, J. Natural Prod., 69 (2006) 1653-1664.

D.V. Bavykin, A.A. Lapkin, S.T. Kolaczkowski, P.K. Plucinski, Selective oxidation of alcohols in a continuous multifunctional reactor: ruthenium oxide catalysed oxidation of benzyl alcohol, Applied Catal. A: General, 288 (2005) 165-174.

Image result for A. A. Lapkin

////////automation, chemical process,  route selection, data mining


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