AUTHOR OF THIS BLOG

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLDDRUGTRACKER

Darolutamide

 Phase 3 drug, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Darolutamide
Aug 122016
 

 

STR1

 

ODM-201.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | ODM-201 | C19H19ClN6O2

Darolutamide

N-((S)-1-(3-(3-Chloro-4-cyanophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-propan-2-yl)-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide

N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-propan-2-yl)-5-(l-hydroxyethyl)-lH-pyrazole-3-carboxamide

  • MF C19H19ClN6O2
  • MW 398.846

BAY 1841788; ODM-201

1H-Pyrazole-3-carboxamide, N-[(1S)-2-[3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-
BAY-1841788
N-{(2S)-1-[3-(3-Chlor-4-cyanphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-2-propanyl}-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-carboxamid
N-{(2S)-1-[3-(3-Chloro-4-cyanophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-2-propanyl}-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide
N-{(2S)-1-[3-(3-Chloro-4-cyanophényl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-2-propanyl}-5-(1-hydroxyéthyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide
ODM-201
1297538-32-9  CAS
UNII:X05U0N2RCO
  • Originator Orion
  • Developer Bayer HealthCare; Orion
  • Class Antineoplastics
  • Mechanism of Action Androgen receptor antagonists
  • Phase III Prostate cancer
  • Most Recent Events

    • 03 Jun 2016 Bayer and Orion plan the phase III ARASENS trial for Prostate cancer
    • 03 Jun 2016 Bayer and Orion expand the licensing agreement to include joint development of ODM 201 for Metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC)
    • 06 May 2016 Long-term combined adverse events data from the the ARADES (phase I/II) and the ARAFOR (phase I) trials in Prostate cancer presented at the 111th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA -2016)

Darolutamide (INN) (developmental code names ODM-201, BAY-1841788) is a non-steroidal antiandrogen, specifically, a full and high-affinity antagonist of the androgen receptor (AR), that is under development by Orion and Bayer HealthCare[1] for the treatment of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).[2][3]

Orion and licensee Bayer are co-developing darolutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, for treating castration-resistant prostate cancer and metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. In August 2016, darolutamide was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development. The drug appears to be first disclosed in WO2011051540, claiming novel heterocyclic derivatives as tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators, useful for the treatment of prostate cancer.

 

Mode of action

Relative to enzalutamide (MDV3100 or Xtandi) and apalutamide (ARN-509), two other recent non-steroidal antiandrogens, darolutamide shows some advantages.[3] Darolutamide appears to negligibly cross the blood-brain-barrier.[3] This is beneficial due to the reduced risk of seizures and other central side effects from off-target GABAA receptor inhibition that tends to occur in non-steroidal antiandrogens that are structurally similar to enzalutamide.[3] Moreover, in accordance with its lack of central penetration, darolutamide does not seem to increase testosterone levels in mice or humans, unlike other non-steroidal antiandrogens.[3] Another advantage is that darolutamide has been found to block the activity of all tested/well-known mutant ARs in prostate cancer, including the recently-identified clinically-relevant F876L mutation that produces resistance to enzalutamide and apalutamide.[3] Finally, darolutamide shows higher affinity and inhibitory efficacy at the AR (Ki = 11 nM relative to 86 nM for enzalutamide and 93 nM for apalutamide; IC50 = 26 nM relative to 219 nM for enzalutamide and 200 nM for apalutamide) and greater potency/efficaciousness in non-clinical models of prostate cancer.[3]

ORM-15341 is the main active metabolite of darolutamide.[3] It, similarly, is a full antagonist of the AR, with an affinity (Ki) of 8 nM and an IC50 of 38 nM.[3]

Clinical trials

Darolutamide has been studied in phase I and phase II clinical trials and has thus far been found to be effective and well-tolerated,[4] with the most commonly reported side effects including fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea.[5][6] No seizures have been observed.[6][7] As of July 2015, darolutamide is in phase III trials for CRPC.[3]

Representative binding affinities of ODM-201, ORM-15341, enzalutamide, and ARN-509 measured in competition with [3H]mibolerone using wtAR isolated from rat ventral prostates (C). All data points are means of quadruplicates ±SEM. Ki values are presented in parentheses. D. Antagonism to wtAR was determined using AR-HEK293 cells treated with ODM-201, ORM-15341, enzalutamide, or ARN-509 together with 0.45 nM testosterone in steroid-depleted medium for 24 hours before luciferase activity measurements. All data points are means of triplicates ±SEM. IC50 values are presented in parentheses.

WHIPPANY, N.J., Sept. 16, 2014 /PRNewswire/ — Bayer HealthCare and Orion Corporation, a pharmaceutical company based in Espoo, Finland, have begun to enroll patients in a Phase III trial with ODM-201, an investigational oral androgen receptor inhibitor in clinical development. The study, called ARAMIS, evaluates ODM-201 in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer who have rising Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels and no detectable metastases. The trial is designed to determine the effects of the treatment on metastasis-free survival (MFS).

“The field of treatment options for prostate cancer patients is evolving rapidly.  However, once prostate cancer becomes resistant to conventional anti-hormonal therapy, many patients will eventually develop metastatic disease,” said Dr. Joerg Moeller, Member of the Bayer HealthCare Executive Committee and Head of Global Development. “The initiation of a Phase III clinical trial for ODM-201 marks the starting point for a potential new treatment option for patients whose cancer has not yet spread.  This is an important milestone for Bayer in our ongoing effort to meet the unmet needs of men affected by prostate cancer.”

Earlier this year, Bayer and Orion entered into a global agreement under which the companies will jointly develop ODM-201, with Bayer contributing a major share of the costs of future development. Bayer will commercialize ODM-201 globally, and Orion has the option to co-promote ODM-201 in Europe. Orion will be responsible for the manufacturing of the product.

About the ARAMIS Study
The ARAMIS trial is a randomized, Phase III, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of oral ODM-201 in patients with non-metastatic CRPC who are at high risk for developing metastatic disease. About 1,500 patients are planned to be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive 600 mg of ODM-201 twice a day or matching placebo. Randomisation will be stratified by PSA doubling time (PSADT less than or equal to 6 months vs. > 6 months) and use of osteoclast-targeted therapy (yes vs. no).

The primary endpoint of this study is metastasis-free survival (MFS), defined as time between randomization and evidence of metastasis or death from any cause. The secondary objectives of this study are overall survival (OS), time to first symptomatic skeletal event (SSE), time to initiation of first cytotoxic chemotherapy, time to pain progression, and characterization of the safety and tolerability of ODM-201.

About ODM-201
ODM-201 is an investigational androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor that is thought to block the growth of prostate cancer cells. ODM-201 binds to the AR and inhibits receptor function by blocking its cellular function.

About Oncology at Bayer
Bayer is committed to science for a better life by advancing a portfolio of innovative treatments. The oncology franchise at Bayer now includes three oncology products and several other compounds in various stages of clinical development. Together, these products reflect the company’s approach to research, which prioritizes targets and pathways with the potential to impact the way that cancer is treated.

About Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc. is the U.S.-based pharmaceuticals business of Bayer HealthCare LLC, a subsidiary of Bayer AG. Bayer HealthCare is one of the world’s leading, innovative companies in the healthcare and medical products industry, and combines the activities of the Animal Health, Consumer Care, Medical Care, and Pharmaceuticals divisions. As a specialty pharmaceutical company, Bayer HealthCare provides products for General Medicine, Hematology, Neurology, Oncology and Women’s Healthcare. The company’s aim is to discover and manufacture products that will improve human health worldwide by diagnosing, preventing and treating diseases.

Bayer® and the Bayer Cross® are registered trademarks of Bayer.

SYNTHESIS

STR1

str1

PATENT

US 2015203479

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2011051540A1?cl=en

 

PATENT

WO 2012143599

http://www.google.com/patents/US20140094474?cl=de

PATENTS

WO2011051540

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2011051540A1?cl=en

PATENT

IN 2011KO00570

 

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016120530&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

WO-2016120530

Compound of (I) (5 g) was dissolved in an acetonitrile and distilled water. The reaction mixture was heated at 75 °C and then slowly cooled down at RT and stirred at RT for 3 days. The solid obtained was filtered, washed twice with the acetonitrile: water and dried under vacuum at 40 °C and 60 °C to yield crystalline form of (I) (4.42 g) with 88% of yield (example 1, page 10).

Compound (I) can be synthetized using the procedures described in WO

201 1/051540.

Pure diastereomers (la) and (lb) can be suitably synthetized, for example, using ketoreductase enzymes (KREDs) for both S- and R-selective reduction of compound 1 to compound 2 as shown in Scheme 1, wherein R is H or Ci_6 alkyl.

Scheme 1.

For example, Codexis KRED-130 and KRED -NADH-110 enzymes are useful for obtaining excellent stereoselectivity, even stereospecificity. In Scheme 1 the starting material 1 is preferably an ester (R= Ci_6 alkyl), for example ethyl ester (R=ethyl), such as to facilitate extraction of the product into the organic phase as the compound where R=H has a tendency to remain in the water phase. Intermediate 2 can be protected, preferably with silyl derivatives such as tert-butyldiphenylsilyl, in order to avoid esterification in amidation step. In the case of R=Ci_6 alkyl, ester hydrolysis is typically performed before amidation step, preferably in the presence of LiOH, NaOH or KOH. Amidation from compound 3 to compound 5_is suitably carried out using EDCI HBTU, DIPEA system but using other typical amidation methods is also possible. Deprotection of 5 give pure diastereomers (la) and (lb).

Pyrazole ring without NH substitution is known tautomerizable functionality and is described here only as single tautomer but every intermediate and end product here can exist in both tautomeric forms at the same time.

The stereochemistry of the compounds can be confirmed by using optically pure starting materials with known absolute configuration as demonstrated in Scheme 2, wherein R=H or Ci_6 alkyl, preferably alkyl, for example ethyl. The end products of Scheme 2 are typically obtained as a mixture of tautomers at +300K 1H-NMR analyses in DMSO.

Scheme 2. Synthesis pathway to stereoisomers by using starting materials with known absolute configuration

The crystalline forms I, Γ and Γ ‘ of compounds (I), (la) and (lb), respectively, can be prepared, for example, by dissolving the compound in question in an

acetonitrile: water mixture having volume ratio from about 85: 15 to about 99: 1, such as from about 90: 10 to about 98:2, for example about 95:5, under heating and slowly cooling the solution until the crystalline form precipitates from the solution. The concentration of the compound in the acetonitrile: water solvent mixture is suitably about 1 kg of the compound in 5-25 liters of acetonitrile: water solvent mixture, for example 1 kg of the compound in 10-20 liters of acetonitrile: water solvent mixture. The compound is suitably dissolved in the acetonitrile: water solvent mixture by heating the solution, for example near to the reflux temperature, for example to about 60-80 °C, for example to about 75 °C, under stirring and filtering if necessary. The solution is suitably then cooled to about 0-50 °C, for example to about 5-35 °C, for example to about RT, over about 5 to about 24 hours, for example over about 6 to 12 hours, and stirred at this temperature for about 3 to 72 hours, for example for about 5 to 12 hours. The obtained crystalline product can then be filtered, washed, and dried. The drying is suitably carried out in vacuum at about 40 to 60 °C, for example at 55 °C, for about 1 to 24 hours, such as for about 2 to 12 hours, for example 2 to 6 hours.

The crystalline forms I, Γ and I” of compounds (I), (la) and (lb), respectively, are useful as medicaments and can be formulated into pharmaceutical dosage forms, such as tablets and capsules for oral administration, by mixing with pharmaceutical excipients known in the art.

The disclosure is further illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. Crystallization of N-((S)- 1 -(3 -(3 -chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- 1 H-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-propan-2-yl)-5 -( 1 -hydroxyethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (I)

N-((iS)- 1 -(3 -(3 -chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- 1 H-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-propan-2-yl)-5 -( 1 -hydroxyethyl)-! H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (I) (5 g), 71.25 ml of acetonitrile, and 3.75 ml of distilled water were charged to a flask, and the mixture was heated up to 75 °C. The mixture was slowly cooled down to RT and stirred at RT for 3 days. The solid obtained was filtered and washed twice with acetonitrile: water (9.5 ml:0.5 ml). The product was dried under vacuum at 40 °C and finally at 60°C to obtain 4.42 g of crystalline title compound (yield of 88 %) which was used in X-ray diffraction study.

 

Example 3. Synthesis of N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-propan-2-yl)-5-((S)- 1 -hy droxy ethyl)- lH-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (la)

a) Ethyl-5 -((S) 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

HO

MgS04 x7H20 (341 mg), NADP monosodium salt (596 mg), D(+)-glucose (9.26 g) and optimized enzyme CDX-901 lyophilized powder (142 mg) were added to 0.2 mM of KH2P04 buffer (pH 7.0, 709 ml) to prepare solution I. To this solution I was added solution II which contained ethyl-5 -acetyl- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate (8.509 g; 46.70 mmol), EtOH (28 ml) and K ED-130 (NADPH ketoreductase, 474 mg). The mixture was agitated at 30-32°C for 5.5 h (monitoring by HPLC) and allowed to cool to RT. The mixture was evaporated to smaller volume and the residue was agitated with diatomaceous earth and filtered. The mother liquid was extracted with 3×210 ml of EtOAc and dried. The solution was filtered through silica (83 g) and evaporated to dryness to give 7.40 g of the title compound. The optical purity was 100 % ee.

b) Ethyl 5-((S)-l -((tert-butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

Diphenyl-tert-butyl chlorosilane (7.48 g, 27.21 mmol) was added in 26 ml of DMF to a mixture of compound of Example 3(a) (5.00 g, 27.15 mmol) and imidazole (2.81 g, 41.27 mmol) in DMF (50 ml) at RT. The mixture was stirred at RT for 24 h.

Saturated aqueous NaHC03 (56 ml) and water (56 ml) were added and the mixture was stirred at RT for 20 min. The mixture was extracted with 2×100 ml of EtOAc. Combined organic phases were washed with water (1×100 ml, 1×50 ml), dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated to give 10.92 g of crude title compound.

c) 5-((S)-l -((tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylic acid

2 M NaOH (aq) (38.8 ml; 77.5 mmol) was added to a solution of the compound of Example 3(b) (10.9 g, 25.8 mmol) in 66 ml of THF. The mixture was heated up to reflux temperature. Heating was continued for 2.5 h and THF was removed in vacuum. Water (40 ml) and EtOAc (110 ml) were added. Clear solution was obtained after addition of more water (10 ml). Layers were separated and aqueous phase was extracted with 100 ml of EtOAc. Combined organic phases were dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated to give 9.8 g of the title compound.

d) 5-((S)- 1 -((tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)-N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyano-phenyl)- 1 H-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide

Under nitrogen atmosphere HBTU (0.84 g; 2.22 mmol), EDCIxHCl (3.26 g; 17.02 mmol) and (S)-4-(l-(2-aminopropyl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)-2-chlorobenzonitrile (3.86 g; 14.80 mmol) were added to a mixture of crude compound of Example 3(c) (8.68g; purity 77.4 area-%) and DIPEA (2.20 g; 17.02 mmol) in DCM (50 ml). The mixture was stirred at RT for 46 h (6 ml of DCM was added after 20 h). The mixture was washed with 3×20 ml of water, dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated to give 13.7 g of crude title compound.

e) N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((S)- 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (la)

TBAF hydrate (Bu4NF x 3H20; 2.34 g; 7.40 mmol) in 10 ml of THF was added to the solution of the compound of Example 3(d) (9.43 g; 14.79 mmol) in THF (94 ml) at 0 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Stirring was continued at RT for 21.5 h and the mixture was concentrated. DCM (94 ml) was added to the residue and the solution was washed with 3×50 ml of water, dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated. Crude product was purified by flash chromatography (EtOAc/n-heptane) to give 2.1 g of the title compound. 1H-NMR (400MHz; d6-DMSO; 300K): Major tautomer (-85 %): δ 1.11 (d, 3H), 1.39 (d, 3H), 4.24-4.40 (m, 2H), 4.40-4.50 (m, 1H), 6.41(s, 1H), 6.93 (d, 1H), 7.77-7.82 (m, 1H), 7.88-8.01 (m, 2H), 8.08 (s, 1H), 8.19 (d, 1H), 13.02 (broad s, 1H). Minor tautomer (-15 %) δ 1.07-1.19 (m, 3H), 1.32-1.41 (m, 3H), 4.24-4.40 (m, 2H), 4.40-4.50 (m, 1H), 6.80 (broad s, 1H), 6.91-6-94 (m, 1H), 7.77-7.82 (m, 1H), 7.88-8.01 (m, 2H), 8.05-8.09 (m, 1H), 8.31 (d, 1H), 13.10 (broad s, 1H).

Example 4. Crystallization of N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((S)- 1 -hy droxy ethyl)- lH-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (la)

N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((S)- 1 -hydroxyethyl)-lH-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (la) (5.00 g; 12.54 mmol) was mixed with 47.5 ml of ACN and 2.5 ml of water. The mixture was heated until compound (la) was fully dissolved. The solution was allowed to cool slowly to RT to form a precipitate. The mixture was then further cooled to 0 °C and kept in this temperature for 30 min. The mixture was filtered and the precipitate was dried under vacuum to obtain 4.50 g of crystalline title compound which was used in the X-ray diffraction study.

 

Example 6. Synthesis of N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-propan-2-yl)-5-((R)- 1 -hy droxy ethyl)- lH-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (lb)

a) Ethyl-5 -((R)- 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (Solution I) was prepared by dissolving potassium dihydrogen phosphate (11.350 g, 54.89 mmol) to water (333 ml) and adjusting pH of the solution to 7.0 by addition of 5 M solution of NaOH. MgS04 x 7 H20 (1.650 g), NAD monosodium salt (0.500 g), D(+)-glucose (10.880 g) and optimised enzyme CDX-901 lyophilised powder (0.200 g) were added to Solution I. To this solution (Solution II) were added KRED-NADH- 110 (0.467 g), ethyl-5-acetyl-1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate (10.00 g; 54.89 mmol) and 2-methyltetrahydro-furan (16 ml). The mixture was agitated at 30° C for 11 h and allowed to cool to RT overnight. The pH of the mixture was kept at 7 by addition of 5 M solution of NaOH. The mixture was evaporated to a smaller volume. The evaporation residue was agitated for 10 min with diatomaceous earth (40 g) and activated charcoal (0.54 g), and filtered. Material on the filter was washed with water (40 ml) and the washings were combined with the filtrate. Layers were separated and aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (450 ml and 2×270 ml). Combined organic phases were dried over Na2S04, filtered and evaporated to dryness to give 9.85 g of the title compound (100 % ee).

b) Ethyl-5 -((R)- 1 -((tert-butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

Imidazole (5.32 g; 78.08 mmol) was added to a DCM (67 ml) solution of the compound of Example 6(a) (9.85 g; 53.48). The mixture was stirred until all reagent was dissolved and tert-butyldiphenyl chlorosilane (13.21 ml; 50.80 mmol) was added to the mixture. The mixture was stirred for 1.5 h, 70 ml of water was added and stirring was continued for 15 min. Layers were separated and organic phase was washed with 2×70 ml of water and dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated to give 22.07 g of crude title compound.

c) 5 -((R)- 1 -((tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylic acid

Compound of Example 6(b) (11.3 g; 26.74 mmol; theoretical yield from the previous step) was dissolved in 34 ml of THF and 50 ml of 2 M NaOH (aq.) was added. The mixture was heated under reflux temperature for 70 min. The mixture was extracted with 2×55 ml of EtOAc and combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated. Evaporation residue was triturated in 250 ml of n-heptane, filtered and dried to give 17.58 g of crude title compound.

d) 5-((R)- 1 -((tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)-N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyano-phenyl)- 1 H-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide

A mixture of the compound of Example 6(c) (11.14 g; 26.75 mmol; theoretical yield from the previous step), 91 ml of DCM, HBTU (1.52 g; 4.01 mmol), EDCIxHCl

(5.90 g; 30.76 mmol), (S)-4-(l-(2-aminopropyl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)-2-chlorobenzo-nitrile (6.97 g; 26.75 mmol) and DIPEA (3.98 g; 30.76 mmol) was stirred at RT for 3 h and at 30° C for 22 h. The mixture was washed with 2×90 ml of 0.5 M HC1 and 4×90 ml of water, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated. Crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (n-heptane-EtOAc) to give 16.97 g of title compound.

e) N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((R)- 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (lb)

A mixture of the compound of Example 6(d) (6.09 g; 9.56 mmol), 61 ml of THF and TBAF was stirred at 40 °C for 6.5 h. The mixture was concentrated and 61 ml of EtOAc was added to the evaporation residue. Solution was washed with 2×50 ml of 0.5 M HC1 and 4×50 ml of water, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated. Crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (n-heptane-EtOAc) to give 1.71 g of the title compound. 1H-NMR (400MHz; d6-DMSO; 300K): Major tautomer (~85%): 5 1.10 (d, 3H), 1.38 (d, 3H), 4.14-4.57 (m, 2H), 5.42 (d, 1H),

6.39(s, 1H), 6.86-6.98 (m, 1H), 7.74-7.84 (m, 1H), 7.86-8.02 (m, 2H), 8.08 (s, 1H), 8.21 (d, 1H), 13.04 (broad s, 1H). Minor tautomer (-15%) δ 0.95-1.24 (m, 3H), 1.25-1.50 (m, 3H), 4.14-4.57 (m, 2H), 4.60-4.90 (m, 1H), 5.08 (d, 1H), 6.78 (broad s, 1H), 6.86-6.98 (m, 1H), 7.77-7.84 (m, 1H), 7.86-8.02 (m, 2H), 8.02-8.12 (m, 1H), 8.32 (d, 1H), 13.1 1 (broad s, 1H).

Example 7. Crystallization of N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((R)- 1 -hy droxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (lb)

N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((R)- 1 -hydroxyethyl)-l H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (lb) (3.7 g; 9.28 mmol) was mixed with 70 ml of ACN and 3.5 ml of water. The mixture was heated to reflux temperature until compound (lb) was fully dissolved. The solution was allowed to cool slowly. The mixture was filtered at 50 °C to obtain 6.3 mg of the precipitate. Mother liquid was cooled to 41 °C and filtered again to obtain 20.7 mg of the precipitate. Obtained mother liquid was then cooled to 36 °C and filtered to obtain 173 mg of the precipitate. The final mother liquid was cooled to RT, stirred overnight, cooled to 0 °C, filtered, washed with cold ACN: water (1 : 1) and dried to obtain 2.71 g of the precipitate. The precipitates were checked for optical purity and the last precipitate of crystalline title compound (optical purity 100 %) was used in the X-ray diffraction study.

 

Example 9. Synthesis of Ethyl-5 -((S) 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

HO

Zinc trifluoromethanesulfonate (0.259 g; 0.713 mmol) and (S)-(-)-3-butyn-2-ol (0.25 g; 3.57 mmol) were added to 0.75 ml (5.35 mmol) of Et3N under nitrogen

atmosphere. Ethyldiazoacetate (0.45 ml; 4.28 mmol) was added slowly and the

mixture was heated at 100 °C for 2 h. The mixture was cooled to RT and 5 ml of water was added. The mixture was washed with 15 ml of DCM, 5 ml of water was added and phases were separated. Water phase was washed twice with DCM, all organic layers were combined, dried with phase separator filtration and evaporated to dryness to give 0.523 g of crude material. The product was purified by normal phase column chromatography (0-5 % MeOH:DCM) to give 0.165 mg of the title compound. 1H-NMR (400MHz; d6-DMSO; temp +300 K): Tautomer 1 (major 77%): δ 1.28 (t, 3H), 1.39 (d, 3H), 4.20-4.28 (m, 2H), (d, 1H), 4.75-4.85 (m, 1H) 5.43 (broad d, 1H), 6.54 (broad s, 1H), 13.28 (broad s, 1H). Tautomer 2 (minor 23%): δ 1.28 (t, 3H), 1.39 (d, 3H), 4.20-4.28 (m, 2H), 4.66-4.85 (m, 1H), 5.04-5.15 (broad s, 1H), 6.71 (broad s, 1H), 13.60 (broad s, 1H).

Exam le 10. Ethyl-5 -((R)- 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

Zinc trifluoromethanesulfonate (1.037 g; 2.85 mmol) and (R)-(+)-3-butyn-2-ol (1.00 g; 14.27 mmol) were added to 2.98 ml (21.40 mmol) of Et3N under nitrogen atmosphere. Ethyldiazoacetate (1.80 ml; 21.40 mmol) was added slowly and then refluxed for 3 h. The mixture was cooled to RT and 45 ml of water was added. The mixture was extracted with 3×50 ml of DCM, organic layers were combined, dried with phase separator filtration and evaporated to dryness to give 2.503 g of crude material which was purified by normal phase column chromatography (0-10 % MeOH:DCM) to give 0.67 lmg of the title compound. 1H-NMR (400MHz; d6-DMSO; temp +300 K): Tautomer 1 (major 78%): δ 1.28 (t, 3H), 1.39 (d, 3H), 4.18-4.35 (m, 2H), (d, 1H), 4.75-4.85 (m, 1H) 5.42 (broad d, 1H), 6.54 (s, 1H), 13.29 (broad s, 1H). Tautomer 2 (minor 22%): δ 1.28 (t, 3H), 1.39 (d, 3H), 4.18-4.35 (m, 2H), 4.66-4.85 (m, 1H), 5.09 (broad s, 1H), 6.71 (broad s, 1H), 13.61 (broad s, 1H).

References

  1.  “Discovery of ODM-201, a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor targeting resistance mechanisms to androgen signaling-directed prostate cancer therapies.”. Sci Rep. 5: 12007. 2015. doi:10.1038/srep12007. PMC 4490394free to read. PMID 26137992.
  2.  Fizazi K, Albiges L, Loriot Y, Massard C (2015). “ODM-201: a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor in castration-resistant prostate cancer”. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 15(9): 1007–17. doi:10.1586/14737140.2015.1081566. PMID 26313416.
  3.  Moilanen AM, Riikonen R, Oksala R, Ravanti L, Aho E, Wohlfahrt G, Nykänen PS, Törmäkangas OP, Palvimo JJ, Kallio PJ (2015). “Discovery of ODM-201, a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor targeting resistance mechanisms to androgen signaling-directed prostate cancer therapies”. Sci Rep. 5: 12007.doi:10.1038/srep12007. PMC 4490394free to read. PMID 26137992.
  4.  “ODM-201 is safe and active in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer”. Cancer Discov. 4 (9): OF10. 2014. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-RW2014-150. PMID 25185192.
  5. Pinto Á (2014). “Beyond abiraterone: new hormonal therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer”. Cancer Biol. Ther. 15 (2): 149–55. doi:10.4161/cbt.26724.PMC 3928129free to read. PMID 24100689.
  6. Fizazi K, Massard C, Bono P, Jones R, Kataja V, James N, Garcia JA, Protheroe A, Tammela TL, Elliott T, Mattila L, Aspegren J, Vuorela A, Langmuir P, Mustonen M (2014). “Activity and safety of ODM-201 in patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (ARADES): an open-label phase 1 dose-escalation and randomised phase 2 dose expansion trial”. Lancet Oncol. 15 (9): 975–85. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70240-2. PMID 24974051.
  7.  Agarwal N, Di Lorenzo G, Sonpavde G, Bellmunt J (2014). “New agents for prostate cancer”. Ann. Oncol. 25 (9): 1700–9. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdu038. PMID 24658665.

External links

Fenner A. Prostate cancer: ODM-201 tablets complete phase I. Nat Rev Urol. 2015 Dec;12(12):654. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2015.268. Epub 2015 Nov 3. PubMed PMID: 26526759.

2: Massard C, Penttinen HM, Vjaters E, Bono P, Lietuvietis V, Tammela TL, Vuorela A, Nykänen P, Pohjanjousi P, Snapir A, Fizazi K. Pharmacokinetics, Antitumor Activity, and Safety of ODM-201 in Patients with Chemotherapy-naive Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: An Open-label Phase 1 Study. Eur Urol. 2015 Oct 10. pii: S0302-2838(15)00964-1. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.09.046. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26463318.

3: Fizazi K, Albiges L, Loriot Y, Massard C. ODM-201: a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2015;15(9):1007-17. doi: 10.1586/14737140.2015.1081566. PubMed PMID: 26313416; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4673554.

4: Bambury RM, Rathkopf DE. Novel and next-generation androgen receptor-directed therapies for prostate cancer: Beyond abiraterone and enzalutamide. Urol Oncol. 2015 Jul 7. pii: S1078-1439(15)00269-0. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.05.025. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 26162486.

5: Moilanen AM, Riikonen R, Oksala R, Ravanti L, Aho E, Wohlfahrt G, Nykänen PS, Törmäkangas OP, Palvimo JJ, Kallio PJ. Discovery of ODM-201, a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor targeting resistance mechanisms to androgen signaling-directed prostate cancer therapies. Sci Rep. 2015 Jul 3;5:12007. doi: 10.1038/srep12007. PubMed PMID: 26137992; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4490394.

6: Thibault C, Massard C. [New therapies in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer]. Bull Cancer. 2015 Jun;102(6):501-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bulcan.2015.04.016. Epub 2015 May 26. Review. French. PubMed PMID: 26022286.

7: Bjartell A. Re: activity and safety of ODM-201 in patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (ARADES): an open-label phase 1 dose-escalation and randomised phase 2 dose expansion trial. Eur Urol. 2015 Feb;67(2):348-9. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.11.019. PubMed PMID: 25760250.

8: De Maeseneer DJ, Van Praet C, Lumen N, Rottey S. Battling resistance mechanisms in antihormonal prostate cancer treatment: Novel agents and combinations. Urol Oncol. 2015 Jul;33(7):310-21. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.01.008. Epub 2015 Feb 21. Review. PubMed PMID: 25708954.

9: Boegemann M, Schrader AJ, Krabbe LM, Herrmann E. Present, Emerging and Possible Future Biomarkers in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC). Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2015;15(3):243-55. PubMed PMID: 25654638.

10: ODM-201 is safe and active in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Discov. 2014 Sep;4(9):OF10. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-RW2014-150. Epub 2014 Jul 9. PubMed PMID: 25185192.

11: Fizazi K, Massard C, Bono P, Jones R, Kataja V, James N, Garcia JA, Protheroe A, Tammela TL, Elliott T, Mattila L, Aspegren J, Vuorela A, Langmuir P, Mustonen M; ARADES study group. Activity and safety of ODM-201 in patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (ARADES): an open-label phase 1 dose-escalation and randomised phase 2 dose expansion trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Aug;15(9):975-85. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70240-2. Epub 2014 Jun 25. PubMed PMID: 24974051.

12: Agarwal N, Di Lorenzo G, Sonpavde G, Bellmunt J. New agents for prostate cancer. Ann Oncol. 2014 Sep;25(9):1700-9. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdu038. Epub 2014 Mar 20. Review. PubMed PMID: 24658665.

13: Pinto Á. Beyond abiraterone: new hormonal therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2014 Feb;15(2):149-55. doi: 10.4161/cbt.26724. Epub 2013 Nov 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 24100689; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3928129.

14: Yin L, Hu Q, Hartmann RW. Recent progress in pharmaceutical therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2013 Jul 4;14(7):13958-78. doi: 10.3390/ijms140713958. Review. PubMed PMID: 23880851; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3742227.

15: Leibowitz-Amit R, Joshua AM. Targeting the androgen receptor in the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer: rationale, progress, and future directions. Curr Oncol. 2012 Dec;19(Suppl 3):S22-31. doi: 10.3747/co.19.1281. PubMed PMID: 23355790; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3553559.

Darolutamide
ODM-201.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-((S)-1-(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propan-2-yl)-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide[1]
Identifiers
ChemSpider 38772320
UNII X05U0N2RCO Yes
Chemical data
Formula C19H19ClN6O2
Molar mass 398.85 g·mol−1

//////////// Bayer HealthCare,  Orion,  Antineoplastics,  Androgen receptor antagonists, Phase III, Prostate cancer, BAY 1841788,  ODM-201

O=C(N[C@@H](C)Cn1ccc(n1)c2ccc(C#N)c(Cl)c2)c3cc(nn3)C(O)C

Day 8 of the 2016 Doodle Fruit Games! Find out more at g.co/fruit

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Doravirine, MK-1439

 Phase 3 drug, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Doravirine, MK-1439
Jul 182016
 

Doravirine.svg

 

Image for unlabelled figure

Doravirine.png

Doravirine, MK-1439……….. AN ANTIVIRAL

3-Chloro-5-({1-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydro-3-pyridinyl}oxy)benzonitrile

Benzonitrile, 3-chloro-5-[[1-[(4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pyridinyl]oxy]-

3-chloro-5-({1-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile

(3-Chloro-5-((1-((4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl)-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile)

1338225-97-0 CAS

MF  C17H11ClF3N5O3
MW 425.7  Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp

Merck Frosst Canada Ltd. INNOVATOR

Jason Burch, Bernard Cote, Natalie Nguyen,Chun Sing Li, Miguel St-Onge, Danny Gauvreau,

Reverse transcriptase inhibitor

UNII:913P6LK81M

  • Originator Merck & Co
  • Class Antiretrovirals; Nitriles; Pyridones; Small molecules; Triazoles
  • Mechanism of Action Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Phase III HIV-1 infections

Most Recent Events

  • 16 Jul 2016 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in HIV-1-infections(Monotherapy, Treatment-naive) in Germany (PO, Tablet)
  • 01 Jun 2016 Merck Sharp & Dohme completes a phase I pharmacokinetics trial in subjects requiring methadone maintenance therapy in USA (PO, Tablet) (NCT02715700)
  • 01 May 2016 Merck completes a phase I trial in severe renal impairment in USA (NCT02641067)

 

SYNTHESIS COMING………

WO  2015084763

STR1

 

CONTD………………………

 

STR1

img_pgene01.jpg

SPECTRAL DATA

19F DMSOD6
STR1

13C NMR DMSOD6

STR1

1H NMR DMSOD6

STR1

3-chloro-5-((2-oxo-1-((5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile.

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.47 (br. s., 1H), 11.40 (s, 1H), 7.93 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.75 (t, J =1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.58 (dd, J = 1.2, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.66 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 5.02 (s, 2H)

13C NMR (101 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 157.25, 156.20, 155.97, 142.52, 140.09 (q, JC-F = 2.0 Hz), 137.74,134.97, 130.17 (q, JC-F = 31.2 Hz), 126.53, 121.70 (q, JC-F = 274.7 Hz), 121.16, 118.37, 116.96, 113.70,99.96 (q, JC-F = 4.0 Hz), 44.90

19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ -62.24 (s, 1F)
HRMS [M + H]+ for C16H10ClF3N5O3 calcd, 412.0419; found, 412.0415.
mp 148.46-156.11 °C

REF Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00163

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00163

 

 

STR1

 

 

str2

 

 

 

Doravirine (MK-1439) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor under development by Merck & Co. for use in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Doravirine demonstrated robust antiviral activity and good tolerability in a small clinical study of 7-day monotherapy reported at the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in March 2013. Doravirine appeared safe and generally well-tolerated with most adverse events being mild-to-moderate.[2][3]

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the standard of care for the treatment of HIV infection. Typically, this protocol recommends the combination of two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with either a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor or an integrase inhibitor. 

NNRTI-based combinations have become first-line therapy mainly because of their demonstrated efficacies, convenient dosing regimen and relatively low toxicities. These inhibitors block the polymerase activity of the HIV reverse transcriptase by binding to an allosteric hydrophobic pocket adjacent to the active site. Efavirenz (1, ) is a first generation NNRTI that has been conveniently co-formulated with NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) as a once-a-day fixed-dose combination (Atripla®). Although recommended for the therapy of treatment-naïve patients, efavirenz suffers from neurocognitive side effects, teratogenicity and exacerbation of hyperlipidemia. Moreover, the low barrier to genetic resistance of first generation NNRTIs led to the emergence of resistant viruses bearing mutations K103N and Y181C in patients failing therapy.

Structures of marketed and lead NNRTIs.

Figure .

Structures of marketed and lead NNRTIs.

Second generation NNRTIs etravirine (2) and rilpivirine (3) efficiently suppress the replication of the K103N resistant mutants as shown by an improved activity in cell culture assays . Etravirine (200 mg, bid) is approved for use in treatment-experienced adult patients with multi-drug resistance. With an improved pharmacokinetic profile, the close analog rilpivirine (25 mg, qd) was recently approved for use in treatment-naïve patients. Phase III data reveal that at the 96-week point, a rilpivirine/truvada®  combination was better tolerated than efavirenz/truvada®. However, the virologic failure rate was twice as high for rilpivirine (14%) than it was for efavirenz (8%). For patients with viral load greater than 500,000 copies/mL, the response rate is 62% (rilpivirine) versus 81% (efavirenz). As a result, rilpivirine is not recommended for treating HIV patients with viral load >500,000 copies/mL. This difference in treatment durability could be explained by the much higher ratio of trough concentration over the antiviral activity for efavirenz versus rilpivirine.

Investigational next-generation, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). Interim data demonstrating potent antiretroviral (ARV) activity for four doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg) of once-daily, oral doravirine in combination with tenofovir/emtricitabine in treatment-naïve, HIV-1 infected adults after 24 weeks of treatment were presented during a late-breaker oral session. Based on these findings as well as other data from the doravirine clinical program, Merck plans to initiate a Phase 3 clinical trial program for doravirine in combination with ARV therapy in the second half of 2014.

“Building on our long-standing commitment to the HIV community, Merck continues to evaluate new candidates we believe have the potential to make a meaningful difference in the lives of HIV patients,” said Daria Hazuda, Ph.D., vice president, Infectious Diseases, Merck Research Laboratories. “We look forward to advancing doravirine into Phase 3 clinical trials in the second half of 2014.”

Doravirine Clinical Data

This randomized, double-blind clinical trial examined the safety, tolerability and efficacy of once-daily doravirine (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg) in combination with once-daily tenofovir/emtricitabine versus efavirenz (600 mg), in treatment-naïve, HIV-1 infected patients. The primary efficacy analysis was percentage of patients achieving virologic response (< 40 copies/mL).

At 24 weeks, doravirine doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg showed virologic response rates consistent with those observed for efavirenz at a dose of 600 mg. All treatment groups showed increased CD4 cell counts.

Proportion of Patients with Virologic
Response at 24 weeks (95% CI)

Mean CD4 Change
from Baseline (95% CI)

Treatment* Dose (mg) n/N

% <40
copies/mL

cells/μL

Doravirine 25 32/40 80.0 (64.6, 90.9) 158 (119, 197)
50 32/42 76.2 (60.5, 87.9) 116 (77, 155)
100 30/42 71.4 (55.4, 84.3) 134 (100, 167)
200 32/41 78.0 (62.4, 89.4) 141 (96, 186)
Efavirenz 600 27/42 64.3 (48.0, 78.4) 121 (73, 169)
Missing data approach: Non-completer = Failure Observed Failure

*In combination with tenofovir/emtricitabine

The incidence of drug-related adverse events was comparable among the doravirine-treated groups. The overall incidence of drug-related adverse events was lower in the doravirine-treated groups (n=166) than the efavirenz-treated group (n=42), 35 percent and 57 percent, respectively. The most common central nervous system (CNS) adverse events at week 8, the primary time point for evaluation of CNS adverse experiences, were dizziness [3.0% doravirine (overall) and 23.8% efavirenz], nightmare [1.2% doravirine (overall) and 9.5% efavirenz], abnormal dreams [9.0% doravirine (overall) and 7.1% efavirenz], and insomnia [5.4% doravirine (overall) and 7.1% efavirenz].

Based on the 24-week data from this dose-finding study, a single dose of 100 mg doravirine was chosen to be studied for the remainder of this study, up to 96 weeks.

About Doravirine

DORAVIRINE

Doravirine, also known as MK-1439, is an investigational next-generation, NNRTI being evaluated by Merck for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. In preclinical studies, doravirine demonstrated potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 with a characteristic profile of resistance mutations selected in vitro compared with currently available NNRTIs. In early clinical studies, doravirine demonstrated a pharmacokinetic profile supportive of once-daily dosing and did not show a significant food effect.

Merck’s Commitment to HIV

For more than 25 years, Merck has been at the forefront of the response to the HIV epidemic, and has helped to make a difference through our proud legacy of commitment to innovation, collaborating with the community, and expanding global access to medicines. Merck is dedicated to applying our scientific expertise, resources and global reach to deliver healthcare solutions that support people living with HIV worldwide.

About Merck

Today’s Merck is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. Merck is known as MSD outside the United States and Canada. Through our prescription medicines, vaccines, biologic therapies, and consumer care and animal health products, we work with customers and operate in more than 140 countries to deliver innovative health solutions. We also demonstrate our commitment to increasing access to healthcare through far-reaching policies, programs and partnerships. For more information, visit www.merck.com and connect with us on TwitterFacebook and YouTube.

PATENT

WO 2014089140

The compound 3 -chloro-5-( { 1 – [(4-methyl-5 -oxo-4,5 -dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 – yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile has the following chemical structure.

Figure imgf000017_0001

Anhydrous 3 -chloro-5-( { 1 – [(4-methyl-5 -oxo-4,5 -dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 -yl)methyl] -2-oxo-4- (trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile is known to exist in three crystalline forms – Form I, Form II and Form III. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve for crystalline anhydrous Form II shows an endotherm with an onset at 230.8° C, a peak maximum at 245.2°C, and an enthalpy change of 3.7 J/g, which is due to polymorphic conversion of anhydrous Form II to anhydrous Form I, and a second melting endotherm with an onset at 283.1°C, a peak maximum at 284.8°C, and an enthalpy change of 135.9 J/g, due to melting of Anhydrous Form I. Alternative production and the ability of this compound to inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase is illustrated in WO 201 1/120133 Al, published on October 6, 201 1, and US 201 1/0245296 Al, published on October 6, 201 1, both of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

The process of the present invention offers greater efficiency, reduced waste, and lower cost of goods relative to the methods for making the subject compounds existing at the time of the invention. Particularly, the late stage cyanation and methylation steps are not required.

The following examples illustrate the invention. Unless specifically indicated otherwise, all reactants were either commercially available or can be made following procedures known in the art. The following abbreviations are used:

 

EXAMPLE 1

Figure imgf000018_0001
Figure imgf000018_0002

Step 1

Figure imgf000018_0003

1 2

3-(Chloromethyl)-l-(2-methoxypropan-2-yl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (2): A

100 ml round bottom flask equipped with stir bar and a nitrogen inlet was charged with 1 (5 g, 33.9 mmol) and (lS)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (0.39 g, 1.694 mmol) at ambient temperature. After 2,2-dimethoxy propane (36.0 g, 339 mmol) was charged at ambient temperature, the resulting mixture was heated to 45°C. The resulting mixture was stirred under nitrogen at 45°C for 18 hours and monitored by HPLC for conversion of the starting material (< 5% by HPLC). After the reaction was completed, the batch was taken on to the next step without further workup or isolation. ‘H NMR (CDCI3, 500 MHz): 4.45 (s, 2H), 3.35 (s, 3H), 3.21 (s, 3H), 1.83 (s, 6H).

Step 2

Figure imgf000019_0001

3-Fluoro-l-((l-(2-methoxypropan-2-yl)-4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3- yl)methyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2(lH)-one (3): A mixture of 2 (100 mg, 93.1% purity, 0.49 mmol), pyridone (1 17 mg, 97.6% purity, 0.49 mmol) and K2CO3 (82 mg, 0.59 mmol) in DMF (0.5 ml) was aged with stirring at ambient temperature for 3h. After the reaction was completed, the batch was taken on to the next step without further work up or isolation.

Step 3

Figure imgf000019_0002

3-Chloro-5-((l-((l-(2-methoxypropan-2-yl)-4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3- yl)methyl)-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile (4): To a mixture of compound 3 in DMF (reaction mixture from the previous step) was added 3-chloro-5- hydroxybenzonitrile (1.77 g, 1 1.5 mmol) at ambient temperature. The resulting mixture was then heated to 95-100°C and held for 20 hours.

Upon completion (typically 18-20 hours), the reaction was cooled to room temperature, diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water. The aqueous cut was back extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and then concentrated to an oil. MeOH (80 ml) was added and the resulting slurry was taken on to the next step. XH NMR (CDC13, 500 MHz): 7.60 (d, IH), 7.42 (s, IH), 7.23 (s, IH), 7.12 (s, IH), 6.56 (d, IH), 5.14 (s, 2H), 3.30 (s, 3H), 3.22 (s, 3H), 1.82 (s, 6H).

Step 4

Figure imgf000020_0001

4 5

3-Chloro-5-((l-((4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl)-2-oxo-4- (trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile (5): To a solution of 4 (5.74 g., 1 1.53 mmol) in MeOH (from previous step) was added concentrated hydrochloric acid (lml, 12.18 mmol) at ambient temperature. The resulting mixture was agitated for 1 hour at room temperature.

The resulting solids were collected by filtration and dried under a nitrogen sweep, providing 5 as a white solid (2.63 g, 46% yield): XH NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): 1 1.74 (S, IH), 7.92 (d, IH), 7.76 (s, IH), 7.61 (s, IH), 7.54 (s, IH), 6.69 (d, IH), 5.15 (s, 2H), 3.10 (s, 3H)

EXAMPLE 2

Figure imgf000021_0001

Step 1

Figure imgf000021_0002

Phenyl methylcarbamate: 40% Aqueous methylamine (500 g, 6.44 mol) was charged to a 2 L vessel equipped with heat/cool jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe and nitrogen inlet. The solution was cooled to -5 °C. Phenyl chloroformate (500.0 g, 3.16 mol) was added over 2.5 h maintaining the reaction temperature between -5 and 0 °C. On complete addition the white slurry was stirred for lh at ~0 °C.

The slurry was filtered, washed with water (500 mL) and dried under 2 sweep overnight to afford 465g (96%> yield) of the desired product as a white crystalline solid; 1H NMR (CDCI3, 500 MHz): δ 7.35 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.19 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.12 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 4.95 (br s, 1H), 2.90 (d, J = 5 Hz, 3H).

Step 2

Figure imgf000022_0001

2-(2-Hydroxyacetyl)-N-methylhydrazinecarboxamide: Part A: Phenyl methylcarbamate (300 g, 1.95 mol) was charged to a 2 L vessel with cooling jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe, reflux condenser and nitrogen inlet. IPA (390 mL) was added at 23 °C. Hydrazine hydrate (119 g, 2.33 mol) was added and the slurry heated to 75 °C for 6 h.

Part B: On complete reaction (>99% conversion by HPLC), IPA (810 mL) and glycolic acid (222 g, 2.92 mol) were added and the mixture stirred at 83-85 °C for 10-12 h. The reaction mixture is initially a clear colorless solution. The mixture is seeded with product (0.5 g) after 4h at 83-85 °C. The slurry was slowly cooled to 20 °C over 2h and aged for lh.

The slurry was filtered and washed with IPA (600 mL). The cake was dried under 2 sweep to afford 241.8g (81% yield) of the desired product as a white crystalline solid: XH NMR (D20, 500 MHz): δ 4.11 (s, 2H), 2.60 (s, 3H).

Step 3

Figure imgf000022_0002

3-(Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one: 2-(2-Hydroxyacetyl)-N- methylhydrazinecarboxamide (130 g @ ~95wt%, 0.84 mol), w-propanol (130 mL) and water (130 mL) were charged to a 1 L vessel with jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe, reflux condenser and nitrogen inlet. Sodium hydroxide (pellets, 16.8 g, 0.42 mol) was added and the slurry warmed to reflux for 3h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20 °C and the pH adjusted to 6.5 (+/- 0.5) using cone hydrochloric acid (28.3 mL, 0.34 mol). Water was azeotropically removed under vacuum at 40-50 °C by reducing the volume to -400 mL and maintaining that volume by the slow addition of n-propanol (780 mL). The final water content should be <3000 ug/mL. The resultant slurry (~ 400 mL) was cooled to 23 °C and heptane (390 ml) was added. The slurry was aged lh at 23 °C, cooled to 0 °C and aged 2h. The slurry was filtered, the cake washed with 1 :2 n-PrOH/heptane (100 mL) and dried to provide 125g (85% yield) of an off- white crystalline solid. The solid is ~73 wt% due to residual inorganics (NaCl): ‘H NMR (CD3OD, 500 MHz): δ 3.30 (s, 3H), 4.46 (s, 2H).

Step 4

Figure imgf000023_0001

3-(Chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (1): A mixture of 3- (Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (54 g, at 73wt%, 307 mmol) in ethyl acetate (540 mL) was stirred at 45 °C. SOCI2 (26.9 mL, 369 mmol) was added over 30-45 min and aged at 50 °C for 2h. Monitor reaction progress by HPLC. On complete reaction (>99.5% by area at 210nm.), the warm suspension was filtered and the filter cake (mainly NaCl) was washed with ethyl acetate (108 mL). The combined filtrate and wash were concentrated at 50-60 °C under reduced pressure to approximately 150 mL. The resulting slurry was cooled to -10 °C and aged lh. The slurry was filtered and the filter cake washed with ethyl acetate (50 mL). The cake was dried under 2 sweep to afford 40. lg (86% yield) of the desired product as a bright yellow solid: ‘H NMR (CD3OD, 500 MHz): δ 3.30 (s, 3H), 4.58 (s, 2H).

EXAMPLE 3

Figure imgf000023_0002

3-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2(lH)-one (2): To a 250 ml round bottom flask equipped with overhead stirring and a nitrogen inlet was added a mixture of sulfuric acid (24.31 ml, 437 mmol) and water (20.00 ml). To this was added 2,3-difluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (6.83 ml, 54.6 mmol) and the mixture was heated to 65 °C and stirred for 4 h. By this time the reaction was complete, and the mixture was cooled to room temperature. To the flask was slowly added 5M sodium hydroxide (43.7 ml, 218 mmol), maintaining room temperature with an ice bath. The title compound precipitates as a white solid during addition. Stirring was maintained for an additional lh after addition. At this time, the mixture was filtered, the filter cake washed with 20 mL water, and the resulting white solids dried under nitrogen. 3-fluoro-4- (trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2(lH)-one (2) was obtained as a white crystalline solid (9.4g, 51.9 mmol, 95 % yield): ¾ NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz): 12.97 (br s, 1H), 7.36 (d, 1H), 6.44 (m, 1H).

EXAMPLE 4

Step 1 – Ethyl Ester Synthesis Experimental Procedure;

Figure imgf000024_0001

Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)acetate (A): A 1L round bottom flask equipped with overhead stirring was charged with 3-chloro-5-hydroxybenzonitrile (50.0 g, 98 wt% purity, 319 mmol) and 15% aqueous DMF (200 mL DMF + 35.5 mL FLO). To the resulting solution was added diisopropylethylamine (61.3 mL, 99.0% purity, 1.1 equiv) and ethyl 2-bromoacetate (35.7 g, 98% purity, 1.15 equiv) at ambient temperature. The resulting solution was warmed to 50°C under nitrogen and aged for 12 h. Upon completion of the reaction the batch was cooled to 0- 5°C. To the clear to slightly cloudy solution was added 5% seed (3.8g, 16.0 mmol). H20 (64.5mL) was added to the thin suspension via syringe pump over 3h while maintaining the temp at 0-5 °C. Additional FLO (200mL) was added over lh while maintaining the temp at 0-5 °C. The final DMF/FLO ratio is 1 : 1.5 (10 vol). The resulting slurry was typically aged lh at 0-5 °C. The batch was filtered and the cake slurry washed with 2: 1 DMF/water (150 mL, 3 vol), followed by water (200 mL, 4 vol). The wet cake was dried on the frit with suction under a nitrogen stream at 20-25 °C; note: heat must not be applied during drying as product mp is 42 °C. The cake is considered dry when H20 is <0.2%. Obtained 73.4 g ethyl ester as a light tan solid, 96% yield (corrected), 99.5 LCAP: XH NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz) δ = 7.29 (s, 1H), 7.15 (s, 1H), 7.06 (s, 1H), 4.67 (s, 2H), 4.32 (q, 2H), 1.35 (t, 3H) ppm. Step 2 – Pyridone Synthesis

Synthetic Scheme; batch

TEA, TFAA, 10 °C;

then MeOH, rt

Figure imgf000025_0001

[isolated solid, A] [PhMe exit stream, B]

Figure imgf000025_0002

[PhMe/MeOH solution, C] [PhMe/MeOH/NH3 solution, D] [isolated solid, E]

Experimental Procedures;

Aldol Condensation, Ester A to Diene C

(2E/Z,4E)-Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)-5-ethoxy-3-(trifluoromethyl)penta-2,4- dienoate (C): Ester A (25.01 g, 104.4 mmol, 1.00 equiv) was charged to toluene (113.43 g, 131 mL, 5.24 vol) and 4-ethoxy-l, l, l-trifluoro-3-buten-2-one (26.43 g, 157.2 mmol, 1.51 equiv) was added.

The flow reactor consisted of two feed solution inlets and an outlet to a receiving vessel. The flow reactor schematic is shown in Figure 1.

The ester solution was pumped to one flow reactor inlet. Potassium tert-pentoxide solution was pumped to the second reactor inlet. Trifluoroacetic anhydride was added continuously to the receiver vessel. Triethylamine was added continuously to the receiver vessel. The flow rates were: 13 mL/min ester solution, 7.8 mL/min potassium tert-pentoxide solution, 3.3 mL/min trifluoroacetic anhydride and 4.35 mL/min triethylamine.

Charged toluene (50 mL, 2 vol) and potassium trifluoroacetate (0.64 g, 4.21 mmol, 0.04 equiv) to the receiver vessel. The flow reactor was submerged in a -10 °C bath and the pumps were turned on. The batch temperature in the receiver vessel was maintained at 5 to 10 °C throughout the run using a dry ice/acetone bath. After 13.5 min the ester solution was consumed, the reactor was flushed with toluene (10 mL) and the pumps were turned off.

The resulting yellow slurry was warmed to room temperature and aged for 4.5 h. Charged methanol (160 mL) to afford a homogeneous solution which contained 81.20 area percent diene C by HPLC analysis.

The solution of diene C (573 mL) was used without purification in the subsequent reaction. Cyclization, Diene C to E

3-Chloro-5-((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile (E): To a solution of diene C in PhMe/MeOH (573 mL; 40.69 g, 104.4 mmol theoretical C) was charged methanol (25 mL, 0.61 vol). Ammonia (32 g, 1.88 mol, 18 equiv based on theoretical C) was added and the solution was warmed to 60 °C. The reaction was aged at 60 °C for 18 h. The temperature was adjusted to 35-45 °C and the pressure was decreased maintain a productive distillation rate. The batch volume was reduced to -300 mL and methanol (325 mL, 8 vol) was charged in portions to maintain a batch volume between 250 and 350 mL. The heating was stopped and the system vented. The resulting slurry was cooled to room temperature and aged overnight.

The batch was filtered and the cake washed with methanol (3x, 45 mL). The wet cake was dried on the frit with suction under a nitrogen stream to afford 18.54 g of a white solid: XH NMR (DMSO-i/6, 500 MHz): δ 12.7 (br s, 1H), 7.73 (t, 1H, J= 1.5 Hz), 7.61-7.59 (m, 2H), 7.53 (t, 1H, J= 2.0 Hz), 6.48 (d, 1H, J= 7.0 Hz) ppm.

Step 3 – Chlorination, Alkylation and Isolation of 3-Chloro-5-({l-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro- lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile

Figure imgf000027_0001

3-(Chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one: 3-(Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH- l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (1.638 kg of 68wt%, 8.625 mol) and N-methylpyrrolidinone (8.9 L) was charged into a 30 L vessel. The suspension was aged for lOh at ambient temperature. The slurry was filtered through a 4L sintered glass funnel under 2 and the filter cake (mainly NaCl) was washed with NMP (2.23 L). The combined filtrate and wash had a water content of 5750 μg/mL. The solution was charged to a 75L flask equipped with a 2N NaOH scrubber to capture off-gasing vapors. Thionyl chloride (0.795 L, 10.89 mol) was added over lh and the temperature rose to 35 °C. HPLC analysis indicated that the reaction required an additional thionyl chloride charge (0.064 L, 0.878 mol) to bring to full conversion. The solution was warmed to 50 °C, placed under vacuum at 60 Torr (vented to a 2N NaOH scrubber), and gently sparged with subsurface N2 (4 L/min). The degassing continued for lOh until the sulfur dioxide content in the solution was <5 mg/mL as determined by quantitative GC/MS. The tan solution of 3-(chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one in NMP weighed 13.0 kg and was assayed at 9.63 wt% providing 1.256 kg (97% yield).

3-chloro-5-((l-((4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl)-2-oxo-4- (trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile: To a 75L flask was charged a 9.63wt% solution of 3-(chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one in NMP (1 1.6 kg, 7.55 mol), 3 -chloro-5 -((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-3 -yl)oxy)benzonitrile (2.00 kg, 6.29 mol), NMP (3.8 L) and 2-methyl-2-butanol (6.0 L). To the resulting suspension was slowly added N,N-diisopropylethylamine (4.38 L, 25.2 mol) over 4h. The reaction was aged 18h at ambient temperature. The reaction is considered complete when HPLC indicates <1% 3 -chloro-5 -((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile remaining. The tan solution was quenched with acetic acid (1.26 L, 22.0 mol) and aged at ambient temperature overnight. The tan solution was warmed to 70 °C. Water (2.52 L) was added and the batch was seed with anhydrate Form II (134 g). The thin suspension was aged lh at 70 °C. Additional water (14.3 L) was added evenly over 7 h. The slurry was aged 2h at 70 °C and then slowly cooled to 20 °C over 5 h. The slurry was filtered and washed with 2 : 1 NMP/water (6 L), followed by water washes (6 L x 2). The filter cake was dried over a 2 sweep to give 2.53 kg (85% yield – corrected) of a white solid that was confirmed to be crystalline Form II by X-ray powder detraction analysis.

PATENT

WO 2015084763

The following scheme is an example of Step 3A.

EXAMPLE 1

1

Step 1

c| 0. h CH3NH3 Me.NA0.Ph

H

Phenyl methylcarbamate: 40% Aqueous methylamine (500 g, 6.44 mol) was charged to a 2 L vessel equipped with heat/cool jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe and nitrogen inlet. The solution was cooled to -5 °C. Phenyl chloroformate (500.0 g, 3.16 mol) was added over 2.5 h maintaining the reaction temperature between -5 and 0 °C. On complete addition the white slurry was stirred for lh at ~0 °C.

The slurry was filtered, washed with water (500 mL) and dried under a nitrogen sweep overnight to afford 465g (96% yield) of the desired product as a white crystalline solid; XH NMR (CDCI3, 500 MHz): δ 7.35 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.19 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.12 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 4.95 (br s, 1H), 2.90 (d, J = 5 Hz, 3H).

Step 2

2-(2-Hydroxyacetyl)-N-methylhydrazinecarboxamide: Part A: Phenyl methylcarbamate (300 g, 1.95 mol) was charged to a 2 L vessel with cooling jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe, reflux condenser and nitrogen inlet. IPA (390 mL) was added at 23 °C. Hydrazine hydrate (119 g, 2.33 mol) was added and the slurry heated to 75 °C for 6 h.

Part B: On complete reaction (>99% conversion by HPLC), IPA (810 mL) and glycolic acid (222 g, 2.92 mol) were added and the mixture stirred at 83-85 °C for 10-12 h. The reaction mixture was initially a clear colorless solution. The mixture was seeded with product (0.5 g) after 4h at 83-85 °C. The slurry was slowly cooled to 20 °C over 2h and aged for lh. Seed was used to advance the crystallization, but the crystalline product can be precipitated and isolated without seed by allowing the solution to age at 83-85 °C for 4 hours.

The slurry was filtered and washed with IPA (600 mL). The cake was dried under a nitrogen sweep to afford 241.8g (81% yield) of the desired product as a white crystalline solid: XH NMR (D20, 500 MHz): δ 4.11 (s, 2H), 2.60 (s, 3H).

Step 3

3-(Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one: 2-(2-Hydroxyacetyl)-N-methylhydrazinecarboxamide (130 g @ ~95wt%, 0.84 mol), w-propanol (130 mL) and water (130 mL) were charged to a 1 L vessel with jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe, reflux condenser and nitrogen inlet. Sodium hydroxide (pellets, 16.8 g, 0.42 mol) was added and the slurry warmed to reflux for 3h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20 °C and the pH adjusted to 6.5 (+/- 0.5) using concentrated hydrochloric acid (28.3 mL, 0.34 mol). Water was

azeotropically removed under vacuum at 40-50 °C by reducing the volume to -400 mL and maintaining that volume by the slow addition of n-propanol (780 mL). The final water content was <3000 ug/mL. The resultant slurry (~ 400 mL) was cooled to 23 °C and heptane (390 ml) was added. The slurry was aged lh at 23 °C, cooled to 0 °C and aged 2h. The slurry was filtered, the cake washed with 1 :2 n-PrOH/heptane (100 mL) and the filter cake was dried under a nitrogen sweep to provide 125g (85% yield) of an off-white crystalline solid. The solid was -73 wt% due to residual inorganics (NaCl): ¾ NMR (CD3OD, 500 MHz): δ 3.30 (s, 3H), 4.46 (s, 2H).

Step 4

3-(Chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (1): A mixture of 3-(Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (54 g, at 73wt%, 307 mmol) in ethyl acetate (540 mL) was stirred at 45 °C. SOCl2 (26.9 mL, 369 mmol) was added over 30-45 min and aged at 50 °C for 2h. The reaction progress was monitored by HPLC. On complete reaction (>99.5% by area at 210nm), the warm suspension was filtered and the filter cake (mainly NaCl) was washed with ethyl acetate (108 mL). The combined filtrate and wash were concentrated at 50-60 °C under reduced pressure to approximately 150 mL. The resulting slurry was cooled to – 10 °C and aged lh. The slurry was filtered and the filter cake washed with ethyl acetate (50 mL). The cake was dried under a nitrogen sweep to afford 40. lg (86% yield) of the desired product as a bright yellow solid: XH NMR (CD3OD, 500 MHz): δ 3.30 (s, 3H), 4.58 (s, 2H).

EXAMPLE 2

Step 1 – Ethyl Ester Synthesis

Experimental Procedure;

A

Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)acetate (A): A 1L round bottom flask equipped with overhead stirring was charged with 3-chloro-5-hydroxybenzonitrile (50.0 g, 98 wt% purity, 319 mmol) and 15% aqueous DMF (200 mL DMF + 35.5 mL Η20). To the resulting solution was added diisopropylethylamine (61.3 mL, 99.0% purity, 1.1 equiv) and ethyl 2-bromoacetate (35.7 g, 98% purity, 1.15 equiv) at ambient temperature. The resulting solution was warmed to 50°C under nitrogen and aged for 12 h. Upon completion of the reaction the batch was cooled to 0-5°C. To the clear to slightly cloudy solution was added 5% seed (3.8g, 16.0 mmol). H20 (64.5mL) was added to the thin suspension via syringe pump over 3h while maintaining the temperature at 0-5 °C. Additional H20 (200mL) was added over lh while maintaining the temp at 0-5 °C. The final DMF/H20 ratio is 1 : 1.5. The resulting slurry was aged lh at 0-5 °C. The batch was filtered and the cake slurry washed with 2: 1 DMF/water (150 mL), followed by water (200 mL). The wet cake was dried on the frit with suction under a nitrogen stream at 20-25 °C. The cake is considered dry when H20 is <0.2%. Obtained 73.4 g ethyl ester as a light tan solid, 96% yield: XH NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz) δ = 7.29 (s, 1H), 7.15 (s, 1H), 7.06 (s, 1H), 4.67 (s, 2H), 4.32 (q, 2H), 1.35 (t, 3H) ppm. Seed was used to advance the crystallization, but the crystalline product can be precipitated and isolated without seed by allowing the solution to age at 0-5 °C for at least about 2 hours.

Step 2 – Pyridone Synthesis

Synthetic Scheme;

Experimental Procedures;

Aldol Condensation

(2E/Z,4E)-Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)-5-ethoxy-3-(trifluoromethyl)penta-2,4-dienoate (C): Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)acetate (25.01 g, 104.4 mmol, 1.00 equiv) was charged to toluene (113.43 g, 131 mL) and 4-ethoxy-l, l,l-trifluoro-3-buten-2-one (26.43 g, 157.2 mmol, 1.51 equiv) was added.

The flow reactor consisted of two feed solution inlets and an outlet to a receiving vessel. The flow reactor schematic is shown in Figure 1.

The ester solution was pumped to one flow reactor inlet. Potassium tert-amylate solution was pumped to the second reactor inlet. Trifluoroacetic anhydride was added continuously to the receiver vessel. Triethylamine was added continuously to the receiver vessel.

The flow rates were: 13 mL/min ester solution, 7.8 mL/min potassium tert-amylate solution, 3.3 mL/min trifluoroacetic anhydride and 4.35 mL/min triethylamine.

Charged toluene (50 mL) and potassium trifluoroacetate (0.64 g, 4.21 mmol, 0.04 equiv) to the receiver vessel. The flow reactor was submerged in a -10 °C bath and the pumps were turned on. The batch temperature in the receiver vessel was maintained at 5 to 10 °C throughout the run using a dry ice/acetone bath. After 13.5 min the ester solution was consumed, the reactor was flushed with toluene (10 mL) and the pumps were turned off.

The resulting yellow slurry was warmed to room temperature and aged for 4.5 h. Charged methanol (160 mL) to afford a homogeneous solution which contained 81.20 LCAP diene .

The solution of diene (573 mL) was used without purification in the subsequent reaction.

Cyclization

3-Chloro-5-((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile (E): To a solution of diene in PhMe/MeOH (573 mL; 40.69 g, 104.4 mmol theoretical) was charged methanol (25 mL). Ammonia (32 g, 1.88 mol, 18 equiv based on theoretical) was added and the solution was warmed to 60 °C. The reaction was aged at 60 °C for 18 h. The temperature was adjusted to 35-45 °C and the pressure was decreased to maintain a productive distillation rate. The batch volume was reduced to -300 mL and methanol (325 mL) was charged in portions to maintain a batch volume between 250 and 350 mL. The heating was stopped and the system vented. The resulting slurry was cooled to room temperature and aged overnight.

The batch was filtered and the cake washed with methanol (3x, 45 mL). The wet cake was dried on the frit with suction under a nitrogen stream to afford 18.54 g of a white solid: XH NMR (DMSO-ifc, 500 MHz): δ 12.7 (br s, 1H), 7.73 (t, 1H, J= 1.5 Hz), 7.61-7.59 (m, 2H), 7.53 (t, 1H, J= 2.0 Hz), 6.48 (d, 1H, J= 7.0 Hz) ppm.

Step 3 – Chlorination, Alkylation and Isolation of 3-Chloro-5-({l-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-‘ dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile

3-(Chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one: 3-(Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (1.638 kg of 68wt%, 8.625 mol) and N-methylpyrrolidinone (8.9 L) was charged into a 30 L vessel. The suspension was aged for lOh at ambient temperature. The slurry was filtered through a 4L sintered glass funnel under 2 and the filter cake (mainly NaCl) was washed with NMP (2.23 L). The combined filtrate and wash had a water content of 5750 μg/mL. The solution was charged to a 75L flask equipped with a 2N NaOH scrubber to capture off-gasing vapors. Thionyl chloride (0.795 L, 10.89 mol) was added over lh and the temperature rose to 35 °C. HPLC analysis indicated that the reaction required an additional thionyl chloride charge (0.064 L, 0.878 mol) to bring to full conversion. The solution was warmed to 50 °C, placed under vacuum at 60 Torr (vented to a 2N NaOH scrubber), and gently sparged with subsurface nitrogen (4 L/min). The degassing continued for lOh until the sulfur dioxide content in the solution was <5 mg/mL as determined by quantitative GC/MS. The tan solution of 3-(chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one in NMP weighed 13.0 kg and was assayed at 9.63 wt% providing 1.256 kg (97% yield).

3-chloro-5-((l-((4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl)-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile: To a 75L flask was charged a 9.63wt% solution of 3-(chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one in NMP (1 1.6 kg, 7.55 mol), 3-chloro-5-((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile (2.00 kg, 6.29 mol), NMP (3.8 L) and 2-methyl-2-butanol (6.0 L). To the resulting suspension was slowly added N,N-diisopropylethylamine (4.38 L, 25.2 mol) over 4h. The reaction was aged 18h at ambient temperature. The reaction is considered complete when HPLC indicated <1% 3-chloro-5-((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile remaining. The tan solution was quenched with acetic acid (1.26 L, 22.0 mol) and aged at ambient temperature overnight. The tan solution was warmed to 70 °C. Water (2.52 L) was added and the batch was seeded with anhydrate Form II (134 g)(procedures for making anhydrate Form II are described in WO2014/052171). The thin suspension was aged lh at 70 °C. Additional water (14.3 L) was added evenly over 7 h. The slurry was aged 2h at 70 °C and then slowly cooled to 20 °C over 5 h. The slurry was filtered and washed with 2 : 1 NMP/water (6 L), followed by water washes (6 L x 2). The filter cake was dried under N2 to give 2.53 kg (85% yield) of a white solid that was confirmed to be crystalline Form II of the title compound by X-ray powder detraction analysis.

EXAMPLE 3

Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)acetate (A):

70%

Step 3

Three step one pot sequence

Steps 1 and 2:

To an oven dried 250mL round bottom flask was added sodium 2-methylpropan-2-olate (12.85 g, 134 mmol) and BHT (0.641 g, 2.91 mmol) then added DMF (30mL). After lOmin, a light yellow solution resulted. 2-Phenylethanol (7.66 ml, 63.9 mmol) was added and the solution exothermed to 35 °C. The light yellow solution was warmed to 55 °C and then a solution of 3,5-dichlorobenzonitrile (10 g, 58.1 mmol) in DMF (15mL) was added over 2h via syringe pump. The resulting red-orange suspension was aged at 55-60 °C. After 2h, HPLC showed >98% conversion to the sodium phenolate.

Step 3:

The suspension was cooled to 10 °C, then ethyl 2-bromoacetate (8.70 ml, 78 mmol) was added over lh while maintaining the temperature <20 °C. The resulting mixture was aged at ambient temperature. After lh, HPLC showed >99% conversion to the title compound.

Work-up and isolation:

To the suspension was added MTBE (50mL) and H20 (50mL) and the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with 20% aq brine (25mL). The organic layer was assayed at 12.5g (90% yield). The organic layer was concentrated to -38 mL, diluted with hexanes (12.5mL) and then cooled to 5 °C. The solution was seeded with 0.28g (2 wt%) of crystalline ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)acetate and aged 0.5h at 5 °C to give a free flowing slurry. Hexane (175mL) was added to the slurry over lh at 0-5 °C. The slurry was filtered at 0-5 °C, washed with hexane (50 mL) and dried under a nitrogen sweep to give 9.8g (70% yield) of the title compound as a white crystalline solid. Seed was used to advance the crystallization, but the crystalline product can be precipitated and isolated without seed by allowing the solution to age at 0-5 °C for at least about 2 hours.

Paper

Discovery of MK-1439, an orally bioavailable non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor potent against a wide range of resistant mutant HIV viruses
Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2014, 24(3): 917

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X13014546

The optimization of a novel series of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) led to the identification of pyridone 36. In cell cultures, this new NNRTI shows a superior potency profile against a range of wild type and clinically relevant, resistant mutant HIV viruses. The overall favorable preclinical pharmacokinetic profile of 36 led to the prediction of a once daily low dose regimen in human. NNRTI 36, now known as MK-1439, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of HIV infection.

Full-size image (16 K)

Full-size image (10 K)

Scheme 1. 

Reagents and conditions: (a) K2CO3, NMP, 120 °C; (b) KOH, tert-BuOH, 75 °C; (c) Zn(CN)2, Pd(PPh3)4, DMF, 100 °C.

Full-size image (12 K)

Scheme 3.

Reagents and conditions: (a) K2CO3, DMF, −10 °C; (b) MeI or EtI, K2CO3, DMF.

 

36 IS DORAVIRINE

 

PATENT

WO 2011120133

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2011120133A1?cl=en

Scheme I depicts a method for preparing compounds of Formula I in which hydroxypyridine 1-1 is alkylated with chlorotriazolinone 1-2 to provide 1-3 which can be selectively alkylated with an alkyl halide (e.g., methyl iodide, ethyl iodide, etc.) to afford the desired 1-4. Scheme I

Figure imgf000039_0001

Scheme II depicts an alternative route to compounds of the present invention, wherein fluorohydroxypyridine II-l can be alkylated with chlorotriazolinone II-2 to provide the alkylated product II-3 which can be converted to the desired II-5 via nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S] fAr) using a suitable hydroxyarene II-4.

Scheme II

Figure imgf000039_0002

Hydroxypyridines of formula I-l (Scheme 1) can be prepared in accordance with Scheme III, wherein a SNAr reaction between pyridine III-l (such as commercially available 2- chloro-3-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine) and hydroxyarene H-4 can provide chloropyridine III-2, which can be hydrolyzed under basic conditions to the hydroxypyridine I-l. Scheme III

Figure imgf000040_0001

Another method for preparing hydroxypyridines of formula I-l is exemplified in Scheme IV, wherein S Ar coupling of commercially available 2-chloro-3-fluoro-4- nitropyridone-N-oxide IV-1 with a suitable hydroxyarene II-4 provides N-oxide IV-2, which can first be converted to dihalides IV-3 and then hydro lyzed to hydroxypyridine IV-4. Further derivatization of hydroxypyridine IV-4 is possible through transition metal-catalyzed coupling processes, such as Stille or boronic acid couplings using a PdLn catalyst (wherein L is a ligand such as triphenylphosphine, tri-tert-butylphosphine or xantphos) to form hydroxypyridines IV-5, or amination chemistry to form hydroxypyridines IV-6 in which R2 is N(RA)RB.

Scheme IV

Figure imgf000040_0002

IV-1

Figure imgf000040_0003

– – Scheme V depicts the introduction of substitution at the five-position of the hydroxypyridines via bromination, and subsequent transition metal-catalyzed chemistries, such as Stille or boronic acid couplings using PdLn in which L is as defined in Scheme IV to form hydroxypyridines V-3, or amination chemistry to form hydroxypyridines V-4 in which R3 is N(RA)RB.

Scheme V

Figure imgf000041_0001

As shown in Scheme IV, fiuorohydroxypyridines II-l (Scheme II) are available from the commercially available 3-fluoroypridines VI- 1 through N-oxide formation and rearrangement as described in Konno et al., Heterocycles 1986, vol. 24, p. 2169.

Scheme VI

Figure imgf000041_0002

The following examples serve only to illustrate the invention and its practice. The examples are not to be construed as limitations on the scope or spirit of the invention.

The term “room temperature” in the examples refers to the ambient temperature which was typically in the range of about 20°C to about 26°C.

EXAMPLE 1

3-Chloro-5-({ l-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4- (trifluoromethyl)-l ,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile (1-1)

 

Figure imgf000042_0001

Step 1(a):

 

Figure imgf000042_0002

A mixture of the 3-bromo-5-chlorophenol (3.74 g; 18.0 mmol), 2-chloro-3-fluoro- 4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (3.00 g; 15.0 mmol) and 2CO3 (2.49 g; 18.0 mmol) in NMP (15 mL) was heated to 120°C for one hour, then cooled to room temperature. The mixture was then diluted with 250 mL EtOAc and washed with 3 x 250 mL 1 :1 H20:brine. The organic extracts were dried (Na2S04) and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by ISCO CombiFlash (120 g column; load with toluene; 100:0 to 0:100 hexanes:CH2Cl2 over 40 minutes) provided title compound (1-2) as a white solid. Repurification of the mixed fractions provided additional title compound. lH NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3): δ 8.55 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H); 7.64 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H);

7.30 (s, 1 H); 6.88 (s, 1 H); 6.77 (s, 1 H).

3-(3-bromo-5-chlorophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-ol (1-3)

 

Figure imgf000042_0003

To a suspension of 3-(3-bromo-5-chlorophenoxy)-2-chloro-4- (trifluoromethyl)pyridine (1-2; 3.48 g; 8.99 mmol) in lBuOH (36 mL) was added KOH (1.51 g; 27.0 mmol) and the mixture was heated to 75°C overnight, at which point a yellow oily solid had precipitated from solution, and LCMS analysis indicated complete conversion. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, and neutralized by the addition of -50 mL saturated aqueous NH4CI. The mixture was diluted with 50 mL H2O, then extracted with 2 x 100 mL EtOAc. The combined organic extracts were dried (Na2S04) and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by ISCO CombiFlash (120 g column; dry load; 100:0 to 90: 10 CH2Cl2:MeOH over 40 minutes) provided the title compound (1-3) as a fluffy white solid. lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 12.69 (s, 1 H); 7.59 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1 H); 7.43 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1 H); 7.20 (t, J = 1.9 Hz, 1 H); 7.13 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H); 6.48 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1 H).

3-chloro-5-{[2-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl]oxy}benzonitrile (1-4)

 

Figure imgf000043_0001

To a suspension of 3-(3-bromo-5-chlorophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-ol (1-3; 3.25 g; 8.82 mmol) in NMP (29 mL) was added CuCN (7.90 g; 88 mmol) and the mixture was heated to 175°C for 5 hours, then cooled to room temperature slowly. With increased fumehood ventilation, 100 mL glacial AcOH was added, then 100 mL EtOAc and the mixture was filtered through Celite (EtOAc rinse). The filtrate was washed with 3 x 200 mL 1 : 1 H20:brine, then the organic extracts were dried (Na2S04) and concentrated in vacuo.

Purification by ISCO CombiFlash (120 g column; dry load; 100:0 to 90:10 CH2Cl2:MeOH over 40 minutes), then trituration of the derived solid with Et20 (to remove residual NMP which had co-eluted with the product) provided the title compound (1-4). lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 12.71 (s, 1 H); 7.75 (s, 1 H); 7.63-7.57 (m, 2 H); 7.54 (s, 1 H); 6.49 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1 H).

Step 1(d): 5-(chloromethyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-l,2,4-triazol-3-one (1-5)

Figure imgf000043_0002

The title compound was prepared as described in the literature: Cowden, C. J.; Wilson, R. D.; Bishop, B. C; Cottrell, I. F.; Davies, A. J.; Dolling, U.-H. Tetrahedron Lett. 2000, 47, 8661.

3 -chloro-5 -( { 2-oxo- 1 – [(5 -oxo-4,5 -dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 -yl)methyl] – 4- (trifiuoromethyl)- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-3 -yl } oxy)benzonitrile (1-6)

Figure imgf000044_0001

A suspension of the 3-chloro-5-{[2-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3- yl]oxy}benzonitrile (1-4; 2.00 g; 6.36 mmol), 5-(chloromethyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-l,2,4-triazol-3- one (1-5; 0.849 g; 6.36 mmol) and K2CO3 (0.878 g; 6.36 mmol) in DMF (32 mL) was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature, at which point LCMS analysis indicated complete conversion. The mixture was diluted with 200 mL Me-THF and washed with 150 mL 1 : 1 : 1 H20:brine:saturated aqueous NH4CI, then further washed with 2 x 150 mL 1 : 1 H20:brine. The aqueous fractions were further extracted with 150 mL Me-THF, then the combined organic extracts were dried (Na2S04) and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by ISCO CombiFlash (80 g column; dry load; 100:0 to 90:10 EtOAc:EtOH over 25 minutes) provided the title compound (1-6) as a white solid. lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 1 1.46 (s, 1 H); 1 1.39 (s, 1 H); 7.93 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H); 7.76 (s, 1 H); 7.58 (s, 1 H); 7.51 (s, 1 H); 6.67 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H); 5.02 (s, 2 H).

Step 1(f): 3 -chloro-5 -( { 1 – [(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5 -dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 -yl)methyl] -2- oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-3 -yl } oxy)benzonitrile (1 -1 )

A solution of 3-chloro-5-({2-oxo-l -[(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3- yl)methyl]- 4-(trifluoromethyl)-l ,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile (1-6; 2.37 g; 5.76 mmol) and K2CO3 (0.796 g; 5.76 mmol) in DMF (58 mL) was cooled to 0°C, then methyl iodide (0.360 mL; 5.76 mmol) was added. The mixture was allowed to warm to room

temperature, and stirred for 90 minutes, at which point LCMS analysis indicated >95%

conversion, and the desired product of -75% LCAP purity, with the remainder being unreacted starting material and 6/s-methylation products. The mixture was diluted with 200 mL Me-THF, and washed with 3 x 200 mL 1 : 1 H20:brine. The aqueous fractions were further extracted with 200 mL Me-THF, then the combined organic extracts were dried (Na2S04) and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting white solid was first triturated with 100 mL EtOAc, then with 50 mL THF, which provided (after drying) the title compound (1-1) of >95% LCAP. Purification to >99% LCAP is possible using Prep LCMS (Max-RP, 100 x 30 mm column; 30-60% CH3CN in 0.6% aqueous HCOOH over 8.3 min; 25 mL/min). lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 1 1.69 (s, 1 H); 7.88 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H); 7.75 (s, 1 H); 7.62 (s, 1 H); 7.54 (s, 1 H); 6.67 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H); 5.17 (s, 2 H); 3.1 1 (s, 3 H). EXAMPLE 1A

3-Chloro-5-({ l-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2- (trifluoromethyl)-l ,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile (1-1)

 

Figure imgf000045_0001

Step lA(a): 2-chloro-3-(3-chloro-5-iodophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (1A-2)

 

Figure imgf000045_0002

A mixture of the 3-chloro-l-iodophenol (208 g; 816.0 mmol), 2-chloro-3-fluoro-

4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (155 g; 777.0 mmol) and K2CO3 (161 g; 1 165.0 mmol) in NMP (1.5 L) was held at 60°C for 2.5 hours, and then left at room temperature for 2 days. The mixture was then re-heated to 60°C for 3 hours, then cooled to room temperature. The mixture was then diluted with 4 L EtOAc and washed with 2 L water + 1 L brine. The combined organics were then washed 2x with 500 mL half brine then 500 mL brine, dried over MgS04 and concentrated to afford crude 1A-2. lH NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ 8.67 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.98 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.63-7.62 (m, 1 H), 7.42-7.40 (m, 1 H), 7.22 (t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1 H).

Step lA(b): 2-chloro-3-(3-chloro-5-iodophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (1A-3)

 

Figure imgf000045_0003

To a suspension of 3-(3-chloro-5-iodophenoxy)-2-chloro-4- (trifluoromethyl)pyridine (1A-2; 421 g, 970 mmol) in t-BuOH (1 L) was added KOH (272 g, 4850 mmol) and the mixture was heated to 75°C for 1 hour, at which point HPLC analysis indicated >95% conversion. The t-BuOH was evaporated and the mixture diluted with water (7mL/g, 2.4L) and then cooled to 0°C, after which 12N HC1 (~240mL) was added until pH 5. This mixture was then extracted with EtOAc (20mL/g, 6.5L), back extracted with EtOAc 1 x 5mL/g (1.5L), washed 1 x water:brine 1 : 1 (l OmL/g, 3.2L), 1 x brine (lOmL/g, 3.2L), dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated to afford a crude proudct. The crude product was suspended in MTBE (2.25 L, 7mL/g), after which hexanes (1 L, 3 mL/g) was added to the suspension over ten minutes, and the mixturen was aged 30minutes at room temperature. The product was filtered on a Buchner, rinsed with MTBE hexanes 1 :2 (2 mL/g = 640 mL), then hexanes

(640mL), and dried on frit to afford 1A-3. lH NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 11.52 (s, 1 H); 7.63 (d, J = 7.01 Hz, 1 H); 7.50-7.48 (m, 1 H); 7.34-7.32 (m, 1 H); 7.09-7.07 (m, 1 H); 6.48 (d, J = 7.01 Hz, 1 H).

Step lA(c): 3-chloro-5-{[2-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl]oxy}benzonitrile (1-4)

 

Figure imgf000046_0001

A solution of 3-(3-chloro-5-iodophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-ol (1A-3; 190 g; 457 mmol) in DMF (914 mL) was degassed for 20 minutes by bubbling N2, after which CuCN (73.7 g; 823 mmol) was added, and then the mixture was degassed an additional 5 minutes. The mixture was then heated to 120°C for 17 hours, then cooled to room temperature and partitioned between 6 L MeTHF and 2 L ammonium buffer (4:3: 1 = NH4CI

sat/water/NH-iOH 30%). The organic layer washed with 2 L buffer, 1 L buffer and 1 L brine then, dried over MgS04 and concentrated. The crude solid was then stirred in 2.2 L of refluxing

MeCN for 45 minutes, then cooled in a bath to room temperature over 1 hour, aged 30 minutes, then filtered and rinsed with cold MeCN (2 x 400mL). The solid was dried on frit under N2 atm for 60 hours to afford title compound 1-4. lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 12.71 (s, 1 H); 7.75 (s, 1 H); 7.63-7.57 (m, 2 H); 7.54 (s, 1 H); 6.49 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1 H).

Steps lA(d) and lA(e)

The title compound 1-1 was then prepared from compound 1-4 using procedures similar to those described in Steps 1(d) and 1(e) set forth above in Example 1.

Patent

WO-2014052171

Crystalline anhydrous Form II of doravirine, useful for the treatment of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. The compound was originally claimed in WO2008076223. Also see WO2011120133. Merck & Co is developing doravirine (MK-1439), for the oral tablet treatment of HIV-1 infection. As of April 2014, the drug is in Phase 2 trials.

CLIPS

The next-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) doravirine (formerly MK-1439) showed potent antiretroviral activity and good tolerability in combination with tenofovir/FTC (the drugs in Truvada) in a dose-finding study presented at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) last week in Boston.

NNRTIs are generally well tolerated and well suited for first-line HIV treatment, but as a class they are susceptible to resistance. Pre-clinical studies showed that Merck’s doravirine has a distinct resistance profile and remains active against HIV with common NNRTI resistance mutations including K103N and Y181C.

As reported at last year’s CROI, doravirine reduced HIV viral load by about 1.3 log in a seven-day monotherapy study. Doravirine is processed by the CYP3A4 enzyme, but it is neither a CYP3A4 inducer nor inhibitor, so it is not expected to have major drug interaction concerns.

Javier Morales-Ramirez from Clinical Research Puerto Rico reported late-breaking findings from a phase 2b study evaluating the safety and efficacy of various doses of doravirine versus efavirenz (Sustiva) for initial antiretroviral therapy.

This study included 208 treatment-naive people living with HIV from North America, Europe and Asia. More than 90% were men, 74% were white, 20% were black and the median age was 35 years. At baseline, the median CD4 cell count was approximately 375 cells/mm3 and 13% had received an AIDS diagnosis. Study participants were stratified by whether their viral load was above (about 30%) or below 100,000 copies/ml; median HIV RNA was approximately 4.5 log10.

Morales-Ramirez reported 24-week results from part 1 of the study, which will continue for a total of 96 weeks. In this part, participants were randomly allocated into five equal-sized arms receiving doravirine at doses of 25, 50, 100 or 200mg once daily, or else efavirenz once daily, all in combination with tenofovir/FTC.

At 24 weeks, 76.4% of participants taking doravirine had viral load below 40 copies/ml compared with 64.3% of people taking efavirenz. Response rates were similar across doravirine doses (25mg: 80.0%; 50mg: 76.2%; 100mg: 71.4%; 200mg: 78.0%). More than 80% of participants in all treatment arms reached the less stringent virological response threshold of <200 copies/ml.

Both doravirine and efavirenz worked better for people with lower pre-treatment viral load in an ad hoc analysis. For people with <100,000 copies/ml at baseline, response rates (<40 copies/ml) ranged from 83 to 89% with doravirine compared with 74% with efavirenz. For those with >100,000 copies/ml, response rates ranged from 50 to 91% with doravirine vs 54% with efavirenz.

Median CD4 cell gains were 137 cells/mm3 for all doravirine arms combined and 121 cells/mmfor the efavirenz arm.

Doravirine was generally safe and well tolerated. People taking doravirine were less than half as likely as people taking efavirenz to experience serious adverse events (3.0% across all doravirine arms vs 7.1% with efavirenz) or to stop treatment for this reason (2.4 vs 4.8%). Four people taking doravirine and two people taking efavirenz discontinued due to adverse events considered to be drug-related.

The most common side-effects were dizziness (3.6% with doravirine vs 23.8% with efavirenz), abnormal dreams (9.0 vs 7.1%), diarrhoea (4.8 vs 9.5%), nausea (7.8 vs 2.4%) and fatigue (6.6 vs 4.8%). Other central nervous system (CNS) adverse events of interest included insomnia (5.4 vs 7.1%), nightmares (1.2 vs 9.5%) and hallucinations (0.6 vs 2.4%). Overall, 20.5% of people taking doravirine reported at least one CNS side-effect, compared with 33.3% of people taking efavirenz.

People taking doravirine had more favourable lipid profiles and less frequent liver enzyme (ALT and AST) elevations compared with people taking efavirenz.

The researchers concluded that doravirine demonstrated potent antiretroviral activity in treatment-naive patients, a favourable safety and tolerability profile, and fewer drug-related adverse events compared with efavirenz.

Based on these findings, the 100mg once-daily dose was selected for future development and will be used in part 2 of this study, a dose-confirmation analysis that will enrol an additional 120 participants.

In the discussion following the presentation, Daniel Kuritzkes from Harvard Medical School noted that sometimes it takes longer for viral load to go down in people who start with a high level, so with further follow-up past 24 weeks doravirine may no longer look less effective in such individuals.

Reference

Morales-Ramirez J et al. Safety and antiviral effect of MK-1439, a novel NNRTI (+FTC/TDF) in ART-naive HIV-infected patients. 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Boston, abstract 92LB, 2014.

Merck Moves Doravirine Into Phase 3 Clinical Trials

Wednesday Mar 19 | Posted by: roboblogger | Full story: EDGE

Earlier this month, at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections , Merck indicated plans to initiate a Phase 3 clinical trial program for doravirine in combination with ARV therapy in the second half of 2014.

 

PAPER

A Robust Kilo-Scale Synthesis of Doravirine

Process Research and Development, Merck Research Laboratories, 126 E. Lincoln Ave., Rahway, New Jersey 07065,United States
Process Research and Development, Merck Frosst Center for Therapeutic Research, 16711 Trans Canada Highway, Kirkland, Quebec H9H 3L1, Canada
WuXi AppTec Co., Ltd., No. 1 Building, No. 288 FuTe ZhongLu, WaiGaoQiao Free Trade Zone, Shanghai 200131, China
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP

 

Abstract Image

Doravirine is non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of HIV infection. Herein we describe a robust kilo-scale synthesis for its manufacture. The structure and origin of major impurities were determined and their downstream fate-and-purge studied. This resulted in a redesign of the route to introduce the key nitrile functionality via a copper mediated cyanation which allowed all impurities to be controlled to an acceptable level. The improved synthesis was scaled to prepare ∼100 kg batches of doravirine to supply all preclinical and clinical studies up to phase III. The synthesis affords high-quality material in a longest linear sequence of six steps and 37% overall yield.

PAPER

Highly Efficient Synthesis of HIV NNRTI Doravirine

Department of Process Chemistry, Merck & Co., Inc., P.O. Box 2000, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, United States
Org. Lett., 2015, 17 (6), pp 1353–1356
DOI: 10.1021/ol503625z
Publication Date (Web): March 09, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

Gauthier, D. R., Jr.; Sherry, B. D.; Cao, Y.; Journet, M.; Humphrey, G.; Itoh, T.; Mangion, I.; Tschaen, D. M.Org. Lett. 2015, 17, 1353, DOI: 10.1021/ol503625z………..http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/ol503625z

STR1

US20100034813 * 8 Nov 2007 11 Feb 2010 Yi Xia Substituted pyrazole and triazole compounds as ksp inhibitors
US20100256181 * 14 Nov 2008 7 Oct 2010 Tucker Thomas J Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
US20110245296 * 6 Oct 2011 Jason Burch Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Reference
1 * COWDEN ET AL.: “A new synthesis of 1,2,4-triazolin-5-ones: application to the convergent synthesis of an NK1 antagonist.“, TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 41, no. 44, 2000, pages 8661 – 8664, XP004236142
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015329521 2015-11-19 PROCESS FOR MAKING REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS
US9150539 2015-10-06 Crystalline form of a reverse transcriptase inhibitor
US2015232447 2015-08-20 CRYSTALLINE FORM OF A REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITOR
US2013296382 2013-11-07 NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS
US2011245296 2011-10-06 NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS

References

  1.  Collins, Simon; Horn, Tim. “The Antiretroviral Pipeline.” (PDF). Pipeline Report. p. 10. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
  2. Safety and Antiviral Activity of MK-1439, a Novel NNRTI, in Treatment-naïve HIV+ Patients. Gathe, Joseph et al. 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 3–6 March 2013. Abstract 100.
  3.  CROI 2013: MK-1439, a Novel HIV NNRTI, Shows Promise in Early Clinical Trials. Highleyman, Liz. HIVandHepatitis.com. 6 March 2013.
Doravirine
Doravirine structure.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
3-Chloro-5-({1-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydro-3-pyridinyl}oxy)benzonitrile
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Oral[1]
Legal status
Legal status
  • Investigational New Drug
Identifiers
CAS Number 1338225-97-0
ATC code none
PubChem CID 58460047
ChemSpider 28424197
UNII 913P6LK81M Yes
KEGG D10624
ChEMBL CHEMBL2364608
Synonyms MK-1439
PDB ligand ID 2KW (PDBe, RCSB PDB)
Chemical data
Formula C17H11ClF3N5O3
Molar mass 425.75 g/mol

//////////Doravirine, MK-1439, 1338225-97-0 , Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, Reverse transcriptase inhibitor, ANTIVIRAL, Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, HIV, Triazolinone, Pyridone, Inhibitor,

Supporting Info

AND

Supporting Info

Cn1c(n[nH]c1=O)Cn2ccc(c(c2=O)Oc3cc(cc(c3)Cl)C#N)C(F)(F)F

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OSILODROSTAT for Treatment of Cushing’s Syndrome

 Phase 3 drug  Comments Off on OSILODROSTAT for Treatment of Cushing’s Syndrome
Jul 122016
 

ChemSpider 2D Image | osilodrostat | C13H10FN3

OSILODROSTAT

LCI 699, LCI 699NX

Novartis Ag INNOVATOR

UNII-5YL4IQ1078, CAS 928134-65-0

Benzonitrile, 4-[(5R)-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl]-3-fluoro-
4-[(5R)-6,7-Dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl]-3-fluorobenzonitrile
(R)-4-(6,7-Dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[l,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro- benzonitrile
  • Molecular FormulaC13H10FN3
  • Average mass227.237 Da
  • Originator Novartis
  • Class Antihypertensives; Fluorobenzenes; Imidazoles; Nitriles; Pyridines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Aldosterone synthase inhibitors
  • Phase III Cushing syndrome
  • Phase I Liver disorders
  • Discontinued Heart failure; Hypertension; Solid tumours

Most Recent Events

  • 27 Feb 2016 Novartis plans the phase III LINC-4 trial for Cushing’s syndrome in Greece, Thailand, Poland, Turkey, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Switzerland and USA (PO) (NCT02697734)
  • 12 Jun 2015 Novartis plans a phase II trial for Cushing syndrome in Japan (NCT02468193)
  • 01 Apr 2015 Phase-I clinical trials in Liver disorders in USA (PO)

 

Osilodrostat phosphate
CAS: 1315449-72-9

MF, C13-H10-F-N3.H3-O4-P

MW, 325.2347

  • LCI 699AZA

An orally active aldosterone-synthase inhibitor.

for Treatment of Cushing’s Syndrome

4-((5R)-6,7-Dihydro-5H-pyrrolo(1,2-c)imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluorobenzonitrile dihydrogen phosphate

Aromatase inhibitor; Cytochrome P450 11B1 inhibitor

MORE SYNTHESIS COMING, WATCH THIS SPACE…………………..

 

 

SYNTHESIS

STR1

ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 4(12), 1203-1207; 2013

REMIND ME,  amcrasto@gmail.com, +919323115463

Osilodrostat, as modulators of 11-β-hydroxylase, useful for treating a disorder ameliorated 11-β-hydroxylase inhibition eg Cushing’s disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, metabolic syndrome, liver diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, migraine headaches, osteoporosis or prostate cancer.

Novartis is developing osilodrostat, an inhibitor of aldosterone synthase and aromatase, for treating Cushing’s disease. In July 2016, osilodrostat was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

The somatostatin analog pasireotide and the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor osilodrostat (LCI699) reduce cortisol levels by distinct mechanisms of action. There exists a scientific rationale to investigate the clinical efficacy of these two agents in combination. This manuscript reports the results of a toxicology study in rats, evaluating different doses of osilodrostat and pasireotide alone and in combination. Sixty male and 60 female rats were randomized into single-sex groups to receive daily doses of pasireotide (0.3mg/kg/day, subcutaneously), osilodrostat (20mg/kg/day, orally), osilodrostat/pasireotide in combination (low dose, 1.5/0.03mg/kg/day; mid-dose, 5/0.1mg/kg/day; or high dose, 20/0.3mg/kg/day), or vehicle for 13weeks. Mean body-weight gains from baseline to Week 13 were significantly lower in the pasireotide-alone and combined-treatment groups compared to controls, and were significantly higher in female rats receiving osilodrostat monotherapy. Osilodrostat and pasireotide monotherapies were associated with significant changes in the histology and mean weights of the pituitary and adrenal glands, liver, and ovary/oviduct. Osilodrostat alone was associated with adrenocortical hypertrophy and hepatocellular hypertrophy. In combination, osilodrostat/pasireotide did not exacerbate any target organ changes and ameliorated the liver and adrenal gland changes observed with monotherapy. Cmax and AUC0-24h of osilodrostat and pasireotide increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. In conclusion, the pasireotide and osilodrostat combination did not exacerbate changes in target organ weight or toxicity compared with either monotherapy, and had an acceptable safety profile; addition of pasireotide to the osilodrostat regimen may attenuate potential adrenal gland hyperactivation and hepatocellular hypertrophy, which are potential side effects of osilodrostat monotherapy.

The somatostatin analog pasireotide and the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor osilodrostat (LCI699) reduce cortisol levels by distinct mechanisms of action. There exists a scientific rationale to investigate the clinical efficacy of these two agents in combination. This manuscript reports the results of a toxicology study in rats, evaluating different doses of osilodrostat and pasireotide alone and in combination. Sixty male and 60 female rats were randomized into single-sex groups to receive daily doses of pasireotide (0.3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously), osilodrostat (20 mg/kg/day, orally), osilodrostat/pasireotide in combination (low dose, 1.5/0.03 mg/kg/day; mid-dose, 5/0.1 mg/kg/day; or high dose, 20/0.3 mg/kg/day), or vehicle for 13 weeks. Mean body-weight gains from baseline to Week 13 were significantly lower in the pasireotide-alone and combined-treatment groups compared to controls, and were significantly higher in female rats receiving osilodrostat monotherapy. Osilodrostat and pasireotide monotherapies were associated with significant changes in the histology and mean weights of the pituitary and adrenal glands, liver, and ovary/oviduct. Osilodrostat alone was associated with adrenocortical hypertrophy and hepatocellular hypertrophy. In combination, osilodrostat/pasireotide did not exacerbate any target organ changes and ameliorated the liver and adrenal gland changes observed with monotherapy. Cmax and AUC0–24h of osilodrostat and pasireotide increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner.

In conclusion, the pasireotide and osilodrostat combination did not exacerbate changes in target organ weight or toxicity compared with either monotherapy, and had an acceptable safety profile; addition of pasireotide to the osilodrostat regimen may attenuate potential adrenal gland hyperactivation and hepatocellular hypertrophy, which are potential side effects of osilodrostat monotherapy.

The somatostatin class is a known class of small peptides comprising the naturally occurring somatostatin- 14 and analogues having somatostatin related activity, e.g. as disclosed by A.S. Dutta in Small Peptides, Vol.19, Elsevier (1993). By “somatostatin analogue” as used herein is meant any straight-chain or cyclic polypeptide having a structure based on that of the naturally occurring somatostatin- 14 wherein one or more amino acid units have been omitted and/or replaced by one or more other amino radical(s) and/or wherein one or more functional groups have been replaced by one or more other functional groups and/or one or more groups have been replaced by one or several other isosteric groups. In general, the term covers all modified derivatives of the native somatostatin- 14 which exhibit a somatostatin related activity, e.g. they bind to at least one of the five somatostatin receptor (SSTR), preferably in the nMolar range. Commonly known somatostatin analogs are octreotide, vapreotide, lanreotide, pasireotide.

Pasireotide, having the chemical structure as follow:

Figure imgf000002_0001

Pasireotide is called cyclo[{4-(NH2-C2H4-NH-CO-0-)Pro}-Phg-DTrp-Lys-Tyr(4-Bzl)- Phe], wherein Phg means -HN-CH(C6H5)-CO- and Bzl means benzyl, in free form, in salt or complex form or in protected form.

Cushing’s syndrome is a hormone disorder caused by high levels of Cortisol in the blood. This can be caused by taking glucocorticoid drugs, or by tumors that produce Cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or CRH. Cushing’s disease refers to one specific cause of the syndrome: a tumor (adenoma) in the pituitary gland that produces large amounts of ACTH, which elevates Cortisol. It is the most common cause of Cushing’s syndrome, responsible for 70% of cases excluding glucocorticoid related cases. The significant decrease of Cortisol levels in Cushing’s disease patients on pasireotide support its potential use as a targeted treatment for Cushing’s disease (Colao et al. N Engl J Med 2012;366:32^12).

Compound A is potent inhibitor of the rate-limiting enzyme 1 1-beta-hydroxylase, the last step in the synthesis of Cortisol. WO 201 1/088188 suggests the potential use of compound A in treating a disease or disorder characterised by increased stress hormone levels and/or decreased androgen hormone levels, including the potential use of compound A in treating heart failure, cachexia, acute coronary syndrome, chronic stress syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome or metabolic syndrome.

Compound A, also called (R)-4-(6,7-Dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[l,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro- benzonitrile, has formula (II).

Figure imgf000003_0001

Compound A can be synthesized or produced and characterized by methods as described in WO2007/024945.

PRODUCT PATENT

WO2007024945, hold protection in the EU states until August 2026, and expire in the US in March 2029 with US154 extension

PAPER

ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2013), 4(12), 1203-1207.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ml400324c?source=chemport&journalCode=amclct

Discovery and in Vivo Evaluation of Potent Dual CYP11B2 (Aldosterone Synthase) and CYP11B1 Inhibitors

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, New Jersey 07936, United States
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 2013, 4 (12), pp 1203–1207
DOI: 10.1021/ml400324c
*(E.L.M.) Tel: 617-871-7586. Fax: 617-871-7045. E-mail: erik.meredith@novartis.com.
Abstract Image

Aldosterone is a key signaling component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and as such has been shown to contribute to cardiovascular pathology such as hypertension and heart failure. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is responsible for the final three steps of aldosterone synthesis and thus is a viable therapeutic target. A series of imidazole derived inhibitors, including clinical candidate 7n, have been identified through design and structure–activity relationship studies both in vitro and in vivo. Compound 7n was also found to be a potent inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), which is responsible for cortisol production. Inhibition of CYP11B1 is being evaluated in the clinic for potential treatment of hypercortisol diseases such as Cushing’s syndrome.

PATENT

WO-2016109361

silodrostat (LCI699; 4-[(5R)-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[l,2-c]imidazol-5-yl]-3-fluoro-benzonitrile; CAS# 928134-65-0). Osilodrostat is a Ι Ι-β-hydroxylase inhibitor.

Osilodrostat is currently under investigation for the treatment of Cushing’s disease, primary aldosteronism, and hypertension. Osilodrostat has also shown promise in treating drug-resistant hypertension, essential hypertension, hypokalemia, hypertension, congestive heart failure, acute heart failure, heart failure, cachexia, acute coronary syndrome, chronic stress syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome, metabolic syndrome, hypercortisolemia, atrial fibrillation, renal failure, chronic renal failure, restenosis, sleep apnea, atherosclerosis, syndrome X, obesity, nephropathy, post-myocardial infarction, coronary heary disease, increased formation of collagen, cardiac or myocardiac fibrosis and/or remodeling following hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, Conn’s disease, cardiovascular diseases, renal dysfunction, liver diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, vascular diseases, retinopathy, neuropathy, insulinopathy, edema, endothelial dysfunction, baroreceptor dysfunction, migraine headaches, arrythmia, diastolic dysfunction, diastolic heart failure, impaired diastolic filling, systolic dysfunction, ischemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, sudden cardia death, impaired arterial compliance, myocardial necrotic lesions, vascular damage, myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy, decreased ej ection fraction, cardiac lesions, vascular wall hypertrophy, endothelial thickening, fibrinoid, necrosis of coronary arteries, ectopic ACTH syndrome, change in adrenocortical mass, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), Carney complex (CNC), anorexia nervosa, chronic alcoholic poisoning, nicotine withdrawal syndrome, cocaine withdrawal syndrome, posttraumatic stress syndrome, cognitive impairment after a stroke or cortisol-induced mineral corticoid excess, ventricular arrythmia, estrogen-dependent disorders, gynecomastia, osteoporosis, prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, polycyctic ovarian disease, infertility, fibrocystic breast disease, breast cancer, and fibrocystic mastopathy. WO 2013109514; WO 2007024945; and WO 2011064376.

Osilodrostat

Osilodrostat is likely subject to extensive CYP45o-mediated oxidative metabolism. These, as well as other metabolic transformations, occur in part through polymorphically-expressed enzymes, exacerbating interpatient variability. Additionally, some metabolites of osilodrostat derivatives may have undesirable side effects. In order to overcome its short half-life, the drug likely must be taken several times per day, which increases the probability of patient incompliance and discontinuance. Adverse effects associated with osilodrostat include fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, headache, hypokalemia, muscle spasms, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, abdominal pain, arthralgia, arthropod bite, dizziness, increased lipase, and pruritis.

Scheme I

 

EXAMPLE 1

(R)-4-(6,7-dihvdro-5H-pyrrolo[l,2-elimidazol-5-yl)-3-fluorobenzonitrile

(osilodrostat)

[00144] 4-(bromomethyl)-3-fluorobenzonitrile: 3-Fluoro-4-methylbenzonitrile (40 g, 296 mmol), NBS (63.2 g, 356 mmol) and benzoyl peroxide (3.6 g, 14.8 mmol) were taken up in carbon tetrachloride (490 mL) and refiuxed for 16 h. The mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated and purified via flash column chromatography (0-5% EtOAc/hexanes) to give 4-(bromomethyl)-3-fluorobenzonitrile (35.4 g, 56%).

[00145] 2-(l-trityl-lH-imidazol-4-yl)acetic acid: Trityl chloride (40 g, 143.88 mmol, 1.2 equiv) was added to a suspension of (lH-imidazol-4-yl) acetic acid hydrochloride (20 g, 123.02 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in pyridine (200 mL). This was stirred at 50 °C for 16 h. Then the mixture was cooled and concentrated under vacuum and the crude product was purified by recrystallization from ethyl acetate (1000 ml) to afford 42 g (90%) of 2-[l-(triphenylmethyl)-lH-imidazol-4-yl] acetic acid as an off-white solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z = 369.2 [M+H]+

Step 2

2 step 2

2-( 1 -trityl- lH-imidazol-4-yl)ethanol : 2-(l-Trityl-lH-imidazol-4-yl) acetic acid (42 g, 114.00 mmol, 1.0 equiv) was suspended in THF (420 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. To this was added BH3 (1M in THF, 228.28 mL, 2.0 equiv). The clear solution obtained was stirred at 0 °C for 60 min, then warmed to room temperature until LCMS indicated completion of the reaction. The solution was cooled again to 0 °C and quenched carefully with water (300 mL). The resulting solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 100 mL) and the organic layers combined and dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and evaporated to give a sticky residue which was taken up in ethanolamine (800 mL) and heated to 90 °C for 2 h. The reaction was transferred to a separatory funnel, diluted with EtOAc (1 L) and washed with water (3 x 600 mL). The organic phase was dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and evaporated afford 35 g (87%) of 2-[l-(triphenylmethyl)-lH-imidazol-4-yl]ethanol as a white solid, which was used in the next step without further purification. LCMS (ESI) : m/z = 355.1 [M+H]+.

Step 3

3 step 3 4

4-(2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl)-l-trityl-lH-imidazole: 2-(l-Trityl-lH-imidazol-4-yl) ethanol (35 g, 98.75 mmol, 1.00 equiv) was dissolved in DCM (210 mL). To this was added imidazole (19.95 g, 293.05 mmol, 3.00 equiv) and tert-butyldimethylsilylchloride (22.40 g, 149.27 mmol, 1.50 equiv). The mixture was stirred at room temperature until LCMS indicated completion of the reaction. Then the resulting solution was diluted with 500 mL of DCM. The resulting mixture was washed with water (3 x 300 mL). The residue was purified by a silica gel column, eluted with ethyl

acetate/petroleum ether (1 :4) to afford 40 g (77%) of 4-[2-[(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy]ethyl]-l-(triphenylmethyl)-lH-imidazole as a white solid. LCMS (ESI) : m/z = 469.1 [M+H]+.

Step 4

4-((5-(2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy )ethylVlH-iniidazol-l -vnmethylV3-fluorobenzonitrile: 4-(2-((tert-Butyldimethylsilanyl)oxy)ethyl)-l rityl-lH-irnidazole (40 g, 85.34 mmol, 1.00 equiv) and 4-(Bromomethyl)-3-fluorobenzonitrile (27.38 g, 127.92 mmol, 1.50 equiv) obtained as a product of step 0, were dissolved in MeCN (480 mL) and DCM (80 mL), and stirred at room temperature for 48 h. Et2NH (80 mL) and MeOH (480 mL) were then added and the solution was warmed 80 °C for 3 h. The solution was evaporated to dryness and the residue was purified via flash column chromatography (EtOAc/hexanes 1 :5 to EtOAc) to afford 4-((5-(2-((tert-Butyldimethylsilanyl)oxy)ethyl)-lH-imidazol-l -yl)methyl)-3-fluorobenzonitrile (15 g, 50%). ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) δ: 7.67 (s, 1H), 7.43 (m, 2H), 6.98 (s, 1H), 6.88-6.79 (m, 1H), 5.34 (s, 2H), 3.79 (t, J= 8.0 Hz, 2H), 2.67 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 0.88 (s, 9H), 0.02 (s, 6H). LCMS (ESI) : m/z = 360.1 [M+H]+.

Step 5

5 6

Methyl 2-(5-(2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl)-lH-imidazol-l -yl)-2-(4-cvano-2-fluorophenvDacetate: 4-((5-(2-((tert-Butyldimethylsilanyl)oxy)ethyl)-lH-imidazol-l -yl)methyl)-3-fluorobenzonitrile (15 g, 41.72 mmol, 1.00 equiv) was dissolved in anhydrous THF (150 mL) and stirred at -78 °C, then a THF solution of LiHMDS (75 mL, 1.80 equiv, 1.0 M) was added dropwise over 15 min. After 30 min, methyl cyanoformate (4.3 g, 45.50 mmol, 1.10 equiv) was added dropwise over 10 min and the solution was stirred at -78 °C for 2 h. The excess LiHMDS was quenched with aqueous saturated NH4CI and the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. The mixture was then diluted with EtOAc and washed

with aqueous saturated NH4CI (200 mL). The organic layers was dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and evaporated. The crude residue was purified via flash column chromatography (EtOAc/PE 3: 10 to EtOAc) to give methyl 2-(5-(2-((tert-butyldimethylsilanyl)oxy)ethyl)-lH-imidazol-l-yl)-2-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenyl) acetate (15 g, 86%) as a light yellow solid.

¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCL3) δ: 7.66 (s, 1H), 7.54-7.43 (m, 2H), 7.15 (t, J= 8.0 Hz 1H), 6.93 (s, 1H), 6.47 (s, 1H), 3.88-3.74 (m, 5H), 2.81-2.62 (m, 2H), 0.89 (s, 9H), 0.05 (s, 6H) . LCMS (ESI) : m/z = 418.2 [M+H]+.

Step 6

Methyl 2-(4-cvano-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(5-(2-hvdroxyethyl)-lH-imidazol-l-yl) acetate: Methyl 2-(5-(2-((tert-butyldimethylsilanyl)oxy)ethyl)-lH-imidazol-l-yl)-2-(4-cyano-2-fiuorophenyl)acetate (15 g, 35.92 mmol, 1.00 equiv) was added to a solution of HCl in 1,4-dioxane (89 mL, 4.0 M, 359.2 mmol) at 0 °C and the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 2 h. The solution was concentrated to dryness to give the crude alcohol, methyl 2-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenyl )-2-(5-(2 -hydroxy ethyl)-lH-imidazol-l-yl)acetate (10 g, 92%), which was used without further purification. LCMS: m/z = 304.0 [M+H]+.

Step 7

7 8

Methyl 2-(4-cvano-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(5-(2-(methylsulfonyloxy)ethyl)-lH-imidazol-l-yl) acetate: The crude methyl 2-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenyl )-2-(5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-lH-imidazol-l-yl)acetate (10 g, 32.97 mmol, 1.00 equiv) was dissolved in DCM (200 mL) and stirred at 0 °C, then Et3N (20 g, 197.65 mmol, 6.00 equiv) and

methanesulfonyl chloride (4.52 g, 39.67 mmol, 1.20 equiv) were added. After completion of the reaction, the solution was diluted with DCM and washed with aqueous saturated

NaHCC . The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered and evaporated to give the crude methyl 2-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(5-(2-((methylsulfonyl)oxy)ethyl)-lH-imidazol-l-yl)acetate (11.43 g, 91%), which was used in the next step without further purification. LCMS (ESI) : m/z = 382.0 [M+H]+.

Step 8

Methyl 5-(4-cvano-2-fluorophenyl)-6.7-dihvdro-5H-pyrrolo[1.2-elimidazole-5-carboxylate: The crude methyl 2-(4-cyano-2 -fluorophenyl )-2-(5-(2- ((methylsulfonyl)oxy)ethyl)-lH-imidazol-l-yl)acetate (11.43 g, 29.97 mmol, 1.00 equiv) was dissolved in MeCN (550 mL) and then K2CO3 (12.44 g, 90.01 mmol, 3.00 equiv), Nal (13.50 g, 90.00 mmol, 3.00 equiv) and Et3N (9.09 g, 89.83 mmol, 3.00 equiv) were added. The reaction was stirred at 80 °C for 42 h. The mixture was filtered. The solids were washed with DCM. The filtrate was concentrated and purified by flash column chromatography (EtOAc) to give methyl 5-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[l,2-c]imidazole-5-carboxylate (4.2 g, 49% in 3 steps).

[00153] ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) δ: 7.61 (s, 1H), 7.47-7.47 (m, 2H), 6.88 (s, 1H), 6.79-6.75 (m, 1H), 4.17-4.12 (m, 1H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 3.78-3.70 (m, 1H), 3.08-3.02 (m, 1H), 2.84-2.71 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI) : m/z = 286.0 [M+H]+.

Step 9

10

4-(6.7-dihvdro-5H-pyrrolo[1.2-elimidazol-5-yl)-3-fluorobenzonitrile: To a 40-mL sealed tube, was placed methyl 5-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenyl)-5H,6H,7H-pyrrolo[l,2-c]imidazole-5-carboxylate (1 g, 3.51 mmol, 1.00 equiv), DMSO (10 mL), water (5 mL). The final reaction mixture was irradiated with microwave radiation for 40 min at 140 °C. The resulting solution was diluted with 100 mL of EtOAc. The resulting mixture was washed with (3 x 20 mL) brine, dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by a silica gel column, eluted with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (4: 1) to afford 420 mg (44%) of 5-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenyl)-5H,6H,7H-pyrrolo[l,2-c]irnidazole-5-carboxylic acid as a light yellow solid.

¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCL3) δ: 7.55-7.28 (m, 3H), 6.90-6.85 (m, 2H), 5.74-5.71 (m, 1H), 3.25-3.15 (m, 1H), 3.02-2.92 (m, 2H), 2.58-2.50 (m, 1H). LCMS (ESI) : m/z = 228.2 [M+H]+.

Step 10

10

(R)-4-(6 -dihvdro-5H-pyrrolo[1.2-elirnidazol-5-yl)-3-fluorobenzonitrile:

Resolution of the enantiomers of the title compound (300 mg) was performed by chiral HPLC: Column, Chiralpak IA2, 2*25cm, 20um; mobile phase, Phase A: Hex (50%, 0.1% DEA), Phase B: EtOH (50%) ; Detector, UV 254/220 nm to afford the (S)-enantiomer (RT = 17 min) and the (R)-enantiomer (97.6 mg, desired compound) (RT = 21 min).

 ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-<4) δ: 7.98-7.95 (m, 1H), 7.70-7.69 (m, 1H), 7.50 (s, 1H), 6.87 (t, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.70 (s, 1H), 5.79-5.76 (m, 1H), 3.15-3.06 (m, 1H), 2.92-2.74 (m, 2H), 2.48-2.43 (m, 1H). LCMS (ESI) : m/z = 228.1 [M+H]+.

 

PATENT

WO2013/153129

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2013153129A1?cl=en

 

PATENT

WO2007/024945

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2007024945A1?cl=en

 

PATENT

 EP 2815749

Aspect (iii) of the present invention relates to phosphate salt or nitrate salt of 4-(R)-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro-benzonitrile according to Formula (III)

Figure imgb0004

abbreviated as ‘{drug3}’. In particular, the present invention relates to crystalline form of phosphate salt of 4-(R)-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro-benzonitrile, abbreviated as ‘{drug3a}’; to crystalline Form A of phosphate salt of 4-(R)-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro-benzonitrile, abbreviated as ‘{drug3b}’; to crystalline Form B of phosphate salt of 4-(R)-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro-benzonitrile, abbreviated as ‘{drug3c}’; to crystalline Form C of phosphate salt of 4-(R)-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro-benzonitrile, abbreviated as ‘{drug3d}’; to crystalline Form D of phosphate salt of 4-(R)-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro-benzonitrile, abbreviated as ‘{drug3e}’; to crystalline Form E of phosphate salt of 4-(R)-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro-benzonitrile, abbreviated as ‘{drug3f}’; to crystalline Form F of phosphate salt of 4-(R)-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro-benzonitrile, abbreviated as ‘{drug3g}’; to crystalline Form G of phosphate salt of 4-(R)-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro-benzonitrile, abbreviated as ‘{drug3h}’; to crystalline Form H of phosphate salt of 4-(R)-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro-benzonitrile, abbreviated as ‘{drug3i}’; and to crystalline form of nitrate salt of 4-(R)-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluoro-benzonitrile, abbreviated as ‘{drug3j}’. {drug3a}, {drug3b}, {drug3c}, {drug3d}, {drug3e}, {drug3f}, {drug3g}, {drug3h}, {drug3i}, and {drug3j} are specific forms falling within the definition of {drug3}. Aspect (iii) of the invention is separate from aspects (i), (ii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), and (viii) of the invention. Thus, all embodiments of {drug3a}, {drug3b}, {drug3c}, {drug3d}, {drug3e}, {drug3f}, {drug3g}, {drug3h}, {drug3i}, and {drug3j}, respectively, are only related to {drug3}, but neither to {drug1}, nor to {drug2}, nor to {drug4}, nor to {drug5}, nor to {drug6}, nor to {drug7}, nor to {drug8}.

 

PAPER

Osilodrostat (LCI699), a potent 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, administered in combination with the multireceptor-targeted somatostatin analog pasireotide: A 13-week study in rats

  • a Preclinical Safety, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, East Hanover, NJ, USA
  • b Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, East Hanover, NJ, USA
  • c Novartis Oncology Development, Basel, Switzerland

doi:10.1016/j.taap.2015.05.004http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X15001684

CLIPS

STR1

 

STR1

WO2011088188A1 * Jan 13, 2011 Jul 21, 2011 Novartis Ag Use of an adrenal hormone-modifying agent
Reference
1 * BOSCARO M ET AL: “Treatment of Pituitary-Dependent Cushing’s Disease with the Multireceptor Ligand Somatostatin Analog Pasireotide (SOM230): A Multicenter, Phase II Trial“, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, vol. 94, no. 1, January 2009 (2009-01), pages 115-122, XP002698507, ISSN: 0021-972X

 

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5: Wang HZ, Tian JB, Yang KH. Efficacy and safety of LCI699 for hypertension: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and systematic review. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015;19(2):296-304. Review. PubMed PMID: 25683946.

6: Daniel E, Newell-Price JD. Therapy of endocrine disease: steroidogenesis enzyme inhibitors in Cushing’s syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2015 Jun;172(6):R263-80. doi: 10.1530/EJE-14-1014. Epub 2015 Jan 30. Review. PubMed PMID: 25637072.

7: Fleseriu M, Petersenn S. Medical therapy for Cushing’s disease: adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitors and glucocorticoid receptor blockers. Pituitary. 2015 Apr;18(2):245-52. doi: 10.1007/s11102-014-0627-0. PubMed PMID: 25560275.

8: Ménard J, Rigel DF, Watson C, Jeng AY, Fu F, Beil M, Liu J, Chen W, Hu CW, Leung-Chu J, LaSala D, Liang G, Rebello S, Zhang Y, Dole WP. Aldosterone synthase inhibition: cardiorenal protection in animal disease models and translation of hormonal effects to human subjects. J Transl Med. 2014 Dec 10;12:340. doi: 10.1186/s12967-014-0340-9. PubMed PMID: 25491597; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4301837.

9: Oki Y. Medical management of functioning pituitary adenoma: an update. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2014;54(12):958-65. Epub 2014 Nov 29. PubMed PMID: 25446388.

10: Cai TQ, Stribling S, Tong X, Xu L, Wisniewski T, Fontenot JA, Struthers M, Akinsanya KO. Rhesus monkey model for concurrent analyses of in vivo selectivity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aldosterone synthase inhibitors. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2015 Jan-Feb;71:137-46. doi: 10.1016/j.vascn.2014.09.011. Epub 2014 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 25304940.

11: Lother A, Moser M, Bode C, Feldman RD, Hein L. Mineralocorticoids in the heart and vasculature: new insights for old hormones. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015;55:289-312. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010814-124302. Epub 2014 Sep 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 25251996.

12: Cuevas-Ramos D, Fleseriu M. Treatment of Cushing’s disease: a mechanistic update. J Endocrinol. 2014 Nov;223(2):R19-39. doi: 10.1530/JOE-14-0300. Epub 2014 Aug 18. Review. PubMed PMID: 25134660.

13: Yin L, Hu Q, Emmerich J, Lo MM, Metzger E, Ali A, Hartmann RW. Novel pyridyl- or isoquinolinyl-substituted indolines and indoles as potent and selective aldosterone synthase inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2014 Jun 26;57(12):5179-89. doi: 10.1021/jm500140c. Epub 2014 Jun 5. PubMed PMID: 24899257.

14: Li W, Luo S, Rebello S, Flarakos J, Tse FL. A semi-automated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of LCI699, a steroid 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, in human plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2014 Jun 1;960:182-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2014.04.012. Epub 2014 Apr 30. PubMed PMID: 24814004.

15: Trainer PJ. Next generation medical therapy for Cushing’s syndrome–can we measure a benefit? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr;99(4):1157-60. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1054. PubMed PMID: 24702012.

16: Bertagna X, Pivonello R, Fleseriu M, Zhang Y, Robinson P, Taylor A, Watson CE, Maldonado M, Hamrahian AH, Boscaro M, Biller BM. LCI699, a potent 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, normalizes urinary cortisol in patients with Cushing’s disease: results from a multicenter, proof-of-concept study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr;99(4):1375-83. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2117. Epub 2013 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 24423285.

17: Oki Y. Medical management of functioning pituitary adenoma: an update. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2014;54 Suppl 3:958-65. PubMed PMID: 26236804.

18: Schumacher CD, Steele RE, Brunner HR. Aldosterone synthase inhibition for the treatment of hypertension and the derived mechanistic requirements for a new therapeutic strategy. J Hypertens. 2013 Oct;31(10):2085-93. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328363570c. PubMed PMID: 24107737; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3771574.

19: Brown NJ. Contribution of aldosterone to cardiovascular and renal inflammation and fibrosis. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013 Aug;9(8):459-69. doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2013.110. Epub 2013 Jun 18. Review. PubMed PMID: 23774812; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3922409.

20: van der Pas R, de Herder WW, Hofland LJ, Feelders RA. Recent developments in drug therapy for Cushing’s disease. Drugs. 2013 Jun;73(9):907-18. doi: 10.1007/s40265-013-0067-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 23737437.

///////OSILODROSTAT, Novartis ,  osilodrostat, an inhibitor of aldosterone synthase and aromatase, treating Cushing’s disease,  July 2016, phase 3 clinical development, LCI 699, 928134-65-0, 1315449-72-9, PHASE 3, LCI 699NX, LCI 699AZA, CYP11B1 CYP11B2

c1cc(c(cc1C#N)F)[C@H]2CCc3n2cnc3.OP(=O)(O)O

N#CC1=CC=C([C@H]2CCC3=CN=CN32)C(F)=C1

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TEZACAFTOR, VX 661 for treatment of cystic fibrosis disease.

 Phase 3 drug  Comments Off on TEZACAFTOR, VX 661 for treatment of cystic fibrosis disease.
Jul 112016
 

VX-661.png

ChemSpider 2D Image | Tezacaftor | C26H27F3N2O6

img

2D chemical structure of 1152311-62-0

TEZACAFTOR, VX 661

CAS : 1152311-62-0;

  • Molecular FormulaC26H27F3N2O6
  • Average mass520.498 Da

l-(2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-[l-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl]-6-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-l,l-dimethylethyl)-lH-indol-5-yl]-cyclopropanecarboxamide).

(R)-1-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-N-(1-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-6-fluoro-2-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-1H-indol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide

Cyclopropanecarboxamide, 1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-[1-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl]-6-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl]-

1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-[1-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl]-6-fluoro-2-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)indol-5-yl]cyclopropane-1-carboxamide

Cyclopropanecarboxamide, 1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-(1-((2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-6-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl)-

1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-(1-((2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-6-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide

Vertex (INNOVATOR)

 

UNII: 8RW88Y506K

In July 2016, this combination was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

Tezacaftor, also known asVX-661, is CFTR modulator. VX-661 is potentially useful for treatment of cystic fibrosis disease. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by defects in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene, which encodes an epithelial chloride channel. The most common mutation, Δ508CFTR, produces a protein that is misfolded and does not reach the cell membrane. VX-661 can correct trafficking of Δ508CFTR and partially restore chloride channel activity. VX-661 is currently under Phase III clinical trial.

VX-661 is an orally available deltaF508-CFTR corrector in phase III clinical trials at Vertex for the treatment of cystic fibrosis in patients homozygous to the F508del-CFTR mutation

Novel deuterated analogs of a cyclopropanecarboxamide ie tezacaftor (VX-661), as modulators of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) proteins, useful for treating a CFTR-mediated disorder eg cystic fibrosis.

VX-661 (CAS #: 1152311-62-0; l-(2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-[l-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl]-6-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-l,l-dimethylethyl)-lH-indol-5-yl]-cyclopropanecarboxamide). VX-661 is a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulator. VX-661 is currently under investigation for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. VX-661 has also shown promise in treating sarcoglycanopathies, Brody’s disease, cathecolaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, limb girdle muscular dystrophy, asthma, smoke induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, chronic bronchitis, rhinosinusitis, constipation, pancreatitis, pancreatic insufficiency, male infertility caused by congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), mild pulmonary disease, idiopathic pancreatitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), liver disease, hereditary emphysema, hereditary hemochromatosis, coagulation-fibrinolysis deficiencies, such as protein C deficiency, type 1 hereditary angioedema, lipid processing deficiencies, such as familial hypercholesterolemia, type 1 chylomicronemia, abetalipoproteinemia, lysosomal storage diseases, such as I-cell disease/pseudo-Hurler, mucopolysaccharidoses, Sandhof/Tay-Sachs, Crigler-Najjar type II, polyendocrinopathy/hyperinsulinemia, diabetes mellitus, Laron dwarfism, myeloperoxidase deficiency, primary hypoparathyroidism, melanoma, glycanosis CDG type 1, congenital hyperthyroidism, osteogenesis imperfecta, hereditary hypofibrinogenemia, ACT deficiency, diabetes insipidus (DI), neurohypophyseal DI, nephrogenic DI, Charcot-Marie tooth syndrome, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive supranuclear palsy, Pick’s disease, polyglutamine neurological disorders such as Huntington’s, spinocerebellar ataxia type I, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, dentatombral pallidoluysian, and myotonic dystrophy, as well as spongifiorm encephalopathies, such as hereditary Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease (due to prion protein processing defect), Fabry disease, Gerstrnarm-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, dry-eye disease, or Sjogren’s disease, osteoporosis, osteopenia, bone healing and bone growth (including bone repair, bone regeneration, reducing bone resorption and increasing bone deposition), Gorham’s Syndrome, chloride channelopathies such as myotonia congenita (Thomson and Becker forms), Bartter’s

syndrome type III, Dent’s disease, hyperekplexia, epilepsy, lysosomal storage disease, Angelman syndrome, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a term for inherited disorders of the structure and/or function of cilia, including PCD with situs inversus (also known as Kartagener syndrome), PCD without situs inversus, and ciliary aplasia. WO 2014086687; WO2013185112.

VX-661

VX-661 is likely subject to extensive CYP45o-mediated oxidative metabolism. These, as well as other metabolic transformations, occur in part through polymorphically-expressed enzymes, exacerbating interpatient variability. Additionally, some metabolites of VX-661 may have undesirable side effects. In order to overcome its short half-life, the drug likely must be taken several times per day, which increases the probability of patient incompliance and discontinuance.Deuterium Kinetic Isotope Effect

PATENT

WO 2016109362

 

Scheme I

EXAMPLE 1

(R)-l-(2,2-difluorobenzo[dl[l,31dioxol-5-vn-N-(l-q,3-dihvdroxypropyn-6-fluoro-2-(l- hvdroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-lH-indol-5-yl)cvclopropanecarboxamide

(VX-661)

Methyl 2.2-difluorobenzo[dl [1.31dioxole-5-carboxylate: To a 200 mL pressure tank reactor (10 atm. in CO), was placed 5-bromo-2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxole (20.0 g, 84.4 mmol, 1.00 equiv), methanol (40 mL), triethylamine (42.6 g, 5.00 equiv.), Pd2(dba)3 (1.74 g, 1.69 mmol, 0.02 equiv), Pd(dppf)Cl2 (1.4 g, 1.69 mmol, 0.02 equiv.). The resulting solution was stirred at 85 °C under an atmosphere of CO overnight and the reaction progress was monitored by GCMS. The reaction mixture was cooled. The solids were filtered out. The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum to afford 17.5 g of methyl 2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate as a crude solid, which was used directly in the next step. Step 2

2 step 2 3

(2.2-difluorobenzo[dl [ 1.31 dioxol-5 -vDmethanol : To a 500mL 3-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen were placed methyl 2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (17.5 g, 81.01 mmol, 1.00 equiv.), tetrahydrofuran (200 mL). This was followed by the addition of L1AIH4 (6.81 mg, 162.02 mmol, 2.00 equiv.) at 0 °C. The resulting solution was stirred for 1 h at 25 °C and monitored by GCMS. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0 °C until GCMS indicated the completion of the reaction. The pH value of the solution was adjusted to 8 with sodium hydroxide (1 mol/L). The solids were filtered out. The organic layer combined and concentrated under vacuum to afford 13.25 g (87%) of (2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)methanol as yellow oil.

Step 3

step 3

5-(chloromethyl)-2.2-difluorobenzo[diri.31dioxole: (2.2-difluoro-2H-1.3-benzodioxol-5-yl)methanol (13.25 g, 70.4 mmol, 1.00 equiv.) was dissolved in DCM (200 mL). Thionyl chloride (10.02 g, 1.20 equiv.) was added to this solution. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 hours and then concentrated under vacuum. The residue was then diluted with DCM (500 mL) and washed with 2 x 200 mL of sodium bicarbonate and 1 x 200 mL of brine. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated to afford 12.36 g (85%) of 5-(chloromethyl)-2,2-difluoro-2H-l ,3-benzodioxole as yellow oil.

Step 4

step 4 5

[00160] 2-(2.2-difluorobenzordi ri .31dioxol-5-yl)acetonitrile: 5-(chloromethyl)-2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxole (12.36 g, 60 mmol, 1.00 equiv.) was dissolved in DMSO (120 mL). This was followed by the addition of NaCN (4.41 g, 1.50 equiv.) with the inert temperature below 40 °C. The resulting solution was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature. The reaction progress was monitored by GCMS. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 300 mL of water/ice. The resulting solution was extracted with 3 x 100 mL of ethyl acetate. The organic layers combined and washed with 3 x 100 mL brine dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum to afford 10.84 g (92%) of 2-(2,2-difluoro-2H-l ,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)acetonitrile as brown oil.

Step 5

l -(2.2-difluoro-2H-1.3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cvclopropane-l -carbonitrile: To a 100 mL round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, were placed 2-(2,2-difluoro-2H-l ,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)acetonitrile (10.84 g, 55 mmol, 1.00 equiv.),

NaOH (50%) in water), 1 -bromo-2-chloroethane (11.92g, 82.5 mmol, 1.50 equiv.), BmNBr

(361 mg, 1.1 mmol, 0.02 equiv.). The resulting solution was stirred for 48 h at 70 °C. The reaction progress was monitored by GCMS. The reaction mixture was cooled. The resulting solution was extracted with 3 x 200 mL of ethyl acetate and the organic layers combined. The resulting mixture was washed with 1 x 200 mL of brine. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum to afford 10.12g of 1 -(2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropane-l-carbonitrile as brown oil.

Step 6

[00162] l-(2.2-difluoro-2H-1.3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cvclopropane-l-carboxylic acid: To a 250-mL round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed l-(2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropane-l-carbonitrile (10.12 g, 45.38 mmol, 1.00 equiv), 6 N NaOH (61 mL) and EtOH (60 mL). The resulting solution was stirred for 3 h at 100 °C. The reaction mixture was cooled and the pH value of the solution was adjusted to 2 with hydrogen chloride (1 mol/L) until LCMS indicated the completion of the reaction. The solids were collected by filtration to afford 9.68 g (88%) of l-(2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid as a light yellow solid.

Step 7

[00163] l-(2.2-difluoro-2H-1.3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cvclopropane-l-carbonyl chloride; To a solution of l-(2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (687 mg, 2.84 mmol, 1.00 equiv.) in toluene (5 mL) was added thionyl chloride (1.67 g, 5.00 equiv.). The resulting solution was stirred for 3h at 65 °C. The reaction mixture was cooled and concentrated under vacuum to afford 738 mg (99%) of l-(2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropane-l-carbonyl chloride as a yellow solid.

Step 8

9 STEP 8 10

2-methyl-4-(trimethylsilyl)but-3-vn-2-ol: To a solution of ethynyltrimethylsilane (20 g, 203.63 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in THF (100 mL) was added n-BuLi (81 mL, 2.5M in THF)

dropwise with stirring at -78 °C. Then the resulting mixture was warmed to 0 °C for 1 h with stirring and then cooled to -78 °C. Propan-2-one (11.6 g, 199.73 mmol, 1.00 equiv.) was added dropwise with the inert temperature below -78 °C. The resulting solution was stirred at -78 °C for 3 h. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 100 mL of water and extracted with 3 x 100 mL of MTBE. The combined organic layers was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum to afford 28 g (90%) of 2-methyl-4-(trimethylsilyl)but-3-yn-2-ol as an off-white solid. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) δ: 1.50 (s, 6H), 1.16-1.14 (m, 9H).

Step 9

step 9

10

(3-chloro-3-methylbut-l-vnvntrimethylsilane: To a lOOmL round-bottom flask, was placed 2-methyl-4-(trimethylsilyl) but-3-yn-2-ol (14 g, 89.57 mmol, 1.00 equiv.), cone. HC1 (60 mL, 6.00 equiv.). The resulting solution was stirred for 16 h at 0 °C. The resulting solution was extracted with 3 x 100 mL of hexane. The combined organic layers was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum to afford 8 g (51%) of (3-chloro-3-methylbut-l-yn-l-yl)trimethylsilane as light yellow oil. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) δ: 1.84 (s, 6H), 1.18-1.16 (m, 9H).

Step 10

step 10

11 12

(4-(benzyloxy)-3.3-dimethylbut-l-vnyl)trimethylsilane: Magnesium turnings (1.32 g, 1.20 equiv) were charged to a 250-mL 3-necked round-bottom flask and then suspended in THF (50 mL). The resulting mixture was cooled to 0 °C and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen. (3-chloro-3-methylbut-l-yn-l-yl)trimethylsilane (8 g, 45.78 mmol, 1.00 equiv.) was dissolved in THF (50 mL) and then added dropwise to this mixture with the inert temperature between 33-37 °C. The resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for an addition 1 h before BnOCH2Cl (6.45 g, 41.33 mmol, 0.90 equiv.) was added dropwise with the temperature below 10 °C. Then the resulting solution was stirred for 16 h at room temperature. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 50 mL of water and extracted with 3 x 100 mL of hexane. The combined organic layers was dried over

anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum to afford 10 g (84%) of [4-(benzyloxy)-3,3-dimethylbut-l-yn-l-yl]trimethylsilane as light yellow oil. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) δ: 7.37-7.35 (m, 5H), 4.62 (s, 2H), 3.34 (s, 2H), 1.24 (s, 6H), 0.17-0.14 (m, 9H).

Step 11

((2.2-dimethylbut-3-vnyloxy)methyl)benzene: To a solution of [4-(benzyloxy)-3,3-dimethylbut-l-yn-l-yl]trimethylsilane (10 g, 38.40 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in methanol (100 mL) was added potassium hydroxide (2.53 g, 38.33 mmol, 1.30 equiv). The resulting solution was stirred for 16 h at room temperature. The resulting solution was diluted with 200 mL of water and extracted with 3 x 100 mL of hexane. The organic layers combined and washed with 1 x 100 mL of water and then dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum to afford 5 g (69%) of [[(2,2-dimethylbut-3-yn-l-yl)oxy]methyl]benzene as light yellow oil. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, D20) δ: 7.41-7.28 (m, 5H) , 4.62 (s, 2H), 3.34 (s, 2H), 2.14 (s, 1H), 1.32-1.23 (m, 9H).

Step 12

14 15

methyl 2.2-difluorobenzo[d1[1.31dioxole-5-carboxylate: To a solution of 3-fluoro-4-nitroaniline (6.5 g, 41.64 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in chloroform (25 mL) and AcOH (80 mL) was added Bn (6.58 g, 41.17 mmol, 1.00 equiv.) dropwise with stirring at 0 °C in 20 min. The resulting solution was stirred for 2 h at room temperature. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 150 mL of water/ice. The pH value of the solution was adjusted to 9 with sodium hydroxide (10 %). The resulting solution was extracted with 3 x 50 mL of ethyl acetate and the organic layers combined. The resulting mixture was washed with 1 x 50 mL of water and 2 x 50 mL of brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum. The crude product was re-crystallized from PE/EA (10: 1) to afford 6 g (61%) of 2-bromo-5-fluoro-4-nitroaniline as a yellow solid.

Step 13

(R)-l-(benzyloxy)-3-(2-bromo-5-fluoro-4-nitrophenylamino)propan-2-ol: 2-bromo-5-fluoro-4-nitroaniline (6.00 g, 25.56 mmol, 1.00 equiv.), Zn(C104)2 (1.90 g, 5.1 mmol, 0.20 equiv.), 4A Molecular Sieves (3 g), toluene (60 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 2 h and maintain with an inert atmosphere of N2 until (2R)-2-[(benzyloxy)methyl]oxirane (1.37 g, 8.34 mmol, 2.00 equiv.) was added. Then the resulting mixture was stirred for 15 h at 85 °C. The reaction progress was monitored by LCMS. The solids were filtered out and the resulting solution was diluted with 20 mL of ethyl acetate. The resulting mixture was washed with 2 x 20 mL of Sat. NH4CI and 1 x 20 mL of brine. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by a silica gel column, eluted with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (1 :5) to afford 7.5 g (70%) of N-[(2R)-3-(benzyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]-2-bromo-5-fluoro-4-nitroaniline as a yellow solid.

Step 14

[00170] (R)-l-(4-amino-2-bromo-5-fluorophenylamino)-3-(benzyloxy)propan-2-ol: To a 250-mL round-bottom flask, was placed N-[(2R)-3-(benzyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]-2-bromo-5-fluoro-4-nitroaniline (7.5 g, 18.84 mmol, 1.00 equiv.), ethanol (80 mL), water (16 mL), NH4CI (10 g, 189 mmol, 10.00 equiv.), Zn (6.11 g, 18.84 mmol, 5.00 equiv.). The resulting solution was stirred for 4 h at 85 °C. The solids were filtered out and the resulting solution was concentrated under vacuum and diluted with 200 mL of ethyl acetate. The resulting mixture was washed with 1 x 50 mL of water and 2 x 50 mL of brine. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by a silica gel column, eluted with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (1 :3) to afford 4.16 g (60%) of l-N-[(2R)-3-(benzyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]-2-bromo-5-fluorobenzene-l ,4-diamine as light yellow oil.

Step 15

TsO

(R)-4-(3-(benzyloxy)-2-hvdroxypropylamino)-5-bromo-2-fluorobenzenaminium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate: l-N-[(2R)-3-(benzyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]-2-bromo-5-fluorobenzene-l ,4-diamine (2 g, 5.42 mmol, 1.00 equiv.) was dissolved in dichloromethane (40 mL) followed by the addition of TsOH (1 g, 5.81 mmol, 1.10 equiv.). The resulting mixture was stirred for 16 h at room temperature and then concentrated under vacuum to afford 2.8 g (95%) of 4-[[(2R)-3-(benzyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]amino]-5-bromo-2-fluoroanilinium 4-methylbenzene-l -sulfonate as an off-white solid.

Step 16

(R)-l-(4-amino-2-(4-(benzyloxy)-3.3-dimethylbut-l-vnyl)-5-fluorophenylamino)-3-(benzyloxy)propan-2-ol: To a 100-mL round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed 4-[[(2R)-3-(benzyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]amino]-5-bromo-2-fluoroanilinium 4-methylbenzene-l -sulfonate (2.9 g, 5.36 mmol, 1.00 equiv.), [[(2,2-dimethylbut-3-yn-l-yl)oxy]methyl]benzene (1.2 g, 6.37 mmol, 1.20 equiv.), Pd(OAc)2 (48 mg, 0.21 mmol, 0.04 equiv.), dppb (138 mg, 0.32 mmol, 0.06 equiv.), potassium carbonate (2.2 g, 15.92 mmol, 3.00 equiv.) and MeCN (50 mL). The resulting solution was stirred for 16 h at 80 °C. The solids were filtered out and the resulting mixture was concentrated under vacuum until LCMS indicated the completion of the reaction. The residue was purified by a silica gel column, eluted with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (1 :4) to afford 2.2 g (86%) of l-N-[(2R)-3-(benzyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]-2-[4-(benzyloxy)-3,3-dimethylbut-l-yn-l-yl]-5-fluorobenzene-l ,4-diamine as a light brown solid.

Step 17

l-(2.2-difluoro-2H-1.3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cvclopropane-l-carboxylic acid: To a 40-mL vial purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed 1-N-[(2R)-3-(benzyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]-2-[4-(benzyloxy)-3,3-dimethylbut-l-yn-l-yl]-5-fluorobenzene-l,4-diamine (1 g, 2.1 mmol, 1.00 equiv.), MeCN (10 mL), Pd(MeCN)2Cl2 (82 mg, 0.32 mmol, 0.15 equiv.). The resulting solution was stirred for 12 h at 85 °C. The reaction progress was monitored by LCMS. The resulting mixture was concentrated under vacuum to afford 900 mg (crude) of (2R)-l-[5-amino-2-[l-(benzyloxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl]-6-fluoro-lH-indol-l-yl]-3-(benzyloxy)propan-2-ol as a brown solid, which was used for next step without further purification.

Step 18

(R)-N-(l-(3-(benzyloxy)-2-hvdroxypropyl)-2-(l-(benzyloxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-6-fluoro- lH-indol-5-yl)- 1 -(2.2-difluorobenzo[dl [ 1.31 dioxol-5-vDcvclopropanecarboxamide: To a 40 mL vial purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed (2R)-l-[5-amino-2-[l-(benzyloxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl]-6-fluoro-lH-indol-l-yl]-3-(benzyloxy)propan-2-ol (800 mg, 1.68 mmol, 1.00 equiv.), dichloromethane (20 mL), TEA (508 mg, 5.04 mmol, 3.00 equiv.). l-(2,2-difiuoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropane-l-carbonyl chloride (524 mg, 2 mmol, 1.20 equiv.) was added to this mixture at 0 °C. The resulting solution was stirred for 2 h at 25 °C. The reaction progress was monitored by LCMS. The resulting solution was diluted with 20 mL of DCM and washed with 3 xlO mL of brine. The combined organic layers was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by a silica gel column, eluted with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (1:5) to afford 400 mg (30%) of N-[l-[(2R)-3-(benzyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]-2-[l-(benzyloxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl]-6-fluoro-lH-indol-5-yl]-l-(2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropane-l-carboxamide as a light yellow solid.

Step 19

(R)-l-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d] [l,3]dioxol-5-yl)-N-(l-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-6-fluoro-2-(l-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-lH-indol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide: To a 100-mL 3-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of H2, were placed N-[l-[(2R)-3-(benzyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]-2-[l-(benzyloxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl]-6-fluoro-lH-indol-5-yl]-l-(2,2-difluoro-2H-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropane-l-carboxamide (400 mg, 0.77 mmol, 1.00 equiv.) dry Pd/C (300 mg) and MeOH (5 Ml, 6M HC1). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h until LCMS indicated the completion of the reaction. The solids were filtered out and the resulting mixture was concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC with the following conditions: Column, XBridge Prep C18 OBD Column 19 x 150 mm, 5um; mobile phase and Gradient, Phase A: Waters (0.1%FA ), Phase B: ACN; Detector, UV 254 nm to afford 126.1 mg (42.4%) of (R)-l-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d] [l,3]dioxol-5-yl)-N-(l-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-6-fluoro-2-(l-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-lH-indol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide as a light yellow solid.

¾ NMR (400 MHz, OMSO-de) δ: 8.32 (s, 1H), 7.54 (s, 1H), 7.41-7.38 (m, 2H), 7.34-7.31 (m, 2H), 6.22 (s, 1H), 5.03-5.02 (m, 1H), 4.93-4.90 (m, 1H), 4.77-4.75 (m, 1H), 4.42-4.39 (m, 1H), 4.14-4.08 (m, 1H), 3.91 (brs, 1H) , 3.64-3.57 (m, 2H), 3.47-3.40 (m, 2H), 1.48-1.46 (m, 2H), 1.36-1.32 (m, 6H), 1.14-1.12 (m, 2H).

LCMS: m/z = 521.2[M+H]+.

PATENT

WO 2015160787

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015160787A1?cl=en

PATENT

WO 2014014841

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2014014841A1?cl=en

All tautomeric forms of the Compound 1 are included herein. For example, Compound 1 may exist as tautomers, both of which are included herein:

Figure imgf000026_0001

Methods of Preparing Compound 1 Amorphous Form and Compound 1 Form A

Compound 1 is the starting point and in one embodiment can be prepared by coupling an acid chloride moiety with an amine moiety according to Schemes 1-4.

Scheme 1. Synthesis of the acid chloride moiety.

Figure imgf000037_0001

Toluene, H20, 70 °C

Figure imgf000037_0002

Bu4NBr

1. NaOH

2. HC1

Figure imgf000037_0003

Scheme 2. Synthesis of acid chloride moiety – alternative synthesis.

Figure imgf000038_0001

1. NaCN

2. H20

Figure imgf000038_0002

SOC1,

Figure imgf000038_0003

Scheme 3. Synthesis of the amine moiety.

Figure imgf000039_0001
Figure imgf000039_0002
Figure imgf000039_0003

Scheme 4. Formation of Compound 1.

Figure imgf000040_0001

Compound 1

Methods of Preparing Compound 1 Amorphous Form

Starting from Compound 1 , or even a crystalline form of Compound 1 , Compound 1 Amorphous Form may be prepared by rotary evaporation or by spray dry methods.

Dissolving Compound 1 in an appropriate solvent like methanol and rotary evaporating the methanol to leave a foam produces Compound 1 Amorphous Form. In some embodiments, a warm water bath is used to expedite the evaporation.

Compound 1 Amorphous Form may also be prepared from Compound 1 using spray dry methods. Spray drying is a process that converts a liquid feed to a dried particulate form. Optionally, a secondary drying process such as fluidized bed drying or vacuum drying, may be used to reduce residual solvents to pharmaceutically acceptable levels. Typically, spray drying involves contacting a highly dispersed liquid suspension or solution, and a sufficient volume of hot air to produce evaporation and drying of the liquid droplets. The preparation to be spray dried can be any solution, coarse suspension, slurry, colloidal dispersion, or paste that may be atomized using the selected spray drying apparatus. In a standard procedure, the preparation is sprayed into a current of warm filtered air that evaporates the solvent and conveys the dried product to a collector (e.g. a cyclone). The spent air is then exhausted with the solvent, or alternatively the spent air is sent to a condenser to capture and potentially recycle the solvent. Commercially available types of apparatus may be used to conduct the spray drying. For example, commercial spray dryers are manufactured by Buchi Ltd. And Niro (e.g., the PSD line of spray driers manufactured by Niro) (see, US 2004/0105820; US 2003/0144257).

Spray drying typically employs solid loads of material from about 3% to about 30% by weight, (i.e., drug and excipients), for example about 4% to about 20% by weight, preferably at least about 10%. In general, the upper limit of solid loads is governed by the viscosity of (e.g., the ability to pump) the resulting solution and the solubility of the components in the solution. Generally, the viscosity of the solution can determine the size of the particle in the resulting powder product.

Techniques and methods for spray drying may be found in Perry’s Chemical

Engineering Handbook, 6th Ed., R. H. Perry, D. W. Green & J. O. Maloney, eds.), McGraw-Hill book co. (1984); and Marshall “Atomization and Spray-Drying” 50, Chem. Eng. Prog. Monogr. Series 2 (1954). In general, the spray drying is conducted with an inlet temperature of from about 60 °C to about 200 °C, for example, from about 95 °C to about 185 °C, from about 110 °C to about 182 °C, from about 96 °C to about 180 °C, e.g., about 145 °C. The spray drying is generally conducted with an outlet temperature of from about 30 °C to about 90 °C, for example from about 40 °C to about 80 °C, about 45 °C to about 80 °C e.g., about 75 °C. The atomization flow rate is generally from about 4 kg h to about 12 kg/h, for example, from about 4.3 kg/h to about 10.5 kg h, e.g., about 6 kg/h or about 10.5 kg/h. The feed flow rate is generally from about 3 kg/h to about 10 kg/h, for example, from about 3.5 kg/h to about 9.0 kg/h, e.g., about 8 kg/h or about 7.1 kg/h. The atomization ratio is generally from about 0.3 to 1.7, e.g., from about 0.5 to 1.5, e.g., about 0.8 or about 1.5.

Removal of the solvent may require a subsequent drying step, such as tray drying, fluid bed drying (e.g., from about room temperature to about 100 °C), vacuum drying, microwave drying, rotary drum drying or biconical vacuum drying (e.g., from about room temperature to about 200 °C).

Synthesis of Compound 1

Acid Chloride Moiety

Synthesis of (2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-l-ethylacetate-acetonitrile

Figure imgf000083_0001

ouene, 2 , CN

A reactor was purged with nitrogen and charged with 900 mL of toluene. The solvent was degassed via nitrogen sparge for no less than 16 h. To the reactor was then charged Na3P04 (155.7 g, 949.5 mmol), followed by bis(dibenzylideneacetone) palladium (0) (7.28 g, 12.66 mmol). A 10% w/w solution of tert-butylphosphine in hexanes (51.23 g, 25.32 mmol) was charged over 10 min at 23 °C from a nitrogen purged addition funnel. The mixture was allowed to stir for 50 min, at which time 5-bromo-2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxole (75 g, 316.5 mmol) was added over 1 min. After stirring for an additional 50 min, the mixture was charged with ethyl cyanoacetate (71.6 g, 633.0 mmol) over 5 min followed by water (4.5 mL) in one portion. The mixture was heated to 70 °C over 40 min and analyzed by HPLC every 1 – 2 h for the percent conversion of the reactant to the product. After complete conversion was observed (typically 100% conversion after 5 – 8 h), the mixture was cooled to 20 – 25 °C and filtered through a celite pad. The celite pad was rinsed with toluene (2 X 450 mL) and the combined organics were concentrated to 300 mL under vacuum at 60 – 65 °C. The concentrate was charged with 225mL DMSO and concentrated under vacuum at 70 – 80 °C until active distillation of the solvent ceased. The solution was cooled to 20 – 25 °C and diluted to 900 mL with DMSO in preparation for Step 2. Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDC13) δ 7.16 – 7.10 (m, 2H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 4.63 (s, 1H), 4.19 (m, 2H), 1.23 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 3H).

Synthesis of (2,2-difluoro-l^-benzodioxol-5-yl)-acetonitrile.

Figure imgf000084_0001

[00311] The DMSO solution of (2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-l-ethylacetate-acetonitrile from above was charged with 3 N HCl (617.3 mL, 1.85 mol) over 20 min while maintaining an internal temperature < 40 °C. The mixture was then heated to 75°C over 1 h and analyzed by HPLC every 1 – 2 h for % conversion. When a conversion of > 99% was observed (typically after 5 – 6 h), the reaction was cooled to 20 – 25 °C and extracted with MTBE (2 X 525 mL), with sufficient time to allow for complete phase separation during the extractions. The combined organic extracts were washed with 5% NaCl (2 X 375 mL). The solution was then transferred to equipment appropriate for a 1.5 – 2.5 Torr vacuum distillation that was equipped with a cooled receiver flask. The solution was concentrated under vacuum at < 60°C to remove the solvents. (2,2-Difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-acetonitrile was then distilled from the resulting oil at 125 – 130 °C (oven temperature) and 1.5 – 2.0 Torr. (2,2-Difluoro-l,3- benzodioxol-5-yl)-acetonitrile was isolated as a clear oil in 66% yield from 5-bromo-2,2- difluoro-l,3-benzodioxole (2 steps) and with an HPLC purity of 91.5% AUC (corresponds to a w/w assay of 95%). Ή NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) 6 7.44 (br s, 1H), 7.43 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (dd, J= 8.2, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 4.07 (s, 2H).  Synthesis of (2,2-difluoro- l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-cycIopropanecarbonitrUe.

Figure imgf000085_0001

MTBE

A stock solution of 50% w/w NaOH was degassed via nitrogen sparge for no less than 16 h. An appropriate amount of MTBE was similarly degassed for several hours. To a reactor purged with nitrogen was charged degassed MTBE (143 mL) followed by (2,2-difluoro-l,3- benzodioxol-5-yl)-acetonitrile (40.95 g, 207.7 mmol) and tetrabutylammonium bromide (2.25 g, 10.38 mmol). The volume of the mixture was noted and the mixture was degassed via nitrogen sparge for 30 min. Enough degassed MTBE is charged to return the mixture to the original volume prior to degassing. To the stirring mixture at 23.0 °C was charged degassed 50% w/w NaOH (143 mL) over 10 min followed by l-bromo-2-chloroethane (44.7 g, 311.6 mmol) over 30 min. The reaction was analyzed by HPLC in 1 h intervals for % conversion. Before sampling, stirring was stopped and the phases allowed to separate. The top organic phase was sampled for analysis. When a % conversion > 99 % was observed (typically after 2.5 – 3 h), the reaction mixture was cooled to 10 °C and was charged with water (461 mL) at such a rate as to maintain a temperature < 25 °C. The temperature was adjusted to 20 – 25 °C and the phases separated. Note: sufficient time should be allowed for complete phase separation. The aqueous phase was extracted with MTBE (123 mL), and the combined organic phase was washed with 1 N HC1 (163mL) and 5% NaCl (163 mL). The solution of (2,2-difluoro- 1,3 -benzodioxol-5-yl)- cyclopropanecarbonitrile in MTBE was concentrated to 164 mL under vacuum at 40 – 50 °C. The solution was charged with ethanol (256 mL) and again concentrated to 164 mL under vacuum at 50 – 60 °C. Ethanol (256 mL) was charged and the mixture concentrated to 164 mL under vacuum at 50 – 60 °C. The resulting mixture was cooled to 20 – 25 °C and diluted with ethanol to 266 mL in preparation for the next step. lH NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) 6 7.43 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (d, J= 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (dd, J= 8.4, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 1.75 (m, 2H), 1.53 (m, 2H). [00314] Synthesis of l-(2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid.

Figure imgf000086_0001

The solution of (2,2-difluoro-l ,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-cyclopropanecarbonitrile in ethanol from the previous step was charged with 6 N NaOH (277 mL) over 20 min and heated to an internal temperature of 77 – 78 °C over 45 min. The reaction progress was monitored by HPLC after 16 h. Note: the consumption of both (2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)- cyclopropanecarbonitrile and the primary amide resulting from partial hydrolysis of (2,2-difluoro- l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-cyclopropanecarbonitrile were monitored. When a % conversion > 99 % was observed (typically 100% conversion after 16 h), the reaction mixture was cooled to 25 °C and charged with ethanol (41 mL) and DCM (164 mL). The solution was cooled to 10 °C and charged with 6 N HC1 (290 mL) at such a rate as to maintain a temperature < 25 °C. After warming to 20 – 25 °C, the phases were allowed to separate. The bottom organic phase was collected and the top aqueous phase was back extracted with DCM (164 mL). Note: the aqueous phase was somewhat cloudy before and after the extraction due to a high concentration of inorganic salts. The organics were combined and concentrated under vacuum to 164 mL. Toluene (328 mL) was charged and the mixture condensed to 164 mL at 70 – 75 °C. The mixture was cooled to 45 °C, charged with MTBE (364 mL) and stirred at 60 °C for 20 min. The solution was cooled to 25 °C and polish filtered to remove residual inorganic salts. MTBE (123 mL) was used to rinse the reactor and the collected solids. The combined organics were transferred to a clean reactor in preparation for the next step.

Isolation of l-(2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-cyclopropanecar boxy lie acid.

Figure imgf000086_0002

The solution of l-(2,2-difluoro- 1 ,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid from the previous step is concentrated under vacuum to 164 mL, charged with toluene (328 mL) and concentrated to 164 mL at 70 – 75 °C. The mixture was then heated to 100 – 105 °C to give a homogeneous solution. After stirring at that temperature for 30 min, the solution was cooled to 5 °C over 2 hours and maintained at 5 °C for 3 hours. The mixture was then filtered and the reactor and collected solid washed with cold 1 :1 toluene/n-heptane (2 X 123 mL). The material was dried under vacuum at 55 °C for 17 hours to provide l-(2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)- cyclopropanecarboxylic acid as an off-white crystalline solid. l-(2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol- 5-yl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid was isolated in 79% yield from (2,2-difluoro-l,3- benzodioxol-5-yl)-acetonitrile (3 steps including isolation) and with an HPLC purity of 99.0% AUC. ESI-MS m/z calc. 242.04, found 241.58 (M+l)+; Ή NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ 12.40 (s, 1H), 7.40 (d, J= 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.17 (dd, J= 8.3, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 1.46 (m, 2H), 1.17 (m, 2H).

Alternative Synthesis of the Acid Chloride Moiety [00319] Synthesis of (2,2-ditluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-methanol.

1. Vitride (2 equiv)

PhCH3 (10 vol)

Figure imgf000087_0001

[00320] Commercially available 2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid (1.0 eq) is slurried in toluene (10 vol). Vitride® (2 eq) is added via addition funnel at a rate to maintain the temperature at 15-25 °C. At the end of addition the temperature is increased to 40 °C for 2 h then 10% (w/w) aq. NaOH (4.0 eq) is carefully added via addition funnel maintaining the temperature at 40-50 °C. After stirring for an additional 30 minutes, the layers are allowed to separate at 40 °C. The organic phase is cooled to 20 °C then washed with water (2 x 1.5 vol), dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated to afford crude (2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-methanol that is used directly in the next step.

Synthesis of 5-chloromethyl-2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxole.

1. SOCl2 (1.5 equiv)

DMAP (0.01 equiv)

Figure imgf000087_0002

(2,2-difluoro- 1 ,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-methanol ( 1.0 eq) is dissolved in MTBE (5 vol). A catalytic amount of DMAP (1 mol %) is added and S0C12 (1.2 eq) is added via addition funnel. The S0C12 is added at a rate to maintain the temperature in the reactor at 15-25 °C. The temperature is increased to 30 °C for 1 hour then cooled to 20 °C then water (4 vol) is added via addition funnel maintaining the temperature at less than 30 °C. After stirring for an additional 30 minutes, the layers are allowed to separate. The organic layer is stirred and 10% (w/v) aq. NaOH (4.4 vol) is added. After stirring for 15 to 20 minutes, the layers are allowed to separate. The organic phase is then dried (Na2SO_ , filtered, and concentrated to afford crude 5-chloromethyl- 2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxole that is used directly in the next step.

Synthesis of (2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-acetonitrile.

Figure imgf000088_0001

A solution of 5-chloromethyl-2,2-difluoro- 1 ,3-benzodioxole ( 1 eq) in DMSO ( 1.25 vol) is added to a slurry of NaCN (1.4 eq) in DMSO (3 vol) maintaining the temperature between 30-40 °C. The mixture is stirred for 1 hour then water (6 vol) is added followed by MTBE (4 vol). After stirring for 30 min, the layers are separated. The aqueous layer is extracted with MTBE (1.8 vol). The combined organic layers are washed with water (1,8 vol), dried (Na2S04), filtered, and concentrated to afford crude (2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-acetonitrile (95%) that is used directly in the next step.

The remaining steps are the same as described above for the synthesis of the acid moiety.

Amine Moiety

Synthesis of 2-bromo-5-fluoro-4-ntroaniline.

Figure imgf000088_0002
A flask was charged with 3-fluoro-4-nitroaniline (1.0 equiv) followed by ethyl acetate (10 vol) and stirred to dissolve all solids. N-Bromosuccinimide (1.0 equiv) was added as a portion-wise as to maintain internal temperature of 22 °C. At the end of the reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo on a rotavap. The residue was slurried in distilled water (5 vol) to dissolve and remove succinimide. (The succinimide can also be removed by water workup procedure.) The water was decanted and the solid was slurried in 2-propanol (5 vol) overnight. The resulting slurry was filtered and the wetcake was washed with 2-propanol, dried in vacuum oven at 50 °C overnight with N2 bleed until constant weight was achieved. A yellowish tan solid was isolated (50% yield, 97.5% AUC). Other impurities were a bromo-regioisomer (1.4% AUC) and a di- bromo adduct (1.1% AUC). Ή NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ 8.19 (1 H, d, J= 8.1 Hz), 7.06 (br. s, 2 H), 6.64 (d, 1 H, J= 14.3 Hz).

Synthesis of benzyIglycoIated-4-ammonium-2-bromo-5-fluoroaniline tosylate salt.

1) l ^OBn

cat. Zn(C104)2-2H20 ®

Figure imgf000089_0001

DCM

A thoroughly dried flask under N2 was charged with the following: Activated powdered 4A molecular sieves (50 wt% based on 2-bromo-5-fluoro-4-nitroaniline), 2-Bromo-5- fluoro-4-nitroaniline (1.0 equiv), zinc perchlorate dihydrate (20 mol%), and toluene (8 vol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for NMT 30 min. Lastly, (R)-benzyl glycidyl ether (2.0 equiv) in toluene (2 vol) was added in a steady stream. The reaction was heated to 80 °C (internal temperature) and stirred for approximately 7 hours or until 2-Bromo-5-fluoro-4-nitroaniline was <5%AUC.

The reaction was cooled to room temperature and Celite (50 wt%) was added, followed by ethyl acetate (10 vol). The resulting mixture was filtered to remove Celite and sieves and washed with ethyl acetate (2 vol). The filtrate was washed with ammonium chloride solution (4 vol, 20% w/v). The organic layer was washed with sodium bicarbonate solution (4 vol x 2.5% w/v). The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo on a rotovap. The resulting slurry was dissolved in isopropyl acetate (10 vol) and this solution was transferred to a Buchi hydrogenator.

The hydrogenator was charged with 5wt% Pt(S)/C (1.5 mol%) and the mixture was stirred under N2 at 30 °C (internal temperature). The reaction was flushed with N2 followed by hydrogen. The hydrogenator pressure was adjusted to 1 Bar of hydrogen and the mixture was stirred rapidly (>1200 rpm). At the end of the reaction, the catalyst was filtered through a pad of Celite and washed with dichloromethane (10 vol). The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. Any remaining isopropyl acetate was chased with dichloromethane (2 vol) and concentrated on a rotavap to dryness.

The resulting residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (10 vol). jP-Toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (1.2 equiv) was added and stirred overnight. The product was filtered and washed with dichloromethane (2 vol) and suction dried. The wetcake was transferred to drying trays and into a vacuum oven and dried at 45 °C with N2 bleed until constant weight was achieved. Benzylglycolated-4-ammonium-2-bromo-5-fluoroaniline tosylate salt was isolated as an off-white solid.

Chiral purity was determined to be >97%ee.

[00334] Synthesis of (3-Chloro-3-methylbut-l-ynyl)trimethylsilane.

Figure imgf000090_0001

[00335] Propargyl alcohol (1.0 equiv) was charged to a vessel. Aqueous hydrochloric acid (37%, 3.75 vol) was added and stirring begun. During dissolution of the solid alcohol, a modest endotherm (5-6 °C) is observed. The resulting mixture was stirred overnight (16 h), slowly becoming dark red. A 30 L jacketed vessel is charged with water (5 vol) which is then cooled to 10 °C. The reaction mixture is transferred slowly into the water by vacuum, maintaining the internal temperature of the mixture below 25 °C. Hexanes (3 vol) is added and the resulting mixture is stirred for 0.5 h. The phases were settled and the aqueous phase (pH < 1) was drained off and discarded. The organic phase was concentrated in vacuo using a rotary evaporator, furnishing the product as red oil. [00336] Synthesis of (4-(Benzyloxy)-3,3-dimethylbut-l-yttyl)trimethylsiIane.

Figure imgf000091_0001

[00337] Method A

[00338] All equivalent and volume descriptors in this part are based on a 250g reaction.

Magnesium turnings (69.5 g, 2.86 mol, 2.0 equiv) were charged to a 3 L 4-neck reactor and stirred with a magnetic stirrer under nitrogen for 0.5 h. The reactor was immersed in an ice- water bath. A solution of the propargyl chloride (250 g, 1.43 mol, 1.0 equiv) in THF (1.8 L, 7.2 vol) was added slowly to the reactor, with stirring, until an initial exotherm (-10 °C) was observed. The Grignard reagent formation was confirmed by IPC usingΉ-NMR spectroscopy. Once the exotherm subsided, the remainder of the solution was added slowly, maintaining the batch temperature <15 °C. The addition required ~3.5 h. The resulting dark green mixture was decanted into a 2 L capped bottle.

[00339] All equivalent and volume descriptors in this part are based on a 500g reaction. A 22 L reactor was charged with a solution of benzyl chloromethyl ether (95%, 375 g, 2.31 mol, 0.8 equiv) in THF (1.5 L, 3 vol). The reactor was cooled in an ice-water bath. Two Grignard reagent batches prepared as described above were combined and then added slowly to the benzyl chloromethyl ether solution via an addition funnel, maintaining the batch temperature below 25 °C. The addition required 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight (16 h).

[00340] All equivalent and volume descriptors in this part are based on a 1 kg reaction. A solution of 15%» ammonium chloride was prepared in a 30 L jacketed reactor (1.5 kg in 8.5 kg of water, 10 vol). The solution was cooled to 5 °C. Two Grignard reaction mixtures prepared as described above were combined and then transferred into the ammonium chloride solution via a header vessel. An exotherm was observed in this quench, which was carried out at a rate such as to keep the internal temperature below 25 °C. Once the transfer was complete, the vessel jacket temperature was set to 25 °C. Hexanes (8 L, 8 vol) was added and the mixture was stirred for 0.5 h. After settling the phases, the aqueous phase (pH 9) was drained off and discarded. The remaining organic phase was washed with water (2 L, 2 vol). The organic phase was concentrated in vacuo using a 22 L rotary evaporator, providing the crude product as an orange oil.

[00341] Method B

[00342] Magnesium turnings (106 g, 4.35 mol, 1.0 eq) were charged to a 22 L reactor and then suspended in THF (760 mL, 1 vol). The vessel was cooled in an ice-water bath such that the batch temperature reached 2 °C. A solution of the propargyl chloride (760 g, 4.35 mol, 1.0 equiv) in THF (4.5 L, 6 vol) was added slowly to the reactor. After 100 mL was added, the addition was stopped and the mixture stirred until a 13 °C exotherm was observed, indicating the Grignard reagent initiation. Once the exotherm subsided, another 500 mL of the propargyl chloride solution was added slowly, maintaining the batch temperature <20 °C. The Grignard reagent formation was confirmed by IPC using Ή-NMR spectroscopy. The remainder of the propargyl chloride solution was added slowly, maintaining the batch temperature <20 °C. The addition required -1.5 h. The resulting dark green solution was stirred for 0.5 h. The Grignard reagent formation was confirmed by IPC using Ή-NMR spectroscopy. Neat benzyl

chloromethyl ether was charged to the reactor addition funnel and then added dropwise into the reactor, maintaining the batch temperature below 25 °C. The addition required 1.0 h. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight. The aqueous work-up and concentration was carried out using the same procedure and relative amounts of materials as in Method A to give the product as an orange oil.

[00343] Syntheisis of 4-Benzyloxy-3,3-dimethylbut-l-yne.

Figure imgf000092_0001

2 steps

[00344] A 30 L jacketed reactor was charged with methanol (6 vol) which was then cooled to 5 °C. Potassium hydroxide (85%, 1.3 equiv) was added to the reactor. A 15-20 °C exotherm was observed as the potassium hydroxide dissolved. The jacket temperature was set to 25 °C. A solution of 4-benzyloxy-3,3-dimethyl-l-trimethylsilylbut-l-yne (1.0 equiv) in methanol (2 vol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred until reaction completion, as monitored by HPLC. Typical reaction time at 25 °C is 3-4 h. The reaction mixture is diluted with water (8 vol) and then stirred for 0.5 h. Hexanes (6 vol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred for 0.5 h. The phases were allowed to settle and then the aqueous phase (pH 10-11) was drained off and discarded. The organic phase was washed with a solution of KOH (85%, 0.4 equiv) in water (8 vol) followed by water (8 vol). The organic phase was then concentrated down using a rotary evaporator, yielding the title material as a yellow-orange oil. Typical purity of this material is in the 80% range with primarily a single impurity present. Ή NMR (400 MHz, C6D6) δ 7.28 (d, 2 H, J = 7.4 Hz), 7.18 (t, 2 H, J= 7.2 Hz), 7.10 (d, 1H, J= 7.2 Hz), 4.35 (s, 2 H), 3.24 (s, 2 H), 1.91 (s, 1 H), 1.25 (s, 6 H).

[00345] Synthesis of N-benzylglycolated-5-amino-2-(2-benzyloxy-l,l-dimethylethyl)-6- fluoroindole.

[00346] Method A

[00347] Synthesis of Benzylglycolated 4-Amino-2-(4-benzyloxy-3,3-dimethyIbut- l-ynyl)-5- fluoroaniline.

Figure imgf000093_0001

[00348] Benzylglycolated 4-ammonium-2-bromo-5-flouroaniline tosylate salt was freebased by stirring the solid in EtOAc (5 vol) and saturated NaHCC>3 solution (5 vol) until clear organic layer was achieved. The resulting layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with saturated NaHC03 solution (5 vol) followed by brine and concentrated in vacuo to obtain benzylglocolated 4-ammonium-2-bromo-5-flouroaniline tosylate salt as an oil.

[00349] Then, a flask was charged with benzylglycolated 4-ammonium-2-bromo-5- flouroaniline tosylate salt (freebase, 1.0 equiv), Pd(OAc) (4.0 mol%), dppb (6.0 mol%) and powdered K2CO3 (3.0 equiv) and stirred with acetonitrile (6 vol) at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was degassed for approximately 30 min by bubbling in N2 with vent. Then 4-benzyloxy-3,3-dimethylbut-l-yne (1.1 equiv) dissolved in acetonitrile (2 vol) was added in a fast stream and heated to 80 °C and stirred until complete consumption of 4-ammonium-2- bromo-5-flouroaniline tosylate salt was achieved. The reaction slurry was cooled to room temperature and filtered through a pad of Celite and washed with acetonitrile (2 vol). Filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and the residue was redissolved in EtOAc (6 vol). The organic layer was washed twice with NH4CI solution (20% w/v, 4 vol) and brine (6 vol). The resulting organic layer was concentrated to yield brown oil and used as is in the next reaction.

[00350] Synthesis of N-benzylglycolated-5-amino-2-(2-benzyloxy-l,l-dimethylethyl)-6- fluoroindole.

Figure imgf000094_0001

[00351] Crude oil of benzylglycolated 4-amino-2-(4-benzyloxy-3,3-dimethylbut-l-ynyl)-5- fluoroaniline was dissolved in acetonitrile (6 vol) and added (MeCN)2PdCl2 (15 mol%) at room temperature. The resulting mixture was degassed using N2 with vent for approximately 30 min. Then the reaction mixture was stirred at 80 °C under N2 blanket overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and filtered through a pad of Celite and washed the cake with acetonitrile (1 vol). The resulting filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and redissolved in EtOAc (5 vol). Deloxane-II THP (5 wt% based on the theoretical yield of N-benzylglycolated-5-amino-2- (2-benzyloxy-l,l-dimethylethyl)-6-fluoroindole) was added and stirred at room temperature overnight. The mixture was then filtered through a pad of silica (2.5 inch depth, 6 inch diameter filter) and washed with EtOAc (4 vol). The filtrate was concentrated down to a dark brown residue, and used as is in the next reaction.

[00352] Repurification of crude N-benzylglycolated-5-amino-2-(2-benzyloxy- 1,1- dimethylethyl)-6-fluoroindole:

[00353] The crude N-benzylglycolated-5-amino-2-(2-benzyloxy- 1 , l-dimethylethyl)-6- fluoroindole was dissolved in dichloromethane (~1.5 vol) and filtered through a pad of silica initially using 30% EtOAc/heptane where impurities were discarded. Then the silica pad was washed with 50% EtO Ac/heptane to isolate N-benzylglycolated-5-amino-2-(2-benzyloxy-l,l- dimethylethyl)-6-fluoroindole until faint color was observed in the filtrate. This filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to afford brown oil which crystallized on standing at room temperature. Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) 6 7.38-7.34 (m, 4 H), 7.32-7.23 (m, 6 H), 7.21 (d, 1 H, J= 12.8 Hz), 6.77 (d, 1H, J= 9.0 Hz), 6.06 (s, 1 H), 5.13 (d, 1H, J = 4.9 Hz), 4.54 (s, 2 H), 4.46 (br. s, 2 H), 4.45 (s, 2 H), 4.33 (d, 1 H, J= 12.4 Hz), 4.09-4.04 (m, 2 H), 3.63 (d, 1H, J= 9.2 Hz), 3.56 (d, 1H, J= 9.2 Hz), 3.49 (dd, 1H, J= 9.8, 4.4 Hz), 3.43 (dd, 1H, J= 9.8, 5.7 Hz), 1.40 (s, 6 H).

[00354] Synthesis of N-benzyIglycolated-5-amino-2-(2-benzyIoxy-l,l-diniethylethyl)-6- fluoroindole.

[00355] Method B

Figure imgf000095_0001

2. (MeCN)2PdCl2

MeCN, 80 <€

3. Silica gel filtration

[00356] Palladium acetate (33 g, 0.04 eq), dppb (94 g, 0.06 eq), and potassium carbonate (1.5 kg, 3.0 eq) are charged to a reactor. The free based oil benzylglocolated 4-ammonium-2-bromo- 5-flouroaniline (1.5 kg, 1.0 eq) was dissolved in acetonitrile (8.2 L, 4.1 vol) and then added to the reactor. The mixture was sparged with nitrogen gas for NLT 1 h. A solution of 4-benzyloxy- 3,3-dimethylbut-l-yne (70%), 1.1 kg, 1.05 eq) in acetonitrile was added to the mixture which was then sparged with nitrogen gas for NLT 1 h. The mixture was heated to 80 °C and then stirred overnight. IPC by HPLC is carried out and the reaction is determined to be complete after 16 h. The mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and then filtered through a pad of Celite (228 g). The reactor and Celite pad were washed with acetonitrile (2 x 2 L, 2 vol). The combined phases are concentrated on a 22 L rotary evaporator until 8 L of solvent have been collected, leaving the crude product in 7 L (3.5 vol) of acetonitrile. [00357] 5 s-acetonitriledichloropalladium ( 144 g, 0.15 eq) was charged to the reactor. The crude solution was transferred back into the reactor and the roto-vap bulb was washed with acetonitrile (4 L, 2 vol). The combined solutions were sparged with nitrogen gas for NLT 1 h. The reaction mixture was heated to 80 °C for NLT 16 h. In process control by HPLC shows complete consumption of starting material. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite (300 g). The reactor and filter cake were washed with acetonitrile (3 L, 1.5 vol). The combined filtrates were concentrated to an oil by rotary evaporation. The oil was dissolved in ethyl acetate (8.8 L, 4.4 vol). The solution was washed with 20% ammonium chloride (5 L, 2.5 vol) followed by 5% brine (5 L, 2.5 vol). Silica gel (3.5 kg, 1.8 wt. eq.) of silica gel was added to the organic phase, which was stirred overnight. Deloxan THP II metal scavenger (358 g) and heptane (17.6 L) were added and the resulting mixture was stirred for NLT 3 h. The mixture was filtered through a sintered glass funnel. The filter cake was washed with 30% ethyl acetate in heptane (25 L). The combined filtrates were concentrated under reduced pressure to give N- benzylglycolated-5-amino-2-(2-benzyloxy-l,l-dimethylethyl)-6-fluoroindole as a brown paste ( 1.4 kgl.Svnthesis of Compound 1

[00358] Synthesis of benzyl protected Compound 1.

Figure imgf000096_0001
Figure imgf000096_0002
Figure imgf000096_0003

[00359] 1 -(2,2-difluoro- 1 ,3 -benzodioxol-5-yl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (1.3 equiv) was slurried in toluene (2.5 vol, based on l-(2,2-difluoro-l,3-benzodioxol-5-yi)- cyclopropanecarboxylic acid) and the mixture was heated to 60 °C. SOCl2 (1.7 equiv) was added via addition runnel. The resulting mixture was stirred for 2 hr. The toluene and the excess

SOCI2 were distilled off using rotavop. Additional toluene (2.5 vol, based on l-(2,2-difluoro- l,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid) was added and distilled again. The crude acid chloride was dissolved in dichloromethane (2 vol) and added via addition funnel to a mixture of N-benzylglycolated-5-amino-2-(2-benzyloxy-l,l-dimethylethyl)-6-fluoroindole (1.0 equiv), and triethylamine (2.0 equiv) in dichloromethane (7 vol) while maintaining 0-3 °C (internal temperature). The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 4 hrs and then warmed to room temperature overnight. Distilled water (5 vol) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for NLT 30 min and the layers were separated. The organic phase was washed with 20 wt% K2CO3 (4 vol x 2) followed by a brine wash (4 vol) and concentrated to afford crude benzyl protected Compound 1 as a thick brown oil, which was purified further using silica pad filtration.

[00360] Silica gel pad filtration: Crude benzyl protected Compound 1 was dissolved in ethyl acetate (3 vol) in the presence of activated carbon Darco-G (10wt%, based on theoretical yield of benzyl protected Compound 1) and stirred at room temperature overnight. To this mixture was added heptane (3 vol) and filtered through a pad of silica gel (2x weight of crude benzyl protected Compound 1). The silica pad was washed with ethyl acetate/heptane (1:1, 6 vol) or until little color was detected in the filtrate. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to afford benzyl protected Compound 1 as viscous reddish brown oil, and used directly in the next step.

[00361] Repurification: Benzyl protected Compound 1 was redissolved in dichloromethane (1 vol, based on theoretical yield of benzyl protected Compound 1) and loaded onto a silica gel pad (2x weight of crude benzyl protected Compound 1). The silica pad was washed with

dichloromethane (2 vol, based on theoretical yield of benzyl protected Compound 1) and the filtrate was discarded. The silica pad was washed with 30% ethyl acetate/heptane (5 vol) and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to afford benzyl protected Compound 1 as viscous reddish orange oil, and used directly in the next step. [00362] Synthesis of Compound 1.

Figure imgf000098_0001

OBn 4 steps

Figure imgf000098_0002

[00363] Method A

[00364] A 20 L autoclave was flushed three times with nitrogen gas and then charged with palladium on carbon (Evonik E 101 NN/W, 5% Pd, 60% wet, 200 g, 0.075 mol, 0.04 equiv). The autoclave was then flushed with nitrogen three times. A solution of crude benzyl protected Compound 1 (1.3 kg, ~ 1.9 mol) in THF (8 L, 6 vol) was added to the autoclave via suction. The vessel was capped and then flushed three times with nitrogen gas. With gentle stirring, the vessel was flushed three times with hydrogen gas, evacuating to atmosphere by diluting with nitrogen. The autoclave was pressurized to 3 Bar with hydrogen and the agitation rate was increased to 800 rpm. Rapid hydrogen uptake was observed (dissolution). Once uptake subsided, the vessel was heated to 50 °C.

[00365] For safety purposes, the thermostat was shut off at the end of every work-day. The vessel was pressurized to 4 Bar with hydrogen and then isolated from the hydrogen tank.

[00366] After 2 full days of reaction, more Pd / C (60 g, 0.023 mol, 0.01 equiv) was added to the mixture. This was done by flushing three times with nitrogen gas and then adding the catalyst through the solids addition port. Resuming the reaction was done as before. After 4 full days, the reaction was deemed complete by HPLC by the disappearance of not only the starting material but also of the peak corresponding to a mono-benzylated intermediate. [00367] The reaction mixture was filtered through a Celite pad. The vessel and filter cake were washed with THF (2 L, 1.5 vol). The Celite pad was then wetted with water and the cake discarded appropriately. The combined filtrate and THF wash were concentrated using a rotary evaporator yielding the crude product as a black oil, 1 kg.

[00368] The equivalents and volumes in the following purification are based on 1 kg of crude material. The crude black oil was dissolved in 1 :1 ethyl acetate-heptane. The mixture was charged to a pad of silica gel (1.5 kg, 1.5 wt. equiv) in a fritted funnel that had been saturated with 1 :1 ethyl acetate-heptane. The silica pad was flushed first with 1 :1 ethyl acetate-heptane (6 L, 6 vol) and then with pure ethyl acetate (14 L, 14 vol). The eluent was collected in 4 fractions which were analyzed by HPLC.

[00369] The equivalents and volumes in the following purification are based on 0.6 kg of crude material. Fraction 3 was concentrated by rotary evaporation to give a brown foam (600 g) and then redissolved in MTBE (1.8 L, 3 vol). The dark brown solution was stirred overnight at ambient temperature, during which time, crystallization occurred. Heptane (55 mL, 0.1 vol) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight. The mixture was filtered using a Buchner funnel and the filter cake was washed with 3:1 MTBE-heptane (900 mL, 1.5 vol). The filter cake was air-dried for 1 h and then vacuum dried at ambient temperature for 16 h, furnishing 253 g of Compound 1 as an off-white solid.

[00370] The equivalents and volumes for the following purification are based on 1.4 kg of crude material. Fractions 2 and 3 from the above silica gel filtration as well as material from a previous reaction were combined and concentrated to give 1.4 kg of a black oil. The mixture was resubmitted to the silica gel filtration (1.5 kg of silica gel, eluted with 3.5 L, 2.3 vol of 1 :1 ethyl acetate-heptane then 9 L, 6 vol of pure ethyl acetate) described above, which upon concentration gave a tan foamy solid (390 g).

[00371] The equivalents and volumes for the following purification are based on 390 g of crude material. The tan solid was insoluble in MTBE, so was dissolved in methanol (1.2 L, 3 vol). Using a 4 L Morton reactor equipped with a long-path distillation head, the mixture was distilled down to 2 vol. MTBE (1.2 L, 3 vol) was added and the mixture was distilled back down to 2 vol. A second portion of MTBE (1.6 L, 4 vol) was added and the mixture was distilled back down to 2 vol. A third portion of MTBE (1.2 L, 3 vol) was added and the mixture was distilled back down to 3 vol. Analysis of the distillate by GC revealed it to consist of -6% methanol. The thermostat was set to 48 °C (below the boiling temp of the MTBE-methanol azeotrope, which is 52 °C). The mixture was cooled to 20 °C over 2 h, during which time a relatively fast crystallization occurred. After stirring the mixture for 2 h, heptane (20 mL, 0.05 vol) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight (16 h). The mixture was filtered using a Buchner funnel and the filter cake was washed with 3:1 MTBE-heptane (800 mL, 2 vol). The filter cake was air- dried for 1 h and then vacuum dried at ambient temperature for 16 h, furnishing 130 g of Compound 1 as an off-white solid.

[00372] Method B

[00373] Benzyl protected Compound 1 was dissolved in THF (3 vol) and then stripped to dryness to remove any residual solvent. Benzyl protected Compound 1 was redissolved in THF (4 vol) and added to the hydrogenator containing 5 wt% Pd/C (2.5 mol%, 60% wet, Degussa E5 El 01 N /W). The internal temperature of the reaction was adjusted to 50 °C, and flushed with N2 (x5) followed by hydrogen (x3). The hydrogenator pressure was adjusted to 3 Bar of hydrogen and the mixture was stirred rapidly (>1100 rpm). At the end of the reaction, the catalyst was filtered through a pad of Celite and washed with THF (1 vol). The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to obtain a brown foamy residue. The resulting residue was dissolved in MTBE (5 vol) and 0.5N HC1 solution (2 vol) and distilled water (1 vol) were added. The mixture was stirred for NLT 30 min and the resulting layers were separated. The organic phase was washed with 10wt% K2CO3 solution (2 vol x2) followed by a brine wash. The organic layer was added to a flask containing silica gel (25 wt%), Deloxan-THP II (5wt%, 75% wet), and

Na2S04 and stirred overnight. The resulting mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and washed with 10%THF/MTBE (3 vol). The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to afford crude Compound 1 as pale tan foam.

[00374] Compound 1 recovery from the mother liquor: Option A.

[00375] Silica gel pad filtration: The mother liquor was concentrated in vacuo to obtain a brown foam, dissolved in dichloromethane (2 vol), and filtered through a pad of silica (3x weight of the crude Compound 1). The silica pad was washed with ethyl acetate/heptane (1 :1, 13 vol) and the filtrate was discarded. The silica pad was washed with 10% THF/ethyl acetate (10 vol) and the filtrate was coiicentraied in vacuo to afford Compound 1 as pale tan foam. The above crystallization procedure was followed to isolate the remaining Compound 1.

{00376] Compound 1 recovery from the mother liquor: Option B,

[00377] Silica gel column chromatography: After chromatography on silica gel (50% ethyl acetate/hexaties to 100% ethyl acetate), the desired compound was isolated as pale tan foam. The above crystallization procedure was followed to isolate the remaining Compound 1.

{003781 Additional Recrystaliization of Compound 1

[ 0379j Solid Compound 1 (135 kg) was suspended in IPA (5.4 L, 4 vol) and then heated to 82 °C. Upon complete dissolution (visual), heptane (540 mL, 0.4 vol) was added slowly. The mixture was cooled to 58 °C The mixture was then cooled slowly to 51 °C, during which time crystallization occurs. The heat source was shut down and the recrystalfeation mixture was allowed to cool naturally overnight. The mixture was filtered using a benchtop Buclmer funnel and the filter cake was washed with IPA (2.7 L, 2 vol). The filler cake was dried in the tunnel under air flow for 8 h and then was oven-dried in vacuo at 45-50 °C overnight to give 1.02 kg of recrystallized Compound 1 ,

100380] Compound 1 may also be prepared by one of several synthetic routes disclosed in US published patent application U S20090131 92, incorporated herein by reference.

{003811 Table 6 below recites analytical data for Compound 1.

Table 6.

Figure imgf000101_0001

 Synthesis of Compound 1 Amorphous Form [00383] Spray-Dried Method

[00384] 9.95g of Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate HG grade (HPMCAS-HG) was weighed into a 500 ml beaker, along with 50 mg of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). MeOH (200 ml) was mixed with the solid. The material was allowed to stir for 4 h. To insure maximum dissolution, after 2 h of stirring the solution was sonicated for 5 mins, then allowed to continue stirring for the remaining 2 h. A very fin suspension of HPMCAS remained in solution. However, visual observation determined that no gummy portions remained on the walls of the vessel or stuck to the bottom after tilting the vessel.

[00385] Compound 1 (1 Og) was poured into the 500 ml beaker, and the system was allowed to continue stirring. The solution was spray dried using the following parameters:

Formulation Description: Compound 1 Form A/HPMCAS/SLS (50/49.5/0.5)

Buchi Mini Spray Dryer

T inlet (setpoint) 145 °C

T outlet (start) 75 °C

T outlet (end) 55 °C

Nitrogen Pressure 75 psi

Aspirator 100 %

Pump 35 %

Rotometer 40 mm

Filter Pressure 65 mbar

Condenser Temp -3 °C

Run Time l h

REFERENCES

1: Veit G, Avramescu RG, Perdomo D, Phuan PW, Bagdany M, Apaja PM, Borot F, Szollosi D, Wu YS, Finkbeiner WE, Hegedus T, Verkman AS, Lukacs GL. Some gating potentiators, including VX-770, diminish ΔF508-CFTR functional expression. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Jul 23;6(246):246ra97. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3008889. PubMed PMID: 25101887.

2: Pettit RS, Fellner C. CFTR Modulators for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis. P T. 2014 Jul;39(7):500-11. PubMed PMID: 25083129; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4103577.

3: Norman P. Novel picolinamide-based cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator modulators: evaluation of WO2013038373, WO2013038376, WO2013038381, WO2013038386 and WO2013038390. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2014 Jul;24(7):829-37. doi: 10.1517/13543776.2014.876412. Epub 2014 Jan 7. PubMed PMID: 24392786.

//////TEZACAFTOR, VX 661, PHASE 3, 1152311-62-0, UNII: 8RW88Y506K,  deltaF508-CFTR corrector, Vertex,  treatment of cystic fibrosis in patients homozygous to the F508del-CFTR mutation

CC(C)(CO)C1=CC2=CC(=C(C=C2N1CC(CO)O)F)NC(=O)C3(CC3)C4=CC5=C(C=C4)OC(O5)(F)F

CC(C)(CO)c1cc2cc(c(cc2n1C[C@H](CO)O)F)NC(=O)C3(CC3)c4ccc5c(c4)OC(O5)(F)F

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Roxadustat, ASP 1517, FG 4592

 Phase 3 drug, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Roxadustat, ASP 1517, FG 4592
Jun 212016
 

STR1

 

ROXADUSTAT

ASP1517; ASP 1517; ASP-1517; FG-4592; FG 4592; FG4592; Roxadustat.

CAS 808118-40-3
Chemical Formula: C19H16N2O5
Exact Mass: 352.10592

Fibrogen, Inc.

THERAPEUTIC CLAIM, Treatment of anemia

Roxadustat nonproprietary drug name

CHEMICAL NAMES

(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycine

1. Glycine, N-[(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxy-3-isoquinolinyl)carbonyl]-

2. N-[(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinolin-3-yl)carbonyl]glycine

MF C19H16N2O5
MW  352.3
SPONSOR FibroGen
CODE FG-4592; ASP1517
CAS 808118-40-3
WHO NUMBER 9717

Roxadustat, also known as ASP1517 and FG-4592, is an HIF α prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor in a cell-free assay. It stabilizes HIF-2 and induces EPO production and stimulates erythropoiesis. Roxadustat transiently and moderately increased endogenous erythropoietin and reduced hepcidin

FG-4592 (also known as ASP1517), 2-(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido)acetic acid,
 is a potent small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH),
an enzyme up-regulating the expression of endogenous human erythropoietin (Epo).
It is currently being investigated as an oral treatment for anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Unlike other anemia treating agents, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs),
FG-4592 inhibits HIF, through a distinctive mechanism, by stabilization of HIF. According to previous studies,
FG-4592 is capable of correcting and maintaining hemoglobin levels in CKD patients not
receiving dialysis and in patients of end-stage renal disease
who receives dialysis but do not need intravenous iron supplement.
Reference
1. Luis Borges. Different modalities of erythropoiesis stimulating agents.
 Port J Nephrol Hypert 2010; 24(2): 137-145
2. “FibroGen and Astellas announce initiation of phase 3 trial of FG-4592/ASP1517 for treatment 
of anemia of chronic kidney disease” Fibrogen Press Release. Dec 11 2012
3. “FibroGen announces initiation of phase 2b studies of FG-4592, 
an oral HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, for treatment of anemia”
  • Originator FibroGen
  • Developer Astellas Pharma; AstraZeneca; FibroGen
  • Class Amides; Antianaemics; Carboxylic acids; Isoquinolines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Basic helix loop helix transcription factor modulators; Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase inhibitors
  • Phase III Anaemia
  • Discontinued Sickle cell anaemia

Most Recent Events

  • 09 Jun 2016 Phase-III clinical trials in Anaemia in Japan (PO)
  • 20 May 2016 In collaboration with FibroGen, Astellas Pharma plans a phase III trial for Anaemia (In chronic kidney disease patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis) in Japan (PO) (NCT02780726)
  • 19 May 2016 In collaboration with FibroGen, Astellas Pharma plans a phase III trial for Anaemia (In erythropoiesis stimulating agent-naive, chronic kidney disease patients undergoing haemodialysis) in Japan (PO) (NCT02780141)

 

 

 

Roxadustat (FG-4592) is a novel new-generation oral hypoxia-induciblefactor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI) for the treatment of ane-mia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). HIF is a cytosolic tran-scription factor that induces the natural physiological response to lowoxygen conditions, by stimulating erythropoiesis and other protectivepathways. Roxadustat has been shown to stabilize HIF and induce ery-thropoiesis. Consequently, it corrects anemia and maintains hemoglo-bin levels without the need for intravenous iron supplementation in CKDpatients not yet receiving dialysis and in end-stage renal disease pa-tients receiving dialysis. There are many concerns about the use of ery-thropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) to treat anemia as they causesupra-physiologic circulating erythropoietin (EPO) levels and are asso-ciated with adverse cardiovascular effects and mortality. Available clin-ical data show that modest and transient increases of endogenous EPOinduced by HIF-PHI (10- to 40-fold lower than ESA levels) are sufficientto mediate erythropoiesis in CKD patients. Evidence suggests that rox-adustat is well tolerated and, to date, no increased risk of cardiovascu-lar events has been found. This suggests that roxadustat provides adistinct pharmacological and clinical profile that may provide a saferand more convenient treatment of CKD anemia

 

FG-4592 is a new-generation hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor in early clinical trials at FibroGen for the oral treatment of iron deficiency anemia and renal failure anemia. Preclinical studies are ongoing for the treatment of sickle cell anemia.

The investigational therapy is designed to restore balance to the body’s natural process of erythropoiesis through mechanisms including: natural EPO production, suppression of the effects of inflammation, downregulation of the iron sequestration hormone hepcidin, and an upregulation of other iron genes, ensuring efficient mobilization and utilization of the body’s own iron stores. In April 2006, FG-4592 was licensed to Astellas Pharma by originator FibroGen in Asia, Europe and South Africa for the treatment of anemia. FibroGen retains rights in the rest of the world. In 2007, the FDA put the trial on clinical hold due to one case of death by fulminant hepatitis during a phase II clinical trial for patients with anemia associated with chronic kidney disease and not requiring dialysis. However, in 2008, the FDA informed the company that clinical trials could be resumed. Phase II/III clinical trials for this indication resumed in 2012. In 2013, the compound was licensed to AstraZeneca by FibroGen for development and marketing in US, CN and all major markets excluding JP, Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Middle East and South Africa, for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
PATENTS
WO 2004108681
WO 2008042800
WO 2009058403
WO 2009075822
WO 2009075824
WO 2012037212
WO 2013013609
WO 2013070908

 

STR1

PATENT

CN 104892509

MACHINE TRANSLATED

Connaught orlistat (Roxadustat) by the US company Phibro root (FibroGen) R & D, Astellas AstraZeneca and licensed by a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase small molecule inhibitors, codenamed FG-4592.As a first new oral drug, FG-4592 is currently in Phase III clinical testing stage, for the treatment of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease related anemia. Because the drug does not have a standard Chinese translation, so the applicant where it is transliterated as “Connaught Secretary him.”

Connaught orlistat (Roxadustat, I) the chemical name: N_ [(4- hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxy-3-isoquinolinyl) carbonyl] glycine, its structural formula is:

 

Figure CN104892509AD00031

The original research company’s international patent W02004108681 Division provides a promise he was prepared from the intermediate and intermediate Connaught Secretary for his synthetic route:

 

Figure CN104892509AD00032

 Zhejiang Beida company’s international patent W02013013609 preparation and acylation of core intermediate was further optimized synthesis route is:

 

Figure CN104892509AD00041

n PhO. eight XOOH

 

 original research company’s international patent W02014014834 and W02014014835 also provides another synthetic route he Connaught Secretary prepared:

 

Figure CN104892509AD00042

Analysis of the above synthetic route, although he continued to Connaught Division to improve and optimize the synthesis, but its essence rings manner that different form quinoline ring is basically the same mother. Especially methyl isoquinoline replaced either by way of introducing the Suzuki reaction catalyzed by a noble metal element, either through amine reduction achieved. Moreover, the above reaction scheme revelation raw materials are readily available, many times during the reaction need to be protected and then deprotected. Clearly, the preparation process is relatively complicated, high cost, industrial production has brought some difficulties.

Figure CN104892509AD00052

Example One:

tyrosine was added to the reaction flask and dried (18. lg, 0.1 mmol) and methanol 250mL, cooling to ice bath 0_5 ° C, was added dropwise over 1 hour a percentage by weight of 98% concentrated sulfuric acid 10g. Drops Albert, heating to reflux. The reaction was stirred for 16-20 hours, TLC the reaction was complete. Concentrated under atmosphere pressure, the residue was added water 100mL, using 10% by weight sodium hydroxide to adjust the pH to 6. 5-7.0, precipitated solid was filtered, washed with methanol and water chloro cake (I: 1) and dried in vacuo tyrosine methyl ester as a white solid (11) 15.38, yield 78.5% out 1–] \ ^ 111/2: 196 [] \ 1 + 1] +!.

Example Two:

[0041] a nitrogen atmosphere and ice bath, was added to the reaction flask tyrosine methyl ester (II) (9. 8g, 50mmol), potassium methoxide (3. 5g, 50mmol) and methanol 50mL, until no gas generation after, was heated to reflux, the reaction was stirred for 2 hours. Concentrated under atmosphere pressure to remove the solvent, the residue was added dimethylsulfoxide 25mL, freshly prepared copper powder (0.2g, 3. Lmmol), was slowly warmed to 150-155 ° C, for about half an hour later, a solution of bromobenzene ( 7. 9g, 50mmol), continue to heat up to 170-175 ° C, the reaction was stirred for 3 hours, TLC detection of the end of the reaction. Was cooled to 60 ° C, and methanol was added to keep micro-boiling, filtered while hot, the filter cake washed three times with hot ethanol, and the combined organic phases, was cooled to square ° C, filtered, and dried in vacuo to give a white solid of 2-amino-3- ( 4-phenoxyphenyl) propanoate (111) 8 11.5, yield 84.9% as 1 -] \ ^ 111/2:! 272 [] \ 1 + 1] +.

 Example Three:

 in the reaction flask was added 2-amino-3- (4-phenoxyphenyl) propionic acid methyl ester (III) (10. 8g, 40mmol), 40% by weight acetaldehyde (20g, 0. 2mol ) and the percentage by weight of 35% concentrated hydrochloric acid 50mL, refluxed for 1 hour. Continue 40% by weight was added acetaldehyde (10g, 0.1mol), and the percentage by weight of 35% concentrated hydrochloric acid 25mL, and then the reaction was refluxed for 3-5 hours. Was cooled to 4-7 ° C, ethyl acetate was added, and extracted layers were separated. The aqueous layer was adjusted with sodium hydroxide solution to pH 11-12, extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a white solid of 1-methyl-3-carboxylate -7- phenoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (IV) 8 4g, 70.7% yield; Mass spectrum (EI): EI-MS m / z: 298 [M + H] + .

 Example Four:

Under ice bath, the reaction flask was added methyl 3-carboxylate I- -7- phenoxy-1,2, 3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline (IV) (5. 9g, 20mmol) and dichloromethane 100mL, 0 ° C and under stirring added potassium carbonate (13. 8g, 0. lmol), p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (11. 4g, 60mmol), the addition was completed, the ice bath was removed and stirred at room temperature 3 hour. Water was added 30mL, after stirring standing layer, the organic phase was washed with dilute hydrochloric acid, water and saturated brine, and concentrated, the resulting product was added a 30% by weight sodium hydroxide solution (8. 0g, 60mmol) and dimethyl sulfoxide 60mL, gradually warming to 120-130 ° C, the reaction was stirred for 2-4 hours to complete the reaction by TLC. Cooled to room temperature, water was added lOOmL, extracted three times with ethyl acetate, the combined organic phase was successively washed with water and saturated brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and concentrated, the resulting oil was treated with ethyl acetate and n-hexane (1: 3) recrystallization, vacuum dried to give an off-white solid 1-methyl-3-carboxylate 7-phenoxyheptanoic isoquinoline (V) 5. 25g, yield 89. 6%; EI-MS m / z: 294 [M + H] VH NMR (DMS0-d6) δ 2. 85 (s, 3H), 3 · 97 (s, 3H), 7 · 16-7. 24 (m, 3H), 7 · 49-7. 60 (m, 4Η), 8 · 35 (d, J = 9 · 0,1Η), 8 · 94 (s, 1Η).

Example five:

[0047] added 1-methyl-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester 7-phenoxyheptanoic isoquinoline (V) (2. 93g, IOmmol) and glacial acetic acid 50mL reaction flask, stirring solution of 30% by weight hydrogen peroxide 5mL, warmed to 60-70 ° C, was slowly added dropwise within 10 hours the percentage by weight of a mixture of 30% hydrogen peroxide 2mL and 12mL of glacial acetic acid, a dropping was completed, the reaction was continued for 20-24 hours. Concentrated under reduced pressure, ethanol was added, distillation is continued to be divisible remaining glacial acetic acid. The residue was dissolved with dichloromethane, washed with 5% by weight of sodium bicarbonate, the organic phase was separated, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Filtered and the resulting solution was added p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (3. 8g, 20mmol), was heated to reflux, the reaction was stirred for 3-4 hours, TLC detection completion of the reaction. The solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure, cooled to room temperature, methanol was added, the precipitated solid, cooled to square ° C, allowed to stand overnight. Filtered, the filter cake washed twice with cold methanol and vacuum dried to give an off-white solid 1- methyl-3-methyl-4-hydroxy-phenoxy-isoquinoline -7- (VI) I. 86g, yield 60.2 %; EI-MS m / z:.. 310 [M + H] +, 1H NMR (DMS0-d6) δ 2.90 (s, 3H), 4.05 (s, 3H), 7 17-7 26 (m, 3H ), 7. 49-7. 61 (m, 4H), 8. 38 (d, J = 9. 0,1H), 11. 7 (s, 1H) 〇

 Example VI:

 in the reaction flask with magnetic stirring and pressure to join I- methyl-3-methyl-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoate isoquinoline (VI) (1.55g, 5mmol), glycine (I. 13g, 15mmol) and sodium methoxide (3. 25g, 6mmol) in methanol (30mL).Sealed, slowly heated to 120 ° C, the reaction was stirred for 8-10 hours to complete the reaction by TLC. Cooled to room temperature, solid precipitated. Filtration, and the resulting solid was recrystallized from methanol, acetone and then beating the resulting solid was dried under vacuum to give a white solid Connaught orlistat 1.40g, yield 79.5%;

EI-MS m / z: 353 [M + H] +,

1H NMR (DMS0-d6) S2.72 (s, 3H), 3 · 99 (d, J = 6 · 0, 2H), 7 · 18-7. 28 (m, 3H), 7 · 49-7. 63 (m, 4H), 8 · 31 (d, J = 8 · 8,1H), 9 · 08 (s, lH), 13.41 (brs, lH).

PATENT

WO 2014014835

Example 10. Preparation of Compound A

a) 5-Phenoxyphthalide

Figure imgf000056_0001

[0200] A reactor was charged with DMF (68 Kg), and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with phenol (51 Kg), acetylacetone (8 Kg), 5-bromophthalide (85 Kg), copper bromide (9 Kg), and potassium carbonate (77 Kg). The mixture was heated above 85 °C and maintained until reaction completion and then cooled. Water was added. Solid was filtered and washed with water. Solid was dissolved in dichloromethane, and washed with aqueous HCl and then with water. Solvent was removed under pressure and methanol was added. The mixture was stirred and filtered. Solid was washed with methanol and dried in an oven giving 5- phenoxyphthalide (Yield: 72%, HPLC: 99.6%). b) 2-Chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester

Figure imgf000056_0002

[0201] A reactor was charged with toluene (24 Kg), and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with 5-phenoxyphthalide (56 Kg), thionyl chloride (41 Kg), trimethyl borate (1

Kg), dichlorotriphenylphosphorane (2.5 Kg), and potassium carbonate (77 Kg). The mixture was heated to reflux until reaction completion and solvent was removed leaving 2-chloromethyl-4- phenoxybenzoyl chloride. Methanol was charged and the mixture was heated above 50 °C until reaction completion. Solvent was removed and replaced with DMF. This solution of the product methyl 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester in DMF was used directly in the next step (HPLC: 85%). c) 4-Hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (la)

Figure imgf000057_0001

[0202] A reactor was charged with a solution of 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester (~68 Kg) in DMF, and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with p- toluenesulfonylglycine methyl ester (66 Kg), potassium carbonate (60 Kg), and sodium iodide (4 Kg). The mixture was heated to at least 50 °C until reaction completion. The mixture was cooled. Sodium methoxide in methanol was charged and the mixture was stirred until reaction completion. Acetic acid and water were added, and the mixture was stirred, filtered and washed with water. Solid was purified by acetone trituration and dried in an oven giving la (Yield from step b): 58%; HPLC: 99.4%). 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.60 (s, 1 H), 8.74 (s, 1H),

8.32 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.60 (dd, J = 2.3 & 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.24 (m, 3 H), 3.96 (s, 3 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 296.09 d) Methyl l-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate

(lb)

Figure imgf000057_0002

[0203] A flask was charged with la (29.5 g) and acetic acid (44.3 g ± 5%), and then stirred. Bis-dimethylaminomethane (12.8 g ± 2%) was slowly added. The mixture was heated to 55 ± 5 °C and maintained until reaction completion. The reaction product was evaluated by MS, HPLC and 1H NMR. 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.7 (s, 1 H), 8.38 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.61 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.21 (m, 3 H), 5.34 (s, 2 H), 3.97 (s, 3 H), 1.98 (s, 3 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 368.12. e) Methyl l-((acetoxy)methyl)-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (lc)

Figure imgf000058_0001

[0204] The solution of lb from a) above was cooled below 25 °C, at which time acetic anhydride (28.6 g ± 3.5 %) was added to maintain temperature below 50 °C. The resulting mixture was heated to 100 ± 5 °C until reaction completion.

[0205] The solution of lc and Id from above was cooled to less than 65 ± 5 °C. Water (250 mL) was slowly added. The mixture was then cooled to below 20 ± 5 °C and filtered. The wet cake was washed with water (3 x 50 mL) and added to a new flask. Dichloromethane (90 mL) and water (30 mL) were added, and the resulting mixture was stirred. The dichloromethane layer was separated and evaluated by HPLC.

[0206] The organic layer was added to a flask and cooled 5 ± 5 °C. Morpholine was added and the mixture was stirred until reaction completion. Solvent was replaced with acetone/methanol mixture. After cooling, compound lc precipitated and was filtered, washed and dried in an oven (Yield: 81%, HPLC: >99.7%). 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.6 (S, 1 H), 8.31 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.87 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.24 (m, 3 H), 3.95 (s, 3 H), 3.68 (s, 2H), 2.08 (s, 6 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 357.17. f) Methyl 4-hydroxy-l-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (le)

Figure imgf000058_0002

[0207] A reactor was charged with lc (16.0 g), Pd/C (2.08 g), anhydrous Na2C03 (2.56 g) and ethyl acetate (120 mL). The flask was vacuum-purged with nitrogen (3X) and vacuum-purged with hydrogen (3X). The flask was then pressurized with hydrogen and stirred at about 60 °C until completion of reaction. The flask was cooled to 20-25 °C, the pressure released to ambient, the head space purged with nitrogen three times and mixture was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated. Methanol was added. The mixture was stirred and then cooled. Product precipitated and was filtered and dried in an oven (Yield: 90%, HPLC: 99.7%). g) [(4-Hydroxy-l-methyl-7-phenoxy-isoquinoline-3-carbonyl)-amino]-acetic acid

(Compound A)

Figure imgf000059_0001

[0208] A pressure flask was charged with le (30.92 g), glycine (22.52 g), methanol (155 mL), sodium methoxide solution (64.81 g) and sealed (as an alternative, sodium glycinate was used in place of glycine and sodium methoxide). The reaction was heated to about 110 °C until reaction was complete. The mixture was cooled, filtered, washed with methanol, dried under vacuum, dissolved in water and washed with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate was removed and to the resulting aqueous layer an acetic acid (18.0 g) solution was added. The suspension was stirred at room temperature, filtered, and the solid washed with water (3 x 30 mL), cold acetone (5-10 °C, 2 x 20 mL), and dried under vacuum to obtain Compound A (Yield: 86.1%, HPLC: 99.8%). Example 11. Biological Testing

[0209] The solid forms provided herein can be used for inhibiting HIF hydroxylase activity, thereby increasing the stability and/or activity of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), and can be used to treat and prevent HIF-associated conditions and disorders (see, e.g., U.S. Patent No. 7,323,475, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0004627, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2006/0276477, and U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0259960, incorporated by reference herein).

SYNTHESIS……..

http://zliming2004.lofter.com/post/1cc9dc55_79ad5d8

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Condensation of 5-bromophthalide (I) with phenol (II) in the presence of K2CO3, CuBr and acetylacetone in DMF gives 5-phenoxyphthalide (III), which upon lactone ring opening using SOCl2, Ph3PCl2, B(OMe)3 and K2CO3 in refluxing toluene yields 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoyl chloride (IV). Esterification of acid chloride (IV) with MeOH at 50 °C furnishes the methyl ester (V), which is then condensed with methyl N-tosylglycinate (VI) in the presence of K2CO3 and NaI in DMF at 50 °C to afford N-substituted aminoester (VII). Cyclization of the intermediate diester (VII) using NaOMe in MeOH leads to methyl 4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (VIII), which is submitted to Mannich reaction with bis-dimethylaminomethane (IX) in the presence of AcOH at 57 °C to provide the dimethylaminomethyl compound (X). Treatment of amine (X) with Ac2O at 103 °C, followed by selective hydrolysis of the phenolic acetate with morpholine leads to methyl 1-acetoxymethyl-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (XI). Hydrogenolysis of the benzylic acetate (XII) in the presence of Pd/C and Na2CO3 in EtOAc yields methyl 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboylate (XII), which finally couples with glycine (XIII) in the presence of NaOMe in MeOH at 110 °C to afford the target roxadustat (1-3).

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Cyclization of 4-phenoxyphthalic acid (I) with glycine (II) at 215 °C gives the phthalimide (III), which upon esterification with MeOH and H2SO4 at reflux yields methyl ester (IV). Subsequent rearrangement of phthalimidoacetate (IV) by means of Na in BuOH at 97 °C, followed by flash chromatography provides the isoquinoline-2-carboxylate (V). Bromination of intermediate (V) using POBr3 and NaHCO3 in acetonitrile leads to butyl 8-bromo-3-hydroxy-6-phenoxy-isoquinoline-2-carboxylate (VI), which upon hydrolysis with NaOH in refluxing H2O/EtOH furnishes carboxylic acid (VII). Substitution of bromine in intermediate (VII) using MeI and BuLi in THF at -78 °C, followed by alkylation with PhCH2Br in the presence of K2CO3 in refluxing acetone affords the 2-methyl isoquinoline (VIII). Ester hydrolysis in intermediate (VIII) using KOH in MeOH gives the corresponding carboxylic acid (IX), which is then activated with i-BuOCOCl and Et3N in CH2Cl2, followed by coupling with benzyl glycinate hydrochloride (X) to yield benzylated roxadustat (XI). Finally, debenzylation of intermediate (XI) with H2 over Pd/C in EtOAc/MeOH provides the title compound (1).

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Condensation of 4-nitro-ortho-phthalonitrile (I) with phenol (II) in the presence of K2CO3 in DMSO gives 4-phenoxy-ortho-phthalonitrile (III) (1), which upon hydrolysis with NaOH (1) or KOH (2) in refluxing MeOH yields 4-phenoxyphthalic acid (IV) (1,2). Dehydration of dicarboxylic acid (IV) using Ac2O and AcOH at reflux furnishes the phthalic anhydride (V), which is then condensed with methyl 2-isocyanoacetate (VI) using DBU in THF to provide oxazole derivative (VII). Rearrangement of intermediate (VII) with HCl in MeOH at 60 °C leads to isoquinoline derivative (VIII), which is partially chlorinated by means of POCl3 at 70 °C to afford 1-chloro-isoquinoline derivative (IX). Substitution of chlorine in intermediate (IX) using Me3B, Pd(PPh3)4 and K2CO3 in refluxing dioxane gives methyl 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxy-3-carboxylate (X), which is then hydrolyzed with aqueous NaOH in refluxing EtOH to yield the carboxylic acid (XI). Coupling of carboxylic acid (XI) with methyl glycinate hydrochloride (XII) by means of PyBOP, (i-Pr)2NH and Et3N in CH2Cl2 yields roxadustat methyl ester (XII), which is finally hydrolyzed with aqueous NaOH in THF to afford the target roxadustat (1).

CLIPS

SAN FRANCISCO, Nov 12, 2013 (BUSINESS WIRE) — FibroGen, Inc. (FibroGen), today announced that data from a China-based Phase 2 study of roxadustat (FG-4592), a first-in-class oral compound in late stage development for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), were presented in an oral session at the 2013 American Society of Nephrology (ASN) Kidney Week in Atlanta, Georgia.
Roxadustat is an orally administered, small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase. HIF is a protein that responds to oxygen changes in the cellular environment and meets the body’s demands for oxygen by inducing erythropoiesis, the process by which red blood cells are produced and iron is incorporated into hemoglobin (Hb).
The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of roxadustat in the correction of anemia in patients (N=91) with chronic kidney disease who had not received dialysis treatment, were not receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), and had Hb levels less than 10 g/dL. The correction study randomized patients 2:1 between roxadustat and placebo for 8 weeks of dosing, and included a low-dose cohort (n=30) and high-dose cohort (n=31). Intravenous (IV) iron was not allowed. The study also evaluated iron utilization, changes in serum lipids, and other biomarkers during treatment with roxadustat.
Data from this study suggest that roxadustat effectively corrected hemoglobin levels in anemic CKD patients in a dose-dependent manner as compared to placebo, and did so in the absence of IV iron supplementation regardless of degree of iron repletion at baseline. At the end of the 8-week treatment period, subjects showed mean maximum Hb increases from baseline of 2.6 g/dL in the high dose cohort and 1.8 g/dL in the low dose cohort, as compared to 0.7 g/dL in the placebo group (p < 0.0001) from mean baseline Hb of 8.8 g/dL, 8.8 g/dL, and 8.9 g/dL in the high dose, low dose, and placebo groups, respectively. 87% of patients in the high-dose cohort, 80% of patients in the low-dose cohort, and 23% of patients in the placebo group experienced a hemoglobin increase of 1 g/dL or greater from baseline (p < 0.0001). Similarly, 71% of patients in the high-dose cohort, 50% of patients in the low-dose cohort, and 3% of patients in the placebo group achieved target hemoglobin of 11 g/dL or greater (p < 0.0001). Serum iron levels remained stable in subjects randomized to roxadustat while the subjects underwent brisk erythropoiesis.
Study data also suggest that roxadustat may lower cholesterol. Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease patients and a major cardiovascular risk factor in this population. Patients treated with roxadustat experienced a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol (p <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p <0.0001) at the end of the treatment period. The relative proportion of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to LDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.02). Overall LDL cholesterol levels declined by a mean of 26% and median of 23% from a mean baseline value of 103 mg/dL.
Roxadustat was well tolerated by patients in the study with incidence of adverse events similar across all groups. In contrast to the exacerbation of hypertension observed in studies in which patients received currently available ESA therapies, subjects who received roxadustat in the present study showed small decreases in blood pressure that were similar to blood pressure changes in the placebo group. No cardiovascular serious adverse events were reported in patients treated with roxadustat.
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat are currently being investigated in a global pivotal Phase 3 development program.
“There is a global need for effective, safe, and accessible anemia therapies,” said Thomas B. Neff, Chief Executive Officer of FibroGen. “Side effects associated with current treatments include exposure to supra-physiological levels of erythropoietin and depletion of iron stores. Preliminary clinical findings show that oral administration of roxadustat (FG-4592) is able to correct anemia and maintain hemoglobin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease, to do so with peak erythropoietin levels within physiological range, and to achieve these effects without the administration of intravenous iron. These results suggest roxadustat, as an oral agent, has the potential to overcome the treatment barriers and inconveniences of current ESA therapies, including administration by injection and IV iron supplementation, in treating anemia in CKD patients.”
About Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Anemia
Diabetes, high blood pressure, and other conditions can cause significant damage to the kidneys. If left untreated, those can result in chronic kidney disease and progress to kidney failure. Such deterioration can lead to patients needing a kidney transplant or being placed on dialysis to remove excess fluid and toxins that build up in the body. The progression of CKD also increases the prevalence of anemia, a condition associated with having fewer of the red blood cells that carry oxygen through the body, and/or lower levels of hemoglobin, the protein that enables red blood cells to carry oxygen. As hemoglobin falls, the lower oxygen-carrying capacity of an anemic patients’ blood results in various symptoms including fatigue, loss of energy, breathlessness, and angina. Anemia in CKD patients has been associated with increased hospitalization rates, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life.
Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide critical healthcare problem that affects millions of people and drives significant healthcare cost. In the US, prevalence of CKD has increased dramatically in the past 20 years, from 10 percent of the adult population (or approximately 20 million U.S. adults) as stated in the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994, to 15 percent (or approximately 30 million U.S. adults) in NHANES 2003-2006. In 2009, total Medicare costs for CKD patients were $34 billion. China has an estimated 145 million CKD patients, or approximately five times the number of CKD patients in the U.S. (Lancet April 2012).
About Roxadustat / FG-4592
Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an orally administered small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase activity, in development for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). HIF is a protein transcription factor that induces the natural physiological response to conditions of low oxygen, “turning on” erythropoiesis (the process by which red blood cells are produced) and other protective pathways. Roxadustat has been shown to correct anemia and maintain hemoglobin levels without the need for supplementation with intravenous iron in CKD patients not yet receiving dialysis and in end-stage renal disease patients receiving dialysis. An Independent Data Monitoring Committee has found no signals or trends to date to suggest that treatment with roxadustat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, thrombosis, or increases in blood pressure requiring initiation or intensification of antihypertensive medications.
About FibroGen
FibroGen is a privately-held biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development, and commercialization of therapeutic agents for treatment of fibrosis, anemia, cancer, and other serious unmet medical needs. FibroGen’s FG-3019 monoclonal antibody is in clinical development for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other proliferative diseases, including pancreatic cancer and liver fibrosis. Roxadustat (FG-4592), FibroGen’s small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of anemia. FibroGen is also currently pursuing the use of proprietary recombinant human type III collagens in synthetic corneas for treatment of corneal blindness. For more information please visit: www.fibrogen.com .

References

1: Besarab A, Provenzano R, Hertel J, Zabaneh R, Klaus SJ, Lee T, Leong R, Hemmerich S, Yu KH, Neff TB. Randomized placebo-controlled dose-ranging and pharmacodynamics study of roxadustat (FG-4592) to treat anemia in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015 Oct;30(10):1665-73. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfv302. Epub 2015 Aug 3. PubMed PMID: 26238121; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4569392.

2: Forristal CE, Levesque JP. Targeting the hypoxia-sensing pathway in clinical hematology. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014 Feb;3(2):135-40. doi: 10.5966/sctm.2013-0134. Epub 2013 Dec 26. PubMed PMID: 24371328; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3925058.

3: Bouchie A. First-in-class anemia drug takes aim at Amgen’s dominion. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Nov;31(11):948-9. doi: 10.1038/nbt1113-948b. PubMed PMID: 24213751.

4: Flight MH. Deal watch: AstraZeneca bets on FibroGen’s anaemia drug. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013 Oct;12(10):730. doi: 10.1038/nrd4135. PubMed PMID: 24080688.

5: Beuck S, Schänzer W, Thevis M. Hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizers and other small-molecule erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in current and preventive doping analysis. Drug Test Anal. 2012 Nov;4(11):830-45. doi: 10.1002/dta.390. Epub 2012 Feb 24. Review. PubMed PMID: 22362605.

6: Cases A. The latest advances in kidney diseases and related disorders. Drug News Perspect. 2007 Dec;20(10):647-54. PubMed PMID: 18301799.

//////////ASP1517,  ASP 1517,  ASP-1517,  FG-4592,  FG 4592,  FG4592,  Roxadustat, PHASE 3, ASTELLAS, FibroGen, 808118-40-3
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Temanogrel

 Phase 3 drug, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Temanogrel
Jun 122016
 

ChemSpider 2D Image | temanogrel | C24H28N4O4TEMANOGREL.pngimg

Temanogrel

APD 791

3-methoxy-N-[3-(2-methylpyrazol-3-yl)-4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl]benzamide
Benzamide,3-methoxy-N-[3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethoxy]phenyl]-
UNII:F42Z27575A
TEMANOGREL; APD791; CHEMBL1084617; UNII-F42Z27575A; 887936-68-7; 3-Methoxy-N-[3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-benzamide;
Molecular Formula: C24H28N4O4
Molecular Weight: 436.50352 g/mol
  • Originator Arena Pharmaceuticals
  • Developer Arena Pharmaceuticals; Ildong Pharmaceutical
  • Class Antithrombotics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Serotonin 2A receptor inverse agonists

Phase I Arterial thrombosis

Most Recent Events

  • 30 Mar 2016 Arena Pharmaceuticals has patents pending for Temanogrel in 12 regions, including Brazil (Arena Pharmaceuticals 10-K; march 2016)
  • 30 Mar 2016 Arena Pharmaceuticals has patent protection for Temanogrel in 87 regions, including USA, Japan, China, Germany, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, Spain, Canada, Russia, India, Australia and South Korea
  • 01 Mar 2015 Ildong Pharmaceutical initiates enrolment in a phase I trial for Arterial thrombosis in South Korea (NCT02419820)

A 5-HT2A inverse agonist potentially for the reduction of the risk of arterial thrombosis.

APD-791

CAS No. 887936-68-7

ChemSpider 2D Image | Temanogrel hydrochloride | C24H29ClN4O4

Temanogrel hydrochloride

  • Molecular FormulaC24H29ClN4O4
  • Average mass472.965
957466-27-2 CAS
Benzamide, 3-methoxy-N-[3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethoxy]phenyl]-, hydrochloride (1:1) [ACD/Index Name]
Temanogrel hydrochloride [USAN]
UNII:5QEY8NZP3T

Temanogrel, also known as APD791, is a highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor inverse agonist under development for the treatment of arterial thrombosis. APD791 displayed high-affinity binding to membranes (K(i) = 4.9 nM) and functional inverse agonism of inositol phosphate accumulation (IC(50) = 5.2 nM) in human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing the human 5-HT(2A) receptor. APD791 was greater than 2000-fold selective for the 5-HT(2A) receptor versus 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(2B) receptors. APD791 inhibited 5-HT-mediated amplification of ADP-stimulated human and dog platelet aggregation (IC(50) = 8.7 and 23.1 nM, respectively)

Arterial thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot or thrombus inside an artery or arteriole that restricts or blocks the flow of blood and, depending upon location, can result in acute coronary syndrome or stroke. The formation of a thrombus is usually initiated by blood vessel injury, which triggers platelet aggregation and adhesion of platelets to the vessel wall. Treatments aimed at inhibiting platelet aggregation have demonstrated clear clinical benefits in the setting of acute coronary syndrome and stroke. Current antiplatelet therapies include aspirin, which irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase (COXa

Abbreviations: COX, cyclooxygenase; ADP, adenosine diphosphate; SAR, structure−activity relationship; hERG, human ether-a-go-go-related gene; CNS, central nervous system; 5-HT, serotonin; AUC, area under the plasma concentration time curve, iv, intravenous; IP, inositol phosphate.

) and results in reduced thromboxane production, clopidogrel and prasugrel, which inhibit platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12 receptors, and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists. Another class of antiplatelet drugs, protease-activated thrombin receptor (PAR-1) antagonists, are also being evaluated in the clinic for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The most advanced candidate in this class, N-[(1R,3aR,4aR,6R,8aR,9S,9aS)-9-{2-[5-(3-fluorophenyl)pyridin-2-yl]vinyl}-1-methyl-3-oxoperhydro-naphtho[2,3-c]furan-6-yl]-carbamic acid ethyl ester (SCH-530348), is currently in phase 3 trials for the prevention of arterial thrombosis.

The 5-HT2A receptor is one of 15 different serotonin receptor subtypes.
 In the cardiovascular system, modulation of 5-HT2A receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets is thought to play an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Platelets are activated by a variety of agonists such as ADP, thrombin, thromboxane, serotonin, epinephrine, and collagen. Upon platelet activation at the site of blood vessel injury, a number of factors including serotonin (5-HT) are released. Although by itself serotonin is a weak activator of platelet aggregation, in vitro it can amplify aggregation induced by other agonists as mentioned above. Therefore, serotonin released from activated platelets may induce further platelet aggregation and enhance thrombosis.
The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin  was shown in clinical studies to reduce early restenosis(7) and decrease myocardial ischemia during coronary balloon angioplasty.(8)However, in another study, ketanserin did not significantly improve clinical outcomes, and the rate of adverse events was higher than that observed in the control group.(9) Some of the adverse events reported in the latter study could be specific to ketanserin and resulted from its lack of 5-HT2A receptor selectivity. Other 5-HT2A antagonists with improved selectivity profiles have shown promise in clinical studies. For example, sarpogrelate  was shown to inhibit restenosis following coronary stenting.

Figure

Figure 1. Serotonin and known 5-HT2A receptor antagonists.

Because the 5-HT2A receptor is expressed both in peripheral tissues and in the central nervous system (CNS), compounds with limited CNS partitioning would be preferred to maximize cardiovascular and blood platelet pharmacological activity while minimizing CNS effects. In addition, because 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonists are thought to reduce thrombus formation via inhibition of serotonin-mediated amplification of platelet aggregation without inhibiting agonist driven aggregation per se, it is possible that this class of inhibitors will have an improved bleeding risk side effect profile compared to what has been observed with other classes of antithrombotic drugs.

SYNTHESIS 

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2010), 53(11), 4412-4421.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm100044a

Abstract Image

Serotonin, which is stored in platelets and is released during thrombosis, activates platelets via the 5-HT2A receptor. 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonists thus represent a potential new class of antithrombotic agents. Our medicinal program began with known compounds that displayed binding affinity for the recombinant 5-HT2A receptor, but which had poor activity when tested in human plasma platelet inhibition assays. We herein describe a series of phenyl pyrazole inverse agonists optimized for selectivity, aqueous solubility, antiplatelet activity, low hERG activity, and good pharmacokinetic properties, resulting in the discovery of 10k (APD791). 10k inhibited serotonin-amplified human platelet aggregation with an IC50 = 8.7 nM and had negligible binding affinity for the closely related 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors. 10k was orally bioavailable in rats, dogs, and monkeys and had an acceptable safety profile. As a result, 10k was selected further evaluation and advanced into clinical development as a potential treatment for arterial

Discovery and Structure−Activity Relationship of 3-Methoxy-N-(3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl)benzamide (APD791): A Highly Selective 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A Receptor Inverse Agonist for the Treatment of Arterial Thrombosis

Arena Pharmaceuticals, 6166 Nancy Ridge Drive, San Diego, California 92121
J. Med. Chem., 2010, 53 (11), pp 4412–4421
DOI: 10.1021/jm100044a
Publication Date (Web): May 10, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone: +1 858-453-7200. Fax: +1 858-453-7210. E-mail:yxiong@arenapharm.com.
3-Methoxy-N-[3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-benzamide (10k)

10k was prepared in a manner similar to that described for 10c, using 9d (120 mg, 0.40 mmol) and 3-methoxybenzoyl chloride (81 mg, 0.48 mmol) to give the TFA salt of 10k as a white solid (88 mg, 51%); mp (HCl salt, recrystallized from iPrOH) 214−216 °C. 1H NMR (acetone-d6, 400 MHz) δ: 2.99−3.21 (m, 2H), 3.22−3.45 (m, 2H), 3.66 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 3.75 (s, 3H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 3.79−3.89 (m, 4H), 4.58 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 6.29 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.13 (dd, J = 2.5, 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.47 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.52 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.80−7.83 (m, 1H), 7.91−7.96 (m, 1H), 9.54 (s, 1H). LCMSm/z = 437.5 [M + H]+.

Additional Information

Oral administration of APD791 to dogs resulted in acute (1-h) and subchronic (10-day) inhibition of 5-HT-mediated amplification of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation in whole blood. Two active metabolites, APD791-M1 and APD791-M2, were generated upon incubation of APD791 with human liver microsomes and were also indentified in dogs after oral administration of APD791. The affinity and selectivity profiles of both metabolites were similar to APD791. These results demonstrate that APD791 is an orally available, high-affinity 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist with potent activity on platelets and vascular smooth muscle.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628629).

 

PATENT

WO 2006055734

https://google.com/patents/WO2006055734A2?cl=en

Example 1.88: Preparation of 3-methoxy-N-[3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-(2-morpholin~

4-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-benzamide (Compound 733).

Figure imgf000151_0002

A mixture of 3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-phenylamine (120 mg, 0.40 mmole), 3-methoxy-benzoyl chloride (81 mg, 0.48 mmole), and triethylamine (0.1 mL, 0.79 mmole) in 5 mL THF was stirred at room temperature for 10 minutes. The mixture was purified by HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid (TFA salt, 88 mg, 51 %). 1H NMR ( Acetone-^, 400 MHz) 2.99-3.21 (m, 2H), 3.22-3.45 (m, 2H), 3.66 (t, J= 4.80 Hz, 2H), 3.75 (s, 3H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 3.79-3.89 (m, 4H), 4.58 (t, J= 4.80 Hz, 2H), 6.29 (d, J= 2.02 Hz IH), 7.13 (dd, J= 8.34, 2.53 Hz, IH), 7.22 (d, J= 8.84 Hz, IH), 7.42 (t, J= 7.83 Hz, IH), 7.47 (d, J= 1.77 Hz, IH), 7.52 (t, J= 1.77 Hz, IH), 7.56 (d, J= 7.07 Hz, IH), 7.80-7.83 (m, IH), 7.91-7.96 (m, IH), 9.54 (s, NH). Exact mass calculated for C24H28N4O4 436.2, found 437.5 (MH+).

References

1: Xiong Y, Teegarden BR, Choi JS, Strah-Pleynet S, Decaire M, Jayakumar H, Dosa
PI, Casper MD, Pham L, Feichtinger K, Ullman B, Adams J, Yuskin D, Frazer J,
Morgan M, Sadeque A, Chen W, Webb RR, Connolly DT, Semple G, Al-Shamma H.
Discovery and structure-activity relationship of
3-methoxy-N-(3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl)benzamide
(APD791): a highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor inverse agonist for
the treatment of arterial thrombosis. J Med Chem. 2010 Jun 10;53(11):4412-21.
doi: 10.1021/jm100044a. PubMed PMID: 20455563.

2: Przyklenk K, Frelinger AL 3rd, Linden MD, Whittaker P, Li Y, Barnard MR, Adams
J, Morgan M, Al-Shamma H, Michelson AD. Targeted inhibition of the serotonin
5HT2A receptor improves coronary patency in an in vivo model of recurrent
thrombosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2010 Feb;8(2):331-40. doi:
10.1111/j.1538-7836.2009.03693.x. Epub 2009 Nov 17. PubMed PMID: 19922435; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC2916638.

3: Adams JW, Ramirez J, Shi Y, Thomsen W, Frazer J, Morgan M, Edwards JE, Chen W,
Teegarden BR, Xiong Y, Al-Shamma H, Behan DP, Connolly DT. APD791,
3-methoxy-n-(3-(1-methyl-1h-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl)benzamide,
a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonist: pharmacological profile,
pharmacokinetics, platelet activity and vascular biology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther.
2009 Oct;331(1):96-103. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.153189. Epub 2009 Jul 23. PubMed
PMID: 19628629.

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015361031 2015-12-17 STAT3 INHIBITOR
US8785441 2014-07-22 3-phenyl-pyrazole derivatives as modulators of the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor useful for the treatment of disorders related thereto
US2013296321 2013-11-07 CRYSTALLINE FORMS AND PROCESSES FOR THE PREPARATION OF PHENYL-PYRAZOLES USEFUL AS MODULATORS OF THE 5-HT2A SEROTONIN RECEPTOR
US2012252813 2012-10-04 CRYSTALLINE FORMS OF CERTAIN 3-PHENYL-PYRAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS MODULATORS OF THE 5-HT2A SEROTONIN RECEPTOR USEFUL FOR THE TREATMENT OF DISORDERS RELATED THERETO
US8148417 2012-04-03 PRIMARY AMINES AND DERIVATIVES THEREOF AS MODULATORS OF THE 5-HT2A SEROTONIN RECEPTOR USEFUL FOR THE TREATMENT OF DISORDERS RELATED THERETO
US8148418 2012-04-03 ETHERS, SECONDARY AMINES AND DERIVATIVES THEREOF AS MODULATORS OF THE 5-HT2A SEROTONIN RECEPTOR USEFUL FOR THE TREATMENT OF DISORDERS RELATED THERETO
US2011105456 2011-05-05 3-PHENYL-PYRAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS MODULATORS OF THE 5-HT2A SEROTONIN RECEPTOR USEFUL FOR THE TREATMENT OF DISORDERS RELATED THERETO
US7884101 2011-02-08 3-Phenyl-pyrazole derivatives as modulators of the 5-HT2a serotonin receptor useful for the treatment of disorders related thereto
US2010234380 2010-09-16 CRYSTALLINE FORMS AND PROCESSES FOR THE PREPARATION OF PHENYL-PYRAZOLES USEFUL AS MODULATORS OF THE 5-HT2A SEROTONIN RECEPTOR
US2007244086 2007-10-18 3-Phenyl-Pyrazole Derivatives as Modulators of the 5-Ht2A Serotonin Receptor Useful for the Treatment of Disorders Related Thereto

///////////APD-791 , 887936-68-7, Temanogrel , PHASE 1, ARENA,

CN1C(=CC=N1)C2=C(C=CC(=C2)NC(=O)C3=CC(=CC=C3)OC)OCCN4CCOCC4

C(=O)(c1cc(ccc1)OC)Nc1ccc(c(c1)c1n(ncc1)C)OCCN1CCOCC1

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Pexidartinib

 orphan status, Phase 3 drug, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Pexidartinib
Jun 102016
 

Pexidartinib

PLX-3397

5-((5-chloro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)methyl)-N-((6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)pyridin-2-amine

N-[5-[(5-Chloro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)methyl]-2-pyridinyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pyridinemethanamine

Phase III

A Multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor potentially for the treatment of tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT).

CAS No.: 1029044-16-3
Mol. Formula: C20H15ClF3N5
Mol. Weight: 417.81
  • Pexidartinib; 1029044-16-3; PLX-3397; 5-((5-chloro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)methyl)-N-((6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)pyridin-2-amine; 5-[(5-chloro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)methyl]-N-[[6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl]methyl]pyridin-2-amine; 5-[(5-Chloro-1h-Pyrrolo[2,3-B]pyridin-3-Yl)methyl]-N-{[6-(Trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-Yl]methyl}pyridin-2-Amine;
  • Originator Plexxikon
  • Developer Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute; Columbia University; Merck & Co; National Cancer Institute (USA); Plexxikon; University of California at San Francisco
  • Class 2 ring heterocyclic compounds; Antineoplastics; Fluorine compounds; Pyridines; Pyrroles; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 inhibitors; Immunomodulators; Macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor antagonists; Proto oncogene protein c-akt inhibitors; Proto oncogene protein c-kit inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath; Pigmented villonodular synovitis
  • Phase III Pigmented villonodular synovitis
  • Phase II Glioblastoma; Malignant melanoma; Prostate cancer
  • Phase I/II Breast cancer; Leukaemia; Peripheral nervous system diseases; Sarcoma; Solid tumours
  • Phase I Gastrointestinal stromal tumours
  • No development reported Neurological disorders; Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Discontinued Acute myeloid leukaemia; Hodgkin’s disease

Most Recent Events

  • 25 May 2016 Plexxikon and AstraZeneca plan the MEDIPLEX phase I trial for Solid tumours (Combination therapy, Metastatic disease) in France (NCT02777710)
  • 05 Apr 2016 Daiichi Sankyo plans a phase I trial for Solid tumours (Late-stage disease, Second-line therapy or greater) in Taiwan (PO) (NCT02734433)
  • 11 Mar 2016 Plexxikon re-initiates enrolment in a phase Ib trial in Solid tumours and Gastrointestinal stromal tumours in USA (NCT02401815)

 

Multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of CSF1R, c-Kit, and FLT3 (IC50 values 13 nM, 27 nM, and 11 nM, respectively) Administration of PLX3397 reduced CIBP, induced substantial intratumoral fibrosis, and was also highly efficacious in reducing tumor cell growth, formation of new tumor colonies in bone, and pathological tumor-induced bone remodeling. PLX3397 is superior to imatinib in the treatment of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), and the combination of PLX3397 with a TORC1 inhibitor could provide a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of this disease.

Plexxikon is conducting phase III clinical studies with PLX-3397 for the treatment of pigmented villonodular synovitis. Phase II clinical studies are ongoing for the oral treatment of melanoma and glioblastoma multiforme. Additional early clinical trials are underway for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, for the treatment of prostate cancer (adenocarcinoma), and for the treatment of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. No recent development has been reported from preclinical studies for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Prior to patient enrollment, a phase I clinical trial by Plexxikon for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis was withdrawn. Daiichi Sankyo (parent of Plexxikon) decided to discontinue phase II trials of the product for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer and for the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma after reviewing its clinical study results and also have discontinued phase II studies for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia due to strategic reasons.

Pexidartinib.png

In 2014, orphan drug designation was assigned to the compound in the US for the treatment of pigmented villonodular synovitis andf giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. In 2015, the compound was granted orphan designation in the E.U. for the treatment of tenosynovial giant cell tumor, localised and diffuse type. In the same year, the product was granted breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) where surgical removal of the tumor would be associated with potentially worsening functional limitation or severe morbidity.

C-fms and c-kit arc both type III transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinases (RPTKs) that regulate key signal transduction cascades that control cellular growth and proliferation. Both receptors have similar structural features comprising five extracellular immunoglobulin (IG) domains, a single transmembrane domain, and a split cytoplasmic kinase domain separated by a kinase insert segment.

c-Fms
C-fms is a member of the family of genes originally isolated from the Susan McDonough strain ot teline sarcoma viruses, The cellular proto-oncogene FMS (c-fms, cellular feline McDonough sarcoma) codes for the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimuktmg tactor (M- CSF) C-fms is crucial for the growth and differentiation of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, and upon binding of Vf-CSF to the extracellular domain of c-fms, the receptor dimeπzes and trans- autophosphorylates cytoplasmic tyrosine residues

M-CSF, first described by Robinson and co-workers (Blood 1969, 33 396-9), is a cytokine that controls the production, differentiation, and function of macrophages M-CSF stimulates differentiation of progenitor cells to mature monocytes, and prolongs the survival of monocytes Furthermore, M-CSF enhances cytotoxicity, superoxide production, phagocytosis, chemota\is, and secondary cytokine production of additional factors in monocytes and macrophages Examples of such additional factors include granulocyte colony stimulating lactor (G-CSF) interleukin-6 (IL-6), and mterleukm-8 (IL-8) M-CSF stimulates hematopoiesis, promotes differentiation and proliferation of osteoclast progenitor cells, and has profound effects on lipid metabolism Furthermore, M-CSF is important in pregnancy Physiologically, large amounts of M-CSF are produced in the placenta, and M-CSF is believed to play an essential role in trophoblast differentiation (Motoyoshi, lnt J Hematol 1998, 67 109-22) l hc elevated semm levels of M-CSF m early pregnancy may participate in the immunologic mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the pregnancy (Flanagan & Lader, Curr Opm Hematol 1998, 5 181-5)

Related to c-fms and c-kit are two p_latelet -derived growth factor receptors, alpha (i e , pdgfra) and beta (pdgfrb) (PDGF) 1 he gene coding for pdgfra is located on chromosome 4ql 1 -q!2 in the same region of chromosome 4 as the oncogene coding for c-kit The genes coding for pdgfra and c-fms appear to have evolved from a common ancestral gene by gene duplication, inasmuch as these two genes are tandemly linked on chromosome 5 They are oriented head to tail with the 5-pnme exon of the c-fms gene located only 500 bp from the last 3-pπme exon of the gene coding for pdgfra Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) have activating mutations in c-kit and most patients with GISTs respond well to Gleevec, which inhibits c-kit Hemπch et al (Science 2003, 299 “OS-IO) have shown that approximately 35% of GISTs lacking c-krt mutations, have intragenic activation mutations m tht gene encoding pdgfra, and that tumors expressing c-kit or pdgfrd are indistinguishable with respect to activation of downstream signaling intermediates and cytogenetic changes associated with tumor progression Thus, c kit and pdgfra mutations appear to be alternative and mutually exclusive oncogenic mechanisms m GISTs [0007} Similarly, the observation that production of M-CSF, the major macrophage growth factor, is increased in tissues during inflammation points out a role for c-frns in diseases, such as for example inflammatory diseases. More particularly, because elevated levels of M-CSF are found in the disease state, modulation of the activity of c-fms can ameliorate disease associated with increased levels of M-CSF.

c-Kit
The Stem Cell Factor (SCF) receptor c-kit plays an important role in the development of melanocytes and mast, germ and hematopoietic cells. Stem Cell Factor (SCF) is a protein encoded by the Sl locus, and has also been called “kit ligand” (KL) and mast cell growth factor (MGF), based on the biological properties used to identify it (reviewed in Tsujimura, Pathol Int 1996, 46:933-938; Loveland, et al., J. Endocrinol 1997, 153:337-344; Vliagoftis, et al,, Clin Immunol 1997, 100:435-440; Broudy, Blood 1997, 90: 1345-1364; Pignon, Hermatol Cell Ther 1997, 39: 1 14-1 16; and Lyman, et al., Blood 1998, 91 : 1 101 -1 134.). Herein the abbreviation SCF refers to the physiological ligand for c-kit.

SCF is synthesized as a transmembrane protein with a molecular weight of 220 or 248 Dalton, depending on alternative splicing of the mRNA to encode exon 6. The larger protein can be proteolytically cleaved to form, a soluble, glycosylated protein which noncovalently dimerizcs. Both the soluble and membrane-bound forms of SCF can bind to and activate c-kit. For example, in the skin, SCF is predominantly expressed by fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells, which modulate the activity of melanocytes and mast cells expressing c-kit. In bone, marrow stromal cells express SCF and regulate hematopoiesis of c-kit expressing stem cells. In the gastrointestinal tract, intestinal epithelial cells express SCF and affect the interstitial cells of Cajal and intraepithelial lymphocytes. In the testis, Sertoli cells and granulosa cells express SCF which regulates spermatogenesis by interaction with c-kit on germ cells.

 

 

STR1

PATENT

WO 2008063888

 

PATENT

WO 2008064265

 

PATENT

WO 2008064255

PATENT

WO 2012158957

Fragments in the clinic: PLX3397

Practical Fragments covers a wide variety of journals. J. Med. Chem., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., Drug Disc. Today, and ACS Med. Chem. Lett. are all well-represented, but we also range further afield, from biggies such asNature and Science to more niche titles such as ChemMedChem, Acta. Cryst. D., and Anal. Chim. Acta. The increasingly clinical relevance of fragment-based approaches is highlighted by a recent paper by William Tap and a large group of collaborators appearing in the New England Journal of Medicine. This reports on the results of the Daiichi Sankyo (née Plexxikon) drug PLX3397 in a phase I trial for tenosynovial giant-cell tumor, a rare but aggressive cancer of the tendon sheath.

The story actually starts with a 2013 paper by Chao Zhang and his Plexxikon colleagues in Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. The researchers were interested in inhibiting the enzymes CSF1R (or FMS) and KIT; both kinases are implicated in cancer as well as inflammatory diseases. The team started with 7-azaindole, the same fragment they used to discover vemurafenib. Structural studies of an early derivative, PLX070, revealed a hydrogen bond between the ligand oxygen and a conserved backbone amide. Further building led to PLX647, with good activity against both CSF1R and KIT. Selectivity profiling against a panel of 400 kinases revealed only two others with IC50values < 0.3 µM. The molecule was active in cell-based assays, had good pharmacokinetics in mice and rats, and was active in rodent models of inflammatory disease.

The new paper focuses on the results of a clinical trial with PLX3397, a derivative of PLX647. Despite its close structural similarity to PLX647, it binds to CSF1R in a slightly different manner. Both inhibitors bind to the inactive form of the kinase, but PLX3397 also recruits the so-called juxtamembrane domain of the kinase to stabilize this autoinhibited conformation. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies in animals were also positive.

http://practicalfragments.blogspot.in/2015/10/fragments-in-clinic-plx3397.html

Tenosynovial giant-cell tumor seems to be dependent on CSF1R, so the researchers performed a phase 1 dose-escalation study with an extension in which patients treated with the chosen phase 2 dose were treated longer. Of the 23 patients in this extension, 12 had a partial response and 7 had stable disease. A quick search ofclinicaltrials.gov reveals that PLX3397 is currently in multiple trials for several indications, including a phase 3 trial for giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath.

Several lessons can be drawn from these studies. First, as the authors note, one fragment can give rise to multiple different clinical candidates. Indeed, in addition to vemurafenib, 7-azaindole was also the starting point forAZD5363. This is a good counterargument to those who believe that novelty is essential in fragments.

A second, related point is that selectivity is also not necessary for a fragment. The fact that 7-azaindole comes up so frequently as a kinase-binding fragment has not prevented researchers from growing it into remarkably selective inhibitors. An obvious corollary is that even subtle changes to a molecule can have dramatic effects: the added pyridyl nitrogen in PLX3397 is essential for stabilizing a unique conformation of the enzyme.

 

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015265586 2015-09-24 COMPOUNDS MODULATING C-FMS AND/OR C-KIT ACTIVITY AND USES THEREFOR
US2014243365 2014-08-28 COMPOUNDS MODULATING C-FMS AND/OR C-KIT ACTIVITY AND USES THEREFOR
US8722702 2014-05-13 Compounds modulating c-fms and/or c-kit activity and uses therefor
US2014045840 2014-02-13 COMPOUNDS AND METHODS FOR KINASE MODULATION, AND INDICATIONS THEREFOR
US2013274259 2013-10-17 KINASE MODULATION AND INDICATIONS THEREFOR
US8404700 2013-03-26 Compounds modulating c-fms and/or c-kit activity and uses therefor
US2011230482 2011-09-22 COMPOUNDS MODULATING C-FMS AND/OR C-KIT ACTIVITY
US7893075 2011-02-22 Compounds modulating c-fms and/or c-kit activity and uses therefor

//////1029044-16-3, Pexidartinib , PLX-3397, PHASE3

FC(F)(F)c1ccc(cn1)CNc2ccc(cn2)Cc4cnc3ncc(Cl)cc34

Start of the Euro 2016

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Gilteritinib for Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

 Phase 3 drug, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Gilteritinib for Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Jun 102016
 

Gilteritinib

ASP-2215

Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

6-ethyl-3-{3-methoxy-4-[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]anilino}-5-[(oxan-4-yl)amino]pyrazine-2-carboxamide

C29H44N8O3, 552.71

Phase III

A FLT3/AXL inhibitor potentially for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

CAS No. 1254053-43-4

Astellas Pharma  INNOVATOR
Mechanism Of Action Axl receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 inhibitors, Proto oncogene protein c-kit inhibitors
Who Atc Codes L01X-E (Protein kinase inhibitors)
Ephmra Codes L1H (Protein Kinase Inhibitor Antineoplastics)
Indication Cancer, Hepatic impairment

Gilteritinib(ASP-2215) is a potent FLT3/AXL inhibitor with IC50 of 0.29 nM/<1 nM respectively; shows potent antileukemic activity against AML with either or both FLT3-ITD and FLT3-D835 mutations.
IC50 value: 0.29 nM(FLT3); <1 nM(Axl kinase)
Target: FLT3/AXL inhibitor
ASP2215 inhibited the growth of MV4-11 cells, which harbor FLT3-ITD, with an IC50 value of 0.92 nM, accompanied with inhibition of pFLT3, pAKT, pSTAT5, pERK, and pS6. ASP2215 decreased tumor burden in bone marrow and prolonged the survival of mice intravenously transplanted with MV4-11 cells. ASP2215 may have potential use in treating AML.

SYNTHESIS

STR1

 

Patent

WO 2015119122

Compound A is 6-ethyl-3 – ({3-methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} amino) -5- a (tetrahydro -2H- pyran-4-ylamino) pyrazine-2-carboxamide, its chemical structure is shown below.
[Formula 1]

Gilteritinib fumarate

1254053-84-3.png

2D chemical structure of 1254053-84-3

Gilteritinib fumarate [USAN]

RN: 1254053-84-3

UNII: 5RZZ0Z1GJT

2-Pyrazinecarboxamide, 6-ethyl-3-((3-methoxy-4-(4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-1-piperidinyl)phenyl)amino)-5-((tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)amino)-, (2E)-2-butenedioate (2:1)

  • ASP-2215 hemifumarate
  • Molecular Formula, 2C29-H44-N8-O3.C4-H4-O4, Molecular Weight, 1221.5108

Astellas Inititaties Phase 3 Registration Trial of gilteritinib (ASP2215) in Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients

gilteritinib-ASP2215

TOKYO, Japan I October 28, 2015 I Astellas Pharma Inc. (TSE:4503) today announced dosing of the first patient in a randomized Phase 3 registration trial of gilteritinib (ASP2215)versus salvage chemotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The primary endpoint of the trial is overall survival (OS).

Gilteritinibis a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of FLT3 and AXL, which are involved in the growth of cancer cells. Gilteritinibhas demonstrated inhibitory activity against FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) as well as tyrosine kinase domain (TKD), two common types of FLT3 mutations that are seen in up to one third of patients with AML.

The gilteritinib Phase 3 trial follows a Phase 1/2 trial, which evaluated doses from 20 to 450 mg once daily. A parallel multi-dose expansion cohort was initiated based on the efficacy seen in the dose escalation phase. Preliminary data from the Phase 1/2 trial presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting demonstrated a 57.5 percent overall response rate and a 47.2 percent composite Complete Response (CR) rate (CR + CR with incomplete platelet recovery + CR with incomplete hematologic recovery) in 106 patients with FLT3 mutations who received 80 mg and higher doses. Median duration of response was 18 weeks across all doses and median OS was approximately 27 weeks at 80 mg and above in FLT3 mutation positive patients. Common drug-related adverse events (> 10%) observed in the study were diarrhea (13.4%), fatigue (12.4%) and AST increase (11.3%). At the 450 mg dose, two patients reached dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 diarrhea and ALT/AST elevation) and the maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 300 mg.

On October 27, 2015, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) announced the selection of gilteritinib as one of the first products designated for SAKIGAKE.

About the Phase 3 Study

The Phase 3 trial is an open-label, multicenter, randomized study of gilteritinib versus salvage chemotherapy in patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). The study will enroll 369 patients with FLT3 activating mutation in bone marrow or whole blood, as determined by central lab, AML who are refractory to or have relapsed after first-line AML therapy. Subjects will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive gilteritinib (120 mg) or salvage chemotherapy consisting of LoDAC (low-dose cytarabine), azacitidine, MEC (mitoxantrone, etoposide, and intermediate-dose cytarabine), or FLAG-IDA (fludarabine, cytarabine, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with idarubicin). The primary endpoint of the trial is OS. For more information about this trial go to www.clinicaltrials.gov, trial identifier NCT02421939.

Gilteritinib was discovered through a research collaboration with Kotobuki Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., and Astellas has exclusive global rights to develop, manufacture and potentially commercialize gilteritinib.

About Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia is a cancer that impacts the blood and bone marrow and most commonly experienced in older adults. According to the//www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@editorial/documents/document/acspc-044552.pdf” target=”_blank” rel=”nofollow”>American Cancer Society, in 2015, there will be an estimated 20,830 new cases of AML diagnosed in the United States, and about 10,460 cases will result in death.

About SAKIGAKE

The SAKIGAKE designation system can shorten the review period in the following three approaches: 1.) Prioritized Consultation 2.) Substantial Pre-application Consultation and 3.) Prioritized Review. Also, the system will promote development with the following two approaches: 4.) Review Partner System (to be conducted by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency) and 5.) Substantial Post-Marketing Safety Measures.

About Astellas

Astellas Pharma Inc., based in Tokyo, Japan, is a company dedicated to improving the health of people around the world through the provision of innovative and reliable pharmaceutical products. We focus on Urology, Oncology, Immunology, Nephrology and Neuroscience as prioritized therapeutic areas while advancing new therapeutic areas and discovery research leveraging new technologies/modalities. We are also creating new value by combining internal capabilities and external expertise in the medical/healthcare business. Astellas is on the forefront of healthcare change to turn innovative science into value for patients. For more information, please visit our website at www.astellas.com/en.

SOURCE: Astellas Pharma

////////1254053-43-4, Gilteritinib, ASP-2215, PHASE 3, ASP 2215, Astellas Pharma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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Ponesimod

 Phase 3 drug, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Ponesimod
Jun 092016
 

Ponesimod.svg

Ponesimod

Phase III

MW 460.97, C23 H25 Cl N2 O4 S

A sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) agonist potentially for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  • (2Z,5Z)-5-[[3-Chloro-4-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy]phenyl]methylene]-3-(2-methylphenyl)-2-(propylimino)-4-thiazolidinone
  • 5-[3-Chloro-4-[((2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl)oxy]benz-(Z)-ylidene]-2-((Z)-propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one
  • ACT 128800

ACT-128800; RG-3477; R-3477

CAS No. 854107-55-4

SYNTHESIS

STR1

Ponesimod

str1

str1

 

NMR CDCL3 FROM NET

 

 

STR1

 

 

STR1

 

 

STR1

 

STR1

 

STR1

SEE……http://www.slideserve.com/truda/discovery-of-the-novel-orally-active-s1p-1-receptor-agonist-act-128800-ponesimod

Ponesimod (INN, codenamed ACT-128800) is an experimental drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and psoriasis. It is being developed by Actelion.

The first oral treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis, the nonselective sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator fingolimod, led to identification of a pivotal role of sphingosine-1-phosphate and one of its five known receptors, S1P1R, in regulation of lymphocyte trafficking in multiple sclerosis. Modulation of S1P3R, initially thought to cause some of fingolimod’s side effects, prompted the search for novel compounds with high selectivity for S1P1R. Ponesimod is an orally active, selective S1P1R modulator that causes dose-dependent sequestration of lymphocytes in lymphoid organs. In contrast to the long half-life/slow elimination of fingolimod, ponesimod is eliminated within 1 week of discontinuation and its pharmacological effects are rapidly reversible. Clinical data in multiple sclerosis have shown a dose-dependent therapeutic effect of ponesimod and defined 20 mg as a daily dose with desired efficacy, and acceptable safety and tolerability. Phase II clinical data have also shown therapeutic efficacy of ponesimod in psoriasis. These findings have increased our understanding of psoriasis pathogenesis and suggest clinical utility of S1P1R modulation for treatment of various immune-mediated disorders. A gradual dose titration regimen was found to minimize the cardiac effects associated with initiation of ponesimod treatment. Selectivity for S1P1R, rapid onset and reversibility of pharmacological effects, and an optimized titration regimen differentiate ponesimod from fingolimod, and may lead to better safety and tolerability. Ponesimod is currently in phase III clinical development to assess efficacy and safety in relapsing multiple sclerosis. A phase II study is also ongoing to investigate the potential utility of ponesimod in chronic graft versus host disease.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4707431/

Biology and pharmacology of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1

The past decades have witnessed major advances in the treatment of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. A plethora of novel therapies targeting specific molecules involved in the inflammatory or immune system activation cascades have become available. These have significantly increased our understanding of disease pathogenesis and improved the management of immune-mediated disorders. However, most of the targeted therapies are biological drugs which need to be injected, are eliminated slowly (e.g. over several weeks) and can lose efficacy or tolerability due to their potential immunogenicity. In an attempt to overcome these hurdles, pharmaceutical research has made considerable efforts to develop novel oral targeted therapies for autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases.

Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1R) is one of five known G protein-coupled receptors with nanomolar affinity for the lysophospholipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is generated through physiologic metabolism of the cell membrane constituent sphingomyelin by all cells [Brinkmann, 2007]. S1P receptors, including S1P1R, are widely expressed in many tissues [Chun et al. 2010]. S1P1R expression on lymphocytes controls their egress from thymus and secondary lymphoid organs [Cyster and Schwab, 2012]. Lymphocyte egress requires a gradient of S1P concentration, which is established by a high S1P concentration in blood and lymph compared with a low concentration in the interstitial fluid of lymphoid organs [Grigorova et al. 2009].

Synthetic S1P1 receptor modulators disrupt the interaction of the physiologic S1P ligand with S1P1R by promoting initial activation followed by sustained internalization and desensitization of S1P1R [Hla and Brinkmann, 2011; Pinschewer et al. 2011]. Experiments conducted in animal models of transplant rejection, multiple sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease with the first-generation, nonselective S1P receptor modulator, fingolimod, have demonstrated the potential efficacy of this mode of action across several immune-mediated chronic inflammatory conditions [Brinkmann, 2007]. Fingolimod is a structural analog of sphingosine that is phosphorylated in the body by a sphingosine kinase to generate the bioactive form of the drug, fingolimod phosphate, which binds to multiple S1P receptors [Brinkmann, 2007]. Clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS) have confirmed the efficacy of fingolimod in relapsing MS, but not in primary progressive disease, and led to the approval of the first oral medication for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS in 2010 [Kappos et al. 2010].

The mechanism of action of fingolimod has increased our understanding of MS pathogenesis. T and B cells, but not natural killer (NK) cells, express functional S1P1R and are affected by fingolimod [Cyster and Schwab, 2012]. Furthermore, S1P1R is differentially expressed and regulated in functionally distinct subsets of lymphocytes and fingolimod has been shown to predominantly affect naïve T cells and central memory T cells (TCM) while sparing effector memory T cells (TEM), and terminally differentiated effector T cells (TE) in patients with relapsing MS [Mehling et al. 2008, 2011]. This has raised the possibility that, at least in MS, retention of TCM cells, which include pro-inflammatory T helper 17 (Th17) cells, by fingolimod may prevent their accumulation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and subsequent differentiation to TE cells in the central nervous system (CNS) [Hla and Brinkmann, 2011]. The effects of S1P1R modulation on B cells are less well defined. Recent data from patients with relapsing MS have shown predominant reduction of memory B cells and recently activated memory B cells (CD38int-high) in peripheral blood after treatment with fingolimod [Claes et al. 2014; Nakamura et al. 2014]. As memory B cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of MS and other autoimmune diseases, these observations suggest another potential mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of S1P1R modulators.

Astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes and neurons express various S1P receptors including S1P1R, S1P3R and S1P5R. Fingolimod has been shown to penetrate the CNS tissues and in vitro studies have shown activation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes by fingolimod [Foster et al. 2007]. Conditional deletion of S1P1R on neural cells in mice reduced the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and reductions in the clinical scores were paralleled by decreased demyelination, axonal loss and astrogliosis [Choi et al. 2011]. Unfortunately, there was no beneficial effect in a recently completed, large study of fingolimod in patients with primary progressive MS [Lublin et al. 2015], suggesting that the direct effect on CNS cells alone may not be sufficient. Taken together, these data suggest the possibility of a direct beneficial effect of S1P1R modulation in the brain of patients with relapsing MS [Dev et al. 2008]; however, its contribution to efficacy relative to the immunological effects remains unclear.

Initial studies in rodents suggested that modulation of S1P3R on cardiac myocytes by fingolimod was associated with a reduction of heart rate (HR) by activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK) that regulate pacemaker frequency, and the shape and duration of action potentials [Koyrakh et al. 2005; Camm et al. 2014]. Modulation of S1P2R and S1P3R on myofibroblasts by fingolimod was also shown to stimulate extracellular matrix synthesis [Sobel et al. 2013]. Modulation of these receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells appeared to be associated with vasoconstriction, leading to the slight increase in blood pressure observed with fingolimod treatment [Salomone et al. 2003; Watterson et al. 2005; Hu et al. 2006; Lorenz et al. 2007; Kappos et al. 2010]. These observations raised the possibility that some side effects associated with fingolimod treatment could be avoided by more selective S1P1R modulators, thus triggering the search for novel compounds.

Currently, there are several selective S1P1R modulators in clinical development [Gonzalez-Cabrera et al.2014; Subei and Cohen, 2015]. Here we review data and the development status of ponesimod, a selective S1P1R modulator developed by Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4707431/

Ponesimod, a selective, rapidly reversible, orally active, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator

Ponesimod (ACT-128800 (Z,Z)-5-[3-chloro-4-(2R)-2,3-dihydroxy-propoxy)-benzylidene]-2-propylimino-3-o-tolylthiazolidin-4-one) is a selective, rapidly reversible, orally active, S1P1R modulator. Ponesimod emerged from the discovery of a novel class of S1P1R agonists based on the 2-imino-thiazolidin-4-one scaffold (Figure 1) [Bolli et al. 2010]. Ponesimod activates S1P1R with high potency [half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 5.7 nM] and selectivity. Relative to the potency of S1P, the potency of ponesimod is 4.4 higher for S1P1R and 150-fold lower for S1P3R, resulting in an approximately 650-fold higher S1P1R selectivity compared with the natural ligand.

Figure 1.

Chemical structure of ponesimod, C23H25N2O4CIS (molecular weight 460.98).http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4707431/

Clinical trials

In a 2009–2011 Phase II clinical trial including 464 MS patients, ponesimod treatment resulted in fewer new active brain lesions thanplacebo, measured during the course of 24 weeks.[3][4]

In a 2010–2012 Phase II clinical trial including 326 patients with psoriasis, 46 or 48% of patients (depending on dosage) had a reduction of at least 75% Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score compared to placebo in 16 weeks.[3][5]

SEE https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02425644

Adverse effects

Common adverse effects in studies were temporary bradycardia (slow heartbeat), usually at the beginning of the treatment,dyspnoea (breathing difficulties), and increased liver enzymes (without symptoms). No significant increase of infections was observed under ponesimod therapy.[3] QT prolongation is detectable but was considered to be too low to be of clinical importance in a study.[6]

Mechanism of action

Like fingolimod, which is already approved for the treatment of MS, ponesimod blocks the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor. This mechanism prevents lymphocytes (a type of white blood cells) from leaving lymph nodes.[3] Ponesimod is selective for subtype 1 of this receptor, S1P1.[7]

 

PAPER

Bolli, Martin H.; Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2010, V53(10), P4198-4211 CAPLUS

2-Imino-thiazolidin-4-one Derivatives as Potent, Orally Active S1P1Receptor Agonists

Drug Discovery Chemistry, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Gewerbestrasse 16, CH-4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
J. Med. Chem., 2010, 53 (10), pp 4198–4211
DOI: 10.1021/jm100181s
Publication Date (Web): May 06, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone: + 41 61 565 65 70. Fax: + 41 61 565 65 00. E-mail:martin.bolli@actelion.com.
Abstract Image

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a widespread lysophospholipid which displays a wealth of biological effects. Extracellular S1P conveys its activity through five specific G-protein coupled receptors numbered S1P1 through S1P5. Agonists of the S1P1 receptor block the egress of T-lymphocytes from thymus and lymphoid organs and hold promise for the oral treatment of autoimmune disorders. Here, we report on the discovery and detailed structure−activity relationships of a novel class of S1P1 receptor agonists based on the 2-imino-thiazolidin-4-one scaffold. Compound 8bo (ACT-128800) emerged from this series and is a potent, selective, and orally active S1P1 receptor agonist selected for clinical development. In the rat, maximal reduction of circulating lymphocytes was reached at a dose of 3 mg/kg. The duration of lymphocyte sequestration was dose dependent. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the effect on lymphocyte counts was fully reversible within less than 36 h. Pharmacokinetic investigation of8bo in beagle dogs suggests that the compound is suitable for once daily dosing in humans.

(Z,Z)-5-[3-Chloro-4-((2R)-2,3-dihydroxy-propoxy)-benzylidene]-2-propylimino-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one (8bo)

…………..DELETED…………… column chromatography on silica gel eluting with heptane:ethyl acetate 1:4 to give the title compound (1.34 g, 37%) as a pale-yellow foam.
1H NMR (CDCl3): δ 0.94 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3 H), 1.58−1.70 (m, 2 H), 2.21 (s, 3 H), 3.32−3.48 (m, 2 H), 3.82−3.95 (m, 3 H), 4.12−4.27 (m, 4 H), 7.07 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.21 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.31−7.39 (m, 3 H), 7.49 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.64 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.69 (s, 1 H).
13C NMR (CDCl3): δ 11.83, 17.68, 23.74, 55.42, 63.46, 69.85, 70.78, 133.48, 120.75, 123.71, 127.05, 128.25, 128.60, 129.43, 130.06, 131.13, 131.50, 134.42, 136.19, 146.98, 154.75, 166.12. LC-MS (ES+): tR 0.96 min. m/z: 461 (M + H).
HPLC (ChiralPak AD-H, 4.6 mm × 250 mm, 0.8 mL/min, 70% hexane in ethanol): tR 11.8 min. Anal. (C23H25N2O4SCl): C, H, N, O, S, Cl.

PATENT

WO 2014027330

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2014027330A1?cl=3Den

The present invention relates inter alia to a new process for the preparation of (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one (hereinafter also referred to as the “COMPOUND” or “compound (2)”), especially in crystalline form C which form is described in WO 2010/046835. The preparation of COMPOUND and its activity as immunosuppressive agent is described in WO 2005/054215. Furthermore, WO 2008/062376 describes a new process for the preparation of (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-benzylidene)-2-propylimino-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one which can be used as an intermediate in the preparation of COMPOUND.

Example 1 a) below describes such a process of preparing (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-benzylidene)-2-propylimino-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one according to WO 2008/062376. According to WO 2008/062376 the obtained (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-benzylidene)-2-propylimino-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one can then be transformed into COMPOUND by using standard methods for the alkylation of phenols. Such an alkylation is described in Example 1 b) below. Unfortunately, this process leads to the impurity (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((1 ,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl)oxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one which is present in about 2% w/w in the crude product (see Table 1 ) and up to 6 recrystallisations are necessary in order to get this impurity below 0.4% w/w (see Tables 1 and 2) which is the specified limit based on its toxicological qualification.

the obtained (R)-3-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-benzaldehyde (1 ) with 2-[(Z)-propylimino]-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one to form (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one (2):


.

The reaction of (R)-3-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-benzaldehyde (1 ) with 2-[(Z)-propylimino]-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one can be performed under conditions which are typical for a Knoevenagel condensation. Such conditions are described in the literature for example in Jones, G., Knoevenagel Condensation in Organic Reaction, Wiley: New York, 1967, Vol. 15, p 204; or Prout, F. S., Abdel-Latif, A. A., Kamal, M. R., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2012, 57, 1881-1886.

2-[(Z)-Propylimino]-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one can be prepared as described in WO 2008/062376, preferably without the isolation and/or purification of intermediates such as the thiourea intermediate that occurs after reacting o-tolyl-iso-thiocyanate with n-propylamine. Preferably 2-[(Z)-propylimino]-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one obtained according to WO 2008/062376 is also not isolated and/or purified before performing the Knoevenagel condensation, i.e. before reacting 2-[(Z)-propylimino]-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one with (R)-3-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-benzaldehyde (1 ), i.e. in a preferred embodiment compound (2) is prepared in a one-pot procedure analogous to that described in WO 2008/062376.

 

Example 1 : (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-Chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one

a) Preparation of (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-benzylidene)-2-propylimino-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one:

Acetic acid solution: To acetic acid (149.2 mL) are added sodium acetate (1 1 .1 1 g, 2.00 eq.) and 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10.60 g, 1.00 eq.) at 20 °C. The mixture is stirred at 20 °C until complete dissolution (2 to 3 h).

n-Propylamine (4.04 g, 1.00 eq.) is added to a solution of o-tolyl-iso-thiocyanate (10 g, 1.00 eq.) in dichloromethane (100 mL) at 20 °C. The resulting pale yellow solution is agitated for 40 min at 20 °C before IPC (conversion specification≥ 99.0 %). The reaction is cooled to -2 °C. Bromoacetyl bromide (13.53 g, 1.00 eq.) is added and the resulting solution is stirred for 15 min at -2 °C. Pyridine (10.92 g, 2.05 eq.) is then added slowly at -2 °C. The intensive yellow reaction mixture is stirred for 15 min at -2 °C before IPC (conversion specification≥ 93.0 %). 70 mL of dichloromethane are distilled off under atmospheric pressure and jacket temperature of 60 °C. The temperature is adjusted to 42 °C and the acetic acid solution is added to the reaction mixture. The resulting solution is heated to 58 °C and stirred at this temperature for 15 h before IPC (conversion specification≥ 95 %). 25 mL of solvents are distilled off under vacuum 900 – 500 mbars and jacket temperature of 80 °C. The temperature is adjusted to 60 °C and water (80.1 mL) is added to the reaction mixture over 1 h. The resulting yellow suspension is stirred at 60 °C for 30 min. The suspension is cooled to 20 °C over 1 h and stirred at this temperature for 30 min.

The product is filtered and washed with a mixture of acetic acid (30 mL) and water (16 mL) and with water (50 mL) at 20 °C. The product is dried under vacuum at 50 °C for 40 h to afford a pale yellow solid; yield 25.93 g (78 %).

b) Preparation of crude (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one:

To a suspension of (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-benzylidene)-2-propylimino-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one (10.00 g, 1.00 eq.) in ethanol (47.2 mL) is added (R)-3-chloro-1 ,2-

propanediol (3.37 g, 1.18 eq.) at 20 °C. Potassium tert-butoxide (3.39 g, 1.13 eq.) is added in portions at 20 °C. The resulting fine suspension is stirred at 20 °C for 25 min before being heated to reflux (88 °C). The reaction mixture is stirred at this temperature for 24 h before IPC (conversion specification≥ 96.0 %). After cooling down to 60 °C, acetonitrile (28.6 mL) and water (74.9 mL) are added. The resulting clear solution is cooled from 60 °C to 0 °C over 2 h. During the cooling ramp, (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one seeds of crystalline form C (0.010 g, 0.001 eq.; crystalline form C can be prepared as described in WO 2010/046835) are added at 50 °C. The suspension is heated from 0 °C to 50 °C, cooled to 0 °C over 6 h and stirred at this temperature for 12 h.

The product is filtered and washed with a mixture of acetonitrile (23.4 mL) and water (23.4 mL) at 0 °C. The product is dried under vacuum at 45 °C for 24 h to afford a pale yellow solid; yield 1 1.91 g (84 %).

c) Purification of (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one:

Recrystallisation I: The crude (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one (10 g) is dissolved in acetonitrile (30 mL) at 70 °C. The reaction mixture is cooled from 70 °C to 0 °C over 2 h. During the cooling ramp, (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one seeds of crystalline form C (0.0075 g, 0.00075 eq.) are added at 50 °C. The suspension is heated up to 52 °C, cooled to 0 °C over 6 h and agitated at this temperature for 2 h. The product is filtered and washed with acetonitrile at -10 °C (2 x 12.8 mL).

Recrystallisation II: The wet product is dissolved in acetonitrile (27.0 mL) at 70 °C. The reaction mixture is cooled from 70 °C to 0 °C over 2 h. During the cooling ramp, (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one seeds of crystalline form C (0.0075 g, 0.00075 eq.) are added at 50 °C. The suspension is heated up to 52 °C, cooled to 0 °C over 6 h and agitated at this temperature for 2 h. The product is filtered and washed with acetonitrile at -10 °C (2 x 1 1.3 mL).

Recrystallisation III: The wet product is dissolved in acetonitrile (24.3 mL) at 70 °C. The reaction mixture is cooled from 70 °C to 0 °C over 2 h. During the cooling ramp, (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4- one seeds of crystalline form C (0.0075 g, 0.00075 eq.) are added at 50 °C. The suspension is heated up to 52 °C, cooled to 0 °C over 6 h and agitated at this temperature for 2 h. The product is filtered and washed with acetonitrile at -10 °C (2 x 10.1 mL).

Recrystallisation IV: The wet product is dissolved in acetonitrile (21.9 mL) at 70 °C. The reaction mixture is cooled from 70 °C to 0 °C over 2 h. During the cooling ramp, (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one seeds of crystalline form C (0.0075 g, 0.00075 eq.) are added at 50 °C. The suspension is heated up to 52 °C, cooled to 0 °C over 6 h and agitated at this temperature for 2 h. The product is filtered and washed with acetonitrile at -10 °C (2 x 9.1 mL).

Recrystallisation V: The wet product is dissolved in acetonitrile (19.7 mL) at 70 °C. The reaction mixture is cooled from 70 °C to 0 °C over 2 h. During the cooling ramp, (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one seeds of crystalline form C (0.0075 g, 0.00075 eq.) are added at 50 °C. The suspension is heated up to 52 °C, cooled to 0 °C over 6 h and agitated at this temperature for 2 h. The product is filtered and washed with acetonitrile at -10 °C (2 x 8.2 mL).

Recrystallisation VI: The wet product is dissolved in acetonitrile (23.9 mL) at 70 °C. Water (20 mL) is added at 70 °C. The reaction mixture is cooled from 70 °C to 0 °C over 2 h.

During the cooling ramp, (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2- (propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one seeds of crystalline form C (0.0075 g, 0.00075 eq.) are added at 50 °C. The suspension is heated up to 52 °C, cooled to 0 °C over 6 h and agitated at this temperature for 2 h. The product is filtered and washed twice with a mixture of acetonitrile (4.5 mL) and water (4.5 mL) at -10 °C.

The product is dried under vacuum at 45 °C for 24 h to afford a pale yellow solid; yield: 7.0 g (70 %).

Example 2: (R)-3-Chloro-4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-benzaldehyde

Potassium tert-butoxide (1 18 g, 1.20 eq.) is added to n-propanol (963 mL) followed by 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (137 g, 1.00 eq.). To the mixture is added (R)-3-chloro-1 ,2-propanediol (126 g, 1.30 eq.). The suspension is heated to 90 °C and stirred at this temperature for 17 h. Solvent (500 mL) is distilled off at 120 °C external temperature and reduced pressure. Water is added (1.1 L) and solvent (500 mL) is removed by distillation. The turbid solution is cooled to 20 °C. After stirring for one hour a white suspension is obtained. Water (500 mL) is added and the suspension is cooled to 10 °C. The suspension is filtered and the resulting filter cake is washed with water (500 mL). The product is dried at 50 °C and reduced pressure to yield 149 g of a white solid (73%), which is (R)-3-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-benzaldehyde in crystalline form A.

Example 3: (R)-3-Chloro-4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-benzaldehyde

Potassium tert-butoxide (8.60 g, 1.20 eq.) is added to n-propanol (70 mL) below 15 °C, the temperature is allowed to rise. After the addition the temperature is corrected again to below 15 °C before addition of 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10 g, 1 .00 eq.). The suspension is heated to 40 °C and stirred for 30 min. (R)-3-Chloro-1 ,2-propanediol (9.18 g, 1.30 eq.) is added at 40 °C. The resulting suspension is heated to 60 °C and stirred at this temperature for 15 h then heated to 94 °C till meeting the IPC-specification (specification conversion≥ 90.0 %). The mixture is cooled to 30 °C and n-propanol is partially distilled off (-50 mL are distilled off) under reduced pressure and a maximum temperature of 50 °C, the jacket temperature is not allowed to raise above 60 °C.

Water (81 mL) is added and a second distillation is performed under the same conditions (24 mL are distilled off). The mixture is heated till homogeneous (maximum 54 °C) and then cooled to 24 °C. At 24 °C the mixture is seeded with crystalline (R)-3-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-benzaldehyde of form A (0.013 g, 0.00085 eq.). How to obtain the crystalline seeds is described in Examples 2 and 5. The reaction mixture is cooled to 0 °C over 7.5 h.

The product is filtered and washed with water (2 x 35 mL) and once with methyl tert-butyl ether (20 mL) at 5 °C. The product is dried under vacuum at 40 °C for 20 h to afford an off-white solid; yield: 10.6 g (72 %), which is (R)-3-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-benzaldehyde in crystalline form A.

Example 4: (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-Chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)- 3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one

a) Preparation of crude (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one:

n-Propylamine (5.23 g, 1.32 eq.) is added to a solution of o-tolyl-iso-thiocyanate (10 g, 1.00 eq.) in dichloromethane (100 mL) at 20 °C. The resulting pale yellow solution is agitated for 15 min at 20 °C before IPC (conversion specification≥ 99.0 %). The reaction is cooled to -2 °C. Bromoacetyl bromide (14.88 g, 1.10 eq.) is added and the resulting solution is stirred for 15 min at -2 °C. Pyridine (10.92 g, 2.05 eq.) is then added slowly at -2 °C. The intensive yellow reaction mixture is stirred for 15 min at -2 °C before IPC (conversion specification≥ 93.0 %). Dichloromethane is partially distilled off (66 mL are distilled off) under atmospheric pressure and jacket temperature of 60 °C. Ethanol (1 1 1.4 mL), sodium acetate (12.75 g, 2.30 eq.) and (R)-3-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-benzaldehyde from Example 3 (14.38 g, 0.93 eq.) are added. The remaining dichloromethane and a part of ethanol are distilled off (49.50 mL are distilled off) under atmospheric pressure and jacket temperature up to 85 °C. The reaction mixture (orange suspension) is stirred for 3 – 5 h under reflux (78 °C) before IPC (conversion specification≥ 97.0 %).

Water (88.83 mL) is added and the temperature adjusted to 40 °C before seeding with micronized (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one in crystalline form C (0.075 g, 0.0024 eq.). The reaction mixture is cooled to 0 °C over 5 h, heated up to 40 °C, cooled to 0 °C over 6 h and stirred at this temperature for 2 h.

The product is filtered and washed with a 1 :1 ethanohwater mixture (2 x 48 mL) at 0 °C. The product is dried under vacuum at 45 °C for 10 h to afford a pale yellow solid; yield: 24.71 g (86 %).

b) Purification of (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one:

The crude (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one (10 g) is dissolved in ethanol (40 mL) at 70 °C. The temperature is adjusted at 50 °C for seeding with micronised (2Z,5Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-((R)-2,3- dihydroxypropoxy)benzylidene)-2-(propylimino)-3-(o-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one in crystalline form C (0.016 g, 0.0016 eq.). The reaction mixture is cooled from 50 °C to 0 °C over 4 h, heated up to 50 °C, cooled to 0 °C over 6 h and agitated at this temperature for 2 h.

The product is filtered and washed with ethanol at 0 °C (2 x 12.8 mL). The product is dried under vacuum at 45 °C for 10 h to afford a pale yellow solid; yield: 9.2 g (92 %).

Example 5: Preparation of crystalline seeds of (R)-3-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)- benzaldehyde

10 mg of (R)-3-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-benzaldehyde of at least 99.5% purity by 1 H-NMR assay is dissolved in a 4 mL vial by adding 1 mL of pure ethanol (puriss p. a.). The solvent is allowed to evaporate through a small hole in the cap (approx. 2 mm of diameter) of the vial until complete dryness. The white solid residue is crystalline (R)-3-chloro-4-(2,3- dihydroxypropoxy)-benzaldehyde in crystalline form A. Alternatively, methanol or methylisobutylketone (both in puriss p. a. quality) is used. This procedure is repeated until sufficient seeds are made available.

PATENT

WO 2005054215

SEE https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2005054215

 

 

 

 

WO2005054215A1 Nov 16, 2004 Jun 16, 2005 Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd 5-(benz- (z) -ylidene) -thiazolidin-4-one derivatives as immunosuppressant agents
WO2008062376A2 Nov 22, 2007 May 29, 2008 Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd New process for the preparation of 2-imino-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives
WO2010046835A1 Oct 19, 2009 Apr 29, 2010 Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd Crystalline forms of (r) -5- [3-chloro-4- ( 2, 3-dihydroxy-propoxy) -benz [z] ylidene] -2- ( [z] -propylimino) -3-0-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one
Reference
1 * BOLLI, M.H. ET AL.: “2-Imino-thiazolidin-4-one Derivatives as Potent, Orally Active S1P1 Receptor Agonists“, JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 53, no. 10, 2010, pages 4198-4211, XP55090073, ISSN: 0022-2623, DOI: 10.1021/jm100181s

References

  1. “Multiple-dose tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ponesimod, an S1P1 receptor modulator: Favorable impact of dose up-titration”. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 54: 179–88. Feb 2014. doi:10.1002/jcph.244. PMID 24408162.
  2.  “Mass balance, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the selective S1P1 receptor modulator ponesimod in humans”. Xenobiotica 45: 139–49. Feb 2015. doi:10.3109/00498254.2014.955832. PMID 25188442.
  3. H. Spreitzer (29 September 2014). “Neue Wirkstoffe – Ponesimod”. Österreichische Apothekerzeitung (in German) (20/2014): 42.
  4.  “Oral ponesimod in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised phase II trial”. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery 85: 1198–208. Nov 2014. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2013-307282. PMC 4215282. PMID 24659797.
  5.  “Oral ponesimod in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial”. The Lancet 384: 2036–45. Dec 2014. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60803-5. PMID 25127208.
  6. “Effect of Ponesimod, a selective S1P1 Receptor Modulator, on the QT Interval in Healthy Subjects”. Basic 116: 429–37. May 2015.doi:10.1111/bcpt.12336. PMID 25287214.
  7.  “Ponesimod”. Actelion. Retrieved 31 October 2014.

ABOUT PONESIMOD

Ponesimod is a potent orally active, selective sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) immunomodulator.

Ponesimod prevents lymphocytes from leaving lymph nodes, thereby reducing circulating blood lymphocyte counts and preventing infiltration of lymphocytes into target tissues. The lymphocyte count reduction is rapid, dose-dependent, sustained upon continued dosing, and quickly reversible upon discontinuation. Initial data suggest that ponesimod does not cause lymphotoxicity by destroying/depleting lymphocytes or interfering with their cellular function. Other blood cells e.g. cells of the innate immune system are largely unaffected. Ponesimod is therefore considered a promising new oral agent for the treatment of a variety of autoimmune disorders.

CURRENT STATUS

OPTIMUM (Oral Ponesimod versus Teriflunomide In relapsing MUltiple sclerosis) is a Phase III multi-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled superiority study to compare the efficacy and safety of ponesimod to teriflunomide in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). The study aims to determine whether ponesimod is more efficacious than teriflunomide in reducing relapses. The study is expected to enroll approximately 1’100 patients, randomized in 2 groups in a 1:1 ratio to receive ponesimod 20 mg/day or teriflunomide 14 mg/day, and is expected to last a little over 3 years. An additional study to further characterize the utility and differentiation of ponesimod in multiple sclerosis is being discussed with Health Authorities.

Ponesimod is also evaluated in a Phase II open-label, single-arm, intra-subject dose-escalation study to investigate the biological activity, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ponesimod in patients suffering from moderate or severe chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD)inadequately responding to first- or second-line therapy. The study will also investigate the clinical response to ponesimod treatment in these patients. Approximately 30 patients will be enrolled to receive ponesimod in escalating doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/day over the course of 24 weeks. The study is being conducted at approximately 10 sites in the US and is expected to last approximately 18 months.

AVAILABLE CLINICAL DATA

The decision to move into Phase III development was based on the Phase IIb dose-finding study with ponesimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. A total of 464 patients were randomized into this study and the efficacy, safety and tolerability of three ponesimod doses (10, 20, and 40 mg/day) versus placebo, administered once daily for 24 weeks.

The primary endpoint of this study was defined as the cumulative number of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at weeks 12, 16, 20, and 24 after study drug initiation. A key secondary endpoint of this study was the annualized relapse rate over 24 weeks of treatment. Patients who completed 24 weeks of treatment were offered the opportunity to enter into an extension study. This ongoing trial is investigating the long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of 10 and 20 mg/day of ponesimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, in a double-blind fashion. The study continues to provide extensive safety and efficacy information for ponesimod in this indication, with some patients treated for more than 6 years.

The safety database from all studies with ponesimod now comprises more than 1,300 patients and healthy volunteers.

MILESTONES

2015 – Phase III program in multiple sclerosis initiated
2011 – Phase IIb dose-finding study in multiple sclerosis successfully completed
2006 – Entry-into-man
2004 – Preclinical development initiated

KEY SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

Olsson T et al. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr. 2014 Nov;85(11):1198-208. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2013-307282. Epub 2014 Mar 21

Freedman M.S, et al. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 2012; 18 (4 suppl): 420 (P923).

Fernández Ó, et al. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 2012; 18 (4 suppl): 417 (P919).

Piali L, Froidevaux S, Hess P, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 337(2):547-56, 2011

Bolli MH, Abele S, Binkert C, et al. J Med Chem. 53(10):4198-211, 2010

Kappos L et al. N Engl J Med. 362(5):387-401, 2010

Ponesimod
Ponesimod.svg
Ponesimod ball-and-stick model.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2Z,5Z)-5-{3-Chloro-4-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy]benzylidene}-3-(2-methylphenyl)-2-(propylimino)-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
  • Investigational
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism 2 main metabolites
Biological half-life 31–34 hrs[1]
Excretion Feces (57–80%, 26% unchanged), urine (10–18%)[2]
Identifiers
CAS Number 854107-55-4
ATC code none
PubChem CID 11363176
ChemSpider 9538103
ChEMBL CHEMBL1096146
Synonyms ACT-128800
Chemical data
Formula C23H25ClN2O4S
Molar mass 460.974 g/mol

////Ponesimod, Phase III , A sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1, S1P1 agonist, multiple sclerosis.  ACT-128800; RG-3477; R-3477, autoimmune disease, lymphocyte migration, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, transplantation

CCC/N=C\1/N(C(=O)/C(=C/C2=CC(=C(C=C2)OC[C@@H](CO)O)Cl)/S1)C3=CC=CC=C3C

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ABT-530, Pibrentasvir

 Phase 3 drug, Uncategorized  Comments Off on ABT-530, Pibrentasvir
Jun 082016
 

STR1

Pibrentasvir

ABT-530, Pibrentasvir, A 1325912.0

Dimethyl N,N’-([(2R,5R)-1-{3,5-difluoro-4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl]phenyl}pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl]bis{(6-fluoro-1H-benzimidazole-5,2-diyl)[(2S)-pyrrolidine-2,1-diyl][(2S,3R)-3-methoxy-1-oxobutane-1,2-diyl]})biscarbamate

Methyl {(2S,3R)-1-[(2S)-2-{5-[(2R,5R)-1-{3,5-difluoro-4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl]phenyl}-5-(6-fluoro-2-{(2S)-1-[N-(methoxycarbonyl)-O-methyl-L-threonyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl}-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]-6-fluoro-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl}pyrrolidin-1-yl]-3-methoxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl}carbamate

Dimethyl N,N’-(((2R,5R)-1-(3,5-difluoro-4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis((6-fluoro-1H-benzimidazole-5,2-diyl)((2S)-pyrrolidine-2,1-diyl)((2S,3R)-3-methoxy-1-oxobutane-1,2-diyl)))biscarbamate

Methyl ((2S,3R)-1-((2S)-2-(5-((2R,5R)-1-(3,5-difluoro-4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)-5-(6-fluoro-2-((2S)-1-(N-(methoxycarbonyl)-O-methyl-L-threonyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)-6-fluoro-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-3-methoxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl)carbamate

Phase III

Abbott Laboratories  INNOVATOR

A protease inhibitor potentially for the treatment of HCV infection.

Hepatitis C virus NS 5 protein inhibitors

CAS No. 1353900-92-1

MF C57H65F5N10O8

MW 1113.1925 MW

Pibrentasvir

1353900-92-1.pngPibrentasvir

SYNTHESIS

STR1

PATENT

WO 2012051361

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2012051361A1?cl=en

Figure imgf000325_0001

Example 3.52 methyl {(2S,3R)-l-[(2S)-2-{5-[(2R,5R)-l-{3,5-difluoro-4-[4-(4- fluorophenyl)piperidin-l-yl]phenyl}-5-(6-fluoro-2-{(2.S)-l-[A^-(methoxycarbonyl)-0-methyl-L- threonyl]pyiTolidin-2-yl}-l f-benzimidazol-5-yl)pyiTolidin-2-yl]-6-fluoro-l f-benzimidaz yl}pyrrolidin-l-yl]-3-methoxy-l-oxobutan-2-yl}carbamatelH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) δ 12.36 – 12.06 (m, 2H), 7.41 (dd, J = 11.2, 6.3, 1H), 7.34 (dd, J = 10.4, 4.8, 1H), 7.30 – 7.20 (m, 3H), 7.17 – 6.98 (m, 5H), 5.98 – 5.82 (m, 2H), 5.65 – 5.47 (m, 2H), 5.17 – 5.06 (m, 2H), 4.25 (dd, J = 15.6, 8.1, 2H), 3.88 – 3.74 (m, 3H), 3.53 (d, J = 1.3, 6H), 3.49 – 3.38 (m, 2H), 3.31 (d, 1H), 3.25 (d, J = 3.7, 1H), 3.13 (d, J = 1.3, 3H), 3.03 (d, J = 2.3, 3H), 3.00 – 2.84 (m, 3H), 2.60 – 2.53 (m, J = 2.5, 2H), 2.26 – 1.55 (m, 14H), 1.28 – 1.13 (m, 1H), 1.10 – 0.88 (m, 6H). MS (ESI; M+H) m/z = 1113.4.

Figure imgf000199_0002

Intermediate 5

( 15,45)- 1 ,4-bis(4-chloro-3 -nitrophenyl)butane- 1 ,4-diyl dimethanesulfonate Intermediate 5A

2-bromo- 1 -(4-chloro-3 -nitrophenyl)ethanone

Method A:

To a flask equipped with a magnetic stir bar and under an atmosphere of N2 was added 4′- chloro-3 ‘-nitroacetophenone (10.0 g, 50.1 mmol) and THF (100 mL). To this stirring mixture was added portion-wise phenyltrimethylammonium tribromide (19.78 g, 52.6 mmol) over a 15 minutes time period. The resultant mixture was then stirred with monitoring every hour via LCMS. After 3 hours, the mixture was then filtered and resulting solids washed with EtOAc. The organic solution was then concentrated, and 10% aq. NaHCC^ were added, and the mixture was washed with EtOAc (2×300 mL). The combined organic layers were then washed with brine, dried (MgSO^), filtered and concentrated. The residue material was then subjected to purification via crystallization. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (100 mL) and hexanes were slowly added until the mixture was cloudy. After standing for a few hours, 2-bromo- l-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)ethanone (9.81 g, 70%) was collected as an off white colored solid product. !H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 5.00 (s, 2 H) 7.98 (d, J=8.54 Hz, 1 H) 8.24 (dd, J=8.54, 2.14 Hz, 1 H) 8.61 (d, J=1.98 Hz, 1 H).

Method B:

In a 500 mL round-bottomed flask was added l -(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)ethanone (1 1.98 g, 60 mmol) in benzene (75 mL) to give a white suspension. Bromine (9.59 g, 60.0 mmol) was added dropwise over 5 minutes to give a deep red solution. The mixture was stirred for 1 hour to give a yellow solution that was concentrated in vacuo to a yellow solid. Recrystallized from 9: 1 hexane/ethyl acetate gave 2-bromo-l -(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)ethanone as yellow needles.

Figure imgf000216_0002

Intermediate 21

(1 S,4S)-1 -(4-chloro-2-fluoro-5 -nitrophenyl)-4-(4-chloro-3 -nitrophenyl)butane- 1 ,4-diyl

dimethanesulfonate

Intermediate 21 can be made from Intermediate 20B and l-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)ethanone (commercially available from Aldrich) following the general methods to prepare Intermediate 20E.

Figure imgf000228_0001

l-(2,6-difluoro-4-nitrophenyl)piperidin-4-one

The crude 8-(2,6-difluoro-4-nitrophenyl)-l,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane from the preceding procedure was dissolved in 4:1 acetone:water (100 mL). Concentrated HC1 (5 mL) was added, and the resulting mixture was stirred at 50 °C for 8 hours and then cooled to room temperature. The mixture was concentrated in vacuo to approximately 20 mL, which was carefully added to concentrated aq. NaHCC^ (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was triturated with Et20 and hexanes to give a bright-yellow solid that was collected and dried to provide the title compound (7.13 g, 81%).

PATENT

WO 2015171993

The present invention features crystalline polymorphs of methyl {(2S,3R)-1- [(2S)-2-{5-[(2R,5R)-l-{3,5-difluoro-4 4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperidin-l-yl]phenyl}-5-(6-fluoro-2-{(2S)- 1 -[N-(methoxycarbonyl)-0-methyl-L-threonyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl} – 1 H-benzimidazol-5-yl)pyrrolidin- -yl] -6-fluoro- 1 H-benzimidazol-2-yl} pyrrolidin- 1 -yl] -3 -methoxy- 1 -oxobutan-2-

yl} carbamate
, herein “Compound I”). Compound I is a potent HCV NS5A inhibitor and is described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2012/0004196, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

 

 

 

 

//////////1353900-92-1, PHASE 3, ABT-530, Pibrentasvir, ABT 530, A 1325912.0

C[C@H]([C@@H](C(=O)N1CCC[C@H]1c2[nH]c3cc(c(cc3n2)[C@H]4CC[C@@H](N4c5cc(c(c(c5)F)N6CCC(CC6)c7ccc(cc7)F)F)c8cc9c(cc8F)[nH]c(n9)[C@@H]1CCCN1C(=O)[C@H]([C@@H](C)OC)NC(=O)OC)F)NC(=O)OC)OC

C[C@H]([C@@H](C(=O)N1CCC[C@H]1c2[nH]c3cc(c(cc3n2)[C@H]4CC[C@@H](N4c5cc(c(c(c5)F)N6CCC(CC6)c7ccc(cc7)F)F)c8cc9c(cc8F)[nH]c(n9)[C@@H]1CCCN1C(=O)[C@H]([C@@H](C)OC)NC(=O)OC)F)NC(=O)OC)OC

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