AUTHOR OF THIS BLOG

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLDDRUGTRACKER

DDD 107498

 PRECLINICAL, Uncategorized  Comments Off on DDD 107498
Sep 122016
 

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DDD 107498, DDD 498

PATENT WO 2013153357,  US2015045354

6-Fluoro-2-[4-(morpholinomethyl)phenyl]-N-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethyl)quinoline-4-carboxamide

6-Fluoro-2-[4-(4-morpholinylmethyl)phenyl]-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]-4-quinolinecarboxamide

4-​Quinolinecarboxamide​, 6-​fluoro-​2-​[4-​(4-​morpholinylmethyl)​phenyl]​-​N-​[2-​(1-​pyrrolidinyl)​ethyl]​-

CAS 1469439-69-7

CAS 1469439-71-1 SUCCINATE

MF C27H31FN4O2
MW 462.559043 g/mol
      6-fluoro-2-[4-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)phenyl]-N-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethyl)quinoline-4-carboxamide
  • Originator Medicines for Malaria Venture; University of Dundee
  • Class Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Protein synthesis inhibitors

Highest Development Phases

  • No development reported Malaria

Most Recent Events

  • 16 Jul 2016 No recent reports of development identified for preclinical development in Malaria in United Kingdom
  • 01 Apr 2015 DDD 498 licensed to Merck Serono worldwide for the treatment of Malaria
Inventors Ian Hugh Gilbert, Neil Norcross, Beatriz Baragana Ruibal, Achim Porzelle
Original Assignee University Of Dundee

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Prof Ian Gilbert:

Head of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery

BCDD, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 1382-386240

 

University of Dundee

Image result for School of Life Sciences University of Dundee

 

Image result for School of Life Sciences University of Dundee

SCHEMBL15322600.pngDDD498

 

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Merck Serono and MMV sign agreement to develop potential antimalarial therapy

Agreement further diversifies MMV’s partner base, strengthening our antimalarial research and development portfolio

01 April 2015

Photo © Merck Serono

Merck Serono, the biopharmaceutical business of Merck, and MMV announced today that an agreement has been signed for Merck Serono to obtain the rights to the investigational antimalarial compound DDD107498 from MMV. This agreement underscores the commitment of Merck Serono to provide antimalarials for the most vulnerable populations in need.

“This agreement strengthens our Global Health research program and our ongoing collaboration with Medicines for Malaria Venture,” said Luciano Rossetti, Executive Vice President, Global Head of Research & Development at Merck Serono. “MMV is known worldwide for its major contribution to delivering innovative antimalarial treatments to the most vulnerable populations suffering from this disease, and at Merck Serono we share this goal.”

DDD107498 originated from a collaboration between MMV and the University of Dundee Drug Discovery Unit, led by Prof. Ian Gilbert and Dr. Kevin Read. The objective of the clinical program is to demonstrate whether the investigational compound exerts activity on a number of malaria parasite lifecycle stages, and remains active in the body long enough to offer potential as a single-dose treatment against the most severe strains of malaria.

While development and commercialization of the compound is under Merck Serono’s responsibility, MMV will provide expertise in the field of malaria drug development, including its clinical and delivery expertise, and provide access to its public and private sector networks in malaria-endemic countries.

Merck Serono has a dedicated Global Health R&D group working to address key unmet medical needs related to neglected diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, with a focus on pediatric populations in developing countries. Its approach is based on public-private partnerships and collaborations with leading global health institutions and organizations in both developed and developing countries.

“Working with partners like Merck Serono is critical to the progress of potential antimalarial compounds, like DDD107498, through the malaria drug pipeline,” said Dr. Timothy Wells, Chief Scientific Officer at MMV. “Their Global Health Program is gaining momentum and we need more compounds to tackle malaria, a disease that places a huge burden on the world’s most vulnerable populations. DDD107498 holds great promise and we look forward to working with the Merck Serono team through the development phase.”

According to the World Health Organization, there were an estimated 198 million cases of malaria worldwide in 2013, and an estimated 584,000 deaths, primarily in young children from the developing world. The launch of the not-for-profit research foundation, MMV, in 1999 and a number of collaborations and partnerships, including those with Merck Serono, has contributed to reducing the major gap in malaria R&D investment and subsequent dearth of new medicines.

“It’s hugely encouraging to see the German pharmaceutical industry increasing their engagement in the development of novel antimalarials,” said global malaria expert Prof. Dr. Peter Kremsner, Director of the Institute for Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen, Germany. “The Merck Serono and MMV collaboration to develop DDD107498 is a great step. It’s a compound that offers lots of promise so I’m excited to see how it progresses.

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Scots scientists in ‘single dose’ malaria treatment breakthrough

An antimalarial drug that could treat patients was discovered by Dundee university scientists

Scientists have discovered an antimalarial compound that could treat malaria patients in a single dose and help prevent the spread of the disease from infected people.

The compound DDD107498 also has the potential to treat patients with malaria parasites resistant to current medications, researchers say.

Scientists hope it could lead to treatments and protection against the disease, which claimed almost 600,000 lives amid 200 million reported cases in 2013.

The compound was identified through a collaboration between the University of Dundee’s drug discovery unit (DDU) and the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), a separate organisation.

The compound is now undergoing further safety testing with a view to entering human clinical trials within the next year.

Details of the discovery have been published in the journal Nature.

Professor Ian Gilbert, head of chemistry at the DDU, who led the team that discovered the compound, said: “The publication describes the discovery and profiling of this exciting new compound.

“It reveals that DDD107498 has the potential to treat malaria with a single dose, prevent the spread of malaria from infected people and protect a person from developing the disease in the first place.

“There is still some way to go before the compound can be given to patients. However, we are very excited by the progress that we have made.”

The World Health Organisation reports that there were 200 million clinical cases of malaria in 2013, with 584,000 people dying from the disease. Most of these deaths were children under the age of five and pregnant women.

MMV chief executive officer Dr David Reddy said: “Malaria continues to threaten almost half of the world’s population – the half that can least afford it.

“DDD107498 is an exciting compound since it holds the promise to not only treat but also protect these vulnerable populations.

“The collaboration to identify and progress the compound, led by the drug discovery unit at the University of Dundee, drew on MMV’s network of scientists from Melbourne to San Diego.”The publication of the research is an important step and a clear testament to the power of partnership.”

MMV selected DDD107498 to enter preclinical development in October 2013 following the recommendation of its expert scientific advisory committee.

Since then, with MMV’s leadership, large quantities of the compound have been produced and it is undergoing further safety testing with a view to entering human clinical trials within the next year.

Merck Serono has recently obtained the right to develop and, if successful, commercialise the compound, with the input of MMV’s expertise in the field of malaria drug development and access and delivery in malaria-endemic countries.

Dr Michael Chew from the Wellcome Trust, which provides funding for the DDU and MMV, said: “The need for new antimalarial drugs is more urgent than ever before, with emerging strains of the parasite now showing resistance against the best available drugs.

“These strains are already present at the Myanmar-Indian border and it’s a race against time to stop resistance spreading to the most vulnerable populations in Africa.

“The discovery of this new antimalarial agent, which has shown remarkable potency against multiple stages of the malaria lifecycle, is an exciting prospect in the hunt for viable new treatments.”

PAPER

 

Abstract Image

Figure

Discovery of a Quinoline-4-carboxamide Derivative with a Novel Mechanism of Action, Multistage Antimalarial Activity, and Potent in Vivo Efficacy

Drug Discovery Unit, Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, U.K.
Cell and Molecular Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ, U.K.
§ School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, United States
Eskitis Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane Innovation Park, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Swiss TPH, Socinstrasse 57, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
#University of Basel, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland
Medicines for Malaria Venture, International Centre Cointrin, Entrance G, 3rd Floor, Route de Pré-Bois 20, P.O. Box 1826, CH-1215, Geneva 15, Switzerland
J. Med. Chem., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00723
*K.D.R.: phone, +44 1382 388 688; e-mail, k.read@dundee.ac.uk., *I.H.G.: phone, +44 1382 386 240; e-mail,i.h.gilbert@dundee.ac.uk.
Figure
Conditions: (a) morpholine, Et3N, DCM, 16 h, 72% yield; (b) MeMgBr, toluene, reflux, 4 h and then a 10% aqueous HCl, reflux, 1 h, 70% yield; (c) NBS, benzoyl peroxide, dichlorobenzene, 140 °C, 16 h, 70% yield; (d) morpholine, K2CO3, acetonitrile, 40 °C, 16 h, 64% yield; (e) 5-fluoroisatin, KOH, EtOH, 120 °C, microwave, 20 min, 30–76% yield; (f) amine, CDMT, N-methylmorpholine, DCM, 20–61% yield.

 

A single-dose treatment against malaria worked in mice to cure them of the disease. The drug also worked to block infection in healthy mice and to stop transmission, according to a study published in Nature today. The fact that the drug can act against so many stages of malaria is pretty new, but what’s even more exciting is the compound’s mode of action: it kills malaria in a completely new way, researchers say. The feature would make it a welcome addition to our roster of antimalarials — a roster that’s threatened by drug resistance.

RESEARCHERS SIFTED THROUGH A LIBRARY OF ABOUT 4,700 COMPOUNDS TO FIND THIS ONE

Malaria is an infectious disease that’s transmitted through mosquito bites; it’s also a leading cause of death in a number of developing countries. Approximately 3.4 billion people live in areas where malaria poses a real threat. As a result, there were 207 million cases of malaria in 2012 — and 627,000 deaths. There are drugs that can be used to prevent malaria, and even treat it, but drug resistance is halting the use of certain treatments in some areas.

A long search

Searching for a new drug is all about trial and error. To find this particular compound, researchers sifted through a library of about 4,700 compounds, testing them to see if they were capable of killing the malaria parasite in a lab setting. When they found something that worked, they tweaked the drug candidate to see if it could perform more effectively. “We went through a lot of these cycles of testing and designing new compounds,” says Ian Gilbert, a medicinal chemist at the University of Dundee in the UK, and a co-author of the study. “Eventually we optimized to the compound which is the subject of the paper.” For now, that compound’s unwieldy name is DDD107498.

To make sure DDD107498 really had potential, the researchers tested it on mice that had already been infected with malaria. A single dose was enough to provoke a 90 percent reduction in the number of parasites in their blood. The scientists also gave the compound to healthy mice that were subsequently exposed to malaria. DDD107498 helped the mice evade infection with a single dose, but it’s unclear how long that effect would last in humans. Finally, the researchers looked at whether the compound could prevent the transmission from an infected mouse to a mosquito. A day after receiving the treatment, mice were put in contact with mosquitoes. The scientists noted a 91 percent reduction in infected mosquitoes.

“IT HAS THE ABILITY TO BE A ONE-DOSE [DRUG], IN COMBINATION WITH ANOTHER MOLECULE.”

“What’s exciting about this molecule is obviously the fact that it has the ability to be a one-dose [drug], in combination with another molecule to cure blood stage malaria,” says Kevin Read, a drug researcher also at the University of Dundee and a co-author of the study. The fact that the compound has the ability to block transmission and protect against infection is equally thrilling. But the way in which DDD107498 kills malaria might be its most interesting feature. It halts the production of proteins — which are necessary for the parasite’s survival. No other malaria drug does that right now, Read says. “So, in principle, there’s no resistance out there already to this mechanism.”

The drug hasn’t been tested in humans yet, so it may not be nearly as good in the field. But Read says DDD107498 looks promising. “From all the pre-clinical or non-clinical data we’ve generated, it is comparable or better than any of the current marketed anti-malarials in those studies.” And at $1 per treatment, the price of the drug should fall “within the range of what’s acceptable,” he says.

“It looks like an excellent study, and the results look very important,” says Philip Rosenthal, a malaria drug researcher at The University of California-San Francisco who didn’t participate in the study. This is a big shift for Rosenthal’s field. Five years ago, “we had very little going on in anti-malarial drug discovery,” he says. Now, there’s quite a bit going on for malaria researchers, and a number of promising compounds are moving along. DDD107498 “is another player, and it’s got a number of positive features,” he says.

OTHER TREATMENTS HAVE TO BE TAKEN FOR A FEW DAYS

One of the features is the drug’s potency. It’s very active against cultured malaria parasites, Rosenthal says. But what’s perhaps most intriguing about DDD107498 is that the drug works against the mechanism that enables protein synthesis the malaria parasite’s cells. No other malaria drug does that right now, Read says. “Considering challenges of treating malaria, which is often in rural areas and developing countries, a single dose would be a big plus,” he says. “In addition, because of it’s long half life, it may also work to prevent malaria with once a week dosing, which is also a benefit.”

Still, no drug is perfect. The data suggests that DDD107498 doesn’t kill malaria as quickly as some other drugs, Rosenthal says. And when the researchers tested it to see how long it might take for resistance to develop, the results weren’t as promising as he would like. The parasites figured out a way to become resistant to the compound “relatively easily,” he says. That shouldn’t be “deal-killer,” however. “Its slow onset of action probably means it should be combined with a faster-acting drug,” he says.

BUT IT’S SLOW-ACTING

The compound is going through safety testing now. If everything goes well, it should hit human trials within the next year, Read says. Chances are, it will have to be used in combination with other malaria drugs, Gilbert says. “All anti-malarials are given in combination because it slows down resistance.”

“When you’re treating infectious diseases, you know that drug resistance is always a potential problem, so having a number of choices to treat malaria is a good thing,” Rosenthal says. In this case, the drug’s new mode of action may hold lead to an entirely new weapon against malaria. “Obviously it’s got a long way to go,” Read says. But the compound is “very exciting,” nonetheless.

PATENT
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Example 16-Fluoro-2-[4-(morpholinomethyl)phenyl]-N-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethyl)quinoline-4-carboxamide, Example compound 1 in Scheme 2
str1
In a sealed microwave tube, a suspension of 2-chloro-6-fluoro-N-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethyl)quinoline-4-carboxamide (preparation 4) (2.00 g, 6 mmol), [4-(morpholinomethyl)phenyl]boronic acid, hydrochloride, available from UORSY, (3.20 g, 12 mmol), potassium phosphate (2.63 g, 12 mmol) and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (0) (0.21 g, 0.19 mmol) in DMF/Water 3/1 (40 ml) was heated at 130° C. under microwave irradiation for 30 min. The reaction was filtered through Celite™ and solvents were removed under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was taken up in DCM (150 ml) and washed twice with NaHCO3 saturated aqueous solution (2×100 ml). The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSO4 and concentrate to dryness under reduced pressure. The reaction crude was purified by flash column chromatography using an 80 g silica gel cartridge and eluting with DCM (Solvent A) and MeOH (Solvent B) and the following gradient: 1 min hold 100% A, followed by a 30 min ramp to 10% B, and then 15 min hold at 10% B. The fractions containing product were pooled together and concentrated to dryness under vacuum to obtain the desired product as an off-white solid (1 g). The product was dissolved in methanol (100 ml) and 3-mercaptopropyl ethyl sulfide Silica (Phosphonics, SPM-32, 60-200 uM) was added. The suspension was stirred at room temperature over for 2 days and then at 50° C. for 1 h. After cooling to room temperature, the scavenger was filtered off and washed with methanol (30 ml). The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the product was further purified by preparative HPLC. The fractions containing product were pooled together and freeze dried to obtain the desired product as a white solid (0.6 g, 1.3 mmol, Yield 20%).
1H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl3) δ 1.81-1.84 (m, 4H), 2.50-2.52 (m, 4H), 2.63 (brs, 4H), 2.82 (t, 2H, J=5.9 Hz), 3.61 (s, 2H), 3.71 (dd, 2H, J=5.4 Hz, J=11.4 Hz), 3.74-3.76 (m, 4H), 6.84 (brs, 1H), 7.52-7.57 (m, 3H), 7.97-8.00 (m, 2H), 8.13 (d, 2H, J=8.2 Hz), 8.21 (dd, 1H, J=5.5 Hz, J=9.2 Hz) ppm. 19F NMR (407.5 MHz; CDCl3) δ−111.47 ppm.
Purity by LCMS (UV Chromatogram, 190-450 nm) 99%, rt=5.7 min, m/z 463 (M+H)+ HRMS (ES+) found 463.2501 [M+H]+, C27H32F1N4O2 requires 463.2504.
Example 26-Fluoro-2-[4-(morpholinomethyl)phenyl]-N-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethyl)quinoline-4-carboxamide; fumaric acid salt, compound (IB) in Scheme 2
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The starting free base (example 1) (0.58 g, 1 mmol) was dissolved in dry ethanol (10 ml) and added dropwise to a stirred solution of fumaric acid (0.15 g, 1 mmol) in dry ethanol (9 ml). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The white precipitate was filtered, washed with ethanol (20 ml) and then dissolved in 10 ml of water and freeze dried to obtain the desired salt as a white solid (0.601 g, 1 mmol, Yield 82%).
1H NMR (500 MHz; d6-DMSO) δ 1.83-1.86 (m, 4H), 2.41 (brs, 4H), 2.94 (brs, 4H), 3.03 (t, 2H, J=6.2 Hz), 3.57 (s, 2H), 3.60-3.65 (m, 6H), 6.47 (s, 2H), 7.51 (d, 2H, J=8.25), 7.74-7.78 (m, 1H), 8.06 (dd, 1H, J=2.9 Hz, J=10.4 Hz), 8.17 (dd, 1H, J=5.7 Hz, J=9.3 Hz), 8.24-8.26 (m, 3H), 9.24 (t, 1H, J=5.5 Hz) ppm. 19F NMR (407.5 MHz; d6-DMSO) δ-112.30 ppm.
Purity by LCMS (UV Chromatogram, 190-450 nm) 99%, rt=5.3 min, m/z 463 (M+H)+
Example 1AAlternative synthesis of 6-fluoro-2-[4-(morpholinomethyl)phenyl]-N-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethyl)quinoline-4-carboxamide, Example compound 1A in Scheme 4
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To a stirred suspension of 6-fluoro-2-[4-(morpholinomethyl)phenyl]quinoline-4-carboxylic acid (preparation 7) (2.20 g, 6 mmol) in DCM (100 ml) at room temperature, 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine (CDMT) (1.26 g, 7 mmol) and 4-methylmorpholine (NMO) (1.33 ml, 12 mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and then 2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethanamine (0.77 ml, 6 mmol) was added and stirred at room temperature for further 3 h. The reaction mixture was washed with NaHCO3 saturated aqueous solution (2×100 ml) and the organic phase was separated, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was absorbed on silica gel and purified by flash column chromatography using an 80 g silica gel cartridge and eluting with DCM (Solvent A) and MeOH (Solvent B) and the following gradient: 2 min hold 100% A followed by a 30 min ramp to 10% B and then 15 min hold at 10% B. The desired fractions were concentrated to dryness under vacuum to obtain the crude product as a yellow solid (95% purity by LCMS). The sample was further purified by a second column chromatography using a 40 g silica gel cartridge, eluting with DCM (Solvent A) and 10% NH3-MeOH in DCM (Solvent B) and the following gradient: 2 min hold 100% A, followed by a 10 min ramp to 23% B and then 15 min hold at 23% B. The desired fractions were concentrated to dryness under vacuum to obtain product as a white solid (1 g). Re-crystallisation form acetonitrile (18 ml) yielded the title compound as a white solid (625 mg, 1.24 mmol, 20%).
1H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl3) δ 1.81-1.84 (m, 4H), 2.50-2.52 (m, 4H), 2.63 (brs, 4H), 2.82 (t, 2H, J=5.9 Hz), 3.61 (s, 2H), 3.71 (dd, 2H, J=5.4 Hz, J=11.4 Hz), 3.74-3.76 (m, 4H), 6.84 (brs, 1H), 7.52-7.57 (m, 3H), 7.97-8.00 (m, 2H), 8.13 (d, 2H, J=8.2 Hz), 8.21 (dd, 1H, J=5.5 Hz, J=9.2 Hz) ppm.
1H NMR (500 MHz; d6-DMSO) δ 1.72-1.75 (m, 4H), 2.41 (brs, 4H), 2.56 (brs, 4H), 2.67 (t, 2H, J=6.6 Hz), 3.49-3.52 (m, 2H), 3.56 (s, 2H), 3.60-3.61 (m, 4H), 7.52 (d, 2H, J=8.3 Hz), 7.73-7.77 (m, 1H), 8.07 (dd, 1H, J=2.9 Hz, J=10.4 Hz), 8.18-8.21 (m, 2H), 8.26 (d, 2H, J=8.3 Hz), 8.85 (t, 1H, J=6.6 Hz) ppm.
13C NMR (125 MHz; d6-DMSO3) δ 23.2, 38.4, 53.2, 53.5, 54.5, 62.1, 66.2, 109.0, 109.1, 117.3, 120.1, 120.3, 124.1, 124.2, 127.1, 129.4, 132.2, 132.3, 136.8, 139.9, 142.8, 145.2, 155.3, 159.0, 161.0, 166.1 ppm.
19F NMR (500 MHz; d6-DMSO) δ-112.47 ppm.
Purity by LCMS (UV Chromatogram, 190-450 nm) 99%, rt=5.0 min, m/z 463 (M+H)+
PATENT
WO 2016033635
Patent
WO 2013153357

SCHEME 1

Figure imgf000018_0001

SCHEME 2

Figure imgf000019_0001

Preparation 4Yield: 54% Preparation 3

Yield: 27%

Figure imgf000019_0002

SCHEME 4 B

Figure imgf000021_0001

Yield: 72% Yield: 70% Preparation 6

Figure imgf000021_0002

Example 1 : 6-Fluoro-2-r4-(morpholinomethyl)phenyll-N-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethyl)quinoline- 4-carboxamide, Example compound 1 in Scheme 2

Figure imgf000050_0002

In a sealed microwave tube, a suspension of 2-chloro-6-fluoro-N-(2-pyrrolidin-1- ylethyl)quinoline-4-carboxamide (preparation 4) (2.00 g, 6 mmol), [4- (morpholinomethyl)phenyl]boronic acid, hydrochloride, available from UORSY, (3.20 g, 12 mmol), potassium phosphate (2.63 g, 12 mmol) and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (0) (0.21 g, 0.19 mmol) in DMF/Water 3/1 (40 ml) was heated at 130°C under microwave irradiation for 30 min. The reaction was filtered through Celite™ and solvents were removed under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was taken up in DCM (150 ml) and washed twice with NaHC03 saturated aqueous solution (2 x 100 ml). The organic layer was separated, dried over MgS04and concentrate to dryness under reduced pressure. The reaction crude was purified by flash column chromatography using an 80 g silica gel cartridge and eluting with DCM (Solvent A) and MeOH (Solvent B) and the following gradient: 1 min hold 100% A, followed by a 30 min ramp to 10 % B, and then 15 min hold at 10% B. The fractions containing product were pooled together and concentrated to dryness under vacuum to obtain the desired product as an off-white solid (1 g). The product was dissolved in methanol (100 ml) and 3-mercaptopropyl ethyl sulfide Silica (Phosphonics, SPM-32, 60- 200 uM) was added. The suspension was stirred at room temperature over for 2 days and then at 50°C for 1 h. After cooling to room temperature, the scavenger was filtered off and washed with methanol (30 ml). The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the product was further purified by preparative HPLC. The fractions containing product were pooled together and freeze dried to obtain the desired product as a white solid (0.6 g, 1.3 mmol, Yield 20%).

1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCI3) δ 1.81-1.84 (m, 4H), 2.50-2.52 (m, 4H), 2.63 (brs, 4H), 2.82 (t, 2H, J = 5.9 Hz), 3.61 (s, 2H), 3.71 (dd, 2H, J = 5.4 Hz, J = 1 1.4 Hz), 3.74-3.76 (m, 4H), 6.84 (brs, 1 H), 7.52-7.57 (m, 3H), 7.97-8.00 (m, 2H), 8.13 (d, 2H, J = 8.2 Hz), 8.21 (dd, 1 H, J = 5.5 Hz, J = 9.2 Hz) ppm . 19 F NMR (407.5 MHz; CDCI3) δ -11 1.47 ppm. Purity by LCMS (UV Chromatogram, 190-450nm) 99 %, rt = 5.7 min, m/z 463 (M+H)+ HRMS (ES+) found 463.2501 [M+H]+, C27H32F1 N402 requires 463.2504.

Example 2: 6-Fluoro-2-[4-(morpholinomethyl)phenyl1-N-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethyl)quinoline- 4-carboxamide; fumaric acid salt, compound (IB) in Scheme 2

Figure imgf000051_0001

The starting free base (example 1) (0.58 g, 1 mmol) was dissolved in dry ethanol (10 ml) and added dropwise to a stirred solution of fumaric acid (0.15 g, 1 mmol) in dry ethanol (9 ml). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The white precipitate was filtered, washed with ethanol (20 ml) and then dissolved in 10 ml of water and freeze dried to obtain the desired salt as a white solid (0.601 g, 1 mmol, Yield 82%).

1 H NMR (500 MHz; d6-DMSO) δ 1.83-1.86 (m, 4H), 2.41 (brs, 4H), 2.94 (brs, 4H), 3.03 (t, 2H, J = 6.2 Hz), 3.57 (s, 2H), 3.60-3.65 (m, 6H), 6.47 (s, 2H), 7.51 (d, 2H, J = 8.25), 7.74-7.78 (m, 1 H), 8.06 (dd, 1 H, J = 2.9 Hz, J = 10.4 Hz), 8.17 (dd, 1 H, J = 5.7 Hz, J = 9.3 Hz), 8.24-8.26 (m, 3H), 9.24 (t, 1 H, J = 5.5 Hz) ppm. 19 F NMR (407.5 MHz; d6- DMSO) δ -112.30 ppm.

Purity by LCMS (UV Chromatogram, 190-450nm) 99 %, rt = 5.3 min, m/z 463 (M+H)+

Example 1A: Alternative synthesis of 6-fluoro-2-[4-(morpholinomethyl)phenyl1-N-(2- pyrrolidin-1-ylethyl)quinoline-4-carboxamide, Example compound 1A in Scheme 4

Figure imgf000052_0001

To a stirred suspension of 6-fluoro-2-[4-(morpholinomethyl)phenyl]quinoline-4-carboxylic acid (preparation 7) (2.20 g, 6 mmol) in DCM (100 ml) at room temperature, 2-chloro- 4,6-dimethoxy-1 ,3,5-triazine (CDMT) (1.26 g, 7 mmol) and 4-methylmorpholine (NMO) (1.33 ml, 12 mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and then 2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethanamine (0.77 ml, 6 mmol) was added and stirred at room temperature for further 3 h. The reaction mixture was washed with NaHC03 saturated aqueous solution (2x 100 ml) and the organic phase was separated, dried over MgS04 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was absorbed on silica gel and purified by flash column chromatography using an 80 g silica gel cartridge and eluting with DCM (Solvent A) and MeOH (Solvent B) and the following gradient: 2 min hold 100% A followed by a 30 min ramp to 10 %B and then 15 min hold at 10%B. The desired fractions were concentrated to dryness under vacuum to obtain the crude product as a yellow solid (95% purity by LCMS). The sample was further purified by a second column chromatography using a 40 g silica gel cartridge, eluting with DCM (Solvent A) and 10% NH3-MeOH in DCM (Solvent B) and the following gradient: 2 min hold 100% A, followed by a 10 min ramp to 23 % B and then 15 min hold at 23% B. The desired fractions were concentrated to dryness under vacuum to obtain product as a white solid (1 g). Re-crystallisation form acetonitrile (18 ml) yielded the title compound as a white solid (625 mg, 1.24 mmol, 20%).

1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCI3) δ 1.81-1.84 (m, 4H), 2.50-2.52 (m, 4H), 2.63 (brs, 4H), 2.82 (t, 2H, J = 5.9 Hz), 3.61 (s, 2H), 3.71 (dd, 2H, J = 5.4 Hz, J = 1 1.4 Hz), 3.74-3.76 (m, 4H), 6.84 (brs, 1 H), 7.52-7.57 (m, 3H), 7.97-8.00 (m, 2H), 8.13 (d, 2H, J = 8.2 Hz), 8.21 (dd, 1 H, J = 5.5 Hz, J = 9.2 Hz) ppm .

1 H NMR (500 MHz; d6-DMSO) δ 1.72-1.75 (m, 4H), 2.41 (brs, 4H), 2.56 (brs, 4H), 2.67 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz), 3.49-3.52 (m, 2H), 3.56 (s, 2H), 3.60-3.61 (m, 4H), 7.52 (d, 2H, J = 8.3 Hz), 7.73-7.77 (m, 1 H), 8.07 (dd, 1 H, J = 2.9 Hz, J = 10.4 Hz), 8.18-8.21 (m, 2H), 8.26 (d, 2H , J = 8.3 Hz), 8.85 (t, 1 H, J = 6.6 Hz) ppm.

13C NMR (125 MHz; d6-DMS03) 5 23.2, 38.4, 53.2, 53.5, 54.5, 62.1 , 66.2, 109.0, 109.1 , 1 17.3, 120.1 , 120.3, 124.1 , 124.2, 127.1 , 129.4, 132.2, 132.3, 136.8, 139.9, 142.8, 145.2, 155.3, 159.0, 161 .0, 166.1 ppm.

19 F NM R (500 MHz; d6-DMSO) δ -1 12.47 ppm.

Purity by LCMS (UV Chromatogram, 190-450nm) 99 %, rt = 5.0 min, m/z 463 (M+H)+

PAPER
A Quinoline Carboxamide Antimalarial Drug Candidate Uniquely Targets Plasmodia at Three Stages of the Parasite Life Cycle
Angewandte Chemie, International Edition (2015), 54, (46), 13504-13506
original image

Putting a stop to malaria: Phenotypic screening against malaria parasites, hit identification, and efficient lead optimization have delivered the preclinical candidate antimalarial DDD107498. This molecule is distinctive in that it has potential for use as a single-dose cure for malaria and shows a unique broad spectrum of activity against the liver, blood, and mosquito stages of the parasite life cycle.

 Prof. P. M. O’Neill Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool Liverpool, L69 7ZD (UK) E-mail: pmoneill@liverpool.ac.uk Prof. S. A. Ward Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place Liverpool, L3 5QA (UK)
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Professor Ian Gilbert FRSC

Design and synthesis of potential therapeutic agents
Position:
Professor of Medicinal Chemistry and Head of the Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery
Address:
College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee
Full Telephone:
+44 (0) 1382 386240, int ext 86240

Dr Neil Norcross

Position:
Medicinal Chemist
Address:
College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee
Full Telephone:
(0) , int ext
Image result for Beatriz Baragana Ruibal
La investigadora asturiana Beatriz Baragaña, en La Pola. / PABLO NOSTI
Image result for Achim Porzelle

Achim Porzelle

REFERENCES

///////////DDD107498, DDD 107498, PRECLINICAL, DUNDEE, MALARIA, DDD 498, Achim Porzelle, Ian Gilbert, MERCK SERENO, Beatriz Baragaña, Medicines for Malaria Venture,  University of Dundee, Neil Norcross, 1469439-69-7, 1469439-71-1 , SUCCINATE

Fc1ccc2nc(cc(c2c1)C(=O)NCCN1CCCC1)-c1ccc(cc1)CN1CCOCC1

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Sreeni Labs Private Limited, Hyderabad, India ready to deliver New, Economical, Scalable Routes to your advanced intermediates & API’s in early Clinical Drug Development Stages

 companies, INDIA, MANUFACTURING, new drugs, PRECLINICAL, PROCESS, regulatory  Comments Off on Sreeni Labs Private Limited, Hyderabad, India ready to deliver New, Economical, Scalable Routes to your advanced intermediates & API’s in early Clinical Drug Development Stages
Jul 162016
 

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Sreeni Labs Private Limited, Hyderabad, India is ready to take up challenging synthesis projects from your preclinical and clinical development and supply from few grams to multi-kilo quantities. Sreeni Labs has proven route scouting ability  to  design and develop innovative, cost effective, scalable routes by using readily available and inexpensive starting materials. The selected route will be further developed into a robust process and demonstrate on kilo gram scale and produce 100’s of kilos of in a relatively short time.

Accelerate your early development at competitive price by taking your route selection, process development and material supply challenges (gram scale to kilogram scale) to Sreeni Labs…………

INTRODUCTION

Sreeni Labs based in Hyderabad, India is working with various global customers and solving variety of challenging synthesis problems. Their customer base ranges from USA, Canada, India and Europe. Sreeni labs Managing Director, Dr. Sreenivasa Reddy Mundla has worked at Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals and Eli Lilly based in USA.

The main strength of Sreeni Labs is in the design, development of innovative and highly economical synthetic routes and development of a selected route into a robust process followed by production of quality product from 100 grams to 100s of kg scale. Sreeni Labs main motto is adding value in everything they do.

They have helped number of customers from virtual biotech, big pharma, specialty chemicals, catalog companies, and academic researchers and drug developers, solar energy researchers at universities and institutions by successfully developing highly economical and simple chemistry routes to number of products that were made either by very lengthy synthetic routes or  by using highly dangerous reagents and Suzuki coupling steps. They are able to supply materials from gram scale to multi kilo scale in a relatively short time by developing very short and efficient synthetic routes to a number of advanced intermediates, specialty chemicals, APIs and reference compounds. They also helped customers by drastically reducing number of steps, telescoping few steps into a single pot. For some projects, Sreeni Labs was able to develop simple chemistry and avoided use of palladium & expensive ligands. They always begin the project with end in the mind and design simple chemistry and also use readily available or easy to prepare starting materials in their design of synthetic routes

Over the years, Sreeni labs has successfully made a variety of products ranging from few mg to several kilogram scale. Sreeni labs has plenty of experience in making small select libraries of compounds, carbocyclic compounds like complex terpenoids, retinal derivatives, alkaloids, and heterocyclic compounds like multi substituted beta carbolines, pyridines, quinolines, quinolones, imidazoles, aminoimidazoles, quinoxalines, indoles, benzimidazoles, thiazoles, oxazoles, isoxazoles, carbazoles, benzothiazoles, azapines, benzazpines, natural and unnatural aminoacids, tetrapeptides, substituted oligomers of thiophenes and fused thiophenes, RAFT reagents, isocyanates, variety of ligands,  heteroaryl, biaryl, triaryl compounds, process impurities and metabolites.

Sreeni Labs is Looking for any potential opportunities where people need development of cost effective scalable routes followed by quick scale up to produce quality products in the pharmaceutical & specialty chemicals area. They can also take up custom synthesis and scale up of medchem analogues and building blocks.  They have flexible business model that will be in sink with customers. One can test their abilities & capabilities by giving couple of PO based (fee for service) projects.

Some of the compounds prepared by Sreeni labs;

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See presentation below

LINK ON SLIDESHARE

Managing Director at Sreeni Labs Private Limited

 

Few Case Studies : Source SEEENI LABS

QUOTE………….

One virtual biotech company customer from USA, through a common friend approached Sreeni Labs and told that they are buying a tetrapeptide from Bachem on mg scale at a very high price and requested us to see if we can make 5g. We accepted the challenge and developed solution phase chemistry and delivered 6g and also the process procedures in 10 weeks time. The customer told that they are using same procedures with very minor modifications and produced the tetrapeptide ip to 100kg scale as the molecule is in Phase III.

 

One East coast customer in our first meeting told that they are working with 4 CROs of which two are in India and two are in China and politely asked why they should work with Sreeni Labs. We told that give us a project where your CROs failed to deliver and we will give a quote and work on it. You pay us only if we deliver and you satisfy with the data. They immediately gave us a project to make 1.5g and we delivered 2g product in 9 weeks. After receiving product and the data, the customer was extremely happy as their previous CRO couldn’t deliver even a milligram in four months with 3 FTEs.

 

One Midwest biotech company was struggling to remove palladium from final API as they were doing a Suzuki coupling with a very expensive aryl pinacol borane and bromo pyridine derivative with an expensive ligand and relatively large amount of palldium acetate. The cost of final step catalyst, ligand and the palladium scavenging resin were making the project not viable even though the product is generating excellent data in the clinic. At this point we signed an FTE agreement with them and in four months time, we were able to design and develop a non suzuki route based on acid base chemistry and made 15g of API and compared the analytical data and purity with the Suzuki route API. This solved all three problems and the customer was very pleased with the outcome.

 

One big pharma customer from east coast, wrote a structure of chemical intermediate on a paper napkin in our first meeting and asked us to see if we can make it. We told that we can make it and in less than 3 weeks time we made a gram sample and shared the analytical data. The customer was very pleased and asked us to make 500g. We delivered in 4 weeks and in the next three months we supplied 25kg of the same product.

 

Through a common friend reference, a European customer from a an academic institute, sent us an email requesting us to quote for 20mg of a compound with compound number mentioned in J. med. chem. paper. It is a polycyclic compound with four contiguous stereogenic centers.  We gave a quote and delivered 35 mg of product with full analytical data which was more pure than the published in literature. Later on we made 8g and 6g of the same product.

 

One West coast customer approached us through a common friend’s reference and told that they need to improve the chemistry of an advanced intermediate for their next campaign. At that time they are planning to make 15kg of that intermediate and purchased 50kg of starting raw material for $250,000. They also put five FTEs at a CRO  for 5 months to optimize the remaining 5 steps wherein they are using LAH, Sodium azide,  palladium catalyst and a column chromatography. We requested the customer not to purchase the 50kg raw material, and offered that we will make the 15kg for the price of raw material through a new route  in less than three months time. You pay us only after we deliver 15 kg material. The customer didn’t want to take a chance with their timeline as they didn’t work with us before but requested us to develop the chemistry. In 7 weeks time, we developed a very simple four step route for their advanced intermediate and made 50g. We used very inexpensive and readily available starting material. Our route gave three solid intermediates and completely eliminated chromatographic purifications.

 

One of my former colleague introduced an academic group in midwest and brought us a medchem project requiring synthesis of 65 challenging polyene compounds on 100mg scale. We designed synthetic routes and successfully prepared 60 compounds in a 15 month time.  

UNQUOTE…………

 

The man behind Seeni labs is Dr.Sreenivasa  Reddy Mundla

Sreenivasa Reddy

Dr. Sreenivasa Reddy Mundla

Managing Director at Sreeni Labs Private Limited

Sreeni Labs Private Limited

Road No:12, Plot No:24,25,26

  • IDA, Nacharam
    Hyderabad, 500076
    Telangana State, India

Links

LINKEDIN https://in.linkedin.com/in/sreenivasa-reddy-10b5876

FACEBOOK https://www.facebook.com/sreenivasa.mundla

RESEARCHGATE https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sreenivasa_Mundla/info

EMAIL mundlasr@hotmail.com,  Info@sreenilabs.com, Sreeni@sreenilabs.com

Dr. Sreenivasa Mundla Reddy

Dr. M. Sreenivasa Reddy obtained Ph.D from University of Hyderabad under the direction Prof Professor Goverdhan Mehta in 1992. From 1992-1994, he was a post doctoral fellow at University of Wisconsin in Professor Jame Cook’s lab. From 1994 to 2000,  worked at Chemical process R&D at Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals (P&G). From 2001 to 2007 worked at Global Chemical Process R&D at Eli Lilly and Company in Indianapolis. 

In 2007  resigned to his  job and founded Sreeni Labs based in Hyderabad, Telangana, India  and started working with various global customers and solving various challenging synthesis problems. 
The main strength of Sreeni Labs is in the design, development of a novel chemical route and its development into a robust process followed by production of quality product from 100 grams to 100’s of kg scale.
 

They have helped number of customers by successfully developing highly economical simple chemistry routes to number of products that were made by Suzuki coupling. they are able to shorten the route by drastically reducing number of steps, avoiding use of palladium & expensive ligands. they always use readily available or easy to prepare starting materials in their design of synthetic routes.

Sreeni Labs is Looking for any potential opportunities where people need development of cost effective scalable routes followed by quick scale up to produce quality products in the pharmaceutical & specialty chemicals area. They have flexible business model that will be in sink with customers. One can test their abilities & capabilities by giving PO based projects

Experience

Founder & Managing Director

Sreeni Labs Private Limited

August 2007 – Present (8 years 11 months)

Sreeni Labs Profile

Sreeni Labs Profile

View On SlideShare

Principal Research Scientist

Eli Lilly and Company

March 2001 – August 2007 (6 years 6 months)

Senior Research Scientist

Procter & Gamble

July 1994 – February 2001 (6 years 8 months)

Education

University of Hyderabad

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), 
1986 – 1992

 

PUBLICATIONS

Article: Expansion of First-in-Class Drug Candidates That Sequester Toxic All-Trans-Retinal and Prevent Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

Jianye Zhang · Zhiqian Dong · Sreenivasa Reddy Mundla · X Eric Hu · William Seibel ·Ruben Papoian · Krzysztof Palczewski · Marcin Golczak

Article: ChemInform Abstract: Regioselective Synthesis of 4Halo ortho-Dinitrobenzene Derivative

Sreenivasa Mundla

Aug 2010 · ChemInform

Article: Optimization of a Dihydropyrrolopyrazole Series of Transforming Growth Factor-β Type I Receptor Kinase Domain Inhibitors: Discovery of an Orally Bioavailable Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor Type I Inhibitor as Antitumor Agent

Hong-yu Li · William T. McMillen · Charles R. Heap · Denis J. McCann · Lei Yan · Robert M. Campbell · Sreenivasa R. Mundla · Chi-Hsin R. King · Elizabeth A. Dierks · Bryan D. Anderson · Karen S. Britt · Karen L. Huss

Apr 2008 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

Article: ChemInform Abstract: A Concise Synthesis of Quinazolinone TGF-β RI Inhibitor Through One-Pot Three-Component Suzuki—Miyaura/Etherification and Imidate—Amide Rearrangement Reactions

Hong-yu Li · Yan Wang · William T. McMillen · Arindam Chatterjee · John E. Toth ·Sreenivasa R. Mundla · Matthew Voss · Robert D. Boyer · J. Scott Sawyer

Feb 2008 · ChemInform

Article: ChemInform Abstract: A Concise Synthesis of Quinazolinone TGF-β RI Inhibitor Through One-Pot Three-Component Suzuki—Miyaura/Etherification and Imidate—Amide Rearrangement Reactions

Hong-yu Li · Yan Wang · William T. McMillen · Arindam Chatterjee · John E. Toth ·Sreenivasa R. Mundla · Matthew Voss · Robert D. Boyer · J. Scott Sawyer

Nov 2007 · Tetrahedron

Article: Dihydropyrrolopyrazole Transforming Growth Factor-β Type I Receptor Kinase Domain Inhibitors: A Novel Benzimidazole Series with Selectivity versus Transforming Growth Factor-β Type II Receptor Kinase and Mixed Lineage Kinase-7

Hong-yu Li · Yan Wang · Charles R Heap · Chi-Hsin R King · Sreenivasa R Mundla · Matthew Voss · David K Clawson · Lei Yan · Robert M Campbell · Bryan D Anderson · Jill R Wagner ·Karen Britt · Ku X Lu · William T McMillen · Jonathan M Yingling

Apr 2006 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

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Article: Studies on the Rh and Ir mediated tandem Pauson–Khand reaction. A new entry into the dicyclopenta[ a, d]cyclooctene ring system

Hui Cao · Sreenivasa R. Mundla · James M. Cook

Aug 2003 · Tetrahedron Letters

Article: ChemInform Abstract: A New Method for the Synthesis of 2,6-Dinitro and 2Halo6-nitrostyrenes

Sreenivasa R. Mundla

Nov 2000 · ChemInform

Article: ChemInform Abstract: A Novel Method for the Efficient Synthesis of 2-Arylamino-2-imidazolines

Read at

[LINK]

Patents by Inventor Dr. Sreenivasa Reddy Mundla

  • Patent number: 7872020

    Abstract: The present invention provides crystalline 2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl)-5,6-dihydro -4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazole monohydrate.

    Type: Grant

    Filed: June 29, 2006

    Date of Patent: January 18, 2011

    Assignee: Eli Lilly and Company

    Inventor: Sreenivasa Reddy Mundla

  • Publication number: 20100120854

    Abstract: The present invention provides crystalline 2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazole monohydrate.

    Type: Application

    Filed: June 29, 2006

    Publication date: May 13, 2010

    Applicant: ELI LILLY AND COMPANY

    Inventor: Sreenivasa Reddy Mundla

  • Patent number: 6066740

    Abstract: The present invention provides a process for making 2-amino-2-imidazoline, guanidine, and 2-amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroyrimidine derivatives by preparing the corresponding activated 2-thio-subsituted-2-derivative in a two-step, one-pot procedure and by further reacting yields this isolated derivative with the appropriate amine or its salts in the presence of a proton source. The present process allows for the preparation of 2-amino-2-imidazolines, quanidines, and 2-amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidines under reaction conditions that eliminate the need for lengthy, costly, or multiple low yielding steps, and highly toxic reactants. This process allows for improved yields and product purity and provides additional synthetic flexibility.

    Type: Grant

    Filed: November 25, 1997

    Date of Patent: May 23, 2000

    Assignee: The Procter & Gamble Company

    Inventors: Michael Selden Godlewski, Sean Rees Klopfenstein, Sreenivasa Reddy Mundla, William Lee Seibel, Randy Stuart Muth

TGF-β inhibitors

US 7872020 B2

Sreenivasa Reddy Mundla

The present invention provides 2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl) -5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazole monohydrate, i.e., Formula I.

Figure US07872020-20110118-C00002

EXAMPLE 1 Preparation of 2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl-5,6-dihydro-4H -pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazole monohydrate

Figure US07872020-20110118-C00008

Galunisertib

1H NMR (CDCl3): δ=9.0 ppm (d, 4.4 Hz, 1H); 8.23-8.19 ppm (m, 2H); 8.315 ppm (dd, 1.9 Hz, 8.9 Hz, 1H); 7.455 ppm (d, 4.4 Hz, 1H); 7.364 ppm (t, 7.7 Hz, 1H); 7.086 ppm (d, 8.0 Hz, 1H); 6.969 ppm (d, 7.7 Hz, 1H); 6.022 ppm (m, 1H); 5.497 ppm (m, 1H); 4.419 ppm (t, 7.3 Hz, 2H); 2.999 ppm (m, 2H); 2.770 ppm (p, 7.2 Hz, 7.4 Hz, 2H); 2.306 ppm (s, 3H); 1.817 ppm (m, 2H). MS ES+: 370.2; Exact: 369.16

ABOVE MOLECULE IS

https://newdrugapprovals.org/2016/05/04/galunisertib/

Galunisertib

Phase III

LY-2157299

CAS No.700874-72-2

 

 

READ MY PRESENTATION ON

Accelerating Generic Approvals, see how you can accelerate your drug development programme

Accelerating Generic Approvals by Dr Anthony Crasto

KEYWORDS   Sreenivasa Mundla Reddy, Managing Director, Sreeni Labs Private Limited, Hyderabad, Telangana, India,  new, economical, scalable routes, early clinical drug development stages, Custom synthesis, custom manufacturing, drug discovery, PHASE 1, PHASE 2, PHASE 3,  API, drugs, medicines

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PF-05388169

 PRECLINICAL, Uncategorized  Comments Off on PF-05388169
Jul 052016
 

 

str1

PF-05388169

CAS 1604034-78-7,  MF C22 H21 N3 O4

MW 391.42

11H-​Indolo[3,​2-​c]​quinoline-​9-​carbonitrile, 2-​methoxy-​3-​[2-​(2-​methoxyethoxy)​ethoxy]​-
IRAK4 inhibitor

Rheumatoid arthritis;
SLE

Preclinical

 

 

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PAPER

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2014), 24(9), 2066-2072.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X14002832

Identification and optimization of indolo[2,3-c]quinoline inhibitors of IRAK4

  • a Pfizer Global R&D, 445 Eastern Point Rd., Groton, CT 06340, USA
  • b Pfizer Global R&D, 200 Cambridge Park Dr., Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
  • c Pfizer Global R&D, 87 Cambridgepark Dr., Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
  • d Pfizer Global R&D, 1 Burtt Rd., Andover, MA 01810, USA

Image for unlabelled figure

IRAK4 is responsible for initiating signaling from Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and members of the IL-1/18 receptor family. Kinase-inactive knock-ins and targeted deletions of IRAK4 in mice cause reductions in TLR induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and these mice are resistant to various models of arthritis. Herein we report the identification and optimization of a series of potent IRAK4 inhibitors. Representative examples from this series showed excellent selectivity over a panel of kinases, including the kinases known to play a role in TLR-mediated signaling. The compounds exhibited low nM potency in LPS- and R848-induced cytokine assays indicating that they are blocking the TLR signaling pathway. A key compound (26) from this series was profiled in more detail and found to have an excellent pharmaceutical profile as measured by predictive assays such as microsomal stability, TPSA, solubility, and c log P. However, this compound was found to afford poor exposure in mouse upon IP or IV administration. We found that removal of the ionizable solubilizing group (32) led to increased exposure, presumably due to increased permeability. Compounds 26 and 32, when dosed to plasma levels corresponding to ex vivo whole blood potency, were shown to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα in an in vivo murine model. To our knowledge, this is the first published in vivo demonstration that inhibition of the IRAK4 pathway by a small molecule can recapitulate the phenotype of IRAK4 knockout mice.

 

 

 

 

 

SYNTHESIS

STR1

 

 

//////////PF-05388169, TLR signaling, Indoloquinoline, IRAK4, Kinase inhibitor, Inflammation, PRECLINICAL, 1604034-78-7

C(COC)OCCOc4c(cc3\C2=N\c1cc(ccc1/C2=C/Nc3c4)C#N)OC

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PF-05387252

 PRECLINICAL, Uncategorized  Comments Off on PF-05387252
Jul 052016
 

 

str1

PF-05387252

CAS  1604034-71-0

C25H27N5O2
MW 429.51418 g/mol

2-methoxy-3-[3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propoxy]-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-9-carbonitrile

IRAK4 inhibitor

Rheumatoid arthritis;
SLE

Preclinical

In the past decade there has been considerable interest in targeting the innate immune system in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and sterile inflammation. Receptors of the innate immune system provide the first line of defense against bacterial and viral insults. These receptors recognize bacterial and viral products as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines and thereby initiate a signaling cascade that ultimately results in the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL6, and interferons. Recently it has become apparent that self-generated ligands such as nucleic acids and products of inflammation such as HMGB1 and Advanced Glycated End-products (AGE) are ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are key receptors of the innate immune system.

This demonstrates the role of TLRs in the initiation and perpetuation of inflammation due to autoimmunity.

Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK4) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase involved in the regulation of innate immunity. IRAK4 is responsible for initiating signaling from TLRs and members of the IL-1/18 receptor family. Kinase-inactive knock-ins and targeted deletions of IRAK4 in mice lead to reductions in TLR and IL-1 induced pro-inflammatory cytokines. and 7 IRAK-4 kinase-dead knock-in mice have been shown to be resistant to induced joint inflammation in the antigen-induced-arthritis (AIA) and serum transfer-induced (K/BxN) arthritis models. Likewise, humans deficient in IRAK4 also display the inability to respond to challenge by TLR ligands and IL-1

 However, the immunodeficient phenotype of IRAK4-null individuals is narrowly restricted to challenge by gram positive bacteria, but not gram negative bacteria, viruses or fungi. This gram positive sensitivity also lessens with age implying redundant or compensatory mechanisms for innate immunity in the absence of IRAK4.These data suggest that inhibitors of IRAK4 kinase activity will have therapeutic value in treating cytokine driven autoimmune diseases while having minimal immunosuppressive side effects. Additional recent studies suggest that targeting IRAK4 may be a viable strategy for the treatment of other inflammatory pathologies such as atherosclerosis.

Indeed, the therapeutic potential of IRAK4 inhibitors has been recognized by others within the drug-discovery community as evidenced by the variety of IRAK4 inhibitors have been reported to-date.12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 However, limited data has been published about these compounds and they appear to suffer from a variety of issues such as poor kinase selectivity and poor whole-blood potency that preclude their advancement into the pre-clinical models. To the best of our knowledge, no in vivo studies of IRAK4 inhibitors have been reported to-date in the literature. Herein we report a new class of IRAK4 inhibitors that are shown to recapitulate the phenotype observed in IRAK4 knockout and kinase-dead mice.

PAPER

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2014), 24(9), 2066-2072.

doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.03.056

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X14002832

Identification and optimization of indolo[2,3-c]quinoline inhibitors of IRAK4

  • a Pfizer Global R&D, 445 Eastern Point Rd., Groton, CT 06340, USA
  • b Pfizer Global R&D, 200 Cambridge Park Dr., Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
  • c Pfizer Global R&D, 87 Cambridgepark Dr., Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
  • d Pfizer Global R&D, 1 Burtt Rd., Andover, MA 01810, USA

Image for unlabelled figure

Abstract

IRAK4 is responsible for initiating signaling from Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and members of the IL-1/18 receptor family. Kinase-inactive knock-ins and targeted deletions of IRAK4 in mice cause reductions in TLR induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and these mice are resistant to various models of arthritis. Herein we report the identification and optimization of a series of potent IRAK4 inhibitors. Representative examples from this series showed excellent selectivity over a panel of kinases, including the kinases known to play a role in TLR-mediated signaling. The compounds exhibited low nM potency in LPS- and R848-induced cytokine assays indicating that they are blocking the TLR signaling pathway. A key compound (26) from this series was profiled in more detail and found to have an excellent pharmaceutical profile as measured by predictive assays such as microsomal stability, TPSA, solubility, and c log P. However, this compound was found to afford poor exposure in mouse upon IP or IV administration. We found that removal of the ionizable solubilizing group (32) led to increased exposure, presumably due to increased permeability. Compounds 26 and 32, when dosed to plasma levels corresponding to ex vivo whole blood potency, were shown to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα in an in vivo murine model. To our knowledge, this is the first published in vivo demonstration that inhibition of the IRAK4 pathway by a small molecule can recapitulate the phenotype of IRAK4 knockout mice.

 

 

 

 

CID 50992153.png

SYNTHESIS

STR1

 

////////PF-05387252,  1604034-71-0, PF 05387252, TLR signaling, Indoloquinoline, IRAK4, Kinase inhibitor, Inflammation, PRECLINICAL

N1(CCN(CC1)CCCOc3c(cc2c4nc5cc(ccc5c4cnc2c3)C#N)OC)C

OR

CN1CCN(CC1)CCCOC2=C(C=C3C(=C2)N=CC4=C3NC5=C4C=CC(=C5)C#N)OC

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JNJ-54257099

 PRECLINICAL, Uncategorized  Comments Off on JNJ-54257099
Jun 062016
 

STR1

 

 

 

Abstract Image

JNJ-54257099,

1-((2R,4aR,6R,7R,7aR)-2-Isopropoxy-2-oxidodihydro-4H,6H-spiro[furo[3,2-d][1,3,2]dioxaphosphinine-7,2′-oxetan]-6-yl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione

MW 374.28, C14 H19 N2 O8 P

CAS 1491140-67-0

2,​4(1H,​3H)​-​Pyrimidinedione, 1-​[(2R,​2′R,​4aR,​6R,​7aR)​-​dihydro-​2-​(1-​methylethoxy)​-​2-​oxidospiro[4H-​furo[3,​2-​d]​-​1,​3,​2-​dioxaphosphorin-​7(6H)​,​2′-​oxetan]​-​6-​yl]​-

1-((2R,4aR,6R,7R,7aR)-2-Isopropoxy-2-oxidodihydro-4H,6H-spiro[furo[3,2-d][1,3,2]dioxaphos-phinine-7,2′-oxetan]-6-yl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione

Janssen R&D Ireland INNOVATOR

Ioannis Nicolaos Houpis, Tim Hugo Maria Jonckers, Pierre Jean-Marie Bernard Raboisson, Abdellah Tahri

 

 

 

STR1

Tim Hugo Maria Jonckers

 

Tim Jonckers was born in Antwerp in 1974. He studied Chemistry at the University of Antwerp and obtained his Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 2002. His Ph.D. work covered the synthesis of new necryptolepine derivatives which have potential antimalarial activity. Currently he works as a Senior Scientist at Tibotec, a pharmaceutical research and development company based in Mechelen, Belgium, that focuses on viral diseases mainly AIDS and hepatitis. The company was acquired by Johnson & Johnson in April 2002 and recently gained FDA approval for its HIV-protease inhibitor PREZISTA™.

Abdellah TAHRI

Principal Scientist at Janssen, Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson and Johnson

 

 

Pierre Raboisson

Pierre Raboisson

PhD, Pharm.D
Head of Medicinal Chemistry

DATA

Chiral SFC using the methods described(Method 1, Rt= 5.12 min, >99%; Method 2, Rt = 7.95 min, >99%).

1H NMR (400 MHz, chloroform-d) δ ppm 1.45 (dd, J = 7.53, 6.27 Hz, 6 H), 2.65–2.84 (m, 2 H), 3.98 (td, J = 10.29, 4.77 Hz, 1 H), 4.27 (t,J = 9.66 Hz, 1 H), 4.43 (ddd, J = 8.91, 5.77, 5.65 Hz, 1 H), 4.49–4.61 (m, 1 H), 4.65 (td, J = 7.78, 5.77 Hz, 1 H), 4.73 (d, J = 7.78 Hz, 1 H), 4.87 (dq, J = 12.74, 6.30 Hz, 1 H), 5.55 (br. s., 1 H), 5.82 (d, J = 8.03 Hz, 1 H), 7.20 (d, J = 8.03 Hz, 1 H), 8.78 (br. s., 1 H);

31P NMR (chloroform-d) δ ppm −7.13. LC-MS: 375 (M + H)+.

 

HCV is a single stranded, positive-sense R A virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family of viruses in the hepacivirus genus. The NS5B region of the RNA polygene encodes a RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is essential to viral replication. Following the initial acute infection, a majority of infected individuals develop chronic hepatitis because HCV replicates preferentially in hepatocytes but is not directly cytopathic. In particular, the lack of a vigorous T-lymphocyte response and the high propensity of the virus to mutate appear to promote a high rate of chronic infection. Chronic hepatitis can progress to liver fibrosis, leading to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), making it the leading cause of liver transplantations. There are six major HCV genotypes and more than 50 subtypes, which are differently distributed geographically. HCV genotype 1 is the predominant genotype in Europe and in the US. The extensive genetic heterogeneity of HCV has important diagnostic and clinical implications, perhaps explaining difficulties in vaccine development and the lack of response to current therapy.

Transmission of HCV can occur through contact with contaminated blood or blood products, for example following blood transfusion or intravenous drug use. The introduction of diagnostic tests used in blood screening has led to a downward trend in post-transfusion HCV incidence. However, given the slow progression to the end-stage liver disease, the existing infections will continue to present a serious medical and economic burden for decades.

Therapy possibilities have extended towards the combination of a HCV protease inhibitor (e.g. Telaprevir or boceprevir) and (pegylated) interferon-alpha (IFN-a) / ribavirin. This combination therapy has significant side effects and is poorly tolerated in many patients. Major side effects include influenza-like symptoms, hematologic

abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Hence there is a need for more effective, convenient and better-tolerated treatments.

The NS5B RdRp is essential for replication of the single-stranded, positive sense, HCV RNA genome. This enzyme has elicited significant interest among medicinal chemists. Both nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors of NS5B are known. Nucleoside inhibitors can act as a chain terminator or as a competitive inhibitor, or as both. In order to be active, nucleoside inhibitors have to be taken up by the cell and converted in vivo to a triphosphate. This conversion to the triphosphate is commonly mediated by cellular kinases, which imparts additional structural requirements on a potential nucleoside polymerase inhibitor. In addition this limits the direct evaluation of nucleosides as inhibitors of HCV replication to cell-based assays capable of in situ phosphorylation.

Several attempts have been made to develop nucleosides as inhibitors of HCV RdRp, but while a handful of compounds have progressed into clinical development, none have proceeded to registration. Amongst the problems which HCV-targeted

nucleosides have encountered to date are toxicity, mutagenicity, lack of selectivity, poor efficacy, poor bioavailability, sub-optimal dosage regimes and ensuing high pill burden and cost of goods.

Spirooxetane nucleosides, in particular l-(8-hydroxy-7-(hydroxy- methyl)- 1,6-dioxaspiro[3.4]octan-5-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-dione derivatives and their use as HCV inhibitors are known from WO2010/130726, and WO2012/062869, including

CAS-1375074-52-4.

There is a need for HCV inhibitors that may overcome at least one of the disadvantages of current HCV therapy such as side effects, limited efficacy, the emerging of resistance, and compliance failures, or improve the sustained viral response.

The present invention concerns HCV-inhibiting uracyl spirooxetane derivatives with useful properties regarding one or more of the following parameters: antiviral efficacy towards at least one of the following genotypes la, lb, 2a, 2b, 3,4 and 6, favorable

profile of resistance development, lack of toxicity and genotoxicity, favorable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and ease of formulation and administration.

Such an HCV-inhibiting uracyl spirooxetane derivative is a compound with formula I

including any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

PATENT

WO 2015077966

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015077966A1?cl=en

Synthesis of compound (I)

(5) (6a)

Synthesis of compound (6a)

A solution of isopropyl alcohol (3.86 mL,0.05mol) and triethylamine (6.983 mL, 0.05mol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was added to a stirred solution of POCI3 (5)

(5.0 mL, 0.055 lmol) in DCM (50 mL) dropwise over a period of 25 min at -5°C. After the mixture stirred for lh, the solvent was evaporated, and the residue was suspended in ether (100 mL). The triethylamine hydrochloride salt was filtered and washed with ether (20 mL). The filtrate was concentrated, and the residue was distilled to give the (6) as a colorless liquid (6.1g, 69 %yield).

Synthesis of compound (4):

CAS 1255860-33-3 is dissolved in pyridine and 1,3-dichloro-l, 1,3,3-tetraisopropyldisiloxane is added. The reaction is stirred at room temperature until complete. The solvent is removed and the product redissolved in CH2CI2 and washed with saturated NaHC03 solution. Drying on MgSC^ and removal of the solvent gives compound (2). Compound (3) is prepared by reacting compound (2) with p-methoxybenzylchloride in the presence of DBU as the base in CH3CN. Compound (4) is prepared by cleavage of the bis-silyl protecting group in compound (3) using TBAF as the fluoride source.

Synthesis of compound (7a)

To a stirred suspension of (4) (2.0 g, 5.13 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was added triethylamine (2.07 g, 20.46 mmol) at room temperature. The reaction mixture was cooled to -20°C, and then (6a) (1.2 g, 6.78mmol) was added dropwise over a period of lOmin. The mixture was stirred at this temperature for 15min and then NMI was added (0.84 g, 10.23 mmol), dropwise over a period of 15 min. The mixture was stirred at -15°C for lh and then slowly warmed to room temperature in 20 h. The solvent was evaporated, the mixture was concentrated and purified by column chromatography using petroleum ether/EtOAc (10: 1 to 5: 1 as a gradient) to give (7a) as white solid (0.8 g, 32 % yield).

Synthesis of compound (I)

To a solution of (7a) in CH3CN (30 mL) and H20 (7 mL) was add CAN portion wise below 20° C. The mixture was stirred at 15-20° C for 5h under N2. Na2S03 (370 mL) was added dropwise into the reaction mixture below 15°C, and then Na2C03 (370 mL) was added. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was extracted with CH2C12

(100 mL*3). The organic layer was dried and concentrated to give the residue. The residue was purified by column chromatography to give the target compound (8a) as white solid. (Yield: 55%)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM- ) δ ppm 1.45 (dd, J=7.53, 6.27 Hz, 6 H), 2.65 -2.84 (m, 2 H), 3.98 (td, J=10.29, 4.77 Hz, 1 H), 4.27 (t, J=9.66 Hz, 1 H), 4.43 (ddd, J=8.91, 5.77, 5.65 Hz, 1 H), 4.49 – 4.61 (m, 1 H), 4.65 (td, J=7.78, 5.77 Hz, 1 H), 4.73 (d, J=7.78 Hz, 1 H), 4.87 (dq, J=12.74, 6.30 Hz, 1 H), 5.55 (br. s., 1 H), 5.82 (d, J=8.03 Hz, 1 H), 7.20 (d, J=8.03 Hz, 1 H), 8.78 (br. s., 1 H); 31P NMR (CHLOROFORM-^) δ ppm -7.13; LC-MS: 375 (M+l)+

 

PATENT

https://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2013174962A1?cl=en

The starting material l-[(4R,5R,7R,8R)-8-hydroxy-7-(hydroxymethyl)-l,6-dioxa- spiro[3.4]octan-5-yl]pyrimidine-2,4(lH,3H)-dione (1) can be prepared as exemplified in WO2010/130726. Compound (1) is converted into compounds of the present invention via a p-methoxybenzyl protected derivative (4) as exemplified in the following Scheme 1. cheme 1

Figure imgf000011_0001

Examples

Scheme 2

Synthesis of compound (8a)

Figure imgf000015_0001

Synthesis of compound (2)

Compound (2) can be prepared by dissolving compound (1) in pyridine and adding l,3-dichloro-l,l,3,3-tetraisopropyldisiloxane. The reaction is stirred at room temperature until complete. The solvent is removed and the product redissolved in CH2CI2and washed with saturated NaHC03 solution. Drying on MgSC^ and removal of the solvent gives compound (2).

Synthesis of compound (3)

Compound (3) is prepared by reacting compound (2) with p-methoxybenzylchloride in the presence of DBU as the base in CH3CN.

Synthesis of compound (4)

Compound (4) is prepared by cleavage of the bis-silyl protecting group in compound (3) using TBAF as the fluoride source.

Synthesis of compound (6a)

A solution of isopropyl alcohol (3.86 mL,0.05mol) and triethylamine (6.983 mL, 0.05mol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was added to a stirred solution of POCl3 (5) (5.0 mL, 0.055 lmol) in DCM (50 mL) dropwise over a period of 25 min at -5°C. After the mixture stirred for lh, the solvent was evaporated, and the residue was suspended in ether (100 mL). The triethylamine hydrochloride salt was filtered and washed with ether (20 mL). The filtrate was concentrated, and the residue was distilled to give the (6) as a colorless liquid (6.1g, 69 %yield).

Synthesis of compound (7a)

To a stirred suspension of (4) (2.0 g, 5.13 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was added triethylamine (2.07 g, 20.46 mmol) at room temperature. The reaction mixture was cooled to -20°C, and then (6a) (1.2 g, 6.78mmol) was added dropwise over a period of lOmin. The mixture was stirred at this temperature for 15min and then NMI was added (0.84 g, 10.23 mmol), dropwise over a period of 15 min. The mixture was stirred at -15°C for lh and then slowly warmed to room temperature in 20 h. The solvent was evaporated, the mixture was concentrated and purified by column chromatography using petroleum ether/EtOAc (10:1 to 5: 1 as a gradient) to give (7a) as white solid (0.8 g, 32 % yield).

Synthesis of compound (8a)

To a solution of (7a) in CH3CN (30 mL) and H20 (7 mL) was add CAN portion wise below 20°C. The mixture was stirred at 15-20°C for 5h under N2. Na2S03 (370 mL) was added dropwise into the reaction mixture below 15°C, and then Na2C03 (370 mL) was added. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was extracted with CH2C12

(100 mL*3). The organic layer was dried and concentrated to give the residue. The residue was purified by column chromatography to give the target compound (8a) as white solid. (Yield: 55%)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM- ) δ ppm 1.45 (dd, J=7.53, 6.27 Hz, 6 H), 2.65 – 2.84 (m, 2 H), 3.98 (td, J=10.29, 4.77 Hz, 1 H), 4.27 (t, J=9.66 Hz, 1 H), 4.43 (ddd, J=8.91, 5.77, 5.65 Hz, 1 H), 4.49 – 4.61 (m, 1 H), 4.65 (td, J=7.78, 5.77 Hz, 1 H), 4.73 (d, J=7.78 Hz, 1 H), 4.87 (dq, J=12.74, 6.30 Hz, 1 H), 5.55 (br. s., 1 H), 5.82 (d, J=8.03 Hz, 1 H), 7.20 (d, J=8.03 Hz, 1 H), 8.78 (br. s., 1 H); 31P NMR (CHLOROFORM-^) δ ppm -7.13; LC-MS: 375 (M+l)+ Scheme 3

Synthesis of compound (VI)

Figure imgf000017_0001

Step 1: Synthesis of compound (9)Compound (1), CAS 1255860-33-3 ( 1200 mg, 4.33 mmol ) and l,8-bis(dimethyl- amino)naphthalene (3707 mg, 17.3 mmol) were dissolved in 24.3 mL of

trimethylphosphate. The solution was cooled to 0°C. Compound (5) (1.21 mL, 12.98 mmol) was added, and the mixture was stirred well maintaining the temperature at 0°C for 5 hours. The reaction was quenched by addition of 120 mL of tetraethyl- ammonium bromide solution (1M) and extracted with CH2CI2 (2×80 mL). Purification was done by preparative HPLC (Stationary phase: RP XBridge Prep CI 8 ΟΒϋ-10μιη, 30x150mm, mobile phase: 0.25% NH4HCO3 solution in water, CH3CN) , yielding two fractions. The purest fraction was dissolved in water (15 mL) and passed through a manually packed Dowex (H+) column by elution with water. The end of the elution was determined by checking UV absorbance of eluting fractions. Combined fractions were frozen at -78°C and lyophilized. Compound (9) was obtained as a white fluffy solid (303 mg, (0.86 mmol, 20%> yield), which was used immediately in the following reaction. Step 2: Preparation of compound (VI)

Compound (9) (303 mg, 0.86 mmol) was dissolved in 8 mL water and to this solution was added N . N’- D ic y c ! he y !-4- mo rph line carboxamidine (253.8 mg, 0.86 mmol) dissolved in pyridine (8.4 mi.). The mixture was kept for 5 minutes and then

evaporated to dryness, dried overnight in vacuo overnight at 37°C. The residu was dissolved in pyridine (80 mL). This solution was added dropwise to vigorously stirred DCC (892.6 mg, 4.326 mmol) in pyridine (80 mL) at reflux temperature. The solution was kept refluxing for 1.5h during which some turbidity was observed in the solution. The reaction mixture was cooled and evaporated to dryness. Diethylether (50 mL) and water (50 mL) were added to the solid residu. N’N-dicyclohexylurea was filtered off, and the aqueous fraction was purified by preparative HPLC (Stationary phase: RP XBridge Prep C18 OBD-ΙΟμιη, 30x150mm, mobile phase: 0.25% NH4HCO3 solution in water, CH3CN) , yielding a white solid which was dried overnight in vacuo at 38°C. (185 mg, 0.56 mmol, 65% yield). LC-MS: (M+H)+: 333.

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) d ppm 2.44 – 2.59 (m, 2 H) signal falls under DMSO signal, 3.51 (td, J=9.90, 5.50 Hz, 1 H), 3.95 – 4.11 (m, 2 H), 4.16 (d, J=10.34 Hz, 1 H), 4.25 – 4.40 (m, 2 H), 5.65 (d, J=8.14 Hz, 1 H), 5.93 (br. s., 1 H), 7.46 (d, J=7.92 Hz, 1 H), 2H’s not observed

Paper

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00382,

Discovery of 1-((2R,4aR,6R,7R,7aR)-2-Isopropoxy-2-oxidodihydro-4H,6H-spiro[furo[3,2-d][1,3,2]dioxaphosphinine-7,2′-oxetan]-6-yl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (JNJ-54257099), a 3′-5′-Cyclic Phosphate Ester Prodrug of 2′-Deoxy-2′-Spirooxetane Uridine Triphosphate Useful for HCV Inhibition

Janssen Infectious Diseases − Diagnostics BVBA, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340 Beerse, Belgium
J. Med. Chem., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00382
Publication Date (Web): May 14, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
*Phone: +32 014601168. E-mail: tjoncker@its.jnj.com.

JNJ-54257099 (9) is a novel cyclic phosphate ester derivative that belongs to the class of 2′-deoxy-2′-spirooxetane uridine nucleotide prodrugs which are known as inhibitors of the HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). In the Huh-7 HCV genotype (GT) 1b replicon-containing cell line 9 is devoid of any anti-HCV activity, an observation attributable to inefficient prodrug metabolism which was found to be CYP3A4-dependent. In contrast, in vitro incubation of 9 in primary human hepatocytes as well as pharmacokinetic evaluation thereof in different preclinical species reveals the formation of substantial levels of 2′-deoxy-2′-spirooxetane uridine triphosphate (8), a potent inhibitor of the HCV NS5B polymerase. Overall, it was found that 9 displays a superior profile compared to its phosphoramidate prodrug analogues (e.g., 4) described previously. Of particular interest is the in vivo dose dependent reduction of HCV RNA observed in HCV infected (GT1a and GT3a) human hepatocyte chimeric mice after 7 days of oral administration of 9

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O=C(C=C1)NC(N1[C@H]2[C@]3(OCC3)[C@H](O4)[C@@H](CO[P@@]4(OC(C)C)=O)O2)=O

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CCT 245737

 PRECLINICAL, Uncategorized  Comments Off on CCT 245737
May 312016
 

CCT 245737

CAS:1489389-18-5
M.Wt: 379.34
Formula: C16H16F3N7O

2-​Pyrazinecarbonitrile​, 5-​[[4-​[[(2R)​-​2-​morpholinylmethyl]​amino]​-​5-​(trifluoromethyl)​-​2-​pyridinyl]​amino]​-

(R)-5-(4-(Morpholin-2-ylmethylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-ylamino)pyrazine-2-carbonitrile

(+)-5-[[4-[[(2R)-Morpholin-2-ylmethyl]amino]-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]amino]pyrazine-2-carbonitrile

Cancer Research Technology Limited   INNOVATOR

SAREUM

IND Filed, Sareum FOR CANCER

 

 

Synthesis, Exclusive by worlddrugtracker

STR1

5-[[4-[[morpholin-2-yl]methylamino]-5- (trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]amino]pyrazine-2-carbonitrile compounds (referred to herein as “TFM compounds”) which, inter alia, inhibit Checkpoint Kinase 1 (CHK1) kinase function. The present invention also pertains to pharmaceutical compositions comprising such compounds, and the use of such compounds and compositions, both in vitro and in vivo, to inhibit CHK1 kinase function, and in the treatment of diseases and conditions that are mediated by CHK1 , that are ameliorated by the inhibition of CHK1 kinase function, etc., including proliferative conditions such as cancer, etc., optionally in combination with another agent, for example, (a) a DNA topoisomerase I or II inhibitor; (b) a DNA damaging agent; (c) an antimetabolite or a thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor; (d) a microtubule targeted agent; (e) ionising radiation; (f) an inhibitor of a mitosis regulator or a mitotic checkpoint regulator; (g) an inhibitor of a DNA damage signal transducer; or (h) an inhibitor of a DNA damage repair enzyme.

Checkpoint Kinase 1 (CHK1)

Progression through the cell division cycle is a tightly regulated process and is monitored at several positions known as cell cycle checkpoints (see, e.g., Weinert and Hartwell,

1989; Bartek and Lukas, 2003). These checkpoints are found in all four stages of the cell cycle; G1 , S (DNA replication), G2 and M (Mitosis) and they ensure that key events which control the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division are completed correctly. Cell cycle checkpoints are activated by a number of stimuli, including DNA damage and DNA errors caused by defective replication. When this occurs, the cell cycle will arrest, allowing time for either DNA repair to occur or, if the damage is too severe, for activation of cellular processes leading to controlled cell death.

All cancers, by definition, have some form of aberrant cell division cycle. Frequently, the cancer cells possess one or more defective cell cycle checkpoints, or harbour defects in a particular DNA repair pathway. These cells are therefore often more dependent on the remaining cell cycle checkpoints and repair pathways, compared to non-cancerous cells (where all checkpoints and DNA repair pathways are intact). The response of cancer cells to DNA damage is frequently a critical determinant of whether they continue to proliferate or activate cell death processes and die. For example, tumour cells that contain a mutant form(s) of the tumour suppressor p53 are defective in the G1 DNA damage checkpoint. Thus inhibitors of the G2 or S-phase checkpoints are expected to further impair the ability of the tumour cell to repair damaged DNA. Many known cancer treatments cause DNA damage by either physically modifying the cell’s DNA or disrupting vital cellular processes that can affect the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division, such as DNA metabolism, DNA synthesis, DNA transcription and microtubule spindle formation. Such treatments include for example, radiotherapy, which causes DNA strand breaks, and a variety of chemotherapeutic agents including topoisomerase inhibitors, antimetabolites, DNA-alkylating agents, and platinum- containing cytotoxic drugs. A significant limitation to these genotoxic treatments is drug resistance. One of the most important mechanisms leading to this resistance is attributed to activation of cell cycle checkpoints, giving the tumour cell time to repair damaged DNA. By abrogating a particular cell cycle checkpoint, or inhibiting a particular form of DNA repair, it may therefore be possible to circumvent tumour cell resistance to the genotoxic agents and augment tumour cell death induced by DNA damage, thus increasing the therapeutic index of these cancer treatments.

CHK1 is a serine/threonine kinase involved in regulating cell cycle checkpoint signals that are activated in response to DNA damage and errors in DNA caused by defective replication (see, e.g., Bartek and Lukas, 2003). CHK1 transduces these signals through phosphorylation of substrates involved in a number of cellular activities including cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. Two key substrates of CHK1 are the Cdc25A and Cdc25C phosphatases that dephosphorylate CDK1 leading to its activation, which is a

requirement for exit from G2 into mitosis (M phase) (see, e.g., Sanchez et al., 1997). Phosphorylation of Cdc25C and the related Cdc25A by CHK1 blocks their ability to activate CDK1 , thus preventing the cell from exiting G2 into M phase. The role of CHK1 in the DNA damage-induced G2 cell cycle checkpoint has been demonstrated in a number of studies where CHK1 function has been knocked out (see, e.g., Liu et ai, 2000; Zhao et al., 2002; Zachos et al., 2003).

The reliance of the DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint upon CHK1 provides one example of a therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment, involving targeted inhibition of CHK1. Upon DNA damage, the p53 tumour suppressor protein is stabilised and activated to give a p53-dependent G1 arrest, leading to apoptosis or DNA repair (Balaint and Vousden, 2001). Over half of all cancers are functionally defective for p53, which can make them resistant to genotoxic cancer treatments such as ionising radiation (IR) and certain forms of chemotherapy (see, e.g., Greenblatt et al., 1994; Carson and Lois, 1995). These p53 deficient cells fail to arrest at the G1 checkpoint or undergo apoptosis or DNA repair, and consequently may be more reliant on the G2 checkpoint for viability and replication fidelity. Therefore abrogation of the G2 checkpoint through inhibition of the CHK1 kinase function may selectively sensitise p53 deficient cancer cells to genotoxic cancer therapies, and this has been demonstrated (see, e.g., Wang et al., 1996; Dixon and Norbury, 2002). In addition, CHK1 has also been shown to be involved in S phase cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair by homologous recombination. Thus, inhibition of CHK1 kinase in those cancers that are reliant on these processes after DNA damage, may provide additional therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancers using CHK1 inhibitors (see, e.g., Sorensen et al., 2005). Furthermore, certain cancers may exhibit replicative stress due to high levels of endogenous DNA damage (see, e.g., Cavalier et al., 2009; Brooks et al., 2012) or through elevated replication driven by oncogenes, for example amplified or overexpressed MYC genes (see, e.g., Di Micco et al. 2006; Cole et al., 2011 ; Murga et al. 2011). Such cancers may exhibit elevated signalling through CHK1 kinase (see, e.g., Hoglund et al., 2011). Inhibition of CHK1 kinase in those cancers that are reliant on these processes, may provide additional therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancers using CHK1 inhibitors (see, e.g., Cole et al., 2011 ; Davies et al., 2011 ; Ferrao et al., 2011).

Several kinase enzymes are important in the control of the cell growth and replication cycle. These enzymes may drive progression through the cell cycle, or alternatively can act as regulators at specific checkpoints that ensure the integrity of DNA replication through sensing DNA-damage and initiating repair, while halting the cell cycle. Many tumours are deficient in early phase DNA-damage checkpoints, due to mutation or deletion in the p53 pathway, and thus become dependent on the later S and G2/M checkpoints for DNA repair. This provides an opportunity to selectively target tumour cells to enhance the efficacy of ionising radiation or widely used DNA-damaging cancer chemotherapies. Inhibitors of the checkpoint kinase CHK1 are of particular interest for combination with genotoxic agents. In collaboration with Professor Michelle Garrett (University of Kent, previously at The Institute of Cancer Research) and Sareum (Cambridge) we used structure-based design to optimise the biological activities and pharmaceutical properties of hits identified through fragment-based screening against the cell cycle kinase CHK1, leading to the oral clinical candidate CCT245737. The candidate potentiates the efficacy of standard chemotherapy in models of non-small cell lung, pancreatic and colon cancer. In collaboration with colleagues at The Institute of Cancer Research (Professor Louis Chesler, Dr Simon Robinson and Professor Sue Eccles) and Newcastle University (Professor Neil Perkins), we have shown that our selective CHK1 inhibitor has efficacy as a single agent in models of tumours with high replication stress, including neuroblastoma and lymphoma.

The checkpoint kinase CHK2 has a distinct but less well characterised biological role to that of CHK1. Selective inhibitors are valuable as pharmacological tools to explore the biological consequences of CHK2 inhibition in cancer cells. In collaboration with Professor Michelle Garrett (University of Kent, previously at The Institute of Cancer Research), we have used structure-based and ligand-based approaches to discover selective inhibitors of CHK2. We showed that selective CHK2 inhibition has a very different outcome to selective CHK1 inhibition. Notably, while CHK2 inhibition did not potentiate the effect of DNA-damaging chemotherapy, it did sensitize cancer cells to the effects of PARP inhibitors that compromise DNA repair.

Synthesis 

(R)-5-(4-(Morpholin-2-ylmethylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-ylamino)pyrazine-2-carbonitrile 

 as a pale-yellow amorphous solid.
1H NMR ((CD3)2SO, 500 MHz) δ 10.7 (br s, 1H), 9.10 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 8.77 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 8.20 (s, 1H), 7.19 (s, 1H), 6.32 (br t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 3.75 (br d, J = 11.0 Hz, 1H), 3.64–3.59 (m, 1H), 3.43 (ddd, J = 10.7, 10.7, and 3.4 Hz, 1H), 3.22 (m, 2H), 2.82 (dd, J = 12.1 and 2.1 Hz, 1H), 2.67–2.59 (m, 2H), 2.42 (dd, J = 12.1 and 10.0 Hz, 1H).
13C NMR ((CD3)2SO, 125 MHz) δ 155.7, 151.9, 151.6, 147.2, 145.9 (q, JCF = 6.3 Hz), 136.8, 124.8 (q, JCF= 270.9 Hz), 118.9, 117.1, 104.4 (q, JCF = 30.0 Hz), 93.2, 73.6, 67.2, 48.9, 45.4, 44.9.
LCMS (3.5 min) tR = 1.17 min; m/z (ESI+) 380 (M + H+).
HRMS m/z calcd for C16H17F3N7O (M + H) 380.1441, found 380.1438.

PATENT

WO 2013171470

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2013171470A1?cl=enSynthesis 1 D

5-[[4-[[(2R)-Morpholin-2-yl]methylamino]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]amino]py

carbonitrile (Compound 1)

Figure imgf000044_0002

A solution of (S)-tert-butyl 2-((2-(5-cyanopyrazin-2-ylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4- ylamino)methyl)morpholine-4-carboxylate (1.09 g, 2.273 mmol) in dichloromethane (8 mL) was added dropwise over 10 minutes to a solution of trifluoroacetic acid (52.7 mL, 709 mmol) and tnisopropylsilane (2.61 mL, 12.73 mmol) in dry dichloromethane (227 mL) at room temperature. After stirring for 30 minutes, the mixture was concentrated in vacuo. The concentrate was resuspended in dichloromethane (200 mL) and

concentrated in vacuo, then resuspended in toluene (100 mL) and concentrated.

The above procedure was performed in triplicate (starting each time with 1.09 g (S)-tert- butyl 2-((2-(5-cyanopyrazin-2-ylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4- ylamino)methyl)morpholine-4-carboxylate) and the three portions of crude product so generated were combined for purification by ion exchange chromatography on 2 x 20 g Biotage NH2 Isolute columns, eluting with methanol. The eluant was concentrated and 10% methanol in diethyl ether (25 mL) was added. The resulting solid was filtered, washed with diethyl ether (30 mL), and dried in vacuo to give the title compound as a light straw coloured powder (2.30 g, 89%). H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 2.62 (1 H, J = 12, 10 Hz), 2.78-2.84 (2H, m), 2.95 (1 H, dd, J = 12, 2 Hz), 3.27-3.38 (2H, m), 3.63 (1 H, ddd, J = 14, 9.5, 3 Hz), 3.73-3.78 (1 H, m), 3.91 (1 H, ddd, J = 11 , 4, 2 Hz), 7.26 (1 H, s), 8.18 (1 H, s), 8.63 (1 H, s), 9.01 (1 H, s).

LC-MS (Agilent 4 min) Rt 1.22 min; m/z (ESI) 380 [M+H+]. Optical rotation [a]D 24 = +7.0 (c 1.0, DMF).

Synthesis 2B

(R)-tert- Butyl 2-((2-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-ylamino)methyl)morpholine-

Figure imgf000046_0001

To a solution of 2-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-amine (1 g, 5.09 mmol) in

dimethylformamide (32.6 mL) was added sodium hydride (60% by wt in oil; 0.407 g, 10.18 mmol) portionwise at room temperature followed by stirring for 10 minutes at 80°C. (S)- tert-Butyl 2-(tosyloxymethyl)morpholine-4-carboxylate (2.268 g, 6.1 1 mmol) was then added portionwise and the reaction mixture was stirred at 80°C for 2.5 hours. After cooling, the mixture was partitioned between saturated aqueous sodium

hydrogencarbonate solution (30 mL), water (100 mL) and ethyl acetate (30 mL). The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was further extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 30 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (2 x 70 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, concentrated and dried thoroughly in vacuo. The crude material was purified by column chromatography on a 90 g Thomson SingleStep column, eluting with an isocratic mix of 2.5% diethyl ether / 2.5% ethyl acetate in dichloromethane, to give the title compound as a clear gum that later crystallised to give a white powder (1.47 g, 73%). H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3) δ 1.48 (9H, s), 2.71-2.83 (1 H, m), 2.92-3.05 (1 H, m), 3.18- 3.23 (1 H, m), 3.33-3.37 (1 H, m), 3.56-3.61 (1 H, m), 3.66-3.71 (1 H, m), 3.80-4.07 (3H, m), 5.32 (1 H, broad s), 6.61 (1 H, s), 8.24 (1 H, s). LC-MS (Agilent 4 min) Rt 3.04 min; m/z (ESI) 396 [MH+]. Svnthesis 2C

(R)-tert-Butyl 2-((2-(5-cyanopyrazin-2-ylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-

Figure imgf000047_0001

(R)-tert-Butyl 2-((2-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-ylamino)methyl)morpholine-4- carboxylate (1.44 g, 3.64 mmol), 2-amino-5-cyanopyrazine (0.612 g, 5.09 mmol, 1.4 eq.), tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) (0.267 g, 0.291 mmol, 0.08 eq.), rac-2,2′- bis(diphenylphosphino)-1 ,1 ‘-binaphthyl (0.362 g, 0.582 mmol, 0.16 eq.) and caesium carbonate (2.37 g, 7.28 mmol) were suspended in anhydrous dioxane (33 ml_) under argon. Argon was bubbled through the mixture for 30 minutes, after which the mixture was heated to 100°C for 22 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and diluted with dichloromethane, then absorbed on to silica gel. The pre-absorbed silica gel was added to a 100 g KP-Sil SNAP column which was eluted with 20-50% ethyl acetate in hexanes to give the partially purified product as an orange gum. The crude product was dissolved in dichloromethane and purified by column chromatography on a 90 g SingleStep Thomson column, eluting with 20% ethyl acetate in dichloromethane, to give the title compound (1.19 g, 68%). H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3) δ 1.50 (9H, s), 2.71-2.88 (1 H, m), 2.93-3.08 (1 H, m), 3.27- 3.32 (1 H, m), 3.40-3.44 (1 H, m), 3.55-3.64 (1 H, m), 3.71-3.77 (1 H, m), 3.82-4.11 (3H, m), 5.33 (1 H, broad s), 7.19 (1 H, s), 8.23 (1 H, s), 8.58 (1 H, s), 8.84 (1 H, s). LC-MS (Agilent 4 min) Rt 2.93 min;m/z (ESI) 480 [MH+].

Paper

Abstract Image

Multiparameter optimization of a series of 5-((4-aminopyridin-2-yl)amino)pyrazine-2-carbonitriles resulted in the identification of a potent and selective oral CHK1 preclinical development candidate with in vivo efficacy as a potentiator of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damaging chemotherapy and as a single agent. Cellular mechanism of action assays were used to give an integrated assessment of compound selectivity during optimization resulting in a highly CHK1 selective adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive inhibitor. A single substituent vector directed away from the CHK1 kinase active site was unexpectedly found to drive the selective cellular efficacy of the compounds. Both CHK1 potency and off-target human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) ion channel inhibition were dependent on lipophilicity and basicity in this series. Optimization of CHK1 cellular potency and in vivo pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) properties gave a compound with low predicted doses and exposures in humans which mitigated the residual weak in vitro hERG inhibition.

Multiparameter Lead Optimization to Give an Oral Checkpoint Kinase 1 (CHK1) Inhibitor Clinical Candidate: (R)-5-((4-((Morpholin-2-ylmethyl)amino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)amino)pyrazine-2-carbonitrile (CCT245737)

Cancer Research UK Cancer Therapeutics Unit and Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London SM2 5NG, U.K.
§ Sareum Ltd., Cambridge CB22 3FX, U.K.
J. Med. Chem., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01938
Publication Date (Web): May 11, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
*Phone: +44 2087224000. Fax: +44 2087224126. E-mail: ian.collins@icr.ac.uk.

///////////CCT 245737, IND, PRECLINICAL, Cancer Research Technology Limited, SAREUM

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GSK 6853

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May 312016
 

 

STR1

STR1

 

GSK 6853

CAS  1910124-24-1

C22 H27 N5 O3, 409.48
Benzamide, N-​[2,​3-​dihydro-​1,​3-​dimethyl-​6-​[(2R)​-​2-​methyl-​1-​piperazinyl]​-​2-​oxo-​1H-​benzimidazol-​5-​yl]​-​2-​methoxy-
(R)-N-(1 ,3- dimethyl-6-(2-methylpiperazin-1 -yl)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)-2- methoxybenzamide

A white solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt = 0.90 min, [M+H+]+ 410.5.

δΗ NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 10.74 (s, 1 H), 8.39 (s, 1 H), 8.05 (dd, J = 7.7, 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (ddd, J = 8.3, 7.2, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.29 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1 H), 7.23 (s, 1 H), 7.17-7.1 1 (m, 1 H), 4.10 (s, 3H), 3.33 (s, 3H), 3.32 (s, 3H), 3.30 (br s, 1 H), 3.07-3.02 (m, 1 H), 3.02-2.99 (m, 1 H), 2.92-2.87 (m, 1 H), 2.80 (td, J = 1 1.3, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 2.73 (td, J = 1 1 .0, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 2.68-2.63 (m, 1 H), 2.55 (dd, J = 12.0, 9.8 Hz, 1 H), 0.71 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H).

δ0 NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 162.1 , 156.8, 154.1 , 134.4, 133.2, 131.5, 130.1 , 126.6, 125.7, 121.9, 121.0, 1 12.5, 103.0, 99.4, 56.8, 55.4, 55.3, 53.3, 46.3, 26.8, 26.6, 16.7.

[aD]25 °c = -50.1 (c = 0.3, MeOH).

Scheme 1

STR1

The genomes of eukaryotic organisms are highly organised within the nucleus of the cell. The long strands of duplex DNA are wrapped around an octomer of histone proteins (most usually comprising two copies of histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) to form a

nucleosome. This basic unit is then further compressed by the aggregation and folding of nucleosomes to form a highly condensed chromatin structure. A range of different states of condensation are possible, and the tightness of this structure varies during the cell cycle, being most compact during the process of cell division. Chromatin structure plays a critical role in regulating gene transcription, which cannot occur efficiently from highly condensed chromatin. The chromatin structure is controlled by a series of post-translational

modifications to histone proteins, notably histones H3 and H4, and most commonly within the histone tails which extend beyond the core nucleosome structure. These modifications include acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitinylation, SUMOylation and numerous others. These epigenetic marks are written and erased by specific enzymes, which place the tags on specific residues within the histone tail, thereby forming an epigenetic code, which is then interpreted by the cell to allow gene specific regulation of chromatin structure and thereby transcription.

Histone acetylation is usually associated with the activation of gene transcription, as the modification loosens the interaction of the DNA and the histone octomer by changing the electrostatics. In addition to this physical change, specific proteins bind to acetylated lysine residues within histones to read the epigenetic code. Bromodomains are small (=1 10 amino acid) distinct domains within proteins that bind to acetylated lysine residues commonly but not exclusively in the context of histones. There is a family of around 50 proteins known to contain bromodomains, and they have a range of functions within the cell.

BRPF1 (also known as peregrin or Protein Br140) is a bromodomain-containing protein that has been shown to bind to acetylated lysine residues in histone tails, including H2AK5ac, H4K12ac and H3K14ac (Poplawski et al, J. Mol. Biol., 2014 426: 1661-1676). BRPF1 also contains several other domains typically found in chromatin-associated factors, including a double plant homeodomain (PHD) and zinc finger (ZnF) assembly (PZP), and a chromo/Tudor-related Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro (PWWP) domain. BRPF1 forms a tetrameric complex with monocytic leukemia zinc-finger protein (MOZ, also known as KAT6A or MYST3) inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5) and homolog of Esa1 -associated factor (hEAF6). In humans, the t(8;16)(p1 1 ;p13) translocation of MOZ (monocytic leukemia zinc-finger protein, also known as KAT6A or MYST3) is associated with a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia and

contributes to the progression of this disease (Borrow et al, Nat. Genet., 1996 14: 33-41 ). The BRPF1 bromodomain contributes to recruiting the MOZ complex to distinct sites of active chromatin and hence is considered to play a role in the function of MOZ in regulating transcription, hematopoiesis, leukemogenesis, and other developmental processes (Ullah et al, Mol. Cell. Biol., 2008 28: 6828-6843; Perez-Campo et al, Blood, 2009 1 13: 4866-4874). Demont et al, ACS Med. Chem. Lett., (2014) (dx.doi.org/10.1021/ml5002932), discloses certain 1 ,3-dimethyl benzimidazolones as potent, selective inhibitors of the BRPF1 bromodomain.

BRPF1 bromodomain inhibitors, and thus are believed to have potential utility in the treatment of diseases or conditions for which a bromodomain inhibitor is indicated. Bromodomain inhibitors are believed to be useful in the treatment of a variety of diseases or conditions related to systemic or tissue inflammation, inflammatory responses to infection or hypoxia, cellular activation and proliferation, lipid metabolism, fibrosis and in the prevention and treatment of viral infections. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of a wide variety of chronic autoimmune and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), asthma, chronic obstructive airways disease, pneumonitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, myositis, eczema, dermatitis (including atopic dermatitis), alopecia, vitiligo, bullous skin diseases, nephritis, vasculitis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, Sjogren’s syndrome, sialoadenitis, central retinal vein occlusion, branched retinal vein occlusion, Irvine-Gass syndrome (post-cataract and post-surgical), retinitis pigmentosa, pars planitis, birdshot retinochoroidopathy, epiretinal membrane, cystic macular edema, parafoveal telengiectasis, tractional maculopathies, vitreomacular traction syndromes, retinal detachment,

neuroretinitis, idiopathic macular edema, retinitis, dry eye (kerartoconjunctivitis Sicca), vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, uveitis (such as anterior uveitis, pan uveitis, posterior uveits, uveitis-associated macula edema), scleritis, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macula edema, age-related macula dystrophy, hepatitis, pancreatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, sclerosing cholangitis, Addison’s disease, hypophysitis, thyroiditis, type I diabetes, type 2 diabetes and acute rejection of transplanted organs. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of a wide variety of acute inflammatory conditions such as acute gout, nephritis including lupus nephritis, vasculitis with organ involvement such as

glomerulonephritis, vasculitis including giant cell arteritis, Wegener’s granulomatosis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Behcet’s disease, Kawasaki disease, Takayasu’s Arteritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, vasculitis with organ involvement and acute rejection of transplanted organs. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of diseases or conditions which involve inflammatory responses to infections with bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites or their toxins, such as sepsis, sepsis syndrome, septic shock, endotoxaemia, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, toxic shock syndrome, acute

lung injury, ARDS (adult respiratory distress syndrome), acute renal failure, fulminant hepatitis, burns, acute pancreatitis, post-surgical syndromes, sarcoidosis, Herxheimer reactions, encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, malaria and SIRS associated with viral infections such as influenza, herpes zoster, herpes simplex and coronavirus. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of conditions associated with ischaemia-reperfusion injury such as myocardial infarction, cerebro-vascular ischaemia (stroke), acute coronary syndromes, renal reperfusion injury, organ transplantation, coronary artery bypass grafting, cardio-pulmonary bypass procedures, pulmonary, renal, hepatic, gastro-intestinal or peripheral limb embolism. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of disorders of lipid metabolism via the regulation of APO-A1 such as hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of fibrotic conditions such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, renal fibrosis, postoperative stricture, keloid scar formation, scleroderma (including morphea) and cardiac fibrosis. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of a variety of diseases associated with bone remodelling such as osteoporosis, osteopetrosis, pycnodysostosis, Paget’s disease of bone, familial expanile osteolysis, expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia, hyperososis corticalis deformans Juvenilis, juvenile Paget’s disease and Camurati

Engelmann disease. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of viral infections such as herpes virus, human papilloma virus, adenovirus and poxvirus and other DNA viruses. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of cancer, including hematological (such as leukaemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma), epithelial including lung, breast and colon carcinomas, midline carcinomas, mesenchymal, hepatic, renal and neurological tumours. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of one or more cancers selected from brain cancer (gliomas), glioblastomas, Bannayan-Zonana syndrome, Cowden disease, Lhermitte-Duclos disease, breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, colorectal cancer, Wilm’s tumor, Ewing’s sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, colon cancer, head and neck cancer, kidney cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, sarcoma cancer, osteosarcoma, giant cell tumor of bone, thyroid cancer,

lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairy-cell leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, plasmacytoma, immunoblastic large cell leukemia, mantle cell leukemia, multiple myeloma, megakaryoblastic leukemia, acute megakaryocytic leukemia, promyelocytic leukemia, mixed lineage leukaemia, erythroleukemia, malignant lymphoma, Hodgkins lymphoma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, lymphoblastic T-cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, neuroblastoma, bladder cancer, urothelial cancer, vulval cancer, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, renal cancer, mesothelioma, esophageal cancer, salivary gland cancer, hepatocellular cancer, gastric cancer, nasopharangeal cancer, buccal cancer, cancer of the mouth, GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumor) and testicular cancer. In one embodiment the cancer is a leukaemia, for example a leukaemia selected from acute monocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia,

acute myeloid leukemia and mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL). In another embodiment the cancer is multiple myeloma. In another embodiment the cancer is a lung cancer such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In another embodiment the cancer is a neuroblastoma. In another embodiment the cancer is Burkitt’s lymphoma. In another embodiment the cancer is cervical cancer. In another embodiment the cancer is esophageal cancer. In another embodiment the cancer is ovarian cancer. In another embodiment the cancer is breast cancer. In another embodiment the cancer is colarectal cancer. In one embodiment the disease or condition for which a bromodomain inhibitor is indicated is selected from diseases associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, such as sepsis, burns, pancreatitis, major trauma, haemorrhage and ischaemia. In this embodiment the

bromodomain inhibitor would be administered at the point of diagnosis to reduce the incidence of: SIRS, the onset of shock, multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, which includes the onset of acute lung injury, ARDS, acute renal, hepatic, cardiac or gastro-intestinal injury and mortality. In another embodiment the bromodomain inhibitor would be administered prior to surgical or other procedures associated with a high risk of sepsis, haemorrhage, extensive tissue damage, SIRS or MODS (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome). In a particular embodiment the disease or condition for which a bromodomain inhibitor is indicated is sepsis, sepsis syndrome, septic shock and endotoxaemia. In another embodiment, the bromodomain inhibitor is indicated for the treatment of acute or chronic pancreatitis. In another embodiment the bromodomain is indicated for the treatment of burns. In one embodiment the disease or condition for which a bromodomain inhibitor is indicated is selected from herpes simplex infections and reactivations, cold sores, herpes zoster infections and reactivations, chickenpox, shingles, human papilloma virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cervical neoplasia, adenovirus infections, including acute respiratory disease, poxvirus infections such as cowpox and smallpox and African swine fever virus. In one particular embodiment a bromodomain inhibitor is indicated for the treatment of Human papilloma virus infections of skin or cervical epithelia. In one embodiment the bromodomain inhibitor is indicated for the treatment of latent HIV infection.

PATENT

WO 2016062737

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2016062737A1?cl=en

Scheme 1

Example 1

Step 1

5-fluoro-1 H-benzordlimidazol-2(3H)-one

A stirred solution of 4-fluorobenzene-1 ,2-diamine (15.1 g, 120 mmol) in THF (120 mL) under nitrogen was cooled using an ice-bath and then was treated with di(1 -/-imidazol-1 -yl)methanone (23.4 g, 144 mmol) portion-wise over 15 min. The resulting mixture was slowly warmed to room temperature then was concentrated in vacuo after 2.5 h. The residue was suspended in a mixture of water and DCM (250 mL each) and filtered off. This residue was then washed with water (50 mL) and DCM (50 mL), before being dried at 40 °C under vacuum for 16 h to give the title compound (16.0 g, 105 mmol, 88%) as a brown solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt 0.57 min; [M-H+] = 151.1

δΗ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 10.73 (br s, 1 H), 10.61 (br s, 1 H), 6.91-6.84 (m, 1 H), 6.78-6.70 (m, 2H).

Step 2

5-fluoro-1 ,3-dimethyl-1 /-/-benzo[dlimidazol-2(3/-/)-one

A solution of 5-fluoro-1 H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one (16.0 g, 105 mmol) in DMF (400 mL) under nitrogen was cooled with an ice-bath, using a mechanical stirrer for agitation. It was then treated over 10 min with sodium hydride (60% w/w in mineral oil, 13.1 g, 327 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred at this temperature for 30 min before being treated with iodomethane (26.3 mL, 422 mmol) over 30 min. The resulting mixture was then allowed to warm to room temperature and after 1 h was carefully treated with water (500 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 800 mL) and the combined organics were washed with brine (1 L), dried over MgS04 and concentrated in vacuo. Purification of the brown residue by flash chromatography on silica gel (SP4, 1.5 kg column, gradient: 0 to 25% (3: 1 EtOAc/EtOH) in cyclohexane) gave the title compound (15.4 g, 86 mmol, 81 %) as a pink solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt 0.76 min; [M+H+]+ = 181.1

δΗ NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) ppm 6.86-6.76 (m, 2H), 6.71 (dd, J = 8.3, 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.38 (s, 3H).

Step 3

5-fluoro-1 ,3-dimethyl-6-nitro-1 /-/-benzordlimidazol-2(3/-/)-one

A stirred solution of 5-fluoro-1 ,3-dimethyl-1 H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3/-/)-one (4.55 g, 25.3 mmol) in acetic anhydride (75 mL) under nitrogen was cooled to -30 °C and then was slowly treated with fuming nitric acid (1 .13 mL, 25.3 mmol) making sure that the temperature was kept below -25°C. The solution turned brown once the first drop of acid was added and a thick brown precipitate formed after the addition was complete. The mixture was allowed to slowly warm up to 0 °C then was carefully treated after 1 h with ice-water (100 mL). EtOAc (15 mL) was then added and the resulting mixture was stirred for 20 min. The precipitate formed was filtered off, washed with water (10 mL) and EtOAc (10 mL), and then was dried under vacuum at 40 °C for 16 h to give the title compound (4.82 g, 21 .4mmol, 85%) as a yellow solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt 0.76 min; [M+H+]+ not detected

δΗ NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 7.95 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 1 H, (H-7)), 7.48 (d, J = 1 1.7 Hz, 1 H, (H-4)), 3.38 (s, 3H, (H-10)), 3.37 (s, 3H, (H-12)).

δ0 NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 154.3 (s, 1 C, (C-2)), 152.3 (d, J = 254.9 Hz, 1 C, (C-5)), 135.5 (d, J = 13.0 Hz, 1 C, (C-9)), 130.1 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 C, (C-6)), 125.7 (s, 1 C, (C-8)), 104.4 (s, 1 C, (C-7)), 97.5 (d, J = 28.5 Hz, 1 C, (C-4)), 27.7 (s, 1 C, (C-12)), 27.4 (s, 1 C, (C-10)).

Step 4

(R)-tert-but \ 4-( 1 ,3-dimethyl-6-nitro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-benzordlimidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate

A stirred suspension of 5-fluoro-1 ,3-dimethyl-6-nitro-1 H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3/-/)-one (0.924 g, 4.10 mmol), (R)-ie f-butyl 3-methylpiperazine-1 -carboxylate (1.23 g, 6.16 mmol), and DI PEA (1 .43 mL, 8.21 mmol) in DMSO (4 mL) was heated to 120 °C in a Biotage Initiator microwave reactor for 13 h, then to 130 °C for a further 10 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo then partitioned between EtOAc and saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The aqueous was extracted with EtOAc and the combined organics were dried (Na2S04), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give a residue which was purified by silica chromatography (0-100% ethyl acetate in cyclohexane) to give the title compound as an orange/yellow solid (1.542 g, 3.80 mmol, 93%).

LCMS (formate): Rt 1.17 min, [M+H+]+ 406.5.

δΗ NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) ppm 7.36 (s, 1 H), 6.83 (s, 1 H), 4.04-3.87 (m,1 H), 3.87-3.80 (m, 1 H), 3.43 (s, 6H), 3.35-3.25 (m, 1 H), 3.23-3.08 (m, 2H), 3.00-2.72 (m, 2H), 1.48 (s, 9H), 0.81 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H)

Step 5

(RHerf-butyl 4-(6-amino-1 ,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 /-/-benzordlimidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate

To (R)-iert-butyl 4-(1 ,3-dimethyl-6-nitro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (1 .542 g) in /so-propanol (40 mL) was added 5% palladium on carbon (50% paste) (1.50 g) and the mixture was hydrogenated at room temperature and pressure. After 4 h the mixture was filtered, the residue washed with ethanol and DCM, and the filtrate concentrated in vacuo to give a residue which was purified by silica chromatography (50-100% ethyl acetate in cyclohexane) to afford the title compound (1.220 g, 3.25 mmol, 85%) as a cream solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt 1 .01 min, [M+H+]+ 376.4.

δΗ NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) ppm 6.69 (s, 1 H), 6.44 (s, 1 H), 4.33-3.87 (m, 4H), 3.36 (s, 3H), 3.35 (s, 3H), 3.20-2.53 (m, 5H), 1.52 (s, 9H), 0.86 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H).

Step 6

(flVferf-butyl 4-(6-(2-methoxybenzamidoV 1 ,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihvdro-1 H-benzordlimidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1 -carboxylate

A stirred solution of (R)-iert-butyl 4-(6-amino-1 ,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 /-/-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1 -carboxylate (0.254 g, 0.675 mmol) and pyridine (0.164 ml_, 2.025 mmol) in DCM (2 mL) at room temperature was treated 2-methoxybenzoyl chloride (0.182 mL, 1.35 mmol). After 1 h at room temperature the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo to give a residue which was taken up in DMSO:MeOH (1 :1 ) and purified by HPLC (Method C, high pH) to give the title compound (0.302 g, 0.592 mmol, 88%) as a white solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt 1 .27 min, [M+H+]+ 510.5.

δΗ NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) ppm 10.67 (s, 1 H), 8.53 (s, 1 H), 8.24 (dd, J = 7.8, 1.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.54-7.48 (m, 1 H), 7.18-7.12 (m, 1 H), 7.07 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1 H), 6.82 (s, 1 H), 4.27-3.94 (m, 2H), 4.08 (s, 3H), 3.45 (s, 3H), 3.40 (s, 3H), 3.18-2.99 (m, 2H), 2.92-2.70 (m, 3H), 1.50 (s, 9H), 0.87 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H).

Step 7

(R)-N-( 1 ,3-dimethyl-6-(2-methylpiperazin-1 -yl)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-benzordlimidazol-5-yl)-2-methoxybenzamide

A stirred solution of (R)-ie f-butyl 4-(6-(2-methoxybenzamido)-1 ,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 /-/-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (302 mg, 0.592 mmol) in DCM (4 mL) at room temperature was treated with trifluoroacetic acid (3 ml_). After 15 minutes the mixture was concentrated in vacuo to give a residue which was loaded on a solid-phase cation exchange (SCX) cartridge (5 g), washed with MeOH, and then eluted with methanolic ammonia (2 M). The appropriate fractions were combined and concentrated in vacuo to give a white solid (240 mg). Half of this material was taken up in DMSO:MeOH (1 :1 ) and purified by HPLC (Method B, high pH) to give the title compound (101 mg, 0.245 mmol, 41 %) as a white solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt = 0.90 min, [M+H+]+ 410.5.

δΗ NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 10.74 (s, 1 H), 8.39 (s, 1 H), 8.05 (dd, J = 7.7, 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (ddd, J = 8.3, 7.2, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.29 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1 H), 7.23 (s, 1 H), 7.17-7.1 1 (m, 1 H), 4.10 (s, 3H), 3.33 (s, 3H), 3.32 (s, 3H), 3.30 (br s, 1 H), 3.07-3.02 (m, 1 H), 3.02-2.99 (m, 1 H), 2.92-2.87 (m, 1 H), 2.80 (td, J = 1 1.3, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 2.73 (td, J = 1 1 .0, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 2.68-2.63 (m, 1 H), 2.55 (dd, J = 12.0, 9.8 Hz, 1 H), 0.71 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H).

δ0 NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 162.1 , 156.8, 154.1 , 134.4, 133.2, 131.5, 130.1 , 126.6, 125.7, 121.9, 121.0, 1 12.5, 103.0, 99.4, 56.8, 55.4, 55.3, 53.3, 46.3, 26.8, 26.6, 16.7.

[aD]25 °c = -50.1 (c = 0.3, MeOH).

CLIPS

STR1

 

STR1

STR1

 

STR1

PAPER

Abstract Image

The BRPF (Bromodomain and PHD Finger-containing) protein family are important scaffolding proteins for assembly of MYST histone acetyltransferase complexes. A selective benzimidazolone BRPF1 inhibitor showing micromolar activity in a cellular target engagement assay was recently described. Herein, we report the optimization of this series leading to the identification of a superior BRPF1 inhibitor suitable for in vivo studies.

GSK6853, a Chemical Probe for Inhibition of the BRPF1 Bromodomain

Epinova Discovery Performance Unit, Quantitative Pharmacology, Experimental Medicine Unit, §Flexible Discovery Unit, and Platform Technology and Science, GlaxoSmithKline, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, U.K.
Cellzome GmbH, GlaxoSmithKline, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
# WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Thomas Graham Building, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, U.K.
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00092
SEE

//////////////BRPF1,  BRPF2,   bromodomain, chemical probe,  inhibitor, GSK 6853, PRECLINICAL

  • Supporting Info  SEE NMR COMPD 34,  SMILES       COc1ccccc1C(=O)Nc2cc4c(cc2N3CCNC[C@H]3C)N(C)C(=O)N4C
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Antimycobacterial Agents

 PRECLINICAL, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Antimycobacterial Agents
May 252016
 

str1

Styryl Hydrazine Thiazole Hybrids

Will be updated………kindly email amcrasto@gmail.com

DATA

str1

ABOUT Dehydrozingerone

Dehydrozingerone; Feruloylmethane; 1080-12-2; 4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one; 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one; Vanillalacetone;

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/np300465f

J. Nat. Prod., 2012, 75 (12), pp 2088–2093
DOI: 10.1021/np300465f
Abstract Image

Dehydrozingerone (1) is a pungent constituent present in the rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and belongs structurally to the vanillyl ketone class. It is a representative of half the chemical structure of curcumin (2), which is an antioxidative yellow pigment obtained from the rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Numerous studies have suggested that 2 is a promising phytochemical for the inhibition of malignant tumors, including colon cancer. On the other hand, there have been few studies on the potential antineoplastic properties of 1, and its mode of action based on a molecular mechanism is little known. Therefore, the antiproliferative effects of1 were evaluated against HT-29 human colon cancer cells, and it was found that 1 dose-dependently inhibited growth at the G2/M phase with up-regulation of p21. Dehydrozingerone additionally led to the accumulation of intracellular ROS, although most radical scavengers could not clearly repress the cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Furthermore, two synthetic isomers of1 (iso-dehydrozingerone, 3, and ortho-dehydrozingerone, 4) were also examined. On comparing of their activities, accumulation of intracellular ROS was found to be interrelated with growth-inhibitory effects. These results suggest that analogues of 1 may be potential chemotherapeutic agents for colon cancer

 

 

PAPER

 

Abstract Image

Series of styryl hydrazine thiazole hybrids inspired from dehydrozingerone (DZG) scaffold were designed and synthesized by molecular hybridization approach. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of synthesized compounds was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Among the series, compound 6o exhibited significant activity (MIC = 1.5 μM; IC50 = 0.48 μM) along with bactericidal (MBC = 12 μM) and intracellular antimycobacterial activities (IC50 = <0.098 μM). Furthermore, 6o displayed prominent antimycobacterial activity under hypoxic (MIC = 46 μM) and normal oxygen (MIC = 0.28 μM) conditions along with antimycobacterial efficiency against isoniazid (MIC = 3.2 μM for INH-R1; 1.5 μM for INH-R2) and rifampicin (MIC = 2.2 μM for RIF-R1; 6.3 μM for RIF-R2) resistant strains of Mtb. Presence of electron donating groups on the phenyl ring of thiazole moiety had positive correlation for biological activity, suggesting the importance of molecular hybridization approach for the development of newer DZG clubbed hydrazine thiazole hybrids as potential antimycobacterial agents.

Dehydrozingerone Inspired Styryl Hydrazine Thiazole Hybrids as Promising Class of Antimycobacterial Agents

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban 4000, South Africa
§ Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, K.L.E. University College of Pharmacy, Vidyanagar, Hubballi 580031, Karnataka, India
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00088

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00088

*Phone: +27 31 260 7179. Fax: +27 (0) 31 260 7792. E-mail: karpoormath@ukzn.ac.za.

 

///////Antimycobacterial activity,  bactericidal,  dehydrozingerone,  NIAID,  thiazole, PRECLINCAL

c1(ccc(c(c1)OC)OC)/C=C/C(C)=N/Nc2nc(cs2)c3ccc(cc3)N

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Quisapride Hydrochloride

 PRECLINICAL, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Quisapride Hydrochloride
May 202016
 

STR1

Quisapride Hydrochloride

(R) – quinuclidine-3-5 – ((S) -2 – (( 4 – amino-5-chloro-2-ethoxy benzoylamino) methyl) morpholino) hexanoate

IND Filed china

A 5-HT4 agonist potentially for the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders.

SHR-116 958, SHR 116958

CAS 1132682-83-7 (Free)

Shanghai Hengrui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

CAS 1274633-87-2 (dihcl)

  • (3R)-1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl (2S)-2-[[(4-amino-5-chloro-2-ethoxybenzoyl)amino]methyl]-4-morpholinehexanoate hydrochloride (1:2)
  • SHR 116958
  • C27 H41 Cl N4 O5 . 2 Cl H,
    4-​Morpholinehexanoic acid, 2-​[[(4-​amino-​5-​chloro-​2-​ethoxybenzoyl)​amino]​methyl]​-​, (3R)​-​1-​azabicyclo[2.2.2]​oct-​3-​yl ester, hydrochloride (1:2)​, (2S)​-

STR1

5-HT is a neurotransmitter Chong, widely distributed in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, 5-HT receptor subtypes at least seven, and a wide variety of physiological functions of 5-HT receptor with different interactions related. Thus, the 5-HT receptor subtypes research is very necessary.

The study found that the HT-5 4 receptor agonists useful for treating a variety of diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastrointestinal disease, gastric motility disorder, non-ulcer dyspepsia, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, dyspepsia, esophagitis, gastroesophageal disease, nausea, postoperative intestinal infarction, central nervous system disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive disorder, emesis, migraine, neurological disease, pain, cardiovascular disease, heart failure , arrhythmias, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, gastroparesis, diabetes and apnea syndrome.

The HT-5 4 receptor agonists into benzamides, benzimidazole class and indole alkylamines three kinds, which benzamides derivatives act on the neurotransmitter serotonin in the central nervous system by modulation, It showed significant pharmacological effect. The role of serotonin and benzamides derivatives and pharmacologically related to many diseases. Therefore, more and more people will focus on the human body produce serotonin, a storage position and the position of serotonin receptors, and to explore the relationship between these positions with a variety of diseases.

Commonly used in clinical cisapride (cisapride) and Mosapride (Tony network satisfied) is one of the novel benzamides drugs.

These drugs mainly through the intestinal muscle between the excited 5-HT neurofilament preganglionic and postganglionic neurons 4 receptor to promote the release of acetylcholine and enhancing cholinergic role in strengthening the peristalsis and contraction of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. In large doses, it can antagonize the HT-53 receptors play a central antiemetic effect, when typical doses, through the promotion of gastrointestinal motility and antiemetic effect. These drugs can increase the lower esophageal smooth muscle tension and promote esophageal peristalsis, improving the antrum and duodenum coordinated motion, and promote gastric emptying, but also promote the intestinal movement and enhanced features, increase the role of the proximal colon emptying, It is seen as the whole digestive tract smooth muscle prokinetic effect of the whole gastrointestinal drugs.

Mainly used for reflux esophagitis, functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, postoperative gastrointestinal paralysis, functional constipation and intestinal pseudo-obstruction patients. Since there is slight antagonism cisapride the HT-5 3 and anti-D2 receptor, can cause cardiac adverse reactions, prolonged QT occurs, and therefore, patients with severe heart disease, ECG QT prolonged, low potassium, and low blood magnesium prohibited drug. Liver and kidney dysfunction, lactating women and children is not recommended. Due to increase between drug diazepam, ethanol, acenocoumarol, cimetidine and ranitidine the absorption of anticholinergic drugs may also antagonize the effect of this product to promote peristalsis of the stomach, should be aware of when using these, such as when diarrhea should reduce, anticoagulant therapy should pay attention to monitoring the clotting time. Mosapride selective gastrointestinal tract the HT-5 4 receptor agonists, there is no antagonism of D2 receptors, does not cause QT prolonged, reduce adverse reactions, mainly fatigue, dizziness, loose stools, mild abdominal pain , the efficacy of cisapride equivalent clinical effect broader Puka cisapride (prucalopride, Pru) of benzimidazole drugs, with high selectivity and specificity of the HT-5 4 receptor, increasing cholinergic neurotransmitters quality release, stimulate peristalsis reflex, enhance colon contraction, and accelerate gastric emptying, gastrointestinal motility to promote good effect, can effectively relieve the patient’s symptoms of constipation, constipation and for treatment of various gastrointestinal surgery peristalsis slow and weak, and intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

WO2005068461 discloses as the HT-5 4 receptor agonists benzamides compounds, particularly discloses compounds represented by the formula:

ATI-7505

ATI-7505 is stereoisomeric esterified. Cisapride analogs, safe and effective treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, including gastroparesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and related disorders. The drug can also be used to treat a variety of central nervous system disorders. ATI-7505 for the treatment or prevention of gastroesophageal reflux disease, also taking cisapride significantly reduced side effects. These side effects include diarrhea, abdominal cramps and blood pressure and heart rate rise.

Further, the compounds and compositions of this patent disclosure also useful in treating emesis and other diseases. Such as indigestion, gastroesophageal reflux, constipation, postoperative ileus, and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. In the course of treatment, but also taking cisapride reduce the side effects.

ΑΉ-7505 as the HT-5 4 receptor ligands may be mediated by receptors to treat the disease. These receptors are located in several parts of the central nervous system, modulate the receptor can be used to affect the CNS desired modulation.

ATI-7505 contained in the ester moiety does not detract from the ability of the compounds to provide treatment, but to make the compound easier to serum and / or cytosolic esterases degraded, so you can avoid the drug cytochrome P450 detoxification system, and this system with cisapride cause side effects related, thus reducing side effects.

The HT-Good 5 4 receptor agonists and should the HT-5 4 receptor binding powerful, while the other hardly shows affinity for the receptor, and show functional activity as agonists. They should be well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, metabolically stable and possess desirable pharmacokinetic properties. When targeting the receptor in the central nervous system, they should cross the blood-free, selectively targeting peripheral nervous system receptors, they should not pass through the blood-brain barrier. They should be non-toxic, and there is little proof of side effects. Furthermore, the ideal drug candidate will be a stable, non-hygroscopic and easily formulated in the form of physical presence.

Based on the HT-5 4 receptor agonists current developments, the present invention relates to a series of efficacy better, safer, less side effects of the benzamide derivatives.

Synthesis

STR1

PATENT

WO 2009033360

Example 3

(R) – quinuclidine-3-5 – ((S) -2 – (( 4 – amino-5-chloro-2-ethoxy benzoylamino) methyl) morpholino) hexanoate

 

REFERENCES

China Pharmaceuticals: Asia Insight: China Has R&D

pg.jrj.com.cn/acc/Res/CN_RES/…/cd837477-44e9-4f98-a2b9-97620cd64576.pdf

Nov 6, 2012 – levofolinate, sevoflurane inhalation, ambroxol hydrochloride, ioversol, etc ….. dextromethorphan hydrochloride 复方沙芬那敏. 3.2 …… quisapride.

Pharmazie (2011), 66(11), 826-830

//////SHR-116 958, SHR 116958, Quisapride Hydrochloride, preclinical

Cl.Cl.Clc1cc(c(OCC)cc1N)C(=O)NC[C@H]4CN(CCCCCC(=O)O[C@H]3CN2CCC3CC2)CCO4

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PDE4 Inhibitors, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals

 PRECLINICAL  Comments Off on PDE4 Inhibitors, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals
May 182016
 

STR1R CONF SHOWN

STR1

BI ?

(R)-2-(4-(4-Chlorophenoxy)piperidin-1-yl)-4-((tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)amino)-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine 5-Oxide

C22 H27 Cl N4 O3 S, 462.99
 CAS 1910076-27-5
Thieno[3,​2-​d]​pyrimidin-​4-​amine, 2-​[4-​(4-​chlorophenoxy)​-​1-​piperidinyl]​-​6,​7-​dihydro-​N-​(tetrahydro-​2H-​pyran-​4-​yl)​-​, 5-​oxide, (5R)​-

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.49 (dq, J = 4.2, 11.8 Hz, 1H), 1.62 (dq, J = 4.2, 11.8 Hz, 1H), 1.74–1.89 (m, 3H), 1.90–2.02 (m, 3H), 2.96–3.07 (m, 2H), 3.29 (dt, J = 13.6, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.44 (ddd, J = 19.2, 11.2, 2.0 Hz, 2H), 3.62 (dt, J = 17.2, 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.76 (m, 2H), 3.96 (dd, J = 15.6, 12.8 Hz, J = 2H), 4.09–3.99 (m, 3H), 4.51 (m, 1H), 6.21 (br d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.24 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H);

13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 30.4, 32.5, 32.7, 41.0, 47.2, 49.6, 66.9, 66.9, 72.9, 107.8, 117.5, 125.9, 129.5, 155.8, 158.9, 163.0, 174.6.

The use of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitors  for the treatment of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) by reducing inflammation and improving lung function is well documented. Given the potential therapeutic benefit offered by these compounds, a number of PDE4-selective inhibitors containing a dihydrothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine core were identified as preclinical candidates in Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals discovery laboratories

While the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is incompletely understood, chronic inflammation is a major factor. In fact, the inflammatory response is abnormal, with CD8+ T-cells, CD68+ macrophages, and neutrophils predominating in the conducting airways, lung parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature. Elevated levels of the second messenger cAMP can inhibit some inflammatory processes. Theophylline has long been used in treating asthma; it causes bronchodilation by inhibiting cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE), which inactivates cAMP. By inhibiting PDE, theophylline increases cAMP, inhibiting inflammation and relaxing airway smooth muscle. Rather than one PDE, there are now known to be more than 50, with differing activities, substrate preferences, and tissue distributions. Thus, the possibility exists of selectively inhibiting only the enzyme(s) in the tissue(s) of interest. PDE 4 is the primary cAMP-hydrolyzing enzyme in inflammatory and immune cells (macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils). Inhibiting PDE 4 in these cells leads to increased cAMP levels, down-regulating the inflammatory response. Because PDE 4 is also expressed in airway smooth muscle and, in vitro, PDE 4 inhibitors relax lung smooth muscle, selective PDE 4 inhibitors are being developed for treating COPD. Clinical studies have been conducted with PDE 4 inhibitors;

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious and increasing global public health problem; physiologically, it is characterized by progressive, irreversible airflow obstruction and pathologically, by an abnormal airway inflammatory response to noxious particles or gases (MacNee 2005a). The COPD patient suffers a reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), a reduction in the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC), compared with reference values, absolute reductions in expiratory airflow, and little improvement after treatment with an inhaled bronchodilator. Airflow limitation in COPD patients results from mucosal inflammation and edema, bronchoconstriction, increased secretions in the airways, and loss of elastic recoil. Patients with COPD can experience ‘exacerbations,’ involving rapid and prolonged worsening of symptoms (Seneff et al 1995; Connors et al 1996; Dewan et al 2000; Rodriguez-Roisin 2006; Mohan et al 2006). Many are idiopathic, though they often involve bacteria; airway inflammation in exacerbations can be caused or triggered by bacterial antigens (Murphy et al 2000; Blanchard 2002; Murphy 2006;Veeramachaneni and Sethi 2006). Increased IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, GRO-α, MCP-1, and IL-8 levels are found in COPD patient sputum; their levels increase further during exacerbations. COPD has many causes and significant differences in prognosis exist, depending on the cause (Barnes 1998; Madison and Irwin 1998).

COPD is already the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO); the WHO estimates that by the year 2020, COPD will be the third-leading cause of death and the fifth-leading cause of disability worldwide (Murray and Lopez 1997). COPD is the fastest-growing cause of death in developed nations and is responsible for over 2.7 million deaths per year worldwide. In the US, there are currently estimated to be 16 million people with COPD. There are estimated to be up to 20 million sufferers in Japan, which has the world’s highest per capita cigarette consumption and a further 8–12 million in Europe. In 2000, COPD accounted for over 20 million outpatient visits, 3.4 million emergency room visits, 6 million hospitalizations, and 116,500 deaths in the US (National Center for Health Statistics 2002). Factors associated with COPD, including immobility, often lead to secondary health consequences (Polkey and Moxham 2006).

Risk factors for the development of COPD include cigarette smoking, and occupational exposure to dust and chemicals (Senior and Anthonisen 1998; Anthonisen et al 2002; Fabbri and Hurd 2003; Zaher et al 2004). Smoking is the most common cause of COPD and the underlying inflammation typically persists in ex-smokers. Oxidative stress from cigarette smoke is also an issue in COPD (Domej et al 2006). Despite this, relatively few smokers ever develop COPD (Siafakas and Tzortzaki 2002).

While many details of the pathogenesis of COPD remain unclear, chronic inflammation is now recognized as a major factor, predominantly in small airways and lung parenchyma, characterized by increased numbers of macrophages, neutrophils, and T-cells (Barnes 2000; Stockley 2002). As recently as 1995, the American Thoracic Society issued a statement defining COPD without mentioning the underlying inflammation (American Thoracic Society 1995). Since then, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines have made it clear that chronic inflammation throughout the airways, parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature plays a central role (Pauwels et al 2001; GOLD 2003). The comparatively recent realization of the role of airway inflammation in COPD has altered thinking with regard to potential therapies (Rogers and Giembycz 1998; Vignola 2004).

Most pharmacological therapies available for COPD, including bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory agents, were first developed for treating asthma. The mainstays of COPD treatment are inhaled corticosteroids (McEvoy and Niewoehner 1998; Borron and deBoisblanc 1998; Pauwels 2002; Gartlehner et al 2006;D’Souza 2006), supplemental oxygen (Petty 1998; Austin and Wood-Baker 2006), inhaled bronchodilators (Costello 1998; Doherty and Briggs 2004), and antibiotics (Taylor 1998), especially in severely affected patients (Anthonisen et al 1987; Saint et al 1995; Adams et al 2001; Miravitlles et al 2002; Donnelly and Rogers 2003; Sin et al 2003; Rabe 2006), though the use of antibiotics remains controversial (Ram et al 2006). Long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) improve the mucociliary component of COPD. Combination therapy with LABAs and anticholinergic bronchodilators resulted in modest benefits and improved health-related quality of life (Buhl and Farmer 2005; Appleton et al 2006). Treatment with mucolytics reduced exacerbations and the number of days of disability (Poole and Black 2006). The combined use of inhaled corticosteroids and LABAs has been demonstrated to produce sustained improvements in FEV1 and positive effects on quality of life, number of hospitalizations, distance walked, and exacerbations (Mahler et al 2002;Szafranski et al 2003; Sin et al 2004; Miller-Larsson and Selroos 2006; van Schayck and Reid 2006). However, all of these treatments are essentially palliative and do not impact COPD progression (Hay 2000;Gamble et al 2003; Antoniu 2006a).

A further complication in drug development and therapy is that it can be difficult to determine the efficacy of therapy, because COPD has a long preclinical stage, is progressive, and patients generally do not present for treatment until their lung function is already seriously impaired. Moreover, because COPD involves irreversible loss of elasticity, destruction of the alveolar wall, and peribronchial fibrosis, there is often little room for clinical improvement.

Smoking cessation remains the most effective intervention for COPD. Indeed, to date, it is the only intervention shown to stop the decline in lung function, but it does not resolve the underlying inflammation, which persists even in ex-smokers. Smoking cessation is typically best achieved by a multifactor approach, including the use of bupropion, a nicotine replacement product, and behavior modification (Richmond and Zwar 2003).

In COPD, there is an abnormal inflammatory response, characterized by a predominance of CD8+ T-cells, CD68+ macrophages, and neutrophils in the conducting airways, lung parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature (Soto and Hanania 2005; O’Donnell et al 2006; Wright and Churg 2006). Inflammatory mediators involved in COPD include lipids, inflammatory peptides, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors. COPD pathology also includes airway remodeling and mucociliary dysfunction (mucus hypersecretion and decreased mucus transport). Corticosteroids reduce the number of mast cells, but CD8+ and CD68+ cells, and neutrophils, are little affected (Jeffery 2005). Inflammation in COPD is not suppressed by corticosteroids, consistent with it being neutrophil-, not eosinophil-mediated. Corticosteroids also do not inhibit the increased concentrations of IL-8 and TNF-α (both neutrophil chemoattractants) found in induced sputum from COPD patients. Neutrophil-derived proteases, including neutrophil elastase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), are involved in the inflammatory process and are responsible for the destruction of elastin fibers in the lung parenchyma (Mercer et al 2005; Gueders et al 2006). MMPs play important roles in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM), in physiological and pathological processes (Corbel, Belleguic et al 2002). PDE 4 inhibitors can reduce MMP activity and the production of MMPs in human lung fibroblasts stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (Lagente et al 2005). In COPD, abnormal remodeling results in increased deposition of ECM and collagen in lungs, because of an imbalance of MMPs and TIMPs (Jeffery 2001). Fibroblast/myofibroblast proliferation and activation also occur, increasing production of ECM-degrading enzymes (Crouch 1990; Segura-Valdez et al 2000). Additionally, over-expression of cytokines and growth factors stimulates lung fibroblasts to synthesize increased amounts of collagen and MMPs, including MMP-1 (collagenase-1) and MMP-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinases A and B) (Sasaki et al 2000; Zhu et al 2001).

It is now generally accepted that bronchial asthma is also a chronic inflammatory disease (Barnes et al 1988;Barnes 1995). The central role of inflammation of the airways in asthma’s pathogenesis is consistent with the efficacy of corticosteroids in controlling clinical symptoms. Eosinophils are important in initiating and continuing the inflammatory state (Holgate et al 1987; Bruijnzeel 1989; Underwood et al 1994; Teixeira et al 1997), while other inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, also infiltrate the airways (Holgate et al 1987;Teixeira et al 1997). The familiar acute symptoms of asthma are the result of airway smooth muscle contraction. While recognition of the key role of inflammation has led to an emphasis on anti-inflammatory therapy in asthma, a significant minority of patients remains poorly controlled and some exhibit accelerated declines in lung function, consistent with airway remodeling (Martin and Reid 2006). Reversal or prevention of structural changes in remodeling may require additional therapy (Burgess et al 2006).

There is currently no cure for asthma; treatment depends primarily on inhaled glucocorticoids to reduce inflammation (Taylor 1998; Petty 1998), and inhaled bronchodilators to reduce symptoms (Torphy 1994;Costello 1998; Georgitis 1999; DeKorte 2003). Such treatments, however, do not address disease progression.

COPD and asthma are both characterized by airflow obstruction, but they are distinct in terms of risk factors and clinical presentation. While both involve chronic inflammation and cellular infiltration and activation, different cell types are implicated and there are differences in the inflammatory states (Giembycz 2000;Fabbri and Hurd 2003; Barnes 2006). In COPD, neutrophil infiltration into the airways and their activation appear to be key (Stockley 2002); in asthma, the inflammatory response involves airway infiltration by activated eosinophils and lymphocytes, and T-cell activation of the allergic response (Holgate et al 1987;Saetta et al 1998; Barnes 2006). While macrophages are present in both conditions, the major controller cells are CD8+ T-cells in COPD (O’Shaughnessy et al 1997; Saetta et al 1998) and CD4+ T-cells in asthma. IL-1, IL-8, and TNF-α are the key cytokines in COPD, while in asthma, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 are more important. There are differences in histopathological features of lung biopsies between COPD patients and asthmatics; COPD patients have many fewer eosinophils in lung tissue than asthmatics.

While the early phases of COPD and asthma are distinguishable, there are common features, including airway hyper-responsiveness and mucus hypersecretion. MUC5AC is a major mucin gene expressed in the airways; its expression is increased in COPD and asthmatic patients. At least in vitro, epidermal growth factor stimulates MUC5AC mRNA and protein expression; this can be reversed by PDE 4 inhibitors, which may contribute to their clinical efficacy in COPD and asthma (Mata et al 2005). Similar structural and fibrotic changes make COPD and asthma much less distinguishable in extreme cases; the chronic phases of both involve inflammatory responses, alveolar detachment, mucus hypersecretion, and subepithelial fibrosis. The two conditions have been linked epidemiologically; adults with asthma are up to 12 times more likely to develop COPD over time than those without (Guerra 2005).

 

PAPER

 

Abstract Image

A practical, safe, and efficient process for the synthesis of PDE4 (phosphodiesterase type 4) inhibitors represented by 1 and 2 was developed and demonstrated on a multi-kilogram scale. Key aspects of the process include the regioselective synthesis of dihydrothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine-2,4-diol 9 and the asymmetric sulfur oxidation of intermediate 11.

Development of a Practical Process for the Synthesis of PDE4 Inhibitors

Chemical Development US, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 900 Ridgebury Road, P.O. Box 368, Ridgefield, Connecticut 06877-0368, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00104

 

 

PDE 4 in COPD

With regard to COPD, PDE 4 is the primary cAMP-hydrolyzing enzyme in inflammatory and immune cells, especially macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils, all of which are found in the lungs of COPD and asthma patients (Torphy et al 1992; Karlsson and Aldous 1997; De Brito et al 1997; Wang et al 1999;Torphy and Page 2000). Inhibition of PDE 4 leads to elevated cAMP levels in these cells, down-regulating the inflammatory response (Dyke and Montana 2002).

PDE 4 has also attracted much attention because it is expressed in airway smooth muscle (Ashton et al 1994;Undem et al 1994; Nicholson et al 1995; Kerstjens and Timens 2003; Mehats et al 2003; Lipworth 2005; Fan Chung 2006). In vitro, PDE 4 inhibitors relax lung smooth muscle (Undem et al 1994; Dent and Giembycz 1995). In COPD and asthma, a selective PDE 4 inhibitor with combined bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties would seem desirable (Nicholson and Shahid 1994; Lombardo 1995; Palfreyman 1995; Cavalia and Frith 1995; Palfreyman and Souness 1996; Karlsson and Aldous 1997; Compton et al 2001; Giembycz 2002; Jacob et al 2002; Soto and Hanania 2005).

PDE 4 inhibitors in COPD

So, because PDE 4 inhibitors suppress inflammatory functions in several cell types involved in COPD and asthma (Huang and Mancini 2006) and because, at least in vitro, PDE 4 inhibitors relax lung smooth muscle, selective PDE 4 inhibitors, originally intended for use in treating depression (Renau 2004), have been developed for the treatment of COPD and asthma (Torphy et al 1999; Spina 2000; Huang et al 2001; Spina 2004; Giembycz 2005a, 2005b; Lagente et al 2005; Boswell-Smith, Spina et al 2006). PDE 4 enzymes are strongly inhibited by the antidepressant drug rolipram (Pinto et al 1993), which decreases the influx of inflammatory cells at sites of inflammation (Lagente et al 1994; Lagente et al 1995; Alves et al 1996). PDE 4 inhibitors down-regulate cytokine production in inflammatory cells, in vivo and in vitro (Undem et al 1994;Dent and Giembycz 1995). TNF-α is an important inflammatory cytokine in COPD; its release is reduced by PDE 4 inhibitors (Souness et al 1996; Chambers et al 1997; Griswold et al 1998; Gonçalves de Moraes et al 1998; Corbel, Belleguic et al 2002). Some PDE 4 inhibitors, including cilomilast and AWD 12-281, can inhibit neutrophil degranulation, a property not shared by theophylline (Ezeamuzie 2001; Jones et al 2005). PDE 4 inhibitors reduce overproduction of other pro-inflammatory mediators, including arachidonic acid and leukotrienes (Torphy 1998). PDE 4 inhibitors also inhibit cellular trafficking and microvascular leakage, production of reactive oxygen species, and cell adhesion molecule expression in vitro and in vivo (Sanz et al 2005). PDE 4 inhibitors, including cilomilast and CI-1044, inhibit LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in whole blood from COPD patients (Burnouf et al 2000; Ouagued et al 2005).

There are now thought to be at least four PDE 4s, A, B, C, and D, derived from four genes (Lobbam et al 1994; Muller et al 1996; Torphy 1998; Conti and Jin 1999; Matsumoto et al 2003). Alternative splicing and alternative promoters add further complexity (Manganiello et al 1995; Horton et al 1995; Torphy 1998). Indeed, the four genes encode more than 16 PDE 4 isoforms, which can be divided into short (∼65–75 kDa) and long forms (∼80–130 kDa); the difference between the short and long forms lies in the N-terminal region (Bolger et al 1997; Huston et al 2006). PDE 4 isoforms are regulated by extracellular signal-related protein kinase (ERK), which can phosphorylate PDE 4 (Houslay and Adams 2003).

The four PDE 4 genes are differentially expressed in various tissues (Silver et al 1988; Lobbam et al 1994;Manganiello et al 1995; Horton et al 1995; Muller et al 1996; Torphy 1998). PDE 4A is expressed in many tissues, but not in neutrophils (Wang et al 1999). PDE 4B is also widely expressed and is the predominant PDE 4 subtype in monocytes and neutrophils (Wang et al 1999), but is not found in cortex or epithelial cells (Jin et al 1998). Upregulation of the PDE 4B enzyme in response to pro-inflammatory agents suggest that it has a role in inflammatory processes (Manning et al 1999). PDE 4C is expressed in lung and testis, but not in circulating inflammatory cells, cortex, or hippocampus (Obernolte et al 1997; Manning et al 1999; Martin-Chouly et al 2004). PDE 4D is highly expressed in lung, cortex, cerebellum, and T-cells (Erdogan and Houslay 1997; Jin et al 1998). PDE 4D also plays an important role in airway smooth muscle contraction (Mehats et al 2003).

A major issue with early PDE 4 inhibitors was their side effect profile; the signature side effects are largely gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, increased gastric acid secretion) and limited the therapeutic use of PDE 4 inhibitors (Dyke and Montana 2002). The second generation of more selective inhibitors, such as cilomilast and roflumilast, have improved side effect profiles and have shown clinical efficacy in COPD and asthma (Barnette 1999; Spina 2000; Lagente et al 2005). However, even cilomilast and roflumilast, the most advanced clinical candidates, discussed below, cause some degree of emesis (Spina 2003).

It is now thought that the desirable anti-inflammatory properties and unwanted side effects of nausea and emesis are associated with distinct biochemical activities (Torphy et al 1992; Jacobitz et al 1996; Barnette et al 1996; Souness et al 1997; Souness and Rao 1997). Specifically, the side effects are believed to be associated with the so-called ‘high-affinity rolipram binding site’ (HARBS) (Barnette et al 1995; Muller et al 1996; Jacobitz et al 1996; Kelly et al 1996; Torphy 1998) and/or inhibition of the form of PDE 4 found in the CNS (Barnette et al 1996). The exact nature of HARBS remains unclear, although it has been described as a conformer of PDE 4 (Souness and Rao 1997; Barnette et al 1998). Using mice deficient in PDE 4B or PDE 4D, it appears that emesis is the result of selective inhibition of PDE 4D (Robichaud et al 2002; Lipworth 2005), which is unfortunate, because the most clinically advanced PDE 4 inhibitors are selective for PDE 4D. Also, from animal studies, it appears that the nausea and vomiting are produced via the CNS, though there may also be direct effects on the gastrointestinal system (Barnette 1999).

While beyond the scope of this review, it has been proposed that PDE 4 inhibitors may be useful in treating inflammatory bowel disease (Banner and Trevethick 2004), cystic fibrosis (Liu et al 2005), pulmonary arterial hypertension (Growcott et al 2006), myeloid and lymphoid malignancies (Lerner and Epstein 2006), Alzheimer’s disease (Ghavami et al 2006), rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis (Dyke and Montana 2002), infection-induced preterm labor (Oger et al 2004), depression (Wong et al 2006), and allergic disease (Crocker and Townley 1999). Varying degrees of in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data exist to support these claims.

So, after that theoretical buildup, we reach the proof of the pudding; clinical studies have been conducted with PDE 4 inhibitors. A potent, but not-very-selective, PDE 4 inhibitor is approved in Japan and is used clinically, including for treating asthma. Another is awaiting approval in the US. One is in advanced clinical development and others are at earlier stages.

REF

Pouzet, P.; Hoenke, C.; Martyres, D.; Nickolaus, P.; Jung, B.; Hamman, H. Dihydrothienopyrimidines for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PatentWO 2006111549 A1, October 26, 2006.

Ohnacker, G.; Woitun, E. Novel dihydrothieno[3, 2-d]pyrimidines. U.S. Patent US 3,318,881, May 9, 1967.

/////PDE4 Inhibitors, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, BI ?, PRECLINICAL, 1910076-27-5

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