AUTHOR OF THIS BLOG

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLDDRUGTRACKER

ACT-334441, Cenerimod an S1P receptor 1 agonist

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Sep 022016
 

 

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ACT-334441

Cenerimod

UNII-Y333RS1786; Y333RS1786

S1P receptor 1 agonist

CAS 1262414-04-9
Chemical Formula: C25H31N3O5
Exact Mass: 453.22637

Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Martin Bolli, Cyrille Lescop, Boris Mathys,Keith Morrison, Claus Mueller, Oliver Nayler,Beat Steiner,

(S)-3-(4-(5-(2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxypyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-2-ethyl-6-methylphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol

(2S)-3-[4-[5-(2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxypyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-2-ethyl-6-methylphenoxy]propane-1,2-diol

(S)-3-(4-(5-(2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxypyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-2-ethyl-6-methylphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol

(S)-3-{4-[5-(2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-pyridin-4-yl)-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]-2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol

Mechanism Of Action Sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor modulator
Who Atc Codes L03A-X (Other immunostimulants)
Ephmra Codes L3A (Immunostimulating Agents Excluding Interferons)
Indication Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Cenerimod is a potent and orally active immunomodulator, exhibited EC50 value of 2.7 nM. Cenerimod is an agonist for the G protein-coupled receptor S1 P1/EDG1 and has a powerful and long-lasting immunomodulating effect which is achieved by reducing the number of circulating and infiltrating T- and B-lymphocytes, without affecting their maturation, memory, or expansion. Cenerimod may be useful for prevention or treatment of diseases associated with an activated immune system

CENERIMOD

ACT-334441; lysosphingolipid receptor agonist – Actelion; S1P1 receptor modulator – Actelion; Second selective S1P1 receptor agonist – Actelion; Sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor modulators – Actelion; Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 agonists – Actelion

  • Mechanism of Action Lysosphingolipid receptor agonists
  • Highest Development Phases
  • Phase I/II Systemic lupus erythematosus

Most Recent Events

  • 09 Jun 2016 Actelion terminates a phase I drug interaction trial for Systemic lupus erythematosus (In volunteers) in France (NCT02479204)
  • 22 Dec 2015 Phase-I/II clinical trials in Systemic lupus erythematosus in Ukraine, Belarus (PO) (NCT02472795)
  • 24 Sep 2015 Phase-I/II clinical trials in Systemic lupus erythematosus in USA (PO) (NCT02472795)
# Nct Number Title Recruitment Conditions Interventions Phase
1 NCT02472795 Clinical Study to Investigate the Biological Activity, Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of ACT-334441 in Subjects With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Recruiting Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Drug: ACT-334441|Drug: Placebo Phase 2 Actelion
2 NCT02479204 Drug Interaction Study of ACT-334441 With Cardiovascular Medications in Healthy Subjects Suspended Healthy Subjects Drug: ACT-334441 2 mg|Drug: ACT-334441 4 mg|Drug: placebo|Drug: atenolol|Drug: diltiazem ER Phase 1 Actelion

str1

UNII-Y333RS1786.png

STR2 STR3

The human immune system is designed to defend the body against foreign micro-organisms and substances that cause infection or disease. Complex regulatory mechanisms ensure that the immune response is targeted against the intruding substance or organism and not against the host. In some cases, these control mechanisms are unregulated and autoimmune responses can develop. A consequence of the uncontrolled inflammatory response is severe organ, cell, tissue or joint damage. With current treatment, the whole immune system is usually suppressed and the body’s ability to react to infections is also severely compromised. Typical drugs in this class include azathioprine, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, or methotrexate. Corticosteroids which reduce inflammation and suppress the immune response, may cause side effects when used in long term treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce pain and inflammation, however, they exhibit considerable side effects. Alternative treatments include agents that activate or block cytokine signaling.

Orally active compounds with immunomodulating properties, without compromising immune responses and with reduced side effects would significantly improve current treatments of uncontrolled inflammatory diseases.

In the field of organ transplantation the host immune response must be suppressed to prevent organ rejection. Organ transplant recipients can experience some rejection even when they are taking immunosuppressive drugs. Rejection occurs most frequently in the first few weeks after transplantation, but rejection episodes can also happen months or even years after transplantation. Combinations of up to three or four medications are commonly used to give maximum protection against rejection while minimizing side effects. Current standard drugs used to treat the rejection of transplanted organs interfere with discrete intracellular pathways in the activation of T-type or B-type white blood cells. Examples of such drugs are cyclosporin, daclizumab, basiliximab, everolimus, or FK506, which interfere with cytokine release or signaling; azathioprine or leflunomide, which inhibit nucleotide synthesis; or 15-deoxyspergualin, an inhibitor of leukocyte differentiation.

The beneficial effects of broad immunosuppressive therapies relate to their effects; however, the generalized immunosuppression which these drugs produce diminishes the immune system’s defense against infection and malignancies. Furthermore, standard immunosuppressive drugs are often used at high dosages and can cause or accelerate organ damage.

SYNTHESIS

STR1

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2011007324A1?cl=zh

The human immune system is designed to defend the body against foreign microorganisms and substances that cause infection or disease. Complex regulatory mechanisms ensure that the immune response is targeted against the intruding substance or organism and not against the host. In some cases, these control mechanisms are unregulated and autoimmune responses can develop. A consequence of the uncontrolled inflammatory response is severe organ, cell, tissue or joint damage. With current treatment, the whole immune system is usually suppressed and the body’s ability to react to infections is also severely compromised. Typical drugs in this class include azathioprine, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, or methotrexate. Corticosteroids which reduce inflammation and suppress the immune response, may cause side effects when used in long term treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce pain and inflammation, however, they exhibit considerable side effects. Alternative treatments include agents that activate or block cytokine signaling.

Orally active compounds with immunomodulating properties, without compromising immune responses and with reduced side effects would significantly improve current treatments of uncontrolled inflammatory diseases.

In the field of organ transplantation the host immune response must be suppressed to prevent organ rejection. Organ transplant recipients can experience some rejection even when they are taking immunosuppressive drugs. Rejection occurs most frequently in the first few weeks after transplantation, but rejection episodes can also happen months or even years after transplantation. Combinations of up to three or four medications are commonly used to give maximum protection against rejection while minimizing side effects. Current standard drugs used to treat the rejection of transplanted organs interfere with discrete intracellular pathways in the activation of T-type or B-type white blood cells. Examples of such drugs are cyclosporin, daclizumab, basiliximab, everolimus, or FK506, which interfere with cytokine release or signaling; azathioprine or leflunomide, which inhibit nucleotide synthesis; or 15-deoxyspergualin, an inhibitor of leukocyte differentiation.

The beneficial effects of broad immunosuppressive therapies relate to their effects; however, the generalized immunosuppression which these drugs produce diminishes the immune system’s defense against infection and malignancies. Furthermore, standard immunosuppressive drugs are often used at high dosages and can cause or accelerate organ damage.

Description of the invention

The present invention provides novel compounds of Formula (I) that are agonists for the G protein-coupled receptor S1 P1/EDG1 and have a powerful and long-lasting immunomodulating effect which is achieved by reducing the number of circulating and infiltrating T- and B-lymphocytes, without affecting their maturation, memory, or expansion. The reduction of circulating T- / B-lymphocytes as a result of S1 P1/EDG1 agonism, possibly in combination with the observed improvement of endothelial cell layer function associated with S1 P1/EDG1 activation, makes such compounds useful to treat uncontrolled inflammatory diseases and to improve vascular functionality. Prior art document WO 2008/029371 discloses compounds that act as S1 P1/EDG1 receptor agonists and show an immunomodulating effect as described above. Unexpectedly, it has been found that the compounds of the present invention have a reduced potential to constrict airway tissue/vessels when compared to compounds of the prior art document WO 2008/029371. The compounds of the present invention therefore demonstrate superiority with respect to their safety profile, e.g. a lower risk of bronchoconstriction.

Examples of WO 2008/029371 , which are considered closest prior art analogues are shown in Figure 1.

Figure imgf000004_0001

Figure 1 : Structure of Examples of prior art document WO 2008/029371 , which are considered closest analogues to the compounds of the present invention.

The data on the constriction of rat trachea rings compiled in Table 1 illustrate the superiority of the compounds of the present invention as compared to compounds of prior art document WO 2008/029371.

For instance, the compounds of Example 1 and 6 of the present invention show a significantly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 222 and 226 of WO 2008/029371 , respectively. Furthermore, the compounds of Example 1 and 6 of the present invention also show a reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 196 and 204 of WO 2008/029371 , respectively. These data demonstrate that compounds wherein R1 represents 3-pentyl and R2 represents methoxy are superior compared to the closest prior art compounds of WO 2008/029371 , i.e. the compounds wherein R1 represents an isobutyl and R2 represents methoxy or wherein R1represents methyl and R2 represents 3-pentyl. Moreover, also the compound of Example 16 of the present invention, wherein R1 is 3-methyl-but-1-yl and R2 is methoxy, exhibits a markedly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to its closest analogue prior art Example 226 of WO 2008/029371 wherein R1 is isobutyl and R2 is methoxy.

The unexpected superiority of the compounds of the present invention is also evident from the observation that the compounds of Example 2 and 7 of the present invention show a markedly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 229 and 233 of WO 2008/029371 , respectively. This proves that compounds wherein R1represents cyclopentyl and R2 represents methoxy are superior compared to the closest prior art compounds of WO 2008/029371 , i.e. the compounds wherein R1 represents methyl and R2 represents cyclopentyl.

Also, the compound of Example 3 of the present invention exhibits the same low potential to constrict rat trachea rings as its S-enantiomer, i.e. the compound of Example 2 of the present invention, indicating that the configuration at this position has no significant effect on trachea constriction. Furthermore, also Example 21 of the present invention exhibits the same low potential to constrict rat trachea rings as present Example 2, which differs from Example 21 only by the linker A (forming a 5-pyridin-4-yl-[1 ,2,4]oxadiazole instead of a 3- pyridin-4-yl-[1 ,2,4]oxadiazole). This indicates that also the nature of the oxadiazole is not critical regarding trachea constriction.

Table 1 : Rat trachea constriction in % of the constriction induced by 50 mM KCI. n.d. = not determined. For experimental details and further data see Example 33.

Figure imgf000005_0001
Figure imgf000006_0002

result obtained at a compound concentration of 300 nM.

The compounds of the present invention can be utilized alone or in combination with standard drugs inhibiting T-cell activation, to provide a new immunomodulating therapy with a reduced propensity for infections when compared to standard immunosuppressive therapy. Furthermore, the compounds of the present invention can be used in combination with reduced dosages of traditional immunosuppressant therapies, to provide on the one hand effective immunomodulating activity, while on the other hand reducing end organ damage associated with higher doses of standard immunosuppressive drugs. The observation of improved endothelial cell layer function associated with S1 P1/EDG1 activation provides additional benefits of compounds to improve vascular function.

The nucleotide sequence and the amino acid sequence for the human S1 P1/EDG1 receptor are known in the art and are published in e.g.: HIa, T., and Maciag, T., J. Biol

Chem. 265 (1990), 9308-9313; WO 91/15583 published 17 October 1991 ; WO 99/46277 published 16 September 1999. The potency and efficacy of the compounds of Formula (I) are assessed using a GTPγS assay to determine EC5O values and by measuring the circulating lymphocytes in the rat after oral administration, respectively (see in experimental part). i) In a first embodiment, the invention relates to pyridine compounds of the Formula (I),

Figure imgf000006_0001

Formula (I)

 

PATENT

WO 2013175397

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2013175397A1?cl=en

Pyridine-4-yl derivatives of formula (PD),

Figure imgf000002_0001

Formula (PD) A represents

Figure imgf000002_0002

(the asterisks indicate the bond that is linked to the pyridine group of Formula (PD));

Ra represents 3-pentyl, 3-methyl-but-1-yl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl;

Rb represents methoxy;

Rc represents 2,3-dihydroxypropoxy, -OCH2-CH(OH)-CH2-NHCO-CH2OH,

-OCH2-CH(OH)-CH2N(CH3)-CO-CH2OH, -NHS02CH3, or -NHS02CH2CH3; and

Rd represents ethyl or chloro.)

disclosed in WO201 1007324, have immunomodulating activity through their S1 P1/EDG1 receptor agonistic activity. Therefore, those pyridine-4-yl derivatives are useful for prevention and / or treatment of diseases or disorders associated with an activated immune system, including rejection of transplanted organs such as kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, cornea, and skin; graft-versus-host diseases brought about by stem cell transplantation; autoimmune syndromes including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, thyroiditis such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, uveo-retinitis; atopic diseases such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, dermatitis; asthma; type I diabetes; post-infectious autoimmune diseases including rheumatic fever and post-infectious glomerulonephritis; solid cancers and tumor metastasis. 2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid, which is also disclosed in WO201 1007324, is a useful intermediate for the synthesis of the pyridine-4-yl derivatives of formula (PD), wherein Ra is a cyclopentyl group.

In the process described in WO201 1007324, 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid was prepared according to the following reaction scheme 1 :

Figure imgf000003_0001

Compound D Compound E

Rieke Zinc: cyclopentylzinc bromide;

PdCI2(dppf)dcm: 1 ,1 ‘-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-palladium(ll)dichloride

dichloromethane complex

However, the abovementioned process has drawbacks for larger scale, i.e. industrial scale synthesis of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid, for the following reasons:

a) The commercially available starting material, 2,6-dichloro-isonicotinic acid (Compound A) is expensive.

b) The conversion of Compound C to Compound D is cost-intensive. The reaction has to be performed under protective atmosphere with expensive palladium catalysts and highly reactive and expensive Rieke zinc complex. Such synthesis steps are expensive to scale up and it was therefore highly desired to find alternative synthesis methods.

Even though Goldsworthy, J. Chem. Soc. 1934, 377-378 discloses the preparation of 1 -cyclopentylethanone, which is a key building block in the new process of the present invention, by using ethyl 1 -acetoacetate as a starting material, this synthesis was far from being suitable in an industrial process. The reported yield was low (see also under “Referential Examples” below). Scheme 2

Figure imgf000004_0001

ethyl 1 -acetylcyclo- 1-cyclopentyl- pentanecarboxylate ethanone

Besides the early work by Goldsworthy there are several recent examples for the preparation of 1 -cyclopentylethanone described in the literature. Such examples include:

1 ) Addition of methyl lithium to a N-cyclopentanecarbonyl-N,0-dimethylhydroxylamine at -78°C in a yield of 77%. US2006/199853 A1 , 2006 and US2006/223884 A1 , 2006.

2) Addition of methyl lithium to a cyclopentyl carboxylic acid in diethylether at -78°C in a yield of 81 %. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 1983, 105, 4008-4017.

3) Addition of methylmagnesiumbromide to cyclopentanecarbonitrile.

Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1967, 3722-3729.

4) Oxidation of 1 -cyclopentylethanol with chromtrioxide. US5001 140 A1 , 1991.

WO2009/71707 A1 , 2009.

5) Addition of cyclopentylmagnesium bromide to acetic anhydride at -78 °C with a yield of 54%. WO2004/74270 A2, 2004.

6) Synthesis of 1-cyclopentylethanone in 5 steps from cyclopentanone. Zhang, Pang; Li, Lian-chu, Synth. Commun., 1986, 16, 957-966.

However, the processes described in the above-listed publications are not efficient for scale-up since they require cryogenic temperatures, expensive starting materials, toxic reagents or many steps. The lack of an efficient process to manufacture 1 -cyclopentylethanone is further also mirrored by the difficulty in sourcing this compound on kilogram scale for a reasonable price and delivery time. Therefore, the purpose of the present invention is to provide a new, efficient and cost effective process for the preparation of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid, which is suitable for industrial scale synthesis.

Patent

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US133347630&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

Disclosed in WO2011007324, have immunomodulating activity through their S1P1/EDG1 receptor agonistic activity. Therefore, those pyridine-4-yl derivatives are useful for prevention and/or treatment of diseases or disorders associated with an activated immune system, including rejection of transplanted organs such as kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, cornea, and skin; graft-versus-host diseases brought about by stem cell transplantation; autoimmune syndromes including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, thyroiditis such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, uveo-retinitis; atopic diseases such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, dermatitis; asthma; type I diabetes; post-infectious autoimmune diseases including rheumatic fever and post-infectious glomerulonephritis; solid cancers and tumor metastasis. 2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid, which is also disclosed in WO2011007324, is a useful intermediate for the synthesis of the pyridine-4-yl derivatives of formula (PD), wherein Ra is a cyclopentyl group.

      In the process described in WO2011007324, 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid was prepared according to the following reaction scheme 1:

Rieke Zinc: cyclopentylzinc bromide;
PdCl2(dppf)dcm: 1,1′-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-palladium(II)dichloride dichloromethane complex

 

 

EXAMPLES

Example 1a

1-Cyclopentylethanone


      A mixture of 1,4 dibromobutane (273 g, 1 eq.), tetrabutylammonium bromide (20 g, 0.05 eq.) in 32% NaOH (1 L) was heated to 50° C. Tert.-butyl acetoacetate (200 g, 1 eq.) was added keeping the maximum internal temperature below 55° C. The mixture was stirred for 5 h at 50° C. The stirrer was stopped and the org. layer was separated. The org. layer was washed with 1N HCl (500 mL). The org. layer was added to 32% HCl (300 mL) at an external temperature of 60° C. The mixture was stirred at 60° C. for 3.5 h and cooled to 40° C. The mixture was washed with brine (60 mL). The org. layer was washed with brine (150 mL) and dried with magnesium sulphate (8 g). The mixture was filtered and the product was purified by distillation (distillation conditions: external temperature: 70° C., head temperature: 40-55° C., pressure: 30-7 mbar) to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 107 g (75%). Purity (GC-MS): 99.8% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.19 min, [M+1]+=113. 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ=2.86 (m, 1H), 2.15 (s, 3H), 1.68 (m, 8H).

Example 1 b

1-Cyclopentylethanone

      Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (723 g, 3.41 mol) was added to 32% HCl (870 mL) at an internal temperature of 80° C. over a period of 2 h. The mixture was stirred at 80° C. for 1 h and cooled to 50° C. The stirrer was stopped and the org. layer was separated. The org. layer was washed with water (250 mL) and dried with magnesium sulphate (24 g). The mixture was filtered and the product was purified by distillation to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 333.6 g (87%). Purity (GC-MS): 97.3% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.19 min, [M+1]+=113.

Example 1c

1-Cyclopentylethanone

      Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (300 g, 1.41 mol) was added to 5 M HCl in isopropanol (600 mL) at an internal temperature of 60° C. over a period of 25 min. The mixture was stirred at 60° C. for 18 h and cooled to 20° C. Water (1 L) was added, the stirrer was stopped and the org. layer was separated. The org. layer was washed with water (500 mL). The crude product was purified by distillation to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 115 g (72%). Purity (GC-MS): 87.2% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.19 min, [M+1]+=113.

Example 1d

1-Cyclopentylethanone

      Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (514 g, 2.42 mol) was added to TFA (390 mL) at an internal temperature of 60° C. More TFA (200 mL) was added and the temperature was adjusted to 65° C. The mixture was stirred at 65° C. for 1 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated at 45° C. and 20 mbar. The residue was added to TBME (500 mL), ice (200 g) and 32% NaOH (300 mL). The aq. layer was separated and extracted with TBME (500 mL). The combined org. layers were concentrated to dryness to yield the crude 1-cyclopentylethanone. The crude product was purified by distillation to yield a colorless liquid: 221.8 g (82%). Purity (GC-MS): 90.2% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.19 min, [M+l]+=113.

Example 1e

1-Cyclopentylethanone

      Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (534 g, 2.52 mol) was added to 50% H2SO4 (300 mL) at an internal temperature of 100° C. over a period of 40 min. The mixture was stirred at 120° C. for 2 h and cooled to 20° C. The stirrer was stopped and the org. layer was separated. The org. layer was washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution (250 mL). The crude product was purified by distillation to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 177 g (63%). Purity (GC-MS): 99.9% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.19 min, [M+1]+=113.

Example 1f

Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate


      To a mixture of potassium carbonate (1 kg, 7.24 mol) and tetrabutylammonium iodide (10 g, 0.027 mol) in DMSO (3 L) was added a mixture of 1,4-dibromobutane (700 g, 3.24 mol) and tert.-butyl acetoacetate (500 g, 3.16 mol). The mixture was stirred at 25° C. for 20 h. To the reaction mixture was added water (4 L) and TBME (3 L). The mixture was stirred until all solids dissolved. The TBME layer was separated and washed with water (3×1 L). The org. layer was concentrated and the crude product was purified by distillation (distillation conditions: external temperature: 135° C., head temperature: 105-115° C., pressure: 25-10 mbar) to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 537.6 g (80%). Purity (GC-MS): 90.5% a/a; GC-MS:
      tR=1.89 min, [M+1]+=213. 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ=2.16 (s, 3H), 2.06 (m, 4H), 1.63 (m, 4H), 1.45 (s, 9H).

Example 1 g

Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate

      A mixture of 1,4 dibromobutane (281 g, 1 eq.) and tetrabutylammonium bromide (15 g, 0.05 eq.) in 50% NaOH (1 L) was heated to 50° C. Tert.-butyl acetoacetate (206 g, 1 eq.) was added keeping the maximum internal temperature below 55° C. The mixture was stirred for 5 h at 50° C. The stirrer was stopped and the org. layer was separated. The org. layer was washed with 1N HCl (500 mL). The crude product was purified by distillation to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 199 g (72%). Purity (GC-MS): 97.8% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.89 min, [M+1]+=213.

Example 2

2-Cyclopentyl-6-hydroxyisonicotinic acid


      A 10 L reactor was charged with potassium tert.-butylate (220 g, 1.1 eq.) and THF (3 L). The solution was cooled to −20° C. A mixture of diethyloxalate (260 g, 1 eq.) and 1-cyclopentylethanone (200 g, 1.78 mol, 1 eq.) was added at a temperature below −18° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at −10° C. for 30 min and then warmed to 15° C. To the mixture was added cyano acetamide (180 g, 1.2 eq.). The mixture was stirred for 20 h at 22° C. Water (600 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was concentrated at 60° C. under reduced pressure on a rotary evaporator. 3.4 L solvent were removed. The reactor was charged with 32% HCl (5 L) and heated to 50° C. The residue was added to the HCl solution at a temperature between 44 and 70° C. The mixture was heated to 100° C. for 22 h. 2.7 L solvent were removed at 135° C. external temperature and a pressure of ca. 400 mbar. The suspension was diluted with water (2.5 L) and cooled to 10° C. The suspension was filtered. The product cake was washed with water (2.5 L) and acetone (3 L). The product was dried to obtain an off white solid; yield: 255 g (69%); purity (LC-MS): 100% a/a; LC-MS: tR=0.964 min, [M+1]+=208; 1H NMR (deutero DMSO): δ=12.67 (br, 2H), 6.63 (s, 1H), 6.38 (s, 1H), 2.89 (m, 1H), 1.98 (m, 2H), 1.63 (m, 6H).

Example 3

Methyl 2-cyclopentyl-6-hydroxyisonicotinate


      2-Cyclopentyl-6-hydroxyisonicotinic acid (1520.5 g, 7.3 mol, 1 eq.), methanol (15.2 L), trimethylorthoformiate (1.56 L, 2 eq.) and sulphuric acid (471 mL, 1.2 eq.) were mixed at 20° C. and heated to reflux for 18 h. 10 L solvent were removed at 95° C. external temperature and a pressure of ca. 800 mbar.
      The mixture was cooled to 20° C. and added to water (7.6 L) at 50° C. The suspension was diluted with water (3.8 L), cooled to 10° C. and filtered. The cake was washed with water (3.8 L). The product was dried to obtain a yellowish solid; yield: 1568 g (97%); purity (LC-MS): 100% a/a; LC-MS: tR=1.158 min, [M+1]+=222; 1H NMR (deutero DMSO) δ=11.98 (br, 1H), 6.63 (m, 1H), 6.39 (s, 1H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 2.91 (m, 1H), 1.99 (m, 2H), 1.72 (m, 2H), 1.58 (m, 4H).

Example 4a

Methyl 2-chloro-6-cyclopentylisonicotinate


      Methyl 2-cyclopentyl-6-hydroxyisonicotinate (50 g, 0.226 mol, 1 eq.) and phenylphosphonic dichloride (70 mL, 2 eq.) were heated to 130° C. for 3 h. The reaction mixture was added to a solution of potassium phosphate (300 g) in water (600 mL) and isopropyl acetate (600 mL) at 0° C. The mixture was filtered over kieselguhr (i.e. diatomite, Celite™) (50 g). The aq. layer was separated and discarded. The org. layer was washed with water (500 mL). The org. layer was concentrated to dryness at 65° C. and reduced pressure to obtain a black oil; yield: 50.4 g (93%); purity (LC-MS): 94% a/a.
      The crude oil was purified by distillation at an external temperature of 130° C., head temperature of 106° C. and oil pump vacuum to yield a colourless oil; yield: 45.6 g (84%); purity (LC-MS): 100% a/a; LC-MS: tR=1.808 min, [M+1]+=240; 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ=7.69 (s, 1H), 7.67 (s, 1H), 3.97 (s, 3H), 3.23 (m, 1H), 2.12 (m, 2H), 1.80 (m, 6H).

Example 4b

Methyl 2-chloro-6-cyclopentylisonicotinate

      2-Cyclopentyl-6-hydroxyisonicotinic acid (147 g, 0.709 mol, 1 eq.) and phosphorous oxychloride (647 mL, 10 eq.) were heated to 115° C. for 4 h. The mixture was concentrated at normal pressure and an external temperature of 130-150° C. At 20° C. DCM (250 mL) was added. The solution was added to MeOH (1000 mL) below 60° C. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure at 50° C. DCM (1 L) was added to the residue and the mixture was washed with water (2×500 mL). The org. layer was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure at 50° C. to obtain a black oil; yield: 181.7 g (107%); purity (LC-MS): 97% a/a. The product was contaminated with trimethyl phosphate.

Example 5

2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxyisonicotinic acid


      Methyl 2-chloro-6-cyclopentylisonicotinate (40 g, 0.168 mol, 1 eq.) and 5.4 M NaOMe in MeOH (320 mL, 10 eq.) were heated to reflux for 16 h. Water (250 mL) was added carefully at 80° C. external temperature. Methanol was distilled off at 60° C. and reduced pressure (300 mbar). The residue was acidified with 32% HCl (150 mL) and the pH was adjusted to 1. The mixture was extracted with isopropyl acetate (300 mL). The aq. layer was discarded. The org. layer was washed with water (200 mL). The org. solution was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure at 60° C. to obtain a white solid; yield: 35.25 g (95%). The crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile (170 mL) to obtain a white solid; 31 g (84%); purity (LC-MS): 97.5% a/a.
      LC-MS: tR=1.516 min, [M+1]+=222; 1H NMR (deutero DMSO) δ=13.50 (br s, 1H), 7.25 (s, 1H), 6.98 (s, 1H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 3.18 (m, 1H), 2.01 (m, 2H), 1.72 (m, 6H).

Example 6

Ethyl 4-cyclopentyl-2,4-dioxobutanoate


      A solution of 20% potassium tert-butoxide in THF (595 mL, 1.1 eq.) and THF (400 mL) was cooled to −20° C. A mixture of diethyloxalate (130 g, 1 eq.) and 1-cyclopentylethanone (100 g, 0.891 mol, 1 eq.) was added at a temperature below −18° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at −10° C. for 30 min and then warmed to 15° C. To the mixture was added 2 M HCl (1 L) and TBME (1 L). The org. layer was separated and washed with water (1 L). The org. layer was evaporated to dryness on a rotary evaporator to obtain an oil; yield: 171 g (91%); purity (GC-MS): 97% a/a; GC-MS: tR=2.50 min, [M+1]+=213;1H NMR δ: 14.55 (m, 1H), 6.41 (s, 1H), 4.37 (q, J=7.1 Hz, 2H), 2.91 (m, 1H), 1.79 (m, 8H), 1.40 (t, J=7.1 Hz, 3H).

Example 7

Ethyl 3-cyano-6-cyclopentyl-2-hydroxyisonicotinate


      Triethylamine (112 mL, 1 eq.) and cyanoacetamide (67.9 g, 1 eq.) was heated in ethanol to 65° C. Ethyl 4-cyclopentyl-2,4-dioxobutanoate (171 g, 0.807 mol, 1 eq.) was added to the mixture at 65° C. The mixture was stirred for 3 h at 65° C. The mixture was cooled to 20° C. and filtered. The product was washed with TBME (2×200 mL).
      The product was dried to obtain a yellow solid; yield: 85 g (40%); purity (LC-MS): 97% a/a; LC-MS: tR=1.41 min, [M+1]+=261; 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ: 12.94 (m, 1H), 6.70 (s, 1H), 4.50 (q, J=7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.11 (m, 1H), 2.21 (m, 2H), 1.96 (m, 2H), 1.78 (m, 4H), 1.48 (t, 3H).

REFERENTIAL EXAMPLES


      Original process described by Goldsworthy in J. Chem. Soc. 1934, 377-378.
      According to Goldsworthy the ketonic ester (ethyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate) (19.5 g) was refluxed for 24 h with a considerable excess of potash (19 g) in alcohol (150 cc), two-thirds of the alcohol then distilled off, the residue refluxed for 3 h, the bulk of the alcohol finally removed, saturated brine added, and the ketone extracted with ether. The oil obtained from the extract distilled at 150-160°/760 mm and yielded nearly 4 g of a colourless oil, b.p. 153-155°/760 mm, on redistillation. The semicarbazone, prepared from the ketone and a slight excess of equivalent amounts of semicarbazide and sodium acetate in saturated solution, alcohol just sufficient to clear the solution being finally added, rapidly separated; m.p. 145° after recrystallisation from acetone (Found: N, 24.5. C8H15ON3 requires N, 24.8%).
      The process described by Goldsworthy has been reproduced using K2CO3 in the absence (Referential Example 1) and presence (Referential Example 2) of water.

Referential Example 1

      Ethyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (19.5 g, 0.106 mol) was refluxed for 24 h with K2CO3 (19 g, 0.137 mol, Aldrich: 347825) in ethanol (150 mL). GC-MS indicated a conversion to 3% of the desired product. The solvent was removed and the residue was extracted with ether and brine. Evaporation of solvent yielded 28.5 g of a yellow oil. GC-MS indicated ca. 86% a/a starting material, 3% a/a product.

Referential Example 2

      Ethyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (19.5 g, 0.106 mol) was refluxed for 24 h with K2CO3 (19 g, 0.137 mol, Aldrich: 347825) in ethanol (150 mL) in the presence of water (1.91 g, 1 eq.). GC-MS indicated a conversion to 17% of the desired product. The reaction mixture was discarded.

PATENT

US8658675

https://www.google.com/patents/US8658675

Martin Bolli, Cyrille Lescop, Boris Mathys,Keith Morrison, Claus Mueller, Oliver Nayler,Beat Steiner,

novel compounds of Formula (I) that are agonists for the G protein-coupled receptor S1P1/EDG1 and have a powerful and long-lasting immunomodulating effect which is achieved by reducing the number of circulating and infiltrating T- and B-lymphocytes, without affecting their maturation, memory, or expansion. The reduction of circulating T-/B-lymphocytes as a result of S1P1/EDG1 agonism, possibly in combination with the observed improvement of endothelial cell layer function associated with S1P1/EDG1 activation, makes such compounds useful to treat uncontrolled inflammatory diseases and to improve vascular functionality. Prior art document WO 2008/029371 discloses compounds that act as S1P1/EDG1 receptor agonists and show an immunomodulating effect as described above. Unexpectedly, it has been found that the compounds of the present invention have a reduced potential to constrict airway tissue/vessels when compared to compounds of the prior art document WO 2008/029371. The compounds of the present invention therefore demonstrate superiority with respect to their safety profile, e.g. a lower risk of bronchoconstriction.

Examples of WO 2008/029371, which are considered closest prior art analogues are shown in FIG. 1.

Figure US08658675-20140225-C00002
Figure US08658675-20140225-C00003

The data on the constriction of rat trachea rings compiled in Table 1 illustrate the superiority of the compounds of the present invention as compared to compounds of prior art document WO 2008/029371.

For instance, the compounds of Example 1 and 6 of the present invention show a significantly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 222 and 226 of WO 2008/029371, respectively. Furthermore, the compounds of Example 1 and 6 of the present invention also show a reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 196 and 204 of WO 2008/029371, respectively. These data demonstrate that compounds wherein R1 represents 3-pentyl and R2represents methoxy are superior compared to the closest prior art compounds of WO 2008/029371, i.e. the compounds wherein R1 represents an isobutyl and R2represents methoxy or wherein R1 represents methyl and R2 represents 3-pentyl. Moreover, also the compound of Example 16 of the present invention, wherein R1is 3-methyl-but-1-yl and R2 is methoxy, exhibits a markedly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to its closest analogue prior art Example 226 of WO 2008/029371 wherein R1 is isobutyl and R2 is methoxy.

The unexpected superiority of the compounds of the present invention is also evident from the observation that the compounds of Example 2 and 7 of the present invention show a markedly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 229 and 233 of WO 2008/029371, respectively. This proves that compounds wherein R1 represents cyclopentyl and R2 represents methoxy are superior compared to the closest prior art compounds of WO 2008/029371, i.e. the compounds wherein R1represents methyl and R2 represents cyclopentyl.

Preparation of Intermediates2-Chloro-6-methyl-isonicotinic acid

The title compound and its ethyl ester are commercially available.

2-(1-Ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid

a) To a solution of 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (200 g, 1.04 mol) in methanol (3 L), 32% aq. NaOH (770 mL) is added. The stirred mixture becomes warm (34° C.) and is then heated to 70° C. for 4 h before it is cooled to rt. The mixture is neutralised by adding 32% aq. HCl (100 mL) and 25% aq. HCl (700 mL). The mixture is stirred at rt overnight. The white precipitate that forms is collected, washed with methanol and dried. The filtrate is evaporated and the residue is suspended in water (200 mL). The resulting mixture is heated to 60° C. Solid material is collected, washed with water and dried. The combined crops give 2-chloro-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid (183 g) as a white solid; LC-MS: tR=0.80 min, [M+1]+=187.93.

b) To a suspension of 2-chloro-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid (244 g, 1.30 mol) in methanol (2.5 L), H2SO4 (20 mL) is added. The mixture is stirred at reflux for 24 h before it is cooled to 0° C. The solid material is collected, washed with methanol (200 mL) and water (500 mL) and dried under HV to give 2-chloro-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid methyl ester (165 g) as a white solid; LC-MS: tR=0.94 min, [M+1]+=201.89.

c) Under argon, Pd(dppf) (3.04 g, 4 mmol) is added to a solution of 2-chloro-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid methyl ester (50 g, 0.248 mol) in THF (100 mL). A 0.5 M solution of 3-pentylzincbromide in THF (550 mL) is added via dropping funnel. Upon complete addition, the mixture is heated to 85° C. for 18 h before it is cooled to rt. Water (5 mL) is added and the mixture is concentrated. The crude product is purified by filtration over silica gel (350 g) using heptane:EA 7:3 to give 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid methyl ester (53 g) as a pale yellow oil; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ0.79 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 6H), 1.63-1.81 (m, 4H), 2.47-2.56 (m, 1H), 3.94 (s, 3H), 3.96 (s, 3H), 7.12 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H).

d) A solution of 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid methyl ester (50 g, 0.211 mol) in ethanol (250 mL), water (50 mL) and 32% aq. NaOH (50 mL) is stirred at 80° C. for 1 h. The mixture is concentrated and the residue is dissolved in water (200 mL) and extracted with TBME. The org. phase is separated and washed once with water (200 mL). The TBME phase is discarded. The combined aq. phases are acidified by adding 25% aq. HCl and then extracted with EA (400+200 mL). The combined org. extracts are concentrated. Water (550 mL) is added to the remaining residue. The mixture is heated to 70° C., cooled to rt and the precipitate that forms is collected and dried to give the title compound (40.2 g) as a white solid; LC-MS: tR=0.95 min, [M+1]+=224.04; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 0.73 (t, J=7.3 Hz, 6H), 1.59-1.72 (m, 4H), 2.52-2.58 (m, 1H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 7.00 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.20 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H).

2-Methoxy-6-(3-methyl-butyl)-isonicotinic acid

The title compound is prepared in analogy to 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid; LC-MS: tR=0.94 min, [M+1]+=224.05; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 0.92 (d, J=5.8 Hz, 6H), 1.54-1.62 (m, 3H), 2.70-2.76 (m, 2H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 6.99 (s, 1H), 7.25 (s, 1H), 13.52 (s).

2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid

The title compound is prepared in analogy to 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid; LC-MS: tR=0.93 min, [M+1]+=222.02; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ 1.68-1.77 (m, 2H), 1.81-1.90 (m, 4H), 2.03-2.12 (m, 2H), 3.15-3.25 (m, 1H), 3.99 (s, 3H), 7.18 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (d, J=0.8 Hz, 1H).

2-Cyclohexyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid

The title compound is prepared in analogy to 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid; LC-MS: tR=0.98 min, [M+1]+=236.01; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.17-1.29 (m, 1H), 1.31-1.43 (m, 2H), 1.44-1.55 (m, 2H), 1.67-1.73 (m, 1H), 1.76-1.83 (m, 2H), 1.84-1.92 (m, 2H), 2.66 (tt, J=11.3, 3.3 Hz, 1H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 7.00 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H).

2-Cyclopentyl-N-hydroxy-6-methoxy-isonicotinamidine

a) A solution of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid methyl ester (3.19 g, 13.6 mmol) in 7 N NH3 in methanol (50 mL) is stirred at 60° C. for 18 h. The solvent is removed in vacuo and the residue is dried under HV to give crude 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinamide (3.35 g) as a pale yellow solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.57 min, [M+1]+=221.38.

b) Pyridine (8.86 g, 91.3 mmol) is added to a solution of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinamide (3.35 g, 15.2 mmol) in DCM (100 mL). The mixture is cooled to 0° C. before trifluoroacetic acid anhydride (9.58 g, 45.6 mmol) is added portionwise. The mixture is stirred at 0° C. for 1 h before it is diluted with DCM (100 mL) and washed with sat. aq. NaHCO3 solution (100 mL) and brine (100 mL). The separated org. phase is dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude product is purified by CC on silica gel eluting with heptane:EA 9:1 to give 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinonitrile (2.09 g) as pale yellow oil; LC-MS**: tR=0.80 min, [M+1]+=not detectable; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.61-1.82 (m, 6H), 1.94-2.03 (m, 2H), 3.16 (quint, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.89 (s, 3H), 7.15 (s, 1H), 7.28 (s, 1H).

c) To a solution of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinonitrile (2.09 g, 10.3 mmol) in methanol (100 mL), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (2.15 g, 31.0 mmol) and NaHCO3 (3.04 g, 36.2 mmol) are added. The mixture is stirred at 60° C. for 18 h before it is filtered and the filtrate is concentrated. The residue is dissolved in EA (300 mL) and washed with water (30 mL). The washings are extracted back with EA (4×100 mL) and DCM (4×100 mL). The combined org. extracts are dried over MgSO4, filtered, concentrated and dried under HV to give the title compound (2.74 g) as a white solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.47 min, [M+1]+=236.24; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.61-1.82 (m, 6H), 1.92-2.01 (m, 2H), 3.04-3.13 (m, 1H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 5.90 (s, 2H), 6.86 (s, 1H), 7.13 (s, 1H), 9.91 (s, 1H).

2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid hydrazide

a) To a solution of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid (2.00 g, 9.04 mmol), hydrazinecarboxylic acid benzyl ester (1.50 g, 9.04 mmol) and DIPEA (2.34 g, 18.1 mmol) in DCM (40 mL), TBTU (3.19 g, 9.94 mmol) is added. The mixture is stirred at rt for 2 h before it is diluted with EA (250 mL), washed twice with sat. aq. NaHCO3 solution (150 mL) followed by brine (100 mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude product is purified by CC on silica gel eluting with heptane:EA 4:1 to give N′-(2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-pyridine-4-carbonyl)-hydrazinecarboxylic acid benzyl ester (2.74 g) as pale yellow oil; LC-MS**: tR=0.74 min, [M+1]+=369.69; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.62-1.83 (m, 6H), 1.95-2.05 (m, 2H), 3.10-3.21 (m, 1H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 5.13 (s, 2H), 6.97 (s, 1H), 7.23 (s, 1H), 7.28-7.40 (m, 5H), 9.45 (s, 1H), 10.52 (s, 1H).

b) Pd/C (500 mg, 10% Pd) is added to a solution of N′-(2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-pyridine-4-carbonyl)-hydrazinecarboxylic acid benzyl ester (2.74 g, 7.42 mmol) in THF (50 mL) and methanol (50 mL). The mixture is stirred at rt under 1 bar of H2 for 25 h. The catalyst is removed by filtration and the filtrate is concentrated and dried under HV to give the title compound (1.58 g) as an off-white solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.51 min, [M+1]+=236.20; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.60-1.82 (m, 6H), 1.94-2.03 (m, 2H), 3.08-3.19 (m, 1H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 4.56 (s br, 2H), 6.93 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.20 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 9.94 (s, 1H).

3-Ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile

The title compound is prepared from 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzaldehyde following literature procedures (A. K. Chakraborti, G. Kaur, Tetrahedron 55 (1999) 13265-13268); LC-MS: tR=0.90 min; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ1.24 (t, J=7.6 Hz, 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.63 (q, J=7.6 Hz, 2H), 5.19 (s, 1H), 7.30 (s, 2H).

3-Chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile

The title compound is prepared from commercially available 2-chloro-6-methyl-phenol in analogy to literature procedures (see 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile); LC-MS: tR=0.85 min. 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ2.33 (s, 3H), 6.10 (s, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H), 7.53 (d, J=1.8 Hz, 1H).

3-Ethyl-4,N-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine

The title compound is prepared from 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile or from commercially available 2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenol following literature procedures (G. Trapani, A. Latrofa, M. Franco, C. Altomare, E. Sanna, M. Usala, G. Biggio, G. Liso, J. Med. Chem. 41 (1998) 1846-1854; A. K. Chakraborti, G. Kaur, Tetrahedron 55 (1999) 13265-13268; E. Meyer, A. C. Joussef, H. Gallardo, Synthesis 2003, 899-905); LC-MS: tR=0.55 min; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 9.25 (s br, 1H), 7.21 (s, 2H), 5.56 (s, 2H), 2.55 (q, J=7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.15 (s, 3H), 1.10 (t, J=7.6 Hz, 3H).

3-Chloro-4,N-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine

The title compound is prepared from commercially available 2-chloro-6-methyl-phenol in analogy to literature procedures (e.g. B. Roth et al. J. Med. Chem. 31 (1988) 122-129; and literature cited for 3-ethyl-4,N-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine); 3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzaldehyde: LC-MS: tR=0.49 min, [M+1]+=201.00; 1H NMR 82.24 (s, 2H), 2.35 (s, 4H), 5.98 (s br, 1H), 7.59 (d, J=1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.73 (d, J=1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.80 (s, 1H); 3-chloro-4,N-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine: 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 2.21 (s, 3H), 5.72 (s br, 2H), 7.40 (s, 1H), 7.48 (s, 1H), 9.29 (s br, 1H), 9.48 (s br, 1H).

(R)-4-(2,2-Dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-N-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine

a) To a solution of 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile (2.89 g, 17.9 mmol) in THF (80 mL), (R)-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-yl)methanol (2.84 g, 21.5 mmol) followed by triphenylphosphine (5.81 g, 21.5 mmol) is added. The mixture is cooled with an ice-bath before DEAD (9.36 g, 21.5 mmol) is added dropwise. The mixture is stirred at rt for 1 h, the solvent is removed in vacuo and the residue is purified by CC on silica gel eluting with heptane:EA 85:15 to give (R)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzonitrile (4.45 g) as a pale yellow oil; LC-MS**: tR=0.75 min, [M+1]+=not detected; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ1.25 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 1.44 (s, 3H), 1.49 (s, 3H), 2.34 (s, 3H), 2.65-2.77 (m, 2H), 3.80-3.90 (m, 2H), 3.94-4.00 (m, 1H), 4.21 (t, J=7.3 Hz, 1H), 4.52 (quint, J=5.8 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (s, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H).

b) To a mixture of (R)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzonitrile (4.45 g, 16.2 mmol) and NaHCO3 (4.75 g, 56.6 mmol) in methanol (30 mL), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (3.37 g, 48.5 mmol) is added. The mixture is stirred at 60° C. for 18 h before it is filtered and the solvent of the filtrate is removed in vacuo. The residue is dissolved in EA and washed with a small amount of water and brine. The org. phase is separated, dried over MgSO4, filtered, concentrated and dried to give the title compound (5.38 g) as a white solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.46 min, [M+1]+=309.23; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.17 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 1.33 (s, 3H), 1.38 (s, 3H), 2.25 (s, 3H), 2.57-2.69 (m, 2H), 3.73-3.84 (m, 3H), 4.12 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 1H), 4.39-4.45 (m, 1H), 5.76 (s br, 2H), 7.34 (s, 1H), 7.36 (s, 1H), 9.47 (s, 1H).

(R)-3-Chloro-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-N-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine

The title compound is obtained as a colorless oil (1.39 g) in analogy to (R)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-N-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine starting from 3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile and L-α,β-isopropyliden glycerol; LC-MS: tR=0.66 min, [M+H]+=314.96.

(S)-4-(3-Amino-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methylbenzonitrile

a) To a solution of 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile (5.06 g, 31.4 mmol) in THF (80 mL), PPh3 (9.06 g, 34.5 mmol) and (R)-glycidol (2.29 mL, 34.5 mmol) are added. The mixture is cooled to 0° C. before DEAD in toluene (15.8 mL, 34.5 mmol) is added. The mixture is stirred for 18 h while warming up to rt. The solvent is evaporated and the crude product is purified by CC on silica gel eluting with heptane:EA 7:3 to give 3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-oxiranylmethoxy-benzonitrile (5.85 g) as a yellow oil; LC-MS: tR=0.96 min; [M+42]+=259.08.

b) The above epoxide is dissolved in 7 N NH3 in methanol (250 mL) and the solution is stirred at 65° C. for 18 h. The solvent is evaporated to give crude (S)-4-(3-amino-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methylbenzonitrile (6.23 g) as a yellow oil; LC-MS: tR=0.66 min; [M+1]+=235.11.

N—((S)-3-[2-Ethyl-4-(N-hydroxycarbamimidoyl)-6-methyl-phenoxy]-2-hydroxy-propyl)-2-hydroxy-acetamide

a) To a solution of (S)-4-(3-amino-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methylbenzonitrile (6.23 g, 26.59 mmol) in THF (150 mL), glycolic acid (2.43 g, 31.9 mmol), HOBt (4.31 g, 31.9 mmol), and EDC hydrochloride (6.12 g, 31.9 mmol) are added. The mixture is stirred at rt for 18 h before it is diluted with sat. aq. NaHCO3 and extracted twice with EA. The combined org. extracts are dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude product is purified by CC with DCM containing 8% of methanol to give (S)—N-[3-(4-cyano-2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-propyl]-2-hydroxy-acetamide (7.03 g) as a yellow oil; LC-MS: tR=0.74 min, [M+1]+=293.10; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ 1.25 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 2.32 (s, 3H), 2.69 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 2H), 3.48-3.56 (m, 3H), 3.70-3.90 (m, 3H), 4.19 (s, br, 3H), 7.06 (m, 1H), 7.36 (s, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H).

b) The above nitrile is converted to the N-hydroxy-benzamidine according to literature procedures (e.g. E. Meyer, A. C. Joussef, H. Gallardo, Synthesis 2003, 899-905); LC-MS: tR=0.51 min, [M+1]+=326.13; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.17 (t, J=7.4 Hz, 3H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 2.62 (q, J=7.4 Hz, 2H), 3.23 (m, 1H), 3.43 (m, 1H), 3.67 (m, 2H), 3.83 (s, 2H), 3.93 (m, 1H), 5.27 (s br, 1H), 5.58 (s br, 1H), 5.70 (s, 2H), 7.34 (s, 1H), 7.36 (s, 1H), 7.67 (m, 1H), 9.46 (s br, 1H).

(S)—N-(3-[2-Chloro-4-(N-hydroxycarbamimidoyl)-6-methyl-phenoxy]-2-hydroxy-propyl)-2-hydroxy-acetamide

The title compound is obtained as a beige wax (1.1 g) in analogy to N—((S)-3-[2-ethyl-4-(N-hydroxycarbamimidoyl)-6-methyl-phenoxy]-2-hydroxy-propyl)-2-hydroxy-acetamide starting from 3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile; LC-MS: tR=0.48 min, [M+H]+=331.94.

3-Chloro-N-hydroxy-4-methanesulfonylamino-5-methyl-benzamidine

a) A mixture of 4-amino-3-chloro-5-methylbenzonitrile (155 mg, 930 μmol) and methanesulfonylchloride (2.13 g, 18.6 mmol, 1.44 mL) is heated under microwave conditions to 150° C. for 7 h. The mixture is cooled to rt, diluted with water and extracted with EA. The org. extract is dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude product is purified on prep. TLC using heptane:EA 1:1 to give N-(2-chloro-4-cyano-6-methyl-phenyl)-methanesulfonamide (105 mg) as an orange solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.48 min; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ2.59 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 6.27 (s, 1H), 7.55 (d, J=1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H).

b) Hydroxylamine hydrochloride (60 mg, 858 μmol) and NaHCO3 (72 mg, 858 μmol) is added to a solution of N-(2-chloro-4-cyano-6-methyl-phenyl)-methanesulfonamide (105 mg, 429 μmol) in methanol (10 mL). The mixture is stirred at 65° C. for 18 h. The solvent is removed in vacuo and the residue is dissolved in a small volume of water (2 mL) and extracted three times with EA (15 mL). The combined org. extracts are dried over MgSO4, filtered, concentrated and dried to give the title compound (118 mg) as a white solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.19 min, [M+1]+=277.94; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ2.57 (s, 3H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 6.21 (s, 1H), 7.49 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (d, J=1.5 Hz).

3-Ethyl-N-hydroxy-4-methanesulfonylamino-5-methyl-benzamidine

a) In a 2.5 L three-necked round-bottom flask 2-ethyl-6-methyl aniline (250 g, 1.85 mol) is dissolved in DCM (900 mL) and cooled to 5-10° C. Bromine (310.3 g, 1.94 mol) is added over a period of 105 min such as to keep the temperature at 5-15° C. An aq. 32% NaOH solution (275 mL) is added over a period of 10 min to the greenish-grey suspension while keeping the temperature of the reaction mixture below 25° C. DCM (70 mL) and water (100 mL) are added and the phases are separated. The aq. phase is extracted with DCM (250 mL). The combined org. phases are washed with water (300 mL) and concentrated at 50° C. to afford the 4-bromo-2-ethyl-6-methyl-aniline (389 g) as a brown oil; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ 1.27 (t, J=7.3 Hz, 3H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.51 (q, J=7.3 Hz, 2H), 3.61 (s br, 1H), 7.09 (s, 2H).

b) A double-jacketed 4 L-flask is charged with 4-bromo-2-ethyl-6-methyl-aniline (324 g, 1.51 mol), sodium cyanide (100.3 g, 1.97 mol), potassium iodide (50.2 g, 0.302 mol) and copper(I)iodide (28.7 g, 0.151 mol). The flask is evacuated three times and refilled with nitrogen. A solution of N,N′-dimethylethylenediamine (191.5 mL, 1.51 mol) in toluene (750 mL) is added. The mixture is heated to 118° C. and stirred at this temperature for 21 h. The mixture is cooled to 93° C. and water (1250 mL) is added to obtain a solution. Ethyl acetate (1250 mL) is added at 22-45° C. and the layers are separated. The org. phase is washed with 10% aq. citric acid (2×500 mL) and water (500 mL). The separated org. phase is evaporated to dryness to afford 4-amino-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzonitrile (240 g) as a metallic black solid; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ1.29 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 2.52 (q, J=7.3 Hz, 2H), 4.10 (s br, 1H), 7.25 (s, 2H).

c) The title compound is then prepared from the above 4-amino-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzonitrile in analogy to 3-chloro-N-hydroxy-4-methanesulfonylamino-5-methyl-benzamidine; LC-MS**: tR=0.26 min, [M+1]+=272.32.

3-Chloro-4-ethanesulfonylamino N-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine

The title compound is prepared in analogy to 3-chloro-N-hydroxy-4-methanesulfonylamino-5-methyl-benzamidine using ethanesulfonylchloride; LC-MS**: tR=0.27 min, [M+1]+=292.13; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.36 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 2.40 (s, 3H), 3.22 (q, J=7.5 Hz), 5.88 (s, 2H), 7.57 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 9.18 (s, 1H), 9.78 (s, 1H).

4-Benzyloxy-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzoic acid

a) To a solution of 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzaldehyde (34.9 g, 0.213 mol, prepared from 2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenol according to the literature cited for 3-ethyl-4,N-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine) in MeCN (350 mL), K2CO3 (58.7 g, 0.425 mol) and benzylbromide (36.4 g, 0.213 mol) are added. The mixture is stirred at 60° C. for 2 h before it is cooled to rt, diluted with water and extracted twice with EA. The org. extracts are washed with water and concentrated to give crude 4-benzyloxy-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzaldehyde (45 g) as an orange oil. 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ1.29 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 2.40 (s, 3H), 2.77 (q, J=7.8 Hz, 2H), 4.90 (s, 2H), 7.31-7.52 (m, 5H), 7.62 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J=1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.94 (s, 1H).
b) To a mixture of 4-benzyloxy-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzaldehyde (132 g, 0.519 mol) and 2-methyl-2-butene (364 g, 5.19 mol) in tert.-butanol (1500 mL), a solution of NaH2PO4 dihydrate (249 g, 2.08 mol) in water (1500 mL) is added. To this mixture, NaClO2 (187.8 g, 2.08 mol) is added in portions. The temperature of the reaction mixture is kept below 30° C., and evolution of gas is observed. Upon completion of the addition, the orange bi-phasic mixture is stirred well for 3 h before it is diluted with TBME (1500 mL). The org. layer is separated and washed with 20% aq. NaHS solution (1500 mL) and water (500 mL). The org. phase is then extracted three times with 0.5 N aq. NaOH (1000 mL), the aq. phase is acidified with 25% aq. HCl (500 mL) and extracted twice with TBME (1000 mL). These org. extracts are combined and evaporated to dryness to give the title compound; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.17 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 2.31 (s, 3H), 2.67 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 2H), 4.86 (s, 2H), 7.34-7.53 (m, 5H), 7.68 (s, 2H), 12.70 (s, 1H).

Example 1 (S)-3-(2-Ethyl-4-{5-[2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-pyridin-4-yl]-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl}-6-methyl-phenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol

a) To a solution of 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid (190 mg, 732 μmol) in THF (10 mL) and DMF (2 mL), DIPEA (190 mg, 1.46 mmol) followed by TBTU (235 mg, 732 μmol) is added. The mixture is stirred at rt for 10 min before (R)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-N-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine 226 mg, 732 μmol) is added. The mixture is stirred at rt for 1 h before it is diluted with EA and washed with water. The org. phase is separated and concentrated. The remaining residue is dissolved in dioxane (10 mL) and heated to 105° C. for 18 h. The mixture is cooled to rt, concentrated and the crude product is purified on prep. TLC plates using DCM containing 10% of methanol to give 4-{3-[4-((R)-2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methyl-phenyl]-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-5-yl}-2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-pyridine (256 mg) as a yellow oil; LC-MS: tR=1.28 min, [M+H]+=496.23.

b) A solution of 4-{3-[4-((R)-2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methyl-phenyl]-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-5-yl}-2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-pyridine (250 mg, 504 μmol) in 4 M HCl in dioxane (10 mL) is stirred at rt for 90 min before it is concentrated. The crude product is purified on prep. TLC plates using DCM containing 10% of methanol to give the title compound (76 mg) as a pale brownish solid; LC-MS: tR=1.12 min, [M+H]+=456.12; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ0.85 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 6H), 1.33 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.70-1.89 (m, 4H), 2.42 (s, 3H), 2.61-2.71 (m, 1H), 2.78 (q, J=7.3 Hz, 2H), 3.82-4.00 (m, 4H), 4.04 (s, 3H), 4.14-4.21 (m, 1H), 7.34 (s, 1H), 7.46 (s, 1H), 7.86-7.91 (m, 2H).

Example 2 (S)-3-{4-[5-(2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-pyridin-4-yl)-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]-2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol

The title compound is prepared in analogy to Example 1 starting from 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid; LC-MS: tR=1.14 min, [M+H]+=454.16; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ1.33 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 1.72-1.78 (m, 2H), 1.85-1.94 (m, 4H), 2.03-2.15 (m, 2H), 2.41 (s, 3H), 2.72 (d, J=5.3 Hz, 1H), 2.77 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 2H), 3.19-3.28 (m, 1H), 3.81-3.94 (m, 2 H), 3.95-3.98 (m, 2H), 4.02 (s, 3H), 4.14-4.21 (m, 1H), 7.31 (d, J=1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (d, J=1.8 Hz), 7.89 (d, J=2.0 Hz, 1H).

PAPER

Abstract Image

A practical synthesis of S1P receptor 1 agonist ACT-334441 (1) through late-stage convergent coupling of two key intermediates is described. The first intermediate is 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxyisonicotinic acid whose skeleton was built from 1-cyclopentylethanone, ethyl oxalate, and cyanoacetate in a Guareschi–Thorpe reaction in 42% yield over five steps. The second, chiral intermediate, is a phenol ether derived from enantiomerically pure (R)-isopropylidene glycerol ((R)-solketal) and 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methylbenzonitrile in 71% yield in a one-pot reaction. The overall sequence entails 18 chemical steps with 10 isolated intermediates. All raw materials are cheap and readily available in bulk quantities, the reaction conditions match with standard pilot plant equipment, and the route reproducibly afforded 3–20 kg of 1 in excellent purity and yield for clinical studies.

Practical Synthesis of a S1P Receptor 1 Agonist via a Guareschi–Thorpe Reaction

Chemistry Process R&D, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Gewerbestrasse 16, CH-4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00210
*E-mail: stefan.abele@actelion.com. Telephone: +41 61 565 67 59.
 (1H NMR): 99.40% w/w; er (HPLC method 2): (S):(R) = 99.7:0.3, tR 10.70 min (S-isomer), 14.5 min (R-isomer);
mp 80 °C (DSC);
1H NMR (d6-DMSO): δ 7.78 (s, 2 H), 7.53 (s, 1 H), 7.26 (s, 1 H), 4.98 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.65 (s, 1 H), 3.94 (s, 3 H), 3.86 (m, 2 H), 3.75 (m, 1 H), 3.50 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 2 H), 3.28 (m, 1 H), 2.75 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 2.35 (s, 3 H), 2.03 (m, 2 H), 1.81 (m, 4 H), 1.69 (m, 2 H), 1.22 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 3 H).
13C NMR (CDCl3): δ 174.3, 168.9, 165.8, 164.4, 157.4, 137.7, 133.6, 131.7, 128.4, 126.7, 122.5, 112.0, 106.0, 73.9, 71.1, 63.8, 53.7, 47.5, 33.3, 25.9, 22.9, 16.4, 14.8.
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015133669 2015-05-14 NEW PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF 2-CYCLOPENTYL-6-METHOXY-ISONICOTINIC ACID
US8658675 2014-02-25 Pyridin-4-yl derivatives
//////////ACT-334441, ACT 334441, ACT334441, CENERIMOD, S1P receptor 1 agonist, Systemic lupus erythematosus, UNII-Y333RS1786  Y333RS1786, phase 2, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.Martin Bolli, Cyrille Lescop, Boris Mathys,Keith Morrison, Claus Mueller, Oliver Nayler,Beat Steiner,
OC[C@H](O)COC1=C(C)C=C(C2=NOC(C3=CC(C4CCCC4)=NC(OC)=C3)=N2)C=C1CC
Day 16 of the 2016 Doodle Fruit Games! Find out more at g.co/fruit
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ULIXERTINIB, уликсертиниб , أوليكسيرتينيب , 优立替尼 ,

 phase 2  Comments Off on ULIXERTINIB, уликсертиниб , أوليكسيرتينيب , 优立替尼 ,
Aug 162016
 

STR1

OR

ULIXERTINIB

4-(5-chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid[1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide

Molecular Formula: C21H22Cl2N4O2
Molecular Weight: 433.33098 g/mol

BVD-523; BVD-ERK; BVD-ERK/HM; BVD-ERK/ST; VRT-0752271; VRT-752271; VX-271, V

уликсертиниб ,  أوليكسيرتينيب  , 优立替尼 ,
4-[5-chloro-2-(isopropylamino)-4-pyridyl]-N-[(1S)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-ethyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide
CAS 869886-67-9
ULIXERTINIB HCl
Molecular Weight 469.79
Formula C21H22Cl2N4O2●HCl
 CAS  1956366-10-1
Chemical Name 1H-Pyrrole-2-carboxamide, 4-[5-chloro-2-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-4-pyridinyl]-N-[(1S)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-,hydrochloride(1:1)

Ulixertinib malonate

4-(5-chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid[1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide (referred to as ulixertinib malonate)

  • Originator Vertex Pharmaceuticals
  • Developer BioMed Valley Discoveries
  • Class Aminopyridines; Antineoplastics; Pyrroles; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Mitogen activated protein kinase 3 inhibitors; Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 inhibitor

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase I/II Acute myeloid leukaemia; Cancer; Myelodysplastic syndromes
  • Phase I Pancreatic cancer

Most Recent Events

  • 01 Mar 2016 Phase-I clinical trials in Pancreatic cancer (Combination therapy, First-line therapy, Metastatic disease) in USA (PO) (NCT02608229)
  • 23 Nov 2015 BioMed Valley Discoveries and Washington University School of Medicine plan a phase Ib trial for Pancreatic cancer (First-line therapy, Metastatic disease, Combination therapy) (PO) (NCT02608229)
  • 01 Nov 2014 Phase-I/II clinical trials in Acute myeloid leukaemia (Second-line therapy or greater) and Myelodysplastic syndromes (Second-line therapy or greater) in USA (NCT02296242) (PO)

INTRODUCTION

Ulixertinib is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplasia and advanced solid tumors.

Members of the family of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 proteins (BCL-2) are apoptosis regulators. These proteins control mitochondrial outer

membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Expression of BCL-2 protein blocks cell death in response to various cellular injuries. A number of cancers, including melanoma, breast, prostate, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and lung cancer, may be caused by damage to the BCL-2 gene. Mutations in BCL-2 may also be a cause of resistance to cancer treatments. Unfortunately, resistance can quickly develop using conventional BCL-2 inhibitor therapies to treat cancer.

Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) are protein kinases that are involved in cell cycle regulation, including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. Disruption of the ERK pathway is common in cancers. However, to date, little progress has been made developing effective ERK inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

As the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer grows, there is an increased emphasis on developing drugs that specifically target particular nodes in pathways that lead to cancer. In view of the deficiencies noted above, there is, inter alia, a need for effective molecularly targeted cancer treatments, including combination therapies. The present invention is directed to meeting these and other needs.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways mediate signals which control diverse cellular processes including growth, differentiation, migration, proliferation and apoptosis. One MAPK pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, is often found to be up-regulated in tumors. Pathway members, therefore, represent attractive blockade targets in the development of cancer therapies (Kohno and Pouyssegur, 2006). For example, U.S. Patent No. 7,354,939 B2 discloses, inter alia, compounds effective as inhibitors of ERK protein kinase. One of these compounds, 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide, is a compound according to formula (I):

Pharmaceutical compositions are often formulated with a crystalline solid of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The specific crystalline form of the API can have significant effects on properties such as stability and solubility / bioavailability. Instability and solubility characteristics can limit the ability to formulate a composition with an adequate shelf life or to effectively deliver a desired amount of a drug over a given time frame (Peterson et al., 2006).

Synergistic combination comprising an ERK1/2 inhibitor (such as ulixertinib) and a BCL-2 family inhibitor (such as navitoclax), assigned to BioMed Valley Discoveries (BVD), naming Decrescenzo and Welsch. BVD, presumably under license from Vertex, is developing ulixertinib (phase 2 trial), a small-molecule ERK 1/2 inhibitor for treating cancers including acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. In June 2015, clinical data were presented at the 51st ASCO meeting in Chicago, IL.

BIOMED VALLEY DISCOVERIES

PATENT

WO2005113541 PDT PATENT

I-9 COMPD

SEE BELOW

PATENT

WO-2016123574

Novel crystalline forms of 4-(5-chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid[1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide (referred to as ulixertinib) can be prepared which exhibit improved properties, eg surprisingly improved stability and solubility characteristics. Also claimed is their use for treating cancer.

EXAMPLE 2

Preparation of Crystaline Free Base 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide

4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide free base was prepared according to the following synthesis scheme.

Stepl


C5H2CIFIN

257.43 C8H10CIIN2

ASYM-11 1606 296.54

ASYM-1 12060

ASYM-111938 ASYM-112393

ASYM-1 11935

In Step 1 , a clean and dry 200 L glass-lined reactor was evacuated to <-0.08 MPa, and then filled with nitrogen to normal pressure three times. Anhydrous ethanol (49.90 kg) was charged into the 200 L glass-lined reactor. ASYM-1 1 1606 (Asymchem) (12.70 kg) and isopropylamine (29.00 kg) were added into the mixture in turn. The mixture was heated to 65-75°C for refluxing. The mixture reacted at 65-75°C. After 20 h, the reaction was sampled and analyzed by HPLC every 4-6 h until the content of ASYM-1 1 1606 was <1 %. The mixture was cooled to 40-45°C and was concentrated at <45°C under reduced pressure (<-0.08 MPa) until 13-26 Lremained. The organic phase was washed with a sodium chloride solution and was stirred for 20-30 min and settled for 20-30 min before separation. The organic phase was concentrated at <30°C under reduced pressure (<-0.06 MPa) until 13-20 L remained. Petroleum ether (8.55 kg) was added into the concentrated mixture. The mixture was transferred into a 20 L rotary evaporator and continued concentrating at <30°C under reduced pressure (<-0.06 MPa) until 13-20 L remained. Then petroleum ether (8.55 kg) was added into the concentrated mixture. The mixture was cooled to 0-5°C and stirred for crystallization. After 1 h, the mixture was sampled and analyzed by wt% every 1 -2 h until the wt% of the mother liquor was <1 1 % or the change of the wt% between consecutive samples was <1 %. The mixture was filtered with a 10 L filter flask. The filter cake was sampled and analyzed for purity by HPLC. 10.50 kg of product was recovered as a brownish yellow solid at 99.39% purity.

In Step 2, a clean and dry 300 L glass-lined reactor was evacuated to <-0.08 MPa, and then filled with nitrogen to normal pressure three times. Glycol dimethyl ether (73.10 kg) was charged into the 300 L glass-lined reactor at 20-30°C. ASYM-1 12060 (Asymchem) (10.46 kg) and ASYM-1 1 1938 (Asymchem) (12.34 kg, 1 1 .64 kg after corrected) were added into the mixture in turn under the protection of nitrogen. Maintaining the temperature at 20-30°C, purified water (10.50 kg) and anhydrous sodium carbonate (5.67 kg) were added into the mixture. Palladium acetate (0.239 kg) and tricyclohexylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate (0.522 kg) were added into the mixture under the protection of nitrogen. After addition, the mixture was evacuated to <-0.06 MPa, and then filled with nitrogen to normal pressure. This was repeated for ten times until residual oxygen was <300 ppm. The mixture was heated to 75-85°C for refluxing. The mixture reacted at 75-85°C. After 4 h, the mixture was sampled and analyzed by HPLC every 2-3 h for content of ASYM-

1 12060. The content of AS YM-1 12060 was 6.18%, so additional ASYM-1 1 1938 (0.72 kg) was added and continued reaction until the content of ASYM-1 12060 was <3%. The mixture was cooled to 25-35°C and filtered with a 30 L stainless steel vacuum filter. The filter cake was soaked and washed twice with THF (14.10kg). The filtrate and washing liquor were combined and concentrated at <50°C under reduced pressure (<-0.08 MPa) until 10-15 L remained. The mixture was cooled to 15-25°C. Methanol (1 1 .05 kg) was added into the concentrated mixture. Then the mixture was stirred for crystallization. After 2 h, the mixture was sampled and analyzed by HPLC every 2-4 h until the wt% of the mother liquor was <2%. The mixture was filtered with a 30 L stainless steel vacuum filter. The filter cake was soaked and washed twice with methanol (8.30 kg). The filter cake was transferred into a 50 L plastic drum. Then ethyl acetate (7.10 kg) and petroleum ether (46.30 kg) were added into the drum. The mixture was stirred for 1.5-2 h and then filtered with a nutsche filter. The filter cake was soaked and washed with petroleum ether (20.50 kg). The filter cake was dried in the nutsche filter under nitrogen at 30-40°C. After 8 h, the solid was sampled and Karl Fischer (KF) analysis was performed in intervals of 4-8 h to monitor the drying process. Drying was completed when the KF result was <1 .0% water. During drying, the solid was turned over and mixed every 4-6 h. 12.15 kg of product was recovered as a brownish yellow solid at 98.32% purity.

In Step 3, a clean and dry 300 L glass-lined reactor was evacuated to <-0.08 MPa, and then filled with nitrogen to normal pressure three times. THF (62.58 kg) was charged into the 300 L glass-lined reactor at 15-30°C. Then the stirrer was started. ASYM-1 12393 (12.00 kg, 1 1 .70 kg after corrected) was added into the mixture. The mixture was stirred until the solid dissolved completely. Maintaining the temperature at 15-30°C, a lithium hydroxide solution which was

prepared with lithium hydroxide monohydrate (5.50 kg) in purified water (70.28 kg) was added into the mixture. Then diethylamine (3.86 kg) was added. The mixture was heated to 60-70°C for refluxing. The mixture reacted at 60-70°C. After 30 h, the reaction was sampled and analyzed by HPLC every 4-6 h until the content of intermediate at relative retention time (RRT)=1 .39-1 .44 was <1 % and the content of ASYM-1 12393 was <1 %. HPLC conditions for this analysis are set forth in Table 1 .

Table 1 : HPLC Parameters

The mixture was cooled to 25-35°C and MTBE (25.97 kg) was added into the mixture. The mixture was stirred for 20-30 min and filtered via an in-line fluid filter. The filtrate was transferred into a 300 L glass-lined reactor and settled for 20-30 min before separation. The pH of the obtained aqueous phase was adjusted with a 6 N hydrochloric acid solution which was prepared from concentrated hydrochloric acid (14.86 kg) in purified water (10.88 kg) at the rate of 5-8 kg/h at 15-25°C until the pH was 1 -2. The pH of the mixture was adjusted again with a saturated sodium carbonate solution which was prepared from sodium carbonate (5.03 kg) in purified water (23.56 kg) at the rate of 3-5 kg/h at 15-25°C until the pH was 6.4-6.7. Then the pH of the mixture was adjusted with a hydrochloric acid solution which was prepared from concentrated hydrochloric acid (1 .09 kg) in purified water (0.80 kg) until the pH was 6.2-6.4. The mixture was filtered with a nutsche filter. The filter cake was transferred into a 300 L glass-lined reactor and purified water (1 17.00 kg) was added. The mixture was stirred and sampled and analyzed by HPLC until the p-toluenesulfonic acid residue of the filter cake was <0.5%. Then the mixture was filtered. The filter cake was dried in the tray drier under nitrogen at 55-65°C until KF<10%. The solid and MTBE (8.81 kg) were charged into a 50 L stainless steel drum. The mixture was stirred for 1 -2 h. The mixture was filtered with a 30 L stainless steel vacuum filter. The filter cake was dried in the nutsche filter at 50-60°C. After 8 h, the solid was sampled and analyzed by KF every 4-8 h until KF<5%. During drying, the solid was turned over and mixed every 4-6 h. 6.3 kg of product was recovered as an off-white solid at 98.07% purity.

In Step 4, a dry and clean 50 L flask was purged with nitrogen for 20 min. DMF (30.20 kg) was charged into the 50 L flask reactor. Then the stirrer was started. Maintaining the temperature at 15-25°C, ASYM-1 12394 (3.22 kg, 2.76 kg after corrected) was added into the mixture. The mixture was stirred until the solid dissolved completely. The mixture was cooled to -10 to -20°C and 1 -hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate (2.10 kg) was added into the mixture at -10 to -20°C. Then EDCI (2.41 kg) was added into the mixture in five portions at an interval of about 5-10 min. The mixture was cooled to -20 to -30°C and ASYM-1 1 1888 (Asymchem) (1 .96 kg) was added into the mixture at -20 to -30°C. Then DIEA (1 .77 kg) was added into the mixture at the rate of 3-4 kg/h. The mixture was heated to 15-25°C at the rate of 5-10°C/h. The mixture was reacted at 15-25°C. After 6-8 h, the mixture was sampled and analyzed by HPLC every 2-4 h until the content of ASYM-1 12394 was <2%. The mixture was cooled to 0-10°C and the reaction mixture was quenched with a solution which was prepared from ethyl acetate (28.80 kg) in purified water (12.80 kg) at 0-10°C. The mixture was extracted three times with ethyl acetate (28.80 kg). For each extraction the mixture was stirred for 20-30 min and settled for 20-30 min before separation. The organic phases were combined and washed twice with purified water (12.80 kg). The mixture was stirred for 20-30 min and settled for 20-30 min before separation for each time. Then the obtained organic phase was filtered through an in-line fluid filter. The filtrate was transferred into a 300 L glass-lined reactor. The mixture was washed twice with a 5% acetic acid solution, which was prepared from acetic acid (2.24 kg) in purified water (42.50 kg). The solution was added at the rate of 10-20 kg/h. The organic phase was washed twice with a sodium carbonate solution, which was prepared from sodium carbonate (9.41 kg) in purified water (48.00 kg). The organic phase was washed twice with a sodium chloride solution, which was prepared from sodium chloride (16.00 kg) in purified water (44.80 kg). The organic phase was transferred into a 300 L glass-lined reactor. Anhydrous sodium sulfate (9.70 kg) was added into the mixture and the mixture was stirred for 2-4 h at 15-30°C. The mixture was filtered with a nutsche filter, which was pre-loaded with about 1 cm thick silica gel (7.50 kg). The filter cake was soaked and washed with ethyl acetate (14.40 kg) before filtration. The filtrates were combined and the combined filtrate was added into a 72 L flask through an in-line fluid filter. The mixture was concentrated at T≤40°C under reduced pressure (P<-0.08 MPa) until 3-4 L remained. Then MTBE (4.78 kg) was added into the mixture. The mixture was cooled to 0-10°C for crystallization with stirring. After 1 h, the mixture was sampled and analyzed by wt% every 1-2 h until the wt% of the mother liquor was <5% or the change of wt% between consecutive samples was <1%. The mixture was filtered with a vacuum filter flask and the filter cake was dried in the tray drier under nitrogen at 30-40°C until KF<0.5%. 3.55 kg of product was recovered as an off-white solid at 100% purity.

EXAMPLE 3A

Preparation of 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide Form C

4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide Form C was prepared from 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide free base as follows. ASYM-1 1 1935 (10.4 kg) was added to a stirred mixture of anhydrous ethanol (73.9 kg), methanol (4.1 kg) and isopropanol (4.1 kg). The mixture was heated to 70-75°C and stirred until all the solids dissolved. Anhydrous HCI (37 wt%, 1 .1 eq) in a mixture of ethanol/methanol/isopropanol (90:5:5) was added and the mixture maintained at 70-75°C for 2 hours after the addition was completed. The mixture was then cooled to 15-25°C at a rate of 5-15°C per hour and stirred at this temperature until the desired polymorphic purity was reached. The end point of the crystallization/polymorph conversion was

determined by the absence of an XRPD peak at about 10.5° 2Θ in three successive samples.

The mixture was then filtered and washed successively with a pre-prepared solution of anhydrous ethanol (14.8 kg), methanol (0.8 kg) and isopropanol (0.8 kg), followed by MTBE (2 x 21 kg). Avoidance of delay in the washing of the filter cake is preferable because the polymorph may be unstable in the wet filter cake in the presence of reagent alcohol and improved stability was observed after the MTBE wash has been performed. The wet filter cake was then dried in a heated filter funnel or a tray drier at 40-50°C until dry. Typical yields were about 85-90%.

EXAMPLE 3B

Alternative Preparation of 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide Form C

ASYM-1 15985

4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide Form C was also prepared from 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide free base as follows. A dry and clean 72 L flask was purged with nitrogen for 20 min. Anhydrous ethanol (21 .35 kg) methanol (1 .17 kg) and isopropanol (1 .19 kg) were charged into the 72 L flask at 15-25°C and the mixture was stirred for 20-30 min. ASYM-1 1 1935 (3.01 kg) was added into the mixture and heated to 70-75°C at the rate of 15-25°C/h and stirred until the solid dissolved completely.

An alcohol / HCI solution was prepared as follows. Anhydrous ethanol (1.500 kg) methanol (0.088 kg) and isopropanol (0.087 kg) were charged into a 5 L flask at 15-25°C and the mixture was stirred for 20-30 min. The mixture was bubbled with hydrogen chloride through a dip tube under stirring at 10-25°C. After 2 h, the mixture was sampled and analyzed every 2-4 h until the wt% of hydrogen chloride was > 35%.

The alcohol / HCI solution (0.519 kg) prepared above was added dropwise into the mixture at the rate of 0.5-1.0 kg/h at 70-75°C. Seed crystal (0.009 kg) was added into the mixture and the alcohol / HCI solution (0.173 kg) prepared above was added into the mixture at the rate of 0.5-1 .0 kg/h at 70-75°C. After addition, the mixture was stirred for 1 -2 h at 70-75°C. The mixture was cooled to 15-25°C at the rate of 5-15°C/h and stirred for 4-6 h. The mixture was heated to 70-75°C at the rate of 15-25°C/h and stirred for 8-10 h at 70-75°C. The mixture was cooled to 15-25°C at the rate of 5-15°C/h and stirred for 4-6 h. The mixture was filtered with a vacuum filter flask. The filter cake was soaked and rinsed with a solution which was prepared from anhydrous ethanol (4.25 kg) and methanol (0.24 kg) and isopropanol (0.24 kg) before filtration. The filter cake was dried in a drying room under nitrogen at 40-50°C until the ethanol residue was <0.5% and methanol residue was <0.3% and isopropanol residue was <0.3%. 2.89 kg of product was recovered as a white solid at 99.97% purity.

PATENT

WO-2016123581

Novel crystalline malonate salt forms of 4-(5-chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid[1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide (referred to as ulixertinib malonate) and composition comprising them. Also claimed is their use for treating cancer.

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016123581&redirectedID=true

EXAMPLE 6

Aqueous Disolution of 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide Malonate Form A

Samples of 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide Form C and 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2 -carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide malonate Form A were each shaken at ambient temperature in fasting state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) pH 1.6 for 30 minutes. Concentration of 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide was measured at 5, 15 and 30 minutes.

After 30 minutes, the samples were removed from FaSSGF, placed in fasting state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) pH 6.5, with shaking, for an additional 5 hours. Concentration of 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide was measured at 10, 30, 60 90, 120, 180, 270, and 300 minutes. Results are summarized in Table 13 and shown in FIG. 10A (FaSSGF) and FIG. 10B (FaSSIF).

Table 13: Solubility of 4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [1 -(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amide Form C and Malonate Form A.

PATENT

WO2016123574

PATENT

WO2015095834

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2015095834&redirectedID=true

PATENT

WO2005113541

STR1

 

Example 1 Compound 1-9 was prepared as follows:

Figure imgf000040_0001

1-9

2,2,2-TrichIoro-l-(4-iodo-lH-pyrrol-2-yl)ethanone: To a stirred solution of 50 g (235 mmol, 1.0 equiv.) of 2,2,2-trichloro-l-(lH-pyrrol-2-yl)-ethanone in dry dichloromethane (400 mL) under nitrogen, a solution of iodine monochloride (39 g, 240 mmol, 1.02 equivalents) in of dichloromethane (200 mL) was added dropwise. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The solution was washed with 10% potassium carbonate, water, 1.0 M sodium thiosulfate, saturated sodium chloride, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The solid was recrystallized from hexanes/methyl acetate to afford the title compound (68.5g, 86%) as a colorless solid (86%). MS FIA: 335.8, 337.8 ES-.

4-Iodo-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxyIic acid methyl ester: To a stirred solution of 2,2,2- trichloro-l-(4-iodo-lH-pyrrol-2-yl)ethanone (68g, 201 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) in dry methanol (400 mL) under nitrogen, was added a solution of sodium methoxide in methanol (4.37 M, 54 mL, 235 mmol, 1.2 equivalents) over 10 minutes. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the crude was then partitioned between water and tert- butylmethyl ether. The organic phase was separated, washed two times with water, saturated sodium chloride, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under vacuum to afford the title compound (48g, 96%) as a colorless solid, that was used directly without further purification.

4-Iodo-l-(toluene-4-sulfonyl)-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester: 4-Iodo- lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (24.6 g, 98 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) was dissolved in dichloromethane (150 mL) and triethylamine (30 mL, 215.6 mmol, 2.2 equivalents). 4-(Dimethylamino)pyridine (1.2 g, 9.8 mmol, 0.1 equivalent) and p- toluenesulfonylchloride (20.6 g, 107.8 mmol, 1.1 equivalents) were added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 16 hours at room temperature. The reaction was quenched with 1 M ΗC1 and the organic layer was washed with aqueous sodium bicarbonate and brine. After drying over magnesium sulfate, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was crystallized from tert-butylmethyl ether, yielding the title compound as a pale yellow solid (30 g, 75%). Rt(min) 8.259 minutes.

4-(4,4,5,5-Tetramethyl-[l,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yI)-l-(toluene-4-sulfonyl)-lH- pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester: To a degassed solution of 4-iodo-l- (toluene-4-sulfonyl)-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (20 g, 49.4 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) and bis(pinacolato)diborane (15 g, 65 mmol, 1.3 equivalents) in DMF (200 mL) under nitrogen, was added dichloro[l,l ‘- bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]palladium (II) dichloromethane adduct (3.6 g, 4.9 mmol, 0.1 equivalent). The reaction mixture was then stirred at 80 °C for 18 hours. After removing the DMF under reduced pressure, the resulting thick oil residue was suspended in diethyl ether (500 mL) and a solid precipitated immediately. This solid was removed by filtration and the filtrate was washed with IM HCl, water, brine and dried over MgS0 . Concentration afforded the title compound as a white solid and used without further purification (10 g, 50%). LC/MS: Rt(min) 4.6; 406.4 ES+. MS FIA: 406.2 ES+. ‘pfNMR δ 1.2 (s, 12H), 2.35 (s, 3H), 3.8 (s, 3H), 7.2 (m, 3H), 7.8 (d, 2H), 8.0 (s, IH).

N,N’-2-(5-Chloro-4-iodo-pyridyI)-isopropyIarnine:

Method A. (Microwave)

In a 10 mL microwave tube, 5-chloro-2-fluoro-4-iodopyridine (1.0 g, 3.9 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) was dissolved in DMSO (4.0 mL) and then ispropylamine (0.99 mL, 11.7 mmol, 3.0 equivalents) was added. The tube was sealed and placed under microwave irradiation for 600 sec at 150 °C. This reaction was repeated six times. The reaction mixtures were combined, then diluted in ethyl acetate and washed with water. After drying over sodium sulfate, the solvent was evaporated to afford the title compound as a thick brown oil (5.6 g, 80% ) which was used directly without further purification. Rt(min) 4.614; MS FIA: 296.9 ES+. ‘pfNMRsssssss δ 1.25 (d, 6H), 3.65 (m, IH), 7.15 (s, IH), 7.75 (s, IH).

Method B: (Thennal)

5-Chloro-2-fluoro-4-iodopyridine (400 mg, 1.55 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) was dissolved in ethanol (5.0 mL) and then isopropylamine (0.66 mL, 7.8 mmol, 5.0 equivalents) was added. The resulting solution was stirred at 80 °C for 48 hours. The reaction mixture was then diluted in ethyl acetate and washed with water. After drying over sodium sulfate, the solvent was evaporated and a thick brown oil was obtained, which was then purified by flash chromatography on silica gel eluting with mixtures of hexanes/ethyl acetate (from 99:1 to 80:20) to afford the title compound as a pale yellow solid (96 mg, 21%).

4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-l-(toluene-4-suIfonyl)-lH-pyrrole-2- carboxylic acid methyl ester: To a solution of N,N’-2-(5-chloro-4-iodo-pyridyl)- isopropylamine (0.53 g, 1.8 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) and 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- [l,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-l-(toluene-4-sulfonyl)-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (0.78 g, 1.8 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) in DME (4.0 mL) was added a solution of aqueous 2 M sodium carbonate (1.0 mL) followed by Pd(PPh3)4 (0.21 mg, 0.18 mmol, 0.1 equivalent). The microwave tube was sealed and the reaction mixture was irradiated by microwave for 1800 sec. at 170 °C. The cmde of six reactions were combined and diluted in ethyl acetate and washed with water. After drying the organic layer with sodium sulfate, the solvent was removed and the resulting thick oil was adsorbed on silica gel. The crude was then purified by flash chromatography on silica, eluting with hexanes/ethyl acetate mixtures (from 99:1 to 70:30) to afford the title compound as a yellow solid (3.1 g, 61% over two steps). Rt(min) 6.556. MS FIA: 448.1 ES+. ‘HNMR δ 1.45 (d, 6H), 2.5 (s, 3H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 6.8 (s, IH), 7.35 (s, IH),

7.4 (d, 2H), 8.0 (m ,3H), 8.3 (s, IH).

4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-l-(2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonyl)- lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester: To a solution of N,N’-2-(5-chloro-4- iodo-pyridyl)-isopropylamine (96 mg, 0.32 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) and 4-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-[ 1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)- 1 -(2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonyl)- lH-pyrrole- 2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (152 mg, 0.35 mmol, 1.1 equivalents) in DME (2 mL), was added a solution of aqueous 2 M sodium carbonate (0.2 mL) followed by Pd(PPh ) (37 mg, 0.032 mmol, 0.1 equivalent). The reaction mixture was stirred at 80 °C for 16 hours. The crude was diluted in ethyl acetate and washed with water. After drying the organic layer with sodium sulfate, the solvent was removed and the resulting thick oil was adsorbed on silica gel. The cmde was then purified by flash chromatography on silica, eluting with hexanes/ethyl acetate mixtures (from 99:1 to 80:20) to afford the title compound as a yellow solid (65 mg, 43%). Rt(min) 7.290. MS FIA:476.1 ES+.

4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxyIic acid:

Method A. (Microwave)

A solution of 4-(5-chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-l-(toluene-4-sulfonyl)-lH- pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (3.1 g, 6.9 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) in TΗF (2.0 mL) was added to a solution of lithium hydroxide monohydrated (710 mg, 17.3 mmol,

2.5 equivalents) in water (3.0 mL). The microwave tube was sealed and the reaction mixture was irradiated by microwave for 1200 sec. at 150 °C. The cmde solution was acidified with aqueous 6Ν ΗC1. The solvent was evaporated off to afford the title compound which was used directly without further purification. Rt(min): 3.574. FIA MS: 279.9 ES+; 278.2 ES-.

Method B: (Thermal)

A solution of 4-(5-chloro-2-isopropylaminoρyridin-4-yl)-l-(2,4,6- trimethylbenzenesulfonyl)-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (0.69 g, 1.4 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) in TΗF (3.0 mL) was added to a solution of lithium hydroxide monohydrated (1.19 g, 29 mmol, 20.0 equivalents) in water (3.0 mL). The mixture was then refluxed for 8 hours. The cmde solution was acidified with aqueous 6N ΗC1 until cloudy, the organic solvent was partially removed and the product precipitated. The title compound was isolated by filtration and washed with water and diethyl ether, yielding a white solid (0.38 g, 96%).

4-(5-Chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxyIic acid [l-(3- ch!orophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl] amide: To a suspension of 4-(5-chloro-2- isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (1.93 g, 6.9 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) in DMF (5.0 mL) was added EDCI (1.45 g, 7.6 mmol, 1.1 equivalents), ΗOBt (0.94 g, 6.9 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) and (5)-3-chlorophenylglycynol (1.58 g, 7.6 mmol, 1.1 equivalents). Dusopropylethylamme (2.7 mL) was then added and the resulting mixture was stirred a room temperature overnight. The mixture was then poured into water and extracted with ethyl acetate. After drying over sodium sulfate, the solvent was removed and the crude was adsorbed on silica gel. Purification was effected by flash chromatography on silica, eluting with mixtures of hexanes/acetone (from 80:20 to 60:40) to afford the title compound as white solid (1.9 g, 64%). Rt(min) 4.981s. FIA MS: 433.1 ES+; 431.2 ES-. 1ΗNMR (CD3OD) δ 1.31 (d, 6H), 3.85 (m, 3H), 5.15 (t, IH), 7.01 (s, IH), 7.25 (m, 3H), 7.4 (s, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 7.7 (s, IH), 7.95 (s, IH).

Example 2 Compound 1-9 was also prepared according to following alternate method:

Figure imgf000045_0001

2,5-DichIoro-4-nitropyridine N-oxide: To a suspension of 2-chloro-5-chloropyridine (10 g, 0.067 mol) in acetic anhydride (25 mL) was added hydrogen peroxide 30% (25 mL) in small portions. This mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours and then heated at 60 °C for 30 hours. After removing the excess of acetic acid under reduced pressure, the residue was added in small portions to concentrated sulfuric acid (15 mL). The resulting solution was added to a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid (15 mL) and fuming nitric acid (25 mL) and then heated at 100 °C for 90 minutes. The reaction mixture was poured on ice, neutralized with solid ammonium carbonate and finally with aqueous ammonia until a basic pH was obtained and. A precipitate formed. The precipitate was collected by filtration to afford the title compound as a pale yellow solid (3.1 g), Rt(min) 3.75. MS FIA shows no peak. ‘pfΝMR (DMSO-de) δ 8.78 (s, IH), 9.15 (s, IH).

4-Bromo-2-chloro-5-N-isopropylpyridin-2-amine N-oxide: To 2,5-dichloro-4- nitropyridine Ν-oxide (400 mg, 1.9 mmol) was added acetyl bromide (2 mL) very slowly. The reaction mixture was then heated at 80 °C for 10 minutes. The solvent was removed under a stream of nitrogen and the cmde product was dried under high vacuum. The cmde material (165 mg, 0.62 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (2 mL), zso-propylamine (0.53 mL) added and the resulting mixture was heated at 80 °C for 2 hours. The cmde solution was then purified by reversed phase HPLC (acetonitrile/water/TFA 1%) to afford the title compound as a pale yellow solid (60 mg, 36.6%). Rt(min) 5.275. MS FIA264.8, 266.9 ES+.

4-(5-chloro-2-isopropylaminopyridin-4-yl)-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid [l-(3- chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl] amide (1-9): 4-Bromo-2-chloro-5-N- isopropylpyridin-2-amine N-oxide (25 mg, 0.094 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) and 4- (4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-[l,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-l-(2,4,6-trimethylbenzensulfonyl)-lH- pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (39 mg, 0.094 mmol, 1.0 equivalent) were dissolved in benzene (5 mL) then aqueous 2M Νa2C03 (1 mL) and Pd(PPh3)4 (115.6 mg, 0.1 mmol, 0.2 equivalent) were added and the resulting suspension was heated at reflux at 80 °C for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted in ethyl acetate, washed with water and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate to afford 4-(5-chloro-2- isopropylamino-pyridin-4-yl)- 1 -(2,4,6-trimethyl-benzenesulfonyl)- lH-pyrrole-2- carboxylic acid methyl ester N-oxide (R (min) 6.859. MS FIA: 492.0 ES+) which was then treated with a 2 M solution of PC13 in dichloromethane (1 mL) at room temperature. After 10 minutes, the solvent was removed under a stream of nitrogen and the cmde oil was dissolved in methanol (1 mL) and aqueous 1 M ΝaOΗ (1 mL). The resulting mixture was heated at reflux for 16 hours then the cmde solution was acidified using aqueous 1 M ΗC1 and the solvent was removed. The resulting 4-(5- chloro-2-isopropylamino-pyridin-4-yl)-lΗ-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (R (min) 3.527. MS FIA: 279.4 ES+; 278.2 Es-) was suspended in DMF (3 mL) together with EDCI (36 mg, 0.19 mmol, 2 equivalents), HOBt (26 mg, 0.19 mmol, 2 equivalents), (S)-3- chlorophenylglycinol HCl salt (59 mg, 0.28 mmol, 3 equivalents) and DIEA (0.12 mL, 0.75 mmol, 8 equivalents). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted in ethyl acetate, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. After removing the solvent under reduced pressure, the cmde product was purified by reversed phase HPLC (acetonitrile/water/TFA 1%) to afford the title compound as a white solid (4.8 mg, 8.1%).

PATENT

US20150512092015-02-19COMPOUNDS AND COMPOSITIONS AS INHIBITORS OF MEK

US73549392008-04-08Pyrrole inhibitors of ERK protein kinase, synthesis thereof and intermediates thereto

Research scientist Tony Huang works in a laboratory at Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc. in San Diego

REFERENCES

1 . Kohno M, Pouyssegur J (2006) Targeting the ERK signaling pathway in cancer therapy. Ann Med 38: 200-21 1 .

2. Kuby, J., Immunology, 3rd Ed., W.H. Freeman & Co., New York.

3. Lee DC, Webb ML(2003) Pharmaceutical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York: 255-257.

4. Peterson ML, Hickey MB, Zaworotko MJ and Almarsson O (2006) Expanding the Scope of Crystal Form Evaluation in Pharmaceutical Science. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci 9(3):317-326.

5. Pierce Catalog and Handbook, 1994-1995; Pierce Chemical Co., Rockford, III.

6. Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy (21 st Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.

7. The United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary, The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville, MD.

Gabriel Martinez-Botella

Gabriel Martinez-Botella

Gabriel Martinez-Botella

Director, Chemistry at Sage Therapeutics

Experience

Director, Chemistry

Sage Therapeutics

July 2012 – Present (4 years 2 months)

Principal Scientist, Team Leader

AstraZeneca

March 2008 – July 2012 (4 years 5 months)

Sr Scientist

Vertex Pharmaceuticals

2002 – 2008 (6 years)

Education

Queen Mary, U. of London

PhD

1996 – 1999

R Bonnett

Universitat de Barcelona

1990 – 1995

PIC NOT AVAILABLE

Michael R Hale

Director
Ra Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge · Medicinal Chemistry

 

///////////ULIXERTINIB, BVD-523; BVD-ERK,  BVD-ERK/HM,  BVD-ERK/ST,  VRT-0752271,  VRT-752271,  VX-271, уликсертиниб ,أوليكسيرتينيب  ,优立替尼 , PHASE 2,  Vertex Pharmaceuticals, BioMed Valley Discoveries, UNII:16ZDH50O1U,  869886-67-9 

CC(C)NC1=NC=C(C(=C1)C2=CNC(=C2)C(=O)NC(CO)C3=CC(=CC=C3)Cl)Cl

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New Antiarthritic Drug Candidate S-2474

 phase 2, Uncategorized  Comments Off on New Antiarthritic Drug Candidate S-2474
Aug 012016
 

STR1

 

 

S-2474

(E)-(5)-(3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-ethyl-1,2-isothiazolidine-1,1-dioxide

Shionogi Research Laboratories

cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)

mp 135−137 °C.

S-2474,158089-95-3, 158089-96-4 ((Z)-isomer),C20-H31-N-O3-S,

E)-5-(3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-ethylisothiazolidine 1,1-dioxide

  • Phenol, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-[(2-ethyl-5-isothiazolidinylidene)methyl]-, S,S-dioxide, (E)-
  • 2,6-Bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-[(E)-(2-ethyl-1,1-dioxido-5-isothiazolidinylidene)methyl]phenol
  • Phenol, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-[(2-ethyl-1,1-dioxido-5-isothiazolidinylidene)methyl]-, (E)-

(E)-(5)-(3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-ethyl-1,2-isothiazolidine-1,1-dioxide (S-2474, ), which was discovered at Shionogi Research Laboratories, shows potent inhibitory effects on both cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and is anticipated to be promising as an antiarthritic drug

synthesis of novel γ-sultam derivatives containing the di-tert-butylphenol antioxidant moiety. Several compounds with lower alkyl groups at the 2-position of the γ-sultam skeleton showed potent inhibitory activities against PGE2 production via the COX pathway and LTB4 production via the 5-LO pathway, as well as production of IL-1 in in vitro assays. Extensive pharmacological characterizations revealed that 2-ethyl-γ-sultam derivative 10b displays multiple inhibition of COX, 5-LO, and IL-1 production similar to tenidap and also good selective COX-2 inhibition like NS-398 and celecoxib. It exerted excellent antiinflammatory activity without any ulcerogenic effects and was designated as S-2474 an agent having both NSAID and cytokine modulating properties. S-2474 is now being developed as a promising alternative antiarthritic drug candidate

SYNTHESIS

17th Symp Med Chem (Nov 19 1997 , Tsukuba), EP 0595546; JP 1994211819; US 5418230

The intermediate gamma-sultam (III) was prepared by condensation of 3-chloropropylsulfonyl chloride (I) with ethylamine, followed by cyclization of the resulting chloro sulfonamide (II) under basic conditions. Condensation of 3,5-di- tert-butyl-4- (methoxymethoxy) benzaldehyde (IV) with sultam (III) in the presence of LDA produced the aldol addition compound (V). Then, acid-promoted dehydration and simultaneous methoxymethyl group deprotection gave rise to a mixture of the desired E-benzylidene sultam and the corresponding Z-isomer (VII), which were separated by column chromatography.

PAPER

Novel Antiarthritic Agents with 1,2-Isothiazolidine-1,1-dioxide (γ-Sultam) Skeleton: Cytokine Suppressive Dual Inhibitors of Cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-Lipoxygenase

Shionogi Research Laboratories, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Fukushima-ku, Osaka 553-0002, Japan, and Institute of Medical Science, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki 216-8512, Japan
J. Med. Chem., 2000, 43 (10), pp 2040–2048
DOI: 10.1021/jm9906015
Abstract Image

Various 1,2-isothiazolidine-1,1-dioxide (γ-sultam) derivatives containing an antioxidant moiety, 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol substituent, were prepared. Some compounds, which have a lower alkyl group at the 2-position of the γ-sultam skeleton, showed potent inhibitory effects on both cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), as well as production of interleukin (IL)-1 in in vitro assays. They also proved to be effective in several animal arthritic models without any ulcerogenic activities. Among these compounds, (E)-(5)-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-ethyl-1,2-isothiazolidine-1,1-dioxide (S-2474) was selected as an antiarthritic drug candidate and is now under clinical trials. The structure−activity relationships (SAR) examined and some pharmacological evaluations are described.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm9906015

PAPER

Highly E-Selective and Effective Synthesis of Antiarthritic Drug Candidate S-2474 Using Quinone Methide Derivatives

Shionogi Research Laboratories, Shionogi & Company, Ltd., Fukushima-ku, Osaka 553-0002, Japan
J. Org. Chem., 2002, 67 (1), pp 125–128
DOI: 10.1021/jo0106795
 Abstract Image
We have developed an efficient and E-selective synthesis of an antiarthritic drug candidate (E)-(5)-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-ethyl-1,2-isothiazolidine-1,1-dioxide (S-2474), in which α-methoxy-p-quinone methide is used as a key intermediate. α-Methoxy-p-quinone methide was revealed to be an equiv. to a p-hydroxy protected benzaldehyde. It reacts smoothly with α-sulfonyl carbanion to give 1,6-addn. intermediates, which can be further processed to provide S-2474 directly in the presence of a base. This procedure gives S-2474 as an almost single isomer on the benzylidene double bond in excellent yield and thus is a very practical method adaptable to large-scale synthesis. The detailed mechanistic aspects are studied and discussed.
An improved synthesis has been reported. Acid -catalyzed ketalization of aldehyde (VIII) with trimethyl orthoformate provided the dimethyl acetal (IX) which, upon thermal decomposition in refluxing xylene, gave rise to the alpha-methoxy methylenequinone derivative (X ). This was then condensed with the lithio derivative of sultam (III) to form selectively the desired E-adduct. in an analogous procedure, aldehyde (VIII) was converted to the chloromethylene compound (XI) with methanesulfonyl chloride and triethylamine in refluxing CH2Cl2 . Condensation of (XI) with the lithiated sultam (III) furnished the desired E-benzylidene sultam.

PAPER

Development of One-Pot Synthesis of New Antiarthritic Drug Candidate S-2474 with High E-Selectivity

Chemical Development Department, CMC Development Laboratories, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., 1-3, Kuise Terajima 2-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0813, Japan, and Shionogi Research Laboratories, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., 12-4, Sagisu 5-chome, Fukushima-ku, Osaka 553-0002, Japan
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2008, 12 (3), pp 442–446
DOI: 10.1021/op800008w

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. Telephone: +81-6-6401-8198 . Fax: +81-6-6401-1371. E-mail:takemasa.hida@shionogi.co.jp., †

Chemical Development Department, CMC Development Laboratories.

, ‡Shionogi Research Laboratories.

Abstract Image

A one-pot synthesis of S-2474 was developed to overcome the problems of a large number of steps, low stereoselectivity, low yield, a large amount of waste, and severe reaction conditions. Aldol-type condensation of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and N-ethyl-γ-sultam was carried out with LDA and then quenched with water. Dehydration proceeded under basic conditions, providing S-2474 directly as a single isomer on the benzylidene double bond. The reaction mechanism appears to involve a quinone methide intermediate. Environmental assessment of the development of this compound is also discussed in this paper.

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///////New,  Antiarthritic , Drug Candidate,  S-2474, Shionogi Research Laboratories, cyclooxygenase-2,  (COX-2),  5-lipoxygenase , (5-LO), PHASE 2, 158089-95-3, 158089-96-4, S2474, S 2474

CCN2CC\C(=C/c1cc(c(O)c(c1)C(C)(C)C)C(C)(C)C)S2(=O)=O

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GSK-1292263A Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Receptor (GDIR, GPR119) Agonists

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Jul 312016
 

 

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GSK-1292263

CAS 1032823-75-8

3-isopropyl-5-(4-(((6-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)pyridin-3-yl)oxy)methyl)piperidin-1-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole

5-[1-(3-Isopropyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)piperidin-4-ylmethoxy]-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]pyridine

5-[({1-[3-(1-Methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methyl)oxy]-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]pyridine

 

MF C23H28N4O4S

MW: 456.18313

1292263
GSK-1292263
GSK-1292263A
GSK-263A

Smithkine Beecham Corp, INNOVATOR

GSK-1292263 is a novel GPR119 receptor agonist that is currently under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Treatment of male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single dose of GSK-1292263 (3-30 mg/kg) in the absence of nutrients correlated with increased levels of circulating gastrointestinal peptides; glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon.

GSK-1292263 had been evaluated in phase II clinical studies at GlaxoSmithKline for the oral treatment of type 2 diabetes and as monotherapy or in combination with sitagliptin for the treatment of dyslipidemia; however no recent development has been reported for this research.

Following administration of glucose in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), greater increases in total GLP-1, GIP and PYY were seen in GSK-1292263-treated rats than in control animals. Despite significant decreases in the glucose AUC, no statistically significant differences in insulin responses and insulin AUC were observed between rats administered GSK-1292263 and those receiving vehicle control.

In the intravenous glucose tolerance test, significant increases in the peak insulin response and insulin AUC(0-15 min) of 30-60% were reported in the GSK-1292263 treatment group, compared with values in the vehicle control cohort. This insulin upregulation correlated with a significant increase in the glucose disposal rate (Brown, K.K. et al. Diabetes [70th Annu Meet Sci Sess Am Diabetes Assoc (ADA) (June 25-29, Orlando) 2010] 2010, 59(Suppl. 1): Abst 407).

The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single and multiple oral doses of GSK-1292263 were evaluated in a recently completed randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy volunteers (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00783549).

A total of 69 subjects received single escalating doses of GSK-1292263 (10-400 mg) prior to administration of a 250-mg dose given once daily for 2 and 5 days, which was also evaluated in combination with sitagliptin (100 mg). Treatment with GSK-1292263 at all doses was described as well tolerated, with the most common drug-related effects being mild headache, dizziness, hyperhidrosis, flushing and post-OGTT hypoglycemia.

NMR

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.44 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1H), 8.28 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 8.06 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.99 (bd, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.54 (dd, J = 8.8, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 4.03–3.97 (m, 2H), 3.25 (s, 3H), 3.20–3.09 (m, 2H), 2.81 (q, J = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 2.13–2.00 (m, 1H), 1.88 (bd, J = 12.8 H, 2H), 1.42–1.29 (m, 2H), 1.18 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 6H).

13C NMR (100.6 MHz, DMSO-d6) 175.3, 170.9, 155.5, 147.0, 143.5, 140.5, 138.6, 127.9, 127.0, 122.4, 122.3, 72.5, 45.7, 44.1, 35.0, 28.0, 26.7, 20.8.

HRMS calcd for C23H29N4O4S (M + H)+ 457.1904, found, 457.1900.

Anal. Calcd for C23H28N4O4S: C, 60.51; H, 6.18; N, 12.27. Found: C, 60.64; H, 6.16; N, 12.24.

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Hypoglycemia was not reported with the 5-day dosing schedule. Pharmacokinetic profiling revealed dose-proportional AUC and Cmax at single lower doses, but not at single higher ones. Following repeated once-daily dosing (5 days), drug accumulation was observed consistent with a mean half-life of 12-18 hours. A dose-dependent increase in glucose AUC(0-3 h) during OGTT was seen in GSK-1292263-treated subjects. The treatment was also associated with an increase in PYY during the prandial periods.

Coadministration with sitagliptin led to increases in the plasma concentrations of active GLP-1 but reduced the levels of total GLP-1, GIP and PYY. Sitagliptin affected the exposure to GSK-1292263 (50% increase) but GSK-1292263 did not affect sitagliptin exposure. The data support further evaluation of GSK-1292263 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (Source: Nunez, D.J. et al. Diabetes [70th Annu Meet Sci Sess Am Diabetes Assoc (ADA) (June 25-29, Orlando) 2010] 2010, 59(Suppl. 1): Abst 80-OR).

WO 2008070692

http://www.google.com.au/patents/WO2008070692A2?cl=en

Example 169: 5-[({1 -[3-(1 -Methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4- piperidinyl}methyl)oxy]-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]pyridine hydrochloride

Figure imgf000171_0001

Step 1 : A mixture of 6-bromo-3-pyridinol (7 g, 40 mmol), [4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]boronic acid (8 g, 40 mmol), 2M Na2CO3 (30 ml_), PdCI2(PPh3)2 (1 g) and DME (60 ml.) under N2 was heated at 80 0C overnight. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature and was diluted with EtOAc and water. The resulting precipitate was filtered off and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic extracts were dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The aqueous phase was also concentrated. Each of the residues was recrystallized from MeOH. The solid material from the organic phase recrystallization and the mother liquors from both aqueous and organic recrystallizations were combined, concentrated and purified by chromatography on a silica gel column using 0 to 10% MeOH/CH2CI2 to give 6-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-3-pyridinol (2.9 g, 29%) as a tan solid. Step 2: Diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (0.175 ml_, 0.89 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of 6-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-3-pyridinol (150 mg, 0.59 mmol), {1-[3-(1- methylethyl)-1 ,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methanol (prepared as in Example 20, Steps 1-3, 200 mg, 0.89 mmol), PPh3 (233 mg, 0.89 mmol), and THF (10 ml.) at ambient temperature. The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 4 h. The mixture was concentrated, and the resulting crude was purified by reverse-phase preparative HPLC using a CH3CN:H2O gradient (10:90 to 100:0) with 0.05% TFA as a modifier, then taken up in CH2CI2 and free-based with saturated NaHCO3 (aq) to give 5-[({1-[3-(1-methylethyl)-1 ,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methyl)oxy]-2-[4- (methylsulfonyl)phenyl]pyridine (220 mg) as a white solid. Step 3: A mixture of the resulting white solid (50 mg, 0.1 1 mmol) in THF (3 ml.) was stirred at ambient temperature as 4Λ/ HCI in dioxane (28 μl_) was added dropwise. The resulting white precipitate was filtered, air-dried, then triturated with diethyl ether to give 35 mg (65%) of the title compound as a white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3): δ 8.46 (d, 1 H, J = 0.7 Hz), 8.18 (bs, 2H), 8.05 (bs, 2H), 7.83 (bs, 1 H), 7.61- 7.45 (m, 1 H), 4.24 (d, 2H, J = 10.4 Hz), 4.00 (d, 2H, J = 0.6 Hz), 3.21-3.03 (m, 5H), 2.89 (m, 1 H), 2.15 (d, 1 H, J = 1.1 Hz), 1.96 (bs, 2H), 1.50 (bs, 2H), 1.28 (d, 6H, J = 6.9 Hz); LRMS (ESI), m/z 457 (M+H).

PATENT

http://www.google.co.ug/patents/US20120077812

Example 100

5-[({1-[3-(1-Methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methyl)oxy]-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]pyridine[0480]Figure US20120077812A1-20120329-C00124

Step 1: A mixture of 2-methylpropanenitrile (100 g, 1.45 mol), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (111 g, 1.59 mol) and NaOH (64 g, 1.59 mol) in EtOH (2 L) and water (500 mL) was stirred at reflux overnight. The mixture was evaporated to dryness and extracted with dichloromethane. The organic extract was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to afford the desired N-hydroxy-2-methylpropanimidamide (50 g, 34%).

Step 2: A solution of 4-piperidinemethanol (140 g, 1.22 mol) in CH2Cl2 (1 L) was treated with a slurry of NaHCO3(205 g, 2.44 mol) in water (1.4 L) at 0° C. The mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 15 min, and then charged with a solution of cyanogen bromide in CH2Cl2, (1.34 mol) at 0° C. The reaction mixture was stirred and allowed to warm to ambient temperature, and stirred overnight. The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with CH2Cl2. The combined organic extracts were dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated. The crude product was combined with other batches made similarly and purified by chromatography on a silica gel column to give 300 g of 4-(hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinecarbonitrile. Step 3: A solution of 1N ZnCl2 in Et2O (182 mL, 182 mmol) was added to a solution of 4-(hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinecarbonitrile (21.3 g, 152 mmol) and N-hydroxy-2-methylpropanimidamide (18.6 g, 182 mmol) in EtOAc (50 mL) at ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was left at ambient temperature for 30 min, decanted, and was treated with concentrated HCl (45 mL) and ethanol 20 mL). The mixture was heated at reflux for 2 h. The mixture was evaporated to dryness, and the resulting residue was charged with water and the pH was adjusted to basic with K2CO3. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc and the material obtained was combined with 9 other batches prepared similarly and purified by silica gel chromatography to give 150 g of {1-[3-(1-methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methanol.

Step 4: A solution of {1-[3-(1-methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methanol (prepared as in Step 3, 174 g, 0.77 mol) and triethylamine (140 mL, 1.0 mol) in dichloromethane (1 L) at 5° C. was treated with a solution of methanesulfonyl chloride (69 mL, 0.89 mol) in dichloromethane (150 mL) over a 1 h period. The mixture was stirred at 5° C. for 30 min, and then was quenched by the addition of water (400 mL). The mixture was stirred for 30 min, and then the organic extract was washed with water (2×400 mL), dried (MgSO4) and concentrated. The residue was treated with heptane (1 L), stirred for 3 h, and the resulting solid was collected by filtration (heptane wash) and air-dried to afford {1-[3-(1-methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methyl methanesulfonate (219.7 g, 94%) as an off-white solid. 1NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 4.21-4.15 (m, 2H), 4.08 (d, 2H, J=6.6 Hz), 3.04 (m, 2H), 3.01 (s, 3H), 2.86 (septet, 1H, J=6.9 Hz), 2.05-1.93 (m, 1H), 1.88-1.81 (m, 2H), 1.43-1.31 (m, 2H), 1.26 (d, 6H, J=6.8 Hz); LRMS (ESI), m/z 304 (M+H).

Step 5: A mixture of 6-bromo-3-pyridinol (36 g, 207 mmol), [4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]boronic acid (50 g, 250 mmol), 2M Na2CO3 (315 mL) and DME (500 mL) was degassed with N2 for 30 min, and then Pd(PPh3)4 (12 g, 10 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated at 80° C. for 18 h. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature and was diluted with dichloromethane (500 mL) and water (500 mL) and stirred for 30 min. The reaction was filtered and the solids were rinsed with dichloromethane and the aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane. The combined organic extracts were extracted with 1N NaOH (2×600 mL), and then cooled to 5° C. and the pH was adjusted to ˜8 with 6N HCl. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration (water wash) and air-dried to afford a yellow solid. This procedure was repeated and the solids were combined to provide (71.2 g, 68%) of 6-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-3-pyridinol. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 10.27 (s, 1H), 8.25 (d, 1H, J=2.7 Hz), 8.21 (d, 2H, J=8.5 Hz), 8.00-7.90 (m, 3H), 7.27 (dd, 1H, Ja=8.7 Hz, Jb=2.8 Hz), 3.21 (s, 3H); LRMS (ESI), m/z 250 (M+H).

Step 6: A mixture of {1-[3-(1-methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methyl methanesulfonate (82.3 g, 271 mmol), 6-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-3-pyridinol (71.0 g, 285 mmol), powdered potassium carbonate (118 g, 855 mmol) and N,N-dimethylformamide (750 mL) was mechanically stirred and heated at 80° C. under nitrogen for 20 h. The reaction was cooled to ambient temperature, poured onto ice water (3 L) and allowed to stand for 1 h. The resulting solid was filtered, rinsed with water (2×500 mL) and air-dried. The solid was taken up in dichloromethane (300 mL) and methanol (500 mL). The dichloromethane was slowly removed via rotovap at 55° C. The methanol solution was allowed to stand at ambient temperature for 16 h. The resulting crystalline solid was filtered, rinsed with cold methanol and dried under vacuum at 60° C. for 18 h to afford the desired product (105.7 g, 84%) as a light tan solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 8.41 (d, 1H, J=2.8 Hz), 8.13 (d, 2H, J=8.6 Hz), 8.01 (d, 2H, J=8.6 Hz), 7.74 (d, 1H, J=8.7 Hz), 7.29 (dd, 1H, Ja=8.7 Hz, Jb=3.0 Hz), 4.24 (d, 2H, J=13.1 Hz), 3.95 (d, 2H, J=6.2 Hz), 3.17-3.04 (m, 5H), 2.94-2.84 (m, 1H), 2.11 (bs, 1H), 1.97 (d, 2H, J=12.6 Hz), 1.54-1.42 (m, 2H), 1.29 (d, 6H, J=7.0 Hz); LRMS (ESI), m/z 457 (M+H).

Alternative preparation: Step 1: 2-Bromo-5-[({1-[3-(1-methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methyl)oxy]pyridine (220 mg, 29%) was prepared as a white solid from {1-[3-(1-methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methanol (prepared as in Example 20, Steps 1-3, 348 mg, 2.0 mmol), 6-bromo-3-pyridinol (348 mg, 2.0 mmol) and Ph3P (629 mg, 2.4 mmol) in THF (5 mL) followed by diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (0.51 mL, 2.6 mmol) in a manner similar to Example 1, Step 2. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 8.04 (s, 1H), 7.37 (d, 1H, J=8.8 Hz), 7.08 (d, 1H, J=8.8 Hz), 4.26-4.16 (m, 2H), 3.85 (d, 2H, J=6.2 Hz), 3.14-3.04 (m, 2H), 2.95-2.76 (m, 1H), 2.11-1.96 (m, 1H), 1.98-1.88 (m, 2H), 1.52-1.36 (m, 2H), 1.28 (d, 6H, J=6.9 Hz); LRMS (ESI), m/z 381/383 (M+H).

Step 2: 5-[({1-[3-(1-Methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methyl)oxy]-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]pyridine (51 mg, 21%) was prepared from 2-bromo-5-[({1-[3-(1-methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl}methyl)oxy]pyridine (220 mg, 0.52 mmol), [4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]boronic acid (105 mg, 0.52 mmol), 2M Na2CO3 (5 mL), Pd(PPh3)4 (50 mg, 0.04 mmol) and DME (5 mL) in a manner similar to Example 21, Step 3.

Paper

Development of Large-Scale Routes to Potent GPR119 Receptor Agonists

API Chemistry Department, Analytical Science & Development Department, #Medicinal Chemistry Department, and§Particle Sciences and Engineering Department, GlaxoSmithKline, 709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
Publication Date (Web): July 13, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

Abstract

Abstract Image

Practical and scalable syntheses were developed that were used to prepare multikilogram batches of GSK1292263A (1) and GSK2041706A (15), two potent G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) agonists. Both syntheses employed relatively cheap and readily available starting materials, and both took advantage of an SNAr synthetic strategy.

///////////1292263, GSK-1292263, GSK-1292263A, GSK-263A, GSK1292263, GSK1292263A,  GSK 1292263, GSK 1292263A, GSK 263A, GSK263A, 1032823-75-8

O=S(C1=CC=C(C2=CC=C(OCC3CCN(C4=NC(C(C)C)=NO4)CC3)C=N2)C=C1)(C)=O

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Ombitasvir オムビタスビル水和物 For Hepatitis C (HCV)

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Ombitasvir Hydrate, 1456607-70-7

Ombitasvir.svg

Ombitasvir 1258226-87-7

Ombitasvir; ABT-267; ABT 267; UNII-2302768XJ8; 1258226-87-7;

C50H67N7O8
Molecular Weight: 894.10908 g/mol

Anti-Viral Compounds [US2010317568]

Methyl ((R)-1-((S)-2-((4-((2S,5S)-1-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-5-(4-((R)-1-((methoxycarbonyl)-L-valyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamido)phenyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)phenyl)carbamoyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)carbamate,

Dimethyl (2S,2′S)-1,1′-((2S,2′S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2,1-diyl))bis(3-methyl-1-oxobutane-2,1-diyl)dicarbamate, 

methyl N-[(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-[[4-[(2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-[4-[[(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonyl]amino]phenyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl]phenyl]carbamoyl]pyrrolidin-1-yl]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]carbamate

オムビタスビル水和物
Ombitasvir Hydrate

C50H67N7O8.4 1/2H2O : 975.18
[1456607-70-7]

 

Abbvie Inc.  innovator

Phase II clinical development at AbbVie (previously Abbott) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection in combination with ABT-450/ritonavir and, in combination with peginterferon alpha-2a/ribavirin (pegIFN/RBV) in treatment naïve Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infected patients.

Ombitasvir is Dimethyl ([(2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl) pyrrolidine-2,5diyl]bis{benzene-4,1-diylcarbamoyl(2S)pyrrolidine-2,1-diyl[(2S)-3-methyl-1-oxobutane-1,2diyl]})biscarbamate hydrate. The molecular formula is C50H67N7O8•4.5H2O (hydrate) and the molecular weight for the drug substance is 975.20 (hydrate).

Ombitasvir is in phase II clinical development at AbbVie (previously Abbott) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection in combination with ABT-450/ritonavir and, in combination with peginterferon alpha-2a/ribavirin (pegIFN/RBV) in treatment naïve Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infected patients.

Ombitasvir is part of a fixed-dose formulation with ABT-450/ritonavir that is approved in the U.S. and the E.U.

In January 2013, Abbott spun-off its research-based pharmaceutical business into a newly-formed company AbbVie. In 2013, breakthrough therapy designation was assigned in the U.S. for the treatment of genotype 1 hepatitis C in combination with ABT-450, ritonavir and ABT-333, with and without ribavirin.

Ombitasvir (Viekira PakTM) (Technivie)

Ombitasvir is an antiviral drug for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In the United States, it is approved by theFood and Drug Administration for use in combination with paritaprevir, ritonavir and dasabuvir in the product Viekira Pak for the treatment of HCV genotype 1,[1][2] and with paritaprevir and ritonavir in the product Technivie for the treatment of HCV genotype 4.[3][4]

Ombitasvir acts by inhibiting the HCV protein NS5A.[5]

Ombitasvir is an orally available inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) replication complex, with potential activity against HCV. Upon oral administration and after intracellular uptake, ombitasvir binds to and blocks the activity of the NS5A protein. This results in the disruption of the viral RNA replication complex, blockage of HCV RNA production, and inhibition of viral replication. NS5A, a zinc-binding and proline-rich hydrophilic phosphoprotein, plays a crucial role in HCV RNA replication. HCV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family; HCV infection is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Ombitasvir.png
Ombitasvir hydrate is a NS5A non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor which is approved as part of a four drug combination for the
treatment of adults with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection including those with compensated cirrhosis.REF 6,7

The four drug combination treatment consists of ombitasvir, paritaprevir (XXVII), ritonavir, and dasabuvir (X). This combination treatment is marketed as Viekira PakTM and was developed by Abbvie as an all oral treatment that eliminates the need for pegylated interferon-a injections.

The synthesis of ombitasvir hydrate is shown in Scheme 34.REF 8   Alkylation of 1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethanone (209)
with 2-bromo-1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethanone (208) in the presence of zinc chloride produced diketone 210 in 61% yield.

Asymmetric reduction of the diketone using N,N-diethylaniline borane with (S)-()-a,a-diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinemethanol (211) and trimethoxyborate gave diol 212 in 61% yield and 99.3% ee.

The diol was then treated with methanesulfonic anhydride to generate the corresponding bis-mesylate which was reacted with 4-tert-butylaniline to give pyrrolidine 213 in 51% yield over the two steps.

Hydrogenolysis of the nitro groups was accomplished using Raney nickel catalyst to give bis-aniline 214.

Separately, (L)-valine (216,Scheme 35) was reacted with methyl chloroformate to give the corresponding methyl carbamate in 90% yield which was coupled to L-proline benzyl ester in the presence of EDC and HOBt to give the corresponding dipeptide in 90% yield.

Hydrogenolysis of the benzyl ester group of the protected dipeptide using Pd/alumina catalyst produced dipeptide acid 215. Aniline 214 was treated with two equivalents of acid 215 in the presence of 1-propanephosphonic acid cyclic anhydride (T3P). The crude product was recrystallized from ethanol and heptane to give ombitasvir hydrate (XXV). No yields were provided to the final steps of this synthesis.

STR1

 

STR1

6 Gamal, N.; Andreone, P. Drugs Today (Barc) 2015, 51, 303.

7. DeGoey, D. A.; Randolph, J. T.; Liu, D.; Pratt, J.; Hutchins, C.; Donner, P.;Krueger, A. C.; Matulenko, M.; Patel, S.; Motter, C. E.; Nelson, L.; Keddy, R.;Tufano, M.; Caspi, D. D.; Krishnan, P.; Mistry, N.; Koev, G.; Reisch, T. J.;Mondal, R.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Gao, Y.; Beno, D. W.; Maring, C. J.; Molla, A.;Dumas, E.; Campbell, A.; Williams, L.; Collins, C.; Wagner, R.; Kati, W. M. J.
Med. Chem. 2014, 57, 2047.
8. DeGoey, D. A.; Kati, W. M.; Hutchins, C. W.; Donner, P. L.; Krueger, A. C.;Randolph, J. T.; Motter, C. E.; Nelson, L. T.; Patel, S. V.; Matulenko, M. A.;Keddy, R. G.; Jinkerson, T. K.; Soltwedel, T. N.; Liu, D.; Pratt, J. K.; Rockway, T.W.; Maring, C. J.; Hutchinson, D. K.; Flentge, C. A.; Wagner, R.; Tufano, M. D.;Betebenner, D. A.; Lavin, M. J.; Sarris, K.; Woller, K. R.; Wagaw, S. H.; Califano,
J. C.; Li, W.; Caspi, D. D.; Bellizzi, M. E. US Patent 2010317568A1, 2010.

CLIP

STR1

DeGoey, DA, Discovery of ABT-267, a Pan-genotypic Inhibitor of HCV NS5A,  J. Med. Chem., 2014, 57 (5), pp 2047-2057

 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jm401398x

Abstract Image

We describe here N-phenylpyrrolidine-based inhibitors of HCV NS5A with excellent potency, metabolic stability, and pharmacokinetics. Compounds with 2S,5S stereochemistry at the pyrrolidine ring provided improved genotype 1 (GT1) potency compared to the 2R,5Ranalogues. Furthermore, the attachment of substituents at the 4-position of the central N-phenyl group resulted in compounds with improved potency. Substitution with tert-butyl, as in compound 38 (ABT-267), provided compounds with low-picomolar EC50 values and superior pharmacokinetics. It was discovered that compound 38 was a pan-genotypic HCV inhibitor, with an EC50 range of 1.7–19.3 pM against GT1a, -1b, -2a, -2b, -3a, -4a, and -5a and 366 pM against GT6a. Compound 38 decreased HCV RNA up to 3.10 log10 IU/mL during 3-day monotherapy in treatment-naive HCV GT1-infected subjects and is currently in phase 3 clinical trials in combination with an NS3 protease inhibitor with ritonavir (r) (ABT-450/r) and an NS5B non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (ABT-333), with and without ribavirin.

Dimethyl (2S,2′S)-1,1′-((2S,2′S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2,1-diyl))bis(3-methyl-1-oxobutane-2,1-diyl)dicarbamate (38)…desired and Dimethyl (2S,2′S)-1,1′-((2S,2′S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2,1-diyl))bis(3-methyl-1-oxobutane-2,1-diyl)dicarbamate (39)…….undesired

…………….. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h. The mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, and the organic layer was washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3, brine (2×) and dried with Na2SO4. The drying agent was filtered off and the solution was concentrated in vacuo to give a crude product that was purified by column chromatography on silica gel, eluting with a solvent gradient of 2–8% methanol in dichloromethane to give a 1:1 mixture of trans-pyrrolidine isomers (290 mg, 96%). The mixture was separated on a Chiralpak AD-H column, eluting with a mixture of 1 part (2:1 isopropanol/ethanol) and 2 parts hexanes (0.1% TFA).

Compound 38 was the first of two stereoisomers to elute (101 mg, 99% ee by chiral HPLC). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 0.88 (d, J = 6.61 Hz, 6H), 0.93 (d, J = 6.72 Hz, 6H), 1.11 (s, 9H), 1.63 (d, J = 5.42 Hz, 2H), 1.80–2.04 (m, 8H), 2.09–2.19 (m, 2H), 2.44–2.47 (m, 2H), 3.52 (s, 6H), 3.59–3.66 (m, 2H), 3.77–3.84 (m, 2H), 4.02 (t, J = 8.40 Hz, 2H), 4.42 (dd, J = 7.86, 4.83 Hz, 2H), 5.14 (d, J = 6.18 Hz, 2H), 6.17 (d, J = 8.67 Hz, 2H), 6.94 (d, J = 8.78 Hz, 2H), 7.13 (d, J = 8.46 Hz, 4H), 7.31 (d, J= 8.35 Hz, 2H), 7.50 (d, J = 8.35 Hz, 4H), 9.98 (s, 2H).

MS (ESI) m/z 894.9 (M + H)+.

Compound39 was the second of two stereoisomers to elute. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 0.87 (d, J = 6.51 Hz, 6H), 0.92 (d, J = 6.72 Hz, 6H), 1.11 (s, 9H), 1.63 (d, J = 5.53 Hz, 2H), 1.82–2.04 (m, 8H), 2.09–2.18 (m, 2H), 2.41–2.47 (m, 2H), 3.52 (s, 6H), 3.58–3.67 (m, 2H), 3.75–3.84 (m, 2H), 4.02 (t, J = 7.26 Hz, 2H), 4.43 (dd, J = 7.92, 4.88 Hz, 2H), 5.14 (d, J = 6.18 Hz, 2H), 6.17 (d, J = 8.78 Hz, 2H), 6.94 (d, J = 8.67 Hz, 2H), 7.12 (d, J = 8.46 Hz, 4H), 7.31 (d, J = 8.35 Hz, 2H), 7.49 (d, J = 8.46 Hz, 4H), 9.98 (s, 2H). MS (ESI) m/z 895.0 (M + H)+.

PATENT

WO 2011156578

dimethyl (2S,2,S)-l,l ‘-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4’-((2S,5S)-l-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine- 2,5-diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3- methyl- l-oxobutane-2,l-diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000003_0001

PATENT

US 20100317568

Example 34

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate and

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-ter/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000133_0002

Example 34A l-(4-fer?-butylphenyl)-2,5-bis(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine The product from Example 1C (3.67 g, 7.51 mmol) and 4-tert-butylaniline (11.86 ml, 75 mmol) in DMF (40 ml) was stirred under nitrogen at 50 °C for 4 h. The resulting mixture was diluted into ethyl acetate, treated with IM HCl, stirred for 10 minutes and filtered to remove solids. The filtrate organic layer was washed twice with brine, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (5% to 30%) to give a solid. The solid was triturated in a minimal volume of 1 :9 ethyl acetate/hexane to give a light yellow solid as a mixture of trans and cis isomers (1.21 g, 36%).

Example 34B 4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline and 4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert- butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline To a solution of the product from Example 34A (1.1 g, 2.47 mmol) in ethanol (20 ml) and

THF (20 ml) was added PtC>2 (0.22 g, 0.97 mmol) in a 50 ml pressure bottle and stirred under 30 psi hydrogen at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture was filtered through a nylon membrane and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (20% to 60%). The title compound eluted as the first of 2 stereoisomers (trans isomer, 0.51 g, 54%).

Example 34C

(2S,2’S)-tert-Butyl 2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fer/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)dipyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate and (2S,2’S)-tert-Butyl 2,2′- (4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)dipyrrolidine-1-carboxylate To a mixture of the product from Example 34B (250 mg, 0.648 mmol), (S)-1-(tert- butoxycarbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (307 mg, 1.427 mmol) and HATU (542 mg, 1.427 mmol) in DMSO (10 ml) was added Hunig’s base (0.453 ml, 2.59 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture was partitioned with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (10% to 50%) to give the title compound (500 mg, 99%).

Example 34D

(2S,2’S)-N,N’-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-ter/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))dipyrrolidine-2-carboxamide and (2S,2’S)-N,N’-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-tert- butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l-phenylene))dipyrrolidine-2-carboxamide To the product from Example 34C (498 mg, 0.638 mmol) in dichloromethane (4 ml) was added TFA (6 ml). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was partitioned between 3: 1 CHCl3dsopropyl alcohol and saturated aq. NaHCO3. The aqueous layer was extracted by 3: 1 CHCl3:isopropyl alcohol again. The combined organic layers were dried over

Figure imgf000135_0001

filtered and concentrated to give the title compound (345 mg, 93%).

Example 34E Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate and

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-1, r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

The product from Example 34D (29.0 mg, 0.050 mmol), (S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3- methylbutanoic acid (19.27 mg, 0.110 mmol), EDAC (21.09 mg, 0.110 mmol), HOBT (16.85 mg,

0.110 mmol) and N-methylmorpholine (0.027 ml, 0.250 mmol) were combined in DMF (2 ml). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The mixture was partitioned with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was washed with brine twice, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (50% to 80%) to give a solid. The solid was triturated with ethyl acetate/hexane to give the title compound (13 mg, 29%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.85 – 0.95 (m, 12 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.59 – 1.65 (m, 2 H) 1.79 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.10 – 2.18 (m, 2 H) 2.41-2.46 (m, 2H) 3.52 (s, 6 H)

3.57 – 3.67 (m, 2 H) 3.76 – 3.86 (m, 2 H) 4.00 (t, J=7.56 Hz, 2 H) 4.39 – 4.46 (m, 2 H) 5.15 (d, J=7.00

Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=7.70 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=7.37 Hz, 4 H) 7.30 (d, J=8.20

Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.24 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H); (ESI+) m/z 895 (M+H)+. The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 35

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000135_0002………………desired

The product from Example 34E was purified by chiral chromatography on a Chiralpak AD-H semi-prep column eluting with a 2:1 mixture of hexane:(2: l isopropyl alcohol: EtOH). The title compound was the first of the 2 diastereomers to elute. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.88 (d, J=6.61 Hz, 6 H) 0.93 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.42 Hz, 2 H) 1.80 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.09 – 2.19 (m, 2 H) 2.44 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.59 – 3.66 (m, 2 H) 3.77 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02 (t, J=8.40 Hz, 2 H) 4.42 (dd, J=7.86, 4.83 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H). The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV Ib- Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 36 Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-1, r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000136_0001…….undesired

The product from Example 34E was purified by chiral chromatography on a Chiralpak AD-H semi-prep column eluting with a 2:1 mixture of hexane:(2: l isopropyl alcohol: EtOH). The title compound was the second of 2 diastereomers to elute. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.87

(d, J=6.51 Hz, 6 H) 0.92 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.53 Hz, 2 H) 1.82 – 2.04 (m, 8

H) 2.09-2.18 (m, 2 H) 2.41 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.58 – 3.67 (m, 2 H) 3.75 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02

(t, J=7.26 Hz, 2 H) 4.43 (dd, J=7.92, 4.88 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 7.12 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.49 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H)

9.98 (s, 2 H). The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 37 Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000136_0002……………desired

Example 37A (S)-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl 2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoate To a mixture of (S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid (19.66 g, 112 mmol) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (13.29g, 116 mmol) was added ethyl acetate (250 ml), and the mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C. Diisopropylcarbodiimide (13.88 g, 110 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 0-5 °C for about 1 hour. The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature. The solids (diisopropylurea by-product) were filtered and rinsed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to an oil. Isopropyl alcohol (200 ml) was added to the oil and the mixture was heated to about 50 °C to obtain a homogeneous solution. Upon cooling, crystalline solids formed. The solids were filtered and washed with isopropyl alcohol (3 x 20 ml) and dried to give the title compound as a white solid (23.2 g, 77% yield).

Example 37B

(S)- 1 -((S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid To a mixture of L-proline (4.44g, 38.6 mmol), water (20 ml), acetonitrile (20 ml) and DIEA (9.5 g, 73.5 mmol) was added a solution of the product from Example 37A (1Og, 36.7 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 inL) over 10 minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The solution was concentrated under vacuum to remove the acetonitrile. To the resulting clear water solution was added 6N HCl (9 ml) until pH ~ 2 .The solution was transferred to a separatory funnel and 25% NaCl (10 ml) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (75 ml), and then again with ethyl acetate (6 x 20 ml), and the combined extracts were washed with 25% NaCl (2 x 10ml). The solvent was evaporated to give a thick oil. Heptane was added and the solvent was evaporated to give a foam, which was dried under high vacuum. Diethyl ether was added and the solvent was evaporated to give a foam, which was dried under high vacuum to give the title compound (10.67g) as a white solid.

The compound of Example 37B can also be prepreared according to the following procedure: To a flask was charged L- valine (35 g, 299 mmol), IN sodium hydroxide solution (526 ml,

526 mmol) and sodium carbonate (17.42 g, 164 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 15 min to dissolve solids and then cooled to 15 °C. Methyl chloroformate (29.6 g, 314 mmol) was added slowly to the reaction mixture. The mixture was then stirred at rt for 30 min. The mixture was cooled to 15 °C and pH adjusted to -5.0 with concentrated HCl solution. 100 inL of 2-methytetrahydrofuran (2- MeTHF) was added and the adjustment of pH continued until the pH reached ~ 2.0. 150 mL of 2- MeTHF was added and the mixture was stirred for 15 min. Layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with 100 mL of 2-MeTHF. The combined organic layer was dried over anhyd Na2SC^ and filtered, and Na2SC^ cake was washed with 50 mL of 2-MeTHF. The product solution was concentrated to ~ 100 mL, chased with 120 mL of IPAc twice. 250 mL of heptanes was charged slowly and then the volume of the mixture was concentrated to 300 mL. The mixture was heated to 45 °C and 160 mL of heptanes charged. The mixture was cooled to rt in 2h, stirred for 30 min, filtered and washed with 2-MeTHF/heptanes mixture (1:7, 80 inL). The wetcake was dried at 55 °C for 24 h to give 47.1 g of Moc-L- VaI-OH product as a white solid (90%).

Moc-L- VaI-OH (15O g, 856 mmol), HOBt hydrate (138 g, 899 mmol) and DMF (1500 ml) were charged to a flask. The mixture was stirred for 15 min to give a clear solution. EDC hydrochloride (172 g, 899 mmol) was charged and mixed for 20 min. The mixture was cooled to 13

°C and (L)-proline benzyl ester hydrochloride (207 g, 856 mmol) charged. Triethylamine (109 g,

1079 mmol) was then charged in 30 min. The resulting suspension was mixed at rt for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 15 °C and 1500 mL of 6.7% NaHCO3 charged in 1.5 h, followed by the addition of 1200 mL of water over 60 min. The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min, filtered and washed with water/DMF mixture (1 :2, 250 mL) and then with water (1500 mL). The wetcake was dried at 55 °C for 24 h to give 282 g of product as a white solid (90%).

The resulting solids (40 g) and 5% Pd/ Alumina were charged to a Parr reactor followed by THF (160 mL). The reactor was sealed and purged with nitrogen (6 x 20 psig) followed by a hydrogen purge (6 x 30 psig). The reactor was pressurized to 30 psig with hydrogen and agitated at room temperature for approximately 15 hours. The resulting slurry was filtered through a GF/F filter and concentrated to approximately 135 g solution. Heptane was added (120 mL), and the solution was stirred until solids formed. After an addition 2 – 3 hours additional heptane was added drop-wise (240 mL), the slurry was stirred for approximately 1 hour, then filtered. The solids were dried to afford the title compound.

Example 37C

(lR,4R)-1,4-bis(4-nitrophenyl)butane-1,4-diyl dimethanesulfonate

The product from Example 32 (5.01 g, 13.39 mmol) was combined with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (70 mL) and cooled to -5 °C, and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (6.81 g, 52.7 mmol) was added over 30 seconds. Separately, a solution of methanesulfonic anhydride (6.01 g, 34.5 mmol) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (30 mL) was prepared and added to the diol slurry over 3 min., maintaining the internal temperature between -15 °C and -25 °C. After mixing for 5 min at -15 °C, the cooling bath was removed and the reaction was allowed to warm slowly to 23 °C and mixed for 30 minutes. After reaction completion, the crude slurry was carried immediately into the next step.

Example 37D

(2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-2,5-bis(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine

To the crude product solution from Example 37C (7.35 g, 13.39 mmol) was added 4-tert- butylaniline (13.4 g, 90 mmol) at 23 °C over 1 minute. The reaction was heated to 65 °C for 2 h. After completion, the reaction mixture was cooled to 23 °C and diluted with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (100 mL) and 1 M HCl (150 mL). After partitioning the phases, the organic phase was treated with 1 M HCl (140 mL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (50 mL), and 25 wt% aq. NaCl (100 mL), and the phases were partitioned. The organic phase was washed with 25 wt% aq. NaCl (50 mL), dried over MgSO/t, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to approximately 20 mL. Heptane (30 mL) and additional 2- methyltetrahydrofuran were added in order to induce crystallization. The slurry was concentrated further, and additional heptane (40 mL) was slowly added and the slurry was filtered, washing with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran:heptane (1:4, 20 mL). The solids were suspended in MeOH (46 mL) for 3 h, filtered, and the wet solid was washed with additional MeOH (18 mL). The solid was dried at 45 °C in a vacuum oven for 16 h to provide the title compound (3.08 g, 51% 2-step yield).

Example 37E

4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline

To a 160 ml Parr stirrer hydrogenation vessel was added the product from Example 37D (2 g, 4.49 mmol), followed by 60 ml of THF, and Raney Nickel Grace 2800 (1 g, 50 wt% (dry basis)) under a stream of nitrogen. The reactor was assembled and purged with nitrogen (8 x 20 psig) followed by purging with hydrogen (8 x 30 psig). The reactor was then pressurized to 30 psig with hydrogen and agitation (700 rpm) began and continued for a total of 16 h at room temperature. The slurry was filtered by vacuum filtration using a GF/F Whatman glass fiber filter. Evaporation of the filtrate to afford a slurry followed by the addition heptane and filtration gave the crude title compound, which was dried and used directly in the next step.

Example 37F dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4, l- phenylene)bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene))bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diy 1) die arb amate To a solution of the product from Example 37E (1.64 g, 4.25 mmol) in DMF (20 ml), the product from Example 37B (2.89 g, 10.63 mmol), and HATU (4.04 g, 10.63 mmol) in DMF (15OmL) was added triethylamine (1.07 g, 10.63 mmol), and the solution was stirred at room temperature for 90 min. To the reaction mixture was poured 20 mL of water, and the white precipitate obtained was filtered, and the solid was washed with water (3×5 mL). The solid was blow dried for Ih. The crude material was loaded on a silica gel column and eluted with a gradient starting with ethyl acetate/ heptane (3/7), and ending with pure ethyl acetate. The desired fractions were combined and solvent distilled off to give a very light yellow solid, which was dried at 45 °C in a vacuum oven with nitrogen purge for 15 h to give the title compound (2.3 g, 61% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- D6) δ ppm 0.88 (d, J=6.61 Hz, 6 H) 0.93 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.42 Hz, 2 H) 1.80 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.09 – 2.19 (m, 2 H) 2.44 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.59 – 3.66 (m, 2 H) 3.77 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02 (t, J=8.40 Hz, 2 H) 4.42 (dd, J=7.86, 4.83 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H).

Alternately, the product from example 37E (11.7 g, 85 wt%, 25.8 mmol) and the product from example 37B (15.45 g, 56.7 mmol) are suspended in EtOAc (117 mL), diisopropylethylamine (18.67 g, 144 mmol) is added and the solution is cooled to 0 °C. In a separate flask, 1-propanephosphonic acid cyclic anhydride (T3P®) (46.0 g, 50 wt% in EtOAc, 72.2 mmol) was dissolved in EtOAc (58.5 mL), and charged to an addition funnel. The T3P solution is added to the reaction mixture drop-wise over 3-4 h and stirred until the reaction is complete. The reaction is warmed to room temperature,and washed with IM HCl/7.5 wt% NaCl (100 mL), then washed with 5% NaHCO3 (100 mL), then washed with 5% NaCl solution (100 mL). The solution was concentrated to approximately 60 mL, EtOH (300 mL) was added, and the solution was concentrated to 84 g solution.

A portion of the EtOH solution of product (29 g) was heated to 40 °C, and added 134 g 40 w% EtOH in H2O. A slurry of seeds in 58 wt/wt% EtOH/H2O was added, allowed to stir at 40 °C for several hours, then cooled to 0 °C. The slurry is then filtered, and washed with 58wt/wt% EtOH/H2O. The product is dried at 40 – 60 °C under vacuum, and then rehydrated by placing a tray of water in the vacuum oven to give the title compound. The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

PATENT

Example 34

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate and

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-ter/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000133_0002

Example 34A l-(4-fer?-butylphenyl)-2,5-bis(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine The product from Example 1C (3.67 g, 7.51 mmol) and 4-tert-butylaniline (11.86 ml, 75 mmol) in DMF (40 ml) was stirred under nitrogen at 50 °C for 4 h. The resulting mixture was diluted into ethyl acetate, treated with IM HCl, stirred for 10 minutes and filtered to remove solids. The filtrate organic layer was washed twice with brine, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (5% to 30%) to give a solid. The solid was triturated in a minimal volume of 1 :9 ethyl acetate/hexane to give a light yellow solid as a mixture of trans and cis isomers (1.21 g, 36%).

Example 34B 4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline and 4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert- butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline To a solution of the product from Example 34A (1.1 g, 2.47 mmol) in ethanol (20 ml) and

THF (20 ml) was added PtC>2 (0.22 g, 0.97 mmol) in a 50 ml pressure bottle and stirred under 30 psi hydrogen at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture was filtered through a nylon membrane and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (20% to 60%). The title compound eluted as the first of 2 stereoisomers (trans isomer, 0.51 g, 54%).

Example 34C

(2S,2’S)-tert-Butyl 2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fer/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)dipyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate and (2S,2’S)-tert-Butyl 2,2′- (4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)dipyrrolidine-1-carboxylate To a mixture of the product from Example 34B (250 mg, 0.648 mmol), (S)-1-(tert- butoxycarbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (307 mg, 1.427 mmol) and HATU (542 mg, 1.427 mmol) in DMSO (10 ml) was added Hunig’s base (0.453 ml, 2.59 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture was partitioned with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (10% to 50%) to give the title compound (500 mg, 99%).

Example 34D

(2S,2’S)-N,N’-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-ter/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))dipyrrolidine-2-carboxamide and (2S,2’S)-N,N’-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-tert- butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l-phenylene))dipyrrolidine-2-carboxamide To the product from Example 34C (498 mg, 0.638 mmol) in dichloromethane (4 ml) was added TFA (6 ml). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was partitioned between 3: 1 CHCl3dsopropyl alcohol and saturated aq. NaHCO3. The aqueous layer was extracted by 3: 1 CHCl3:isopropyl alcohol again. The combined organic layers were dried over

Figure imgf000135_0001

filtered and concentrated to give the title compound (345 mg, 93%).

Example 34E Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate and

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-1, r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

The product from Example 34D (29.0 mg, 0.050 mmol), (S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3- methylbutanoic acid (19.27 mg, 0.110 mmol), EDAC (21.09 mg, 0.110 mmol), HOBT (16.85 mg,

0.110 mmol) and N-methylmorpholine (0.027 ml, 0.250 mmol) were combined in DMF (2 ml). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The mixture was partitioned with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was washed with brine twice, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (50% to 80%) to give a solid. The solid was triturated with ethyl acetate/hexane to give the title compound (13 mg, 29%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.85 – 0.95 (m, 12 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.59 – 1.65 (m, 2 H) 1.79 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.10 – 2.18 (m, 2 H) 2.41-2.46 (m, 2H) 3.52 (s, 6 H)

3.57 – 3.67 (m, 2 H) 3.76 – 3.86 (m, 2 H) 4.00 (t, J=7.56 Hz, 2 H) 4.39 – 4.46 (m, 2 H) 5.15 (d, J=7.00

Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=7.70 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=7.37 Hz, 4 H) 7.30 (d, J=8.20

Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.24 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H); (ESI+) m/z 895 (M+H)+. The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 35

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000135_0002………….desired

The product from Example 34E was purified by chiral chromatography on a Chiralpak AD-H semi-prep column eluting with a 2:1 mixture of hexane:(2: l isopropyl alcohol: EtOH). The title compound was the first of the 2 diastereomers to elute. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.88 (d, J=6.61 Hz, 6 H) 0.93 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.42 Hz, 2 H) 1.80 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.09 – 2.19 (m, 2 H) 2.44 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.59 – 3.66 (m, 2 H) 3.77 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02 (t, J=8.40 Hz, 2 H) 4.42 (dd, J=7.86, 4.83 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H). The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV Ib- Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 36 Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-1, r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000136_0001……….undesired

The product from Example 34E was purified by chiral chromatography on a Chiralpak AD-H semi-prep column eluting with a 2:1 mixture of hexane:(2: l isopropyl alcohol: EtOH). The title compound was the second of 2 diastereomers to elute. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.87

(d, J=6.51 Hz, 6 H) 0.92 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.53 Hz, 2 H) 1.82 – 2.04 (m, 8

H) 2.09-2.18 (m, 2 H) 2.41 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.58 – 3.67 (m, 2 H) 3.75 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02

(t, J=7.26 Hz, 2 H) 4.43 (dd, J=7.92, 4.88 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 7.12 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.49 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H)

9.98 (s, 2 H). The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 37 Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000136_0002………………desired

Example 37A (S)-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl 2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoate To a mixture of (S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid (19.66 g, 112 mmol) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (13.29g, 116 mmol) was added ethyl acetate (250 ml), and the mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C. Diisopropylcarbodiimide (13.88 g, 110 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 0-5 °C for about 1 hour. The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature. The solids (diisopropylurea by-product) were filtered and rinsed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to an oil. Isopropyl alcohol (200 ml) was added to the oil and the mixture was heated to about 50 °C to obtain a homogeneous solution. Upon cooling, crystalline solids formed. The solids were filtered and washed with isopropyl alcohol (3 x 20 ml) and dried to give the title compound as a white solid (23.2 g, 77% yield).

Example 37B

(S)- 1 -((S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid To a mixture of L-proline (4.44g, 38.6 mmol), water (20 ml), acetonitrile (20 ml) and DIEA (9.5 g, 73.5 mmol) was added a solution of the product from Example 37A (1Og, 36.7 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 inL) over 10 minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The solution was concentrated under vacuum to remove the acetonitrile. To the resulting clear water solution was added 6N HCl (9 ml) until pH ~ 2 .The solution was transferred to a separatory funnel and 25% NaCl (10 ml) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (75 ml), and then again with ethyl acetate (6 x 20 ml), and the combined extracts were washed with 25% NaCl (2 x 10ml). The solvent was evaporated to give a thick oil. Heptane was added and the solvent was evaporated to give a foam, which was dried under high vacuum. Diethyl ether was added and the solvent was evaporated to give a foam, which was dried under high vacuum to give the title compound (10.67g) as a white solid.

The compound of Example 37B can also be prepreared according to the following procedure: To a flask was charged L- valine (35 g, 299 mmol), IN sodium hydroxide solution (526 ml,

526 mmol) and sodium carbonate (17.42 g, 164 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 15 min to dissolve solids and then cooled to 15 °C. Methyl chloroformate (29.6 g, 314 mmol) was added slowly to the reaction mixture. The mixture was then stirred at rt for 30 min. The mixture was cooled to 15 °C and pH adjusted to -5.0 with concentrated HCl solution. 100 inL of 2-methytetrahydrofuran (2- MeTHF) was added and the adjustment of pH continued until the pH reached ~ 2.0. 150 mL of 2- MeTHF was added and the mixture was stirred for 15 min. Layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with 100 mL of 2-MeTHF. The combined organic layer was dried over anhyd Na2SC^ and filtered, and Na2SC^ cake was washed with 50 mL of 2-MeTHF. The product solution was concentrated to ~ 100 mL, chased with 120 mL of IPAc twice. 250 mL of heptanes was charged slowly and then the volume of the mixture was concentrated to 300 mL. The mixture was heated to 45 °C and 160 mL of heptanes charged. The mixture was cooled to rt in 2h, stirred for 30 min, filtered and washed with 2-MeTHF/heptanes mixture (1:7, 80 inL). The wetcake was dried at 55 °C for 24 h to give 47.1 g of Moc-L- VaI-OH product as a white solid (90%).

Moc-L- VaI-OH (15O g, 856 mmol), HOBt hydrate (138 g, 899 mmol) and DMF (1500 ml) were charged to a flask. The mixture was stirred for 15 min to give a clear solution. EDC hydrochloride (172 g, 899 mmol) was charged and mixed for 20 min. The mixture was cooled to 13

°C and (L)-proline benzyl ester hydrochloride (207 g, 856 mmol) charged. Triethylamine (109 g,

1079 mmol) was then charged in 30 min. The resulting suspension was mixed at rt for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 15 °C and 1500 mL of 6.7% NaHCO3 charged in 1.5 h, followed by the addition of 1200 mL of water over 60 min. The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min, filtered and washed with water/DMF mixture (1 :2, 250 mL) and then with water (1500 mL). The wetcake was dried at 55 °C for 24 h to give 282 g of product as a white solid (90%).

The resulting solids (40 g) and 5% Pd/ Alumina were charged to a Parr reactor followed by THF (160 mL). The reactor was sealed and purged with nitrogen (6 x 20 psig) followed by a hydrogen purge (6 x 30 psig). The reactor was pressurized to 30 psig with hydrogen and agitated at room temperature for approximately 15 hours. The resulting slurry was filtered through a GF/F filter and concentrated to approximately 135 g solution. Heptane was added (120 mL), and the solution was stirred until solids formed. After an addition 2 – 3 hours additional heptane was added drop-wise (240 mL), the slurry was stirred for approximately 1 hour, then filtered. The solids were dried to afford the title compound.

Example 37C

(lR,4R)-1,4-bis(4-nitrophenyl)butane-1,4-diyl dimethanesulfonate

The product from Example 32 (5.01 g, 13.39 mmol) was combined with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (70 mL) and cooled to -5 °C, and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (6.81 g, 52.7 mmol) was added over 30 seconds. Separately, a solution of methanesulfonic anhydride (6.01 g, 34.5 mmol) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (30 mL) was prepared and added to the diol slurry over 3 min., maintaining the internal temperature between -15 °C and -25 °C. After mixing for 5 min at -15 °C, the cooling bath was removed and the reaction was allowed to warm slowly to 23 °C and mixed for 30 minutes. After reaction completion, the crude slurry was carried immediately into the next step.

Example 37D

(2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-2,5-bis(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine

To the crude product solution from Example 37C (7.35 g, 13.39 mmol) was added 4-tert- butylaniline (13.4 g, 90 mmol) at 23 °C over 1 minute. The reaction was heated to 65 °C for 2 h. After completion, the reaction mixture was cooled to 23 °C and diluted with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (100 mL) and 1 M HCl (150 mL). After partitioning the phases, the organic phase was treated with 1 M HCl (140 mL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (50 mL), and 25 wt% aq. NaCl (100 mL), and the phases were partitioned. The organic phase was washed with 25 wt% aq. NaCl (50 mL), dried over MgSO/t, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to approximately 20 mL. Heptane (30 mL) and additional 2- methyltetrahydrofuran were added in order to induce crystallization. The slurry was concentrated further, and additional heptane (40 mL) was slowly added and the slurry was filtered, washing with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran:heptane (1:4, 20 mL). The solids were suspended in MeOH (46 mL) for 3 h, filtered, and the wet solid was washed with additional MeOH (18 mL). The solid was dried at 45 °C in a vacuum oven for 16 h to provide the title compound (3.08 g, 51% 2-step yield).

Example 37E

4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline

To a 160 ml Parr stirrer hydrogenation vessel was added the product from Example 37D (2 g, 4.49 mmol), followed by 60 ml of THF, and Raney Nickel Grace 2800 (1 g, 50 wt% (dry basis)) under a stream of nitrogen. The reactor was assembled and purged with nitrogen (8 x 20 psig) followed by purging with hydrogen (8 x 30 psig). The reactor was then pressurized to 30 psig with hydrogen and agitation (700 rpm) began and continued for a total of 16 h at room temperature. The slurry was filtered by vacuum filtration using a GF/F Whatman glass fiber filter. Evaporation of the filtrate to afford a slurry followed by the addition heptane and filtration gave the crude title compound, which was dried and used directly in the next step.

Example 37F dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4, l- phenylene)bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene))bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diy 1) die arb amate To a solution of the product from Example 37E (1.64 g, 4.25 mmol) in DMF (20 ml), the product from Example 37B (2.89 g, 10.63 mmol), and HATU (4.04 g, 10.63 mmol) in DMF (15OmL) was added triethylamine (1.07 g, 10.63 mmol), and the solution was stirred at room temperature for 90 min. To the reaction mixture was poured 20 mL of water, and the white precipitate obtained was filtered, and the solid was washed with water (3×5 mL). The solid was blow dried for Ih. The crude material was loaded on a silica gel column and eluted with a gradient starting with ethyl acetate/ heptane (3/7), and ending with pure ethyl acetate. The desired fractions were combined and solvent distilled off to give a very light yellow solid, which was dried at 45 °C in a vacuum oven with nitrogen purge for 15 h to give the title compound (2.3 g, 61% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- D6) δ ppm 0.88 (d, J=6.61 Hz, 6 H) 0.93 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.42 Hz, 2 H) 1.80 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.09 – 2.19 (m, 2 H) 2.44 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.59 – 3.66 (m, 2 H) 3.77 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02 (t, J=8.40 Hz, 2 H) 4.42 (dd, J=7.86, 4.83 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H).

Alternately, the product from example 37E (11.7 g, 85 wt%, 25.8 mmol) and the product from example 37B (15.45 g, 56.7 mmol) are suspended in EtOAc (117 mL), diisopropylethylamine (18.67 g, 144 mmol) is added and the solution is cooled to 0 °C. In a separate flask, 1-propanephosphonic acid cyclic anhydride (T3P®) (46.0 g, 50 wt% in EtOAc, 72.2 mmol) was dissolved in EtOAc (58.5 mL), and charged to an addition funnel. The T3P solution is added to the reaction mixture drop-wise over 3-4 h and stirred until the reaction is complete. The reaction is warmed to room temperature,and washed with IM HCl/7.5 wt% NaCl (100 mL), then washed with 5% NaHCO3 (100 mL), then washed with 5% NaCl solution (100 mL). The solution was concentrated to approximately 60 mL, EtOH (300 mL) was added, and the solution was concentrated to 84 g solution.

A portion of the EtOH solution of product (29 g) was heated to 40 °C, and added 134 g 40 w% EtOH in H2O. A slurry of seeds in 58 wt/wt% EtOH/H2O was added, allowed to stir at 40 °C for several hours, then cooled to 0 °C. The slurry is then filtered, and washed with 58wt/wt% EtOH/H2O. The product is dried at 40 – 60 °C under vacuum, and then rehydrated by placing a tray of water in the vacuum oven to give the title compound. The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Intermediates

Example 32

( 1 R,4R)- 1 ,4-bis(4-mtrophenyl)butane- 1 ,4-diol

Figure imgf000132_0002

To (S)-(-)-α,α-diphenyl-2-pyrrohdinemethanol (2 71 g, 10 70 mmol) was added THF (80 mL) at 23 °C The very thin suspension was treated with t11methyl borate (1 44 g, 13 86 mmol) over 30 seconds, and the resulting solution was mixed at 23 °C for 1 h The solution was cooled to 16-19 °C, and N,N-diethylanilme borane (21 45 g, 132 mmol) was added dropwise via syringe over 3-5 mm (caution vigorous H2 evolution), while the internal temperature was maintained at 16-19 °C After 15 mm, the H2 evolution had ceased To a separate vessel was added the product from Example IA (22 04 g, 95 wt%, 63 8 mmol), followed by THF (80 mL), to form an orange slurry After cooling the slurry to 11 °C, the borane solution was transferred via cannula into the dione slurry over 3-5 min During this period, the internal temperature of the slurry rose to 16 °C After the addition was complete, the reaction was maintained at 20-27 °C for an additional 2 5 h After reaction completion, the mixture was cooled to 5 °C and methanol (16 7 g, 521 mmol) was added dropwise over 5-10 mm, maintaining an internal temperature <20 °C (note vigorous H2 evolution) After the exotherm had ceased (ca 10 mm), the temperature was adjusted to 23 °C, and the reaction was mixed until complete dissolution of the solids had occurred Ethyl acetate (300 mL) and 1 M HCl (120 mL) were added, and the phases were partitioned The organic phase was then washed successively with 1 M HCl (2 x 120 mL), H2O (65 mL), and 10% aq NaCl (65 mL) The orgamcs were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo Crystallization of the product occurred during the concentration The slurry was warmed to 50 °C, and heptane (250 inL) was added over 15 min. The slurry was then allowed to mix at 23 °C for 30 min and filtered. The wet cake was washed with 3: 1 heptane:ethyl acetate (75 mL), and the orange, crystalline solids were dried at 45 °C for 24 h to provide the title compound (15.35 g, 99.3% ee, 61% yield), which was contaminated with 11% of the meso isomer (vs. dl isomer).

References

  1. “VIEKIRA PAK™ (ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir tablets; dasabuvir tablets), for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information”(PDF). AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL 60064. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  2. “FDA approves Viekira Pak to treat hepatitis C”. Food and Drug Administration. December 19, 2014.
  3. “TECHNIVIE™ (ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir) Tablets, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information” (PDF). AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL 60064. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  4. “FDA approves Technivie for treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 4”. Food and Drug Administration. July 24, 2015.
  5. Jordan J. Feld; Kris V. Kowdley; Eoin Coakley; Samuel Sigal; David R. Nelson; Darrell Crawford; Ola Weiland; Humberto Aguilar; Junyuan Xiong; Tami Pilot-Matias; Barbara DaSilva-Tillmann; Lois Larsen; Thomas Podsadecki & Barry Bernstein (2014). “Treatment of HCV with ABT-450/r–Ombitasvir and Dasabuvir with Ribavirin”. N Engl J Med 370: 1594–1603. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1315722.
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Ombitasvir
Ombitasvir.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Methyl ((R)-1-((S)-2-((4-((2S,5S)-1-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-5-(4-((R)-1-((methoxycarbonyl)-L-valyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamido)phenyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)phenyl)carbamoyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)carbamate
Clinical data
Trade names Viekira Pak (with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir and dasabuvir), Technivie (with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir)
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability not determined
Protein binding ~99.9%
Metabolism amide hydrolysis followed by oxidation
Onset of action ~4 to 5 hours
Biological half-life 21 to 25 hours
Excretion mostly with feces (90.2%)
Identifiers
CAS Number 1258226-87-7
PubChem CID 54767916
ChemSpider 31136214
ChEBI CHEBI:85183 Yes
Synonyms ABT-267
Chemical data
Formula C50H67N7O8
Molar mass 894.11 g/mol

FDA Orange Book Patents

FDA Orange Book Patents: 1 of 19
Patent 8268349
Expiration Aug 25, 2024. 8268349*PED expiration date: Feb 25, 2025
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 2 of 19
Patent 8466159
Expiration Sep 4, 2032
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N206619 (Prescription Drug: VIEKIRA PAK (COPACKAGED). Ingredients: DASABUVIR SODIUM ; OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 3 of 19
Patent 9139536
Expiration Nov 9, 2028
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N206619 (Prescription Drug: VIEKIRA PAK (COPACKAGED). Ingredients: DASABUVIR SODIUM ; OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 4 of 19
Patent 9044480
Expiration Apr 10, 2031
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 5 of 19
Patent 9006387
Expiration Jun 10, 2030
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 6 of 19
Patent 8691938
Expiration Apr 13, 2032
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 7 of 19
Patent 8686026
Expiration Jun 9, 2031
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 8 of 19
Patent 8685984
Expiration Sep 4, 2032
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N206619 (Prescription Drug: VIEKIRA PAK (COPACKAGED). Ingredients: DASABUVIR SODIUM ; OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 9 of 19
Patent 8680106
Expiration Sep 4, 2032
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N206619 (Prescription Drug: VIEKIRA PAK (COPACKAGED). Ingredients: DASABUVIR SODIUM ; OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 10 of 19
Patent 8642538
Expiration Sep 10, 2029
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 11 of 19
Patent 8501238
Expiration Sep 17, 2028
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N206619 (Prescription Drug: VIEKIRA PAK (COPACKAGED). Ingredients: DASABUVIR SODIUM ; OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
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Patent 8492386
Expiration Sep 4, 2032
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N206619 (Prescription Drug: VIEKIRA PAK (COPACKAGED). Ingredients: DASABUVIR SODIUM ; OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 13 of 19
Patent 8420596
Expiration Apr 10, 2031. 8420596*PED expiration date: Oct 10, 2031
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
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Patent 8399015
Expiration Aug 25, 2024. 8399015*PED expiration date: Feb 25, 2025
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 15 of 19
Patent 8188104
Expiration May 17, 2029
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N206619 (Prescription Drug: VIEKIRA PAK (COPACKAGED). Ingredients: DASABUVIR SODIUM ; OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 16 of 19
Patent 7364752
Expiration Nov 10, 2020. 7364752*PED expiration date: May 10, 2021
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 17 of 19
Patent 7148359
Expiration Jul 19, 2019. 7148359*PED expiration date: Jan 19, 2020
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 18 of 19
Patent 6703403
Expiration Jun 26, 2016. 6703403*PED expiration date: Dec 26, 2016
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 19 of 19
Patent 6037157
Expiration Jun 26, 2016. 6037157*PED expiration date: Dec 26, 2016
Applicant ABBVIE INC
Drug Application N207931 (Prescription Drug: TECHNIVIE. Ingredients: OMBITASVIR; PARITAPREVIR; RITONAVIR)

/////Ombitasvir Hydrate, 1456607-70-7, Ombitasvir,  1258226-87-7, Viekira PakTM, Technivie, ABT-267, ABT 267, UNII-2302768XJ8, オムビタスビル 水和物 , phase II,  clinical development ,  AbbVie, Abbott,  chronic hepatitis C infection,  combination with ABT-450/ritonavir,  peginterferon alpha-2a/ribavirin (pegIFN/RBV), naïve Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infected patients.

O=C(Nc1ccc(cc1)[C@@H]5CC[C@@H](c3ccc(NC(=O)[C@@H]2CCCN2C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)OC)C(C)C)cc3)N5c4ccc(cc4)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H]6CCCN6C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)OC)C(C)C

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Motolimod, VTX-2337, 莫托莫德 , мотолимод , موتوليمود ,

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Jun 302016
 

ChemSpider 2D Image | Motolimod | C28H34N4O2

Motolimod

VTX-2337, 莫托莫德 , мотолимод , موتوليمود ,

2-amino-N,N-dipropyl-8-[4-(pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)phenyl]-3H-1-benzazepine-4-carboxamide
VTX-2337, VTX-378
UNII:WP6PY72ZH3

(1E,4E)-2-amino-N,N-dipropyl-8-(4-(pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)phenyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4-carboxamide,

3H-1-Benzazepine-4-carboxamide, 2-amino-N,N-dipropyl-8-[4-(1-pyrrolidinylcarbonyl)phenyl]- [ACD/Index Name]
 CAS 926927-61-9
  • C28H34N4O2
  • 458.595

Cancer; Lymphoma

Array Biopharma Inc.

George A. Doherty, C. Todd Eary, Robert D. Groneberg, Zachary Jones

Originator: Array BioPharma
Developer: VentiRx Pharmaceuticals
Class: Antineoplastics, immunomodulator
Mechanism of Action: Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist
WHO ATC code: L03A-X
EPhMRA code: L3A9

Useful for treating a toll-like receptor (TLR)-associated diseases eg cancer. VentiRx, under license from Array BioPharma, and collaborator Celgene are developing Motolimod

A TLR-8 agonist, for treating cancer. In June 2016, Motolimod was reported to be in phase 2 clinical development.

Clinical Trials:

Conditions Phases Interventions Recruitment
Epithelial Ovarian Cancer|Fallopian Tube Cancer|Primary Peritoneal Cancer Phase 2 Combination Active, not recruiting
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck Phase 2 Combination Active, not recruiting
Ovarian Cancer Phase 1|Phase 2 Combination Not yet recruiting
Low Grade B Cell Lymphoma Phase 1|Phase 2 Combination Terminated
 Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Squamous Cell Cancer of Head and Neck Phase 1 Combination Completed
Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Phase 1 Combination Completed
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Phase 1 Combination Recruiting
Advanced Solid Tumors|Lymphoma Phase 1 Alone Completed

 

Motolimod.png

Quality Control & MSDS

View current batch: S716101

COA NMR HPLC Datasheet MSDS

CLICK TO VIEW

Biological Activity

Description Motolimod (VTX-2337) is a selective and potent Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8 agonist with EC50 of 100 nM, > 50-fold selectivity over TLR7. Phase 2.
Targets TLR8 [1]
IC50 100 nM(EC50)
In vitro VTX-2337 stimulates the production of both TNFα with EC50 of 140 nM and IL-12 with EC50 of 120 nM in PBMCs. In monocytes and mDCs, VTX-2337 selectively induces the production of TNFα and IL-12 via NF-κB activation. VTX-2337 also stimulates IFNγ production from NK cells, augments the lytic function of NK cells and enhances ADCC. [1]
In vivo In an ovarian cancer mouse model, TX-2337 enhances the effect of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). [2]
Features

Protocol(Only for Reference)

Kinase Assay: [1]

Activity assay The activity of specific TLR agonists is assessed using the secretory embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene that is linked to NF-κB activation in response to TLR stimulation. Measurement of SEAP activity using the Quanti-blue substrate (InvivoGen) after TLR agonist treatment is carried out.

Cell Assay: [1]

Cell lines PBMCs or purified NK cells
Concentrations ~500 nM
Incubation Time 48 h
Method PBMCs or purified NK cells are prepared as previously described, and the purity of NK cells was approximately 99%. NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity is assessed by Calcein AM release from labeled target cells. In brief, PBMCs or purified NK cells are cultured for 48 hours in RPMI medium in the presence of VTX-2337 (167 or 500 nmol/L) before incubation with target cells.

Conversion of different model animals based on BSA (Value based on data from FDA Draft Guidelines)

Species Mouse Rat Rabbit Guinea pig Hamster Dog
Weight (kg) 0.02 0.15 1.8 0.4 0.08 10
Body Surface Area (m2) 0.007 0.025 0.15 0.05 0.02 0.5
Km factor 3 6 12 8 5 20
Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by  Animal B Km
Animal A Km

For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.

Rat dose (mg/kg) = mouse dose (22.4 mg/kg) × mouse Km(3)  = 11.2 mg/kg
rat Km(6)

 

References

[1] Lu H, et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2012, 18(2), 499-509.

[2] Monk BJ, et al. J Clin Oncol 31, 2013 (suppl; abstr 3077).

Clinical Trial Information( data from http://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2016-06-25)

NCT Number Recruitment Conditions Sponsor
/Collaborators
Start Date Phases
NCT02650635 Recruiting Colorectal Adenocarcinoma|Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma|Recurrent Breast Carcinoma|Recurrent Colorectal Carcinoma|Recurrent Melanoma of the …more Mayo Clinic|National Cancer Institute (NCI) February 2016 Phase 1
NCT02431559 Recruiting Ovarian Cancer Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research|MedImmune LLC|VentiR  …more November 2015 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT02124850 Recruiting Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck VentiRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. September 2014 Phase 1
NCT01836029 Active, not recruiting Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck VentiRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. July 2013 Phase 2
NCT01666444 Active, not recruiting Epithelial Ovarian Cancer|Fallopian Tube Cancer|Primary Peritoneal Cancer VentiRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.|Gynecologic Oncology Group October 2012 Phase 2

view more

Chemical Information

Download Motolimod (VTX-2337) SDF

Molecular Weight (MW) 458.6
Formula C28H34N4O2
CAS No. 926927-61-9
Storage 3 years -20℃powder
6 months-80℃in solvent
Synonyms N/A
Solubility (25°C) * In vitro DMSO 55 mg/mL warming (119.93 mM)
Ethanol 15 mg/mL (32.7 mM)
Water <1 mg/mL (<1 mM)
In vivo
* <1 mg/ml means slightly soluble or insoluble.
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

PATENT

WO-2016100302

formula (I).

((IE, 4E)-2-amino-N,N-dipropyl-8-(4-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4-carboxamide (“Compound A”)). The crystalline form can be an unsolvated or solvated crystalline form of the compound of formula (I).

Also provided herein are compositions including the crystalline forms of the compound of formula (I) described herein, methods of making the crystalline forms, and methods of using the crystalline forms for the treatment of diseases, including, for example, cancer.

Further provided herein are methods of agonizing a Toll-like receptor using the crystalline forms of the compound of formula (I) described herein. In one aspect the method includes agonizing a Toll-like receptor (TLR8) by contacting TLR8 with an effective amount of a crystalline form of the compound formula (I) described herein, wherein the effective amount agonizes the TLR8.

PATENT

WO2007024612

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2007024612A2?cl=en

Example 10

Synthesis of ClE, 4E)-2-ammo-N,N-dipropyl-8-(4-rpyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)-3H- benzorbiazepine-4-carboxamide C27)

Figure imgf000039_0001

Compound (27) was prepared from compound (24) by a method similar to that described in Example 2 to provide 49 mg (43%) of the desired compound. 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 0.93 (t, 6H), 1.63-1.71 (m, 4H), 1.89 (m, 2H), 1.98 (m, 2H), 2.83 (s, 2H), 3.40-3.51 (m, 6H), 3.67 (t, 2H), 6.83 (s, IH), 7.3 (dd, IH), 7.35 (d, IH), 7.49 (d, IH)5 7.64 (q, 4H).

EXAMPLE 2 CLIP, QUANTITIES MAY VARY USE YOUR DISCRETION

Trimethylaluminum (0.34 mL of a 2.0 M solution in toluene) was added to bis(2- methoxyethyl)amine (92 mg, 0.69 mmol) in DCE (3 mL). After 10 minutes solid COMPD 24, 0.23 mmol) was added and the vessel was sealed and heated to 75 0C for 16-20 hours. Upon cooling the reaction was quenched with saturated Rochelle’s salt (2 mL) and after 20 minutes the mixture was partitioned between CH2Cl2 (50 mL) and brine (50 mL). The phases were separated and the aqueous was extracted with CH2Cl2 (2 x 20 mL). The combined organics were dried and concentrated. The crude material was purified via preparative TLC (2, 0.5 mm plates, eluting with 5-10% MeOH/CH2Cl2 with 4-6 drops of NH4OH)

Synthesis of (IE, 4E)-ethyl 2-ammo-8-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)-3H-benzorb]azepine-4- carboxylate (24)

Figure imgf000036_0001

The reaction scheme for the synthesis of compound (24) is shown in Figure 4. Step A: Preparation of (E)-2-(4-bromo-2-nitrophenyl)-N,N-dimethylethenamine (18):

To a solution of l-methyl-2-nitro-4-bromobenzene (17) (29.86 g, 138.2 mmol) in toluene (200 niL) was added dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (17.52 g, 138.2 mmol). The mixture was heated to reflux for 14 hours. After cooling to room temperature the mixture was concentrated under vacuum and the resulting oil was immediately used in the next reaction. Step B: Preparation of 4-bromo-2-nitrobenzaldehyde (19): To a solution of crude (E)-

2-(4-bromo-2-nitrophenyl)-N,N-dimethylethenamine (35.5 g, 131 mmol) in THF (300 mL) and pH 7.2 phosphate buffer (300 mL) was added NaIO4 (56.0 g, 262 mmol). The solids were removed and the filter cake was washed with EtOAc (200 mL). The filtrate was washed with brine (2 X 100 mL), dried and concentrated. The concentrate was purified via flash chromatography (5% EtOAc/hexanes to 10% EtOAc/hexanes) to provide 4-bromo-2- nitrobenzaldehyde (8.41 g, 28% yield).

Step C: Preparation of (E)-ethyl 3-(4-bromo-2-nitrophenyl)-2-(cyanomethyl)acrylate (20): To a solution of 4-bromo-2-nitrobenzaldehyde (3.45 g, 15.0 mmol) in toluene (15 mL) was added α-cyanomethylcarboethoxyethylidene triphenylphosphorane (6.1O g, 15.7 mmol). The mixture was heated to 75 °C for 16 hours. The reaction was allowed to cool and the solvent was removed under vacuum. The concentrate was purified via flash chromatography (100% hexanes to 20% EtOAc) to yield (E)-ethyl 3-(4-bromo-2-nitrophenyl)-2- (cyanomethyl)acrylate (2.25 g, 44% yield) as an off white solid.

Step D: Preparation of (IE, 4E)-ethyl 2-ammo-8-bromo-3H-benzo|b1azepine-4- carboxylate (21): To a solution of (E)-ethyl 3-(4-bromo-2-nitrophenyl)-2- (cyanomethyl)acrylate (1.00 g, 2.9 mmol) in acetic acid (25 mL) was added iron powder (1.10 g, 19.0 mmol). The mixture was heated to 90 °C for 5 hours. Upon cooling the acetic acid was removed under vacuum and the resulting semisolid was dissolved in 50% K2CO3 (100 mL) and EtOAc (100 mL). The mixture was filtered to remove insoluble material and the phases were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organics were dried and concentrated. The concentrate was purified via flash chromatography (Biotage 40m, 5% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to yield (lE,4E)-ethyl 2-amino-8-bromo- 3H-benzo[b] azepine-4-carboxylate (0.52 g, 57%).

Step E: Preparation of (IE. 4E)-ethyl-8-bromo-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-3H- benzo FbI azepine-4-carboxylate (22) : To a CH2Cl2 (5 mL) solution containing (IE, 4E)-ethyl 2-amino-8-bromo-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4-carboxylate (198 mg, 0.640 mmol) was added Boc anhydride (140 mg, 0.640 mmol). The solution was stirred at room temperature for 72 hours. The reaction was concentrated to dryness and purified by column chromatography (Biotage 12m, 4:1 hexanes :EtO Ac) to provide (IE, 4E)-ethyl-8-bromo-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-3H- benzo[b] azepine-4-carboxylate (245 mg, 94% yield) as a white solid. Step F: Preparation of (IE, 4E)-ethyl-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-8-(pyrrolidine-l- carbonyl)-3H-benzo Fb] azepme-4-carboxylate (23) : To an ethanol solution (15 mL) containing K3PO4 (938 mg, 4.42 mmol), 4-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)phenylboronic acid (785 mg, 3.58 mmol), and (IE, 4E)-ethyl-8-bromo-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4- carboxylate (489 mg, 1.19 mmol), was added palladium acetate (80.5 mg, 0.358 mmol). The reaction was heated to 60 °C for 2 hours, then cooled to room temperature and concentrated to dryness. The brown oil was purified by preparative LC plate (100% EtOAc) to provide (lE,4E)-ethyl-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-8-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4- carboxylate (277 mg, 46% yield) as a tan oil.

Step G: Preparation of (IE, 4E)-ethyl 2-amino-8-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)-3H- benzoFbl azepine-4-carboxylate (24V (IE, 4E)-ethyl-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-8-(pyrrolidine-l- carbonyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4-carboxylate (110 mg, 0.218 mmol) was diluted with a 1:4 TFA:CH2C12 solution (4 mL). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour, and then diluted with CH2Cl2. The organic phase was washed with 10% K2CO3 and brine (30 mL). The CH2Cl2 solution was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to provide (IE, 4E)-ethyl 2-amino-8-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4-carboxylate (88 mg, 81% yield) as a yellow solid. 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 1.39 (t, 3H), 1.88-1.99 (m, 4H), 2.98 (s, 2H), 3.49-3.52 (m, 2H), 3.66-3.69 (m, 2H), 4.30-4.35 (m, 2H), 7.32 (d, IH), 7.46-7.49 (m, 2H), 7.60 (d, 2H) 7.67 (d, 2H), 7.84 (s, IH).

PATENT

WO2012045090

(assigned to VentiRx), claiming an aqueous composition comprising a TLR-8 agonist (ie motolimod) and an anti-cancer agent (eg doxorubicin, gemcitabine or cyclophosphamide), useful for treating cancer.

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2012082658 2012-04-05 Methods for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases
US2012003213 2012-01-05 Methods Of Enhancing Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity
 
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2016045502 2016-02-18 THERAPEUTIC BENEFIT OF SUBOPTIMALLY ADMINISTERED CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
US2015182490 2015-07-02 METHODS FOR TREATING TYROSINE-KINASE-INHIBITOR-RESISTANT MALIGNANCIES IN PATIENTS WITH GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS OR AHI1 DYSREGULATIONS OR MUTATIONS EMPLOYING DIANHYDROGALACTITOL, DIACETYLDIANHYDROGALACTITOL, DIBROMODULCITOL, OR ANALOGS OR DERIVATIVES THEREOF
US2014066432 2014-03-06 Substituted Benzoazepines As Toll-Like Receptor Modulators
US2013236449 2013-09-12 METHODS OF ENHANCING ANTIBODY-DEPENDENT CELLULAR CYTOTOXICITY
US2013018042 2013-01-17 Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Formulations and Their Use
US8304407 2012-11-06 8-substituted benzoazepines as toll-like receptor modulators
US2012219615 2012-08-30 Therapeutic Use of a TLR Agonist and Combination Therapy
US8242106 2012-08-14 TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR AGONIST FORMULATIONS AND THEIR USE
US8153622 2012-04-10 8-Substituted Benzoazepines as Toll-Like Receptor Modulators
US2012082658 2012-04-05 Methods for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases

//////Motolimod, VTX-2337, 莫托莫德 , мотолимод , موتوليمود , VTX 2337, VTX-378, 926927-61-9, phase 2, TLR-8 agonist

CCCN(CCC)C(=O)C1=CC2=C(C=C(C=C2)C3=CC=C(C=C3)C(=O)N4CCCC4)N=C(C1)N

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Yonkenafil

 phase 2  Comments Off on Yonkenafil
Jun 292016
 

Yonkenafil

Mw 487.61, MF C₂₄H₃₃N₅O₄S,

Cas 804518-63-6

4H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one, 2-[2-ethoxy-5-[(4-ethyl-1-piperazinyl)sulfonyl]phenyl]-3,7-dihydro-5-methyl-7-propyl-,

2- [2-ethoxy –5- (4 – ethylpiperazine -1– sulfonyl) phenyl] -5 – methyl – 7 – n-Propyl-3 7 – PYRROLINE [2, 3 – d] pyrimidin – 4 – one

Phase2  Erectile dysfunction

扬子江药业 (Originator), 天士力制药 (Originator)

phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor

  • Originator Tasly Pharmaceutical Group; Yangtze River Pharmaceutical Group
  • Class Erectile dysfunction therapies
  • Mechanism of Action Type 5 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors

str1.jpg

Yonkenafil Hydrochloride

Molecular Weight 524.08
Formula C24H33N5O4S • HCl

804518-63-6 (Yonkenafil);
804519-64-0 (Yonkenafil Hydrochloride);

4H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one, 2-[2-ethoxy-5-[(4-ethyl-1-piperazinyl)sulfonyl]phenyl]-3,7-dihydro-5-methyl-7-propyl-, hydrochloride (1:1)

2- [2-ethoxy –5- (4 – ethylpiperazine -1– sulfonyl) phenyl] -5 – methyl – 7 – n-Propyl-3 7 – PYRROLINE [2, 3 – d] pyrimidin – 4 – one

Yonkenafil hydrochloride, useful for treating erectile dysfunction and other PDE-5 mediated diseases eg female sexual dysfunction, benign prostatic hyperplasia, hypertension, allergic asthma, bronchitis, glaucoma, gastrointestinal motility disorders or Alzheimer’s Ydisease.

Yangtze River Pharmaceutical, under license from Jilin University, is developing yonkenafil (appears to be first disclosoed in WO2004108726), a PDE-5 inhibitor, for treating male erectile dysfunction.

In June 2016, yonkenafil was reported to be in phase 2 clinical development.

Yonkenafil hydrochloride is in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED).

The compound was co-developed by Yangtze River Pharmaceutical and Tianjin Tasly Pharm.

Yonkenafil is a novel phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor. Here we evaluated the effect of yonkenafil on ischemic injury and its possible mechanism of action. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by intraperitoneal or intravenous treatment with yonkenafil starting 2h later. Behavioral tests were carried out on day 1 or day 7 after reperfusion. Nissl staining, Fluoro-Jade B staining and electron microscopy studies were carried out 24h post-stroke, together with an analysis of infarct volume and severity of edema. Levels of cGMP-dependent Nogo-66 receptor (Nogo-R) pathway components, hsp70, apaf-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, synaptophysin, PSD-95/neuronal nitric oxide synthases (nNOS), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and nerve growth factor (NGF)/tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) were also measured after 24h. Yonkenafil markedly inhibited infarction and edema, even when administration was delayed until 4h after stroke onset. This protection was associated with an improvement in neurological function and was sustained for 7d. Yonkenafil enlarged the range of penumbra, reduced ischemic cell apoptosis and the loss of neurons, and modulated the expression of proteins in the Nogo-R pathway. Moreover, yonkenafil protected the structure of synapses and increased the expression of synaptophysin, BDNF/TrkB and NGF/TrkA. In conclusion, yonkenafil protects neuronal networks from injury after stroke.

Erectile dysfunction (Erectile dysfunction, ED) refers to the duration can not be achieved, and (or) maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual life. ED can be divided according to different causes psychogenic, organic and mixed three categories, which are closely related to the aging process, but it is not inevitable disease with age.

The primary risk factors for ED include: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, coronary and peripheral vascular disease, spinal cord injury or pelvic organs or surgery. According to statistics worldwide about 150 million men suffer from varying degrees of ED, 2025 the number of patients will double. More ED treatment options, such as oral medications phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, dopaminergic activator, a receptor blocker, intracavernous injection therapy, vacuum devices treatment, penile prosthesis treatment Wait. Wherein the selective phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are the most sophisticated study based on ED treatment, clinical treatment for ED is the first-line drugs. Has now approved the listing of these drugs were five sildenafil (Sildenafil), Tadalafil (Tadalafil), vardenafil (Vardenafil), to that of non-black (Udenafil) and Miro that non-( Mirodenafil).

In 2004 the Chinese patent CN03142399. X discloses a series pyrrolopyrimidine ketone compound of the structure and for the treatment of sexual dysfunction in animals, including humans, in particular male erectile dysfunction and TOE5 function-related diseases use; wherein the compound 1-HC1, i.e. 2- [2_ ethoxy-5- (4-ethyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl) phenyl] -5-methyl-7-n-propyl -3 , 7-dihydro-pyrrolo [2, 3-d] pyrimidine-4-one monohydrochloride salt has been used as CN03142399. X Example features are disclosed compound named hydrochloride that non-gifted grams. This patent only to the preparation of the compounds have been described

 

PATENT

WO2004108726

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2004108726A1?cl=en

Example 1

Preparation of 2-[2-ethoxyl-5-(4-ethylpiperazinyl-1-sulfonyl)phenyl] -5-methyl-7-n-propyl-3,7-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one, its monohydrochloride and dihydrochloride

Route of synthesis

 

    • Figure imgb0011
      Figure imgb0012
      • (1a)2-amino-3-cyano-4-methylpyrrole;
      • (1b)N-propyl-2-amino-3-cyano-4-methylpyrrole;
      • (2)2-ethoxylbenzoyl chloride;
      • (3a)N-(3-cyano-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-2-ethoxylbenzamide;
      • (3b)N-(3-cyano-4-methyl-1-n-propyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-2-ethoxylbenzami de;
      • (4a) 2-(2-ethoxylbenzamido)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrolo-3-formamide;
      • (4b) 2-(2-ethoxylbenzamido)-4-methyl-1-n-propyl-1H-pyrrolo-3-formamide;
      • (5) 2-(2-ethoxylphenyl)-5-methyl-3,7-dihydro-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin -4-one;
      • (6)2-(2-ethoxylphenyl)-5-methyl-7-n-propyl-3,7-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d ]pyrimidin-4-one;
      • (7)4-ethoxyl-3-(5-methyl-4-oxy-7-n-propyl-3,7-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonyl chloride;
      • (8)2-[2-ethoxyl-5-(4-ethylpiperazinyl-1-sulfonyl)phenyl]-5-methyl-7 -n-propyl-3,7-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one.

Preparation 1N-(3-cyano-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-2-ethoxylbenzamide (3a) and N-(3-cyano-4-methyl-1-n-propyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-2-ethoxylbenzamide (3b)

2-ethoxyl benzoic acid (10.0g, 60.2mmol) was added into thionyl chloride (20ml), and the mixture was refluxed with agitation for 40 minutes, and the excess amount of thionyl chloride was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residual was dissolved into dichloromethane (150ml). Within 30 minutes and being stirred on ice bath, the afore-obtained solution of 2-ethoxyl benzoyl chloride was dropped into the compound (1a) (7.0g, 56.8mmol) dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (80ml) and triethylamine (8.5ml, 61.0mmol). After completion, the mixture was stirred for 1 hour at 0°C . After being washed with water and filtrated with diatomaceous earth, the reaction solution was mixed with 20g of silica gel and evaporated to dryness. The resulting residual was eluted with dichloromethane by using silica gel(80g) column to obtain 7.5g of solid product (3a) with the yield of 48%. Furthermore, the sample for analysis was prepared by column chromatography (developing agent: dichloromethane: n-hexane=1:2) and recrystallization (dichloromethane: n-hexane=1:5).

mp 183~184°C (sublimation 162°C);\

IR (cm-1) : 3326, 3309, 2981, 2938, 2915, 2854, 2208, 1647, 1593, 1471, 1309, 1302, 1232, 1039, 923, 727, 655, 648;1H NMR (CDCl3) : δ 1.70 (t, J=7.0Hz, 3H), 2.15 (s, 3H), 4.32 (q, J=7.0Hz, 2H), 6.24 (s, 1H), 7.04 (d, 1H), 7.10 (m, 1H), 7.51 (dd, 1H), 8.20 (dd, J=7.9 and 1.8Hz, 1H), 10.69 (brs, 1H), 10.80 (s, 1H);13CNMR (CDCl3) : δ (CH3) 10.6, 15.0; (CH2) 65.7; (CH) 110.3, 112.3, 121.4132.1, 134.2; (C) 78.7, 115.6, 119.2, 119.4, 136.7, 157.0, 163.2;

MS (ES+) : m/z 287 (M+NH4) .

Elemental analysis (C15H15N3O2) : C 66.90%; H 5.61%; N 15.60%; 0 11.88%. The compound (3b) was prepared from compound (1b) according to the above-mentioned method with the yield of 41%.

mp 58~61°C;

IR (cm-1) : 3596, 3336, 2969, 2937, 2877, 2216, 1676, 1658, 1603, 1571, 1537, 1475, 1431, 1292, 1232, 1122, 1037, 927, 789, 752, 577;1H NMR (CDCl3): δ 0.88 (t, J=7.4Hz, 3H), 1.58 (t, J=7.0Hz, 3H), 1.75(m, 2H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 3.73 (t, J=7.4Hz, 2H),4.30 (q, J=7.0Hz, 2H), 6.36 (s, 1H), 7.04 (d, 1H), 7.11 (m, 1H), 7.48 (dd, 1H), 8.23 (dd, J=7.9 and 1.8Hz, 1H), 9.62 (brs, 1H) ;13C NMR (CDCl3) : δ (CH3) 11.1, 14.8; (CH2) 23.6, 48.3, 65.2; (CH) 112.5,117.0, 121.3, 132.5, 134.1; (C) 89.2, 115.6, 119.8, 120.5, 131.2, 157.1, 165.0;MS (ES+): m/z 329 (M+NH4).

 

Preparation 2

2-(2-ethoxylbenzamido)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrolo-3-formamide (4a) and 2-(2-ethoxylbenzamido)-4-methyl-1-n-propyl-1H-pyrrolo-3-formamide(4 b);

A mixture of N-(3-cyano-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-2-ethoxylbenzamide(3a) (2.00g, 7.44mmol) or N-(3-cyano-4-methyl-1-n-propyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-2 -ethoxylbenzamide(3b) (2.30g, 7.44mmol) of preparation 1 and 85% phosphoric acid (14.8ml) was stirred for 20 minutes at 130°C, cooled and poured into crushed ice (80g). The precipitations were filtrated and dried to give dark red solid of compound (3a) or (3b) with the yield of 80%. The product(3a) and (3b) of this step may be directly used for the next step without further purification.

Preparation 32-(2-ethxoylphenyl)-5-methyl-3,7-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one(5) and 2-(2-ethoxylphenyl)-5-methyl-7-n-propyl -3,7-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one(6)

A mixture of 2-(2-ethoxylbenzamido)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrolo-3-formamide (4a) (7.0g, 25.5mmol) of preparation 2 and dimethyl cyclohexylamine (20ml) was refluxed with agitation for 11 hours in N,N-dimethyl formamide (100ml). After evaporation the solvent by distillation under reduced pressure, the residual was extracted with dichloromethane, and the dichloromethane extraction was washed with water. the resultant extraction was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate. n-hexane (80ml) was added into the residual and ground to give product (5) (6.0g) by filtration with the yield of 91%.

mp 219~221°C

IR (cm-1) : 3187, 3114, 3062, 2978, 2923, 1658, 1587, 1460, 1321, 1292, 1250, 1044, 771, 763;

1H NMR (DMSO-d6) : δ 1.35 (t, J=6.9Hz, 3H), 2.29 (s, 3H), 4.13 (q, J=7.0Hz, 2H), 6.79 (s, 1H), 7.05 (t, 1H), 7.14 (d, 1H), 7.45 (dd, 1H), 7.76 (dd, 1H), 11.35 (brs, 1H), 11.54 (brs, 1H);

13C NMR (DMSO-d6) : δ (CH3) 11.2, 14.5; (CH2) 64.2; (CH) 113.0, 118.0, 120.6, 130.1, 131.9, (C) 105.0, 113.6, 121.9, 148.5, 149.8, 156.5, 159.2; MS(ES+) : m/z 287 (M+NH4) .

The compound (6) was prepared from compound(4b) according to the above-mentioned method with the yield of 85%

mp 124~127°C

IR (cm-1) : 3234, 3184, 3141, 3103, 3056, 2956, 2943, 2869, 1654, 1595, 1567, 1468, 1311, 1267, 1243, 1191, 1118, 1047, 758;

1H NMR (CDCl3) : δ 0.88 (t, J=7.5Hz, 3H), 1.23 (t, 3H), 1 . 80 (q, 2H), 2. 42 (s, 3H), 4.08 (t, J=7.2Hz, 2H), 4.22 (q, 2H), 6.60 (s, 1H), 7.01 (d, J=8.3Hz, 1H), 7.08 (t, 1H), 7.40 (m, 1H), 8.35 (dd, J=8.0 and 1.9 Hz, 1H), 11.02 (brs, 1H).

Preparation 42-(2-ethxoylphenyl)-5-methyl-7-n-propyl-3,7-dihydro-pyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidin-4-one(6):

A mixture of compound (5) (1.5g, 5.57mmol) of preparation 3, n-propyl bromide (2.0g, 16.3mmol) and potassium carbonate (5g, 36.2mmol) was dissolved in acetone (15ml), refluxed with agitation by heating for 15 hours, after the solids were filtrated out, the filtrate was dried under reduced pressure. The resultant was developed by column chromatography, using dichloromethane as mobile phase to obtain 0.6g of product (6) with yield of 35%. The physical/chemical data were identical with that of the above-mentioned.

Preparation 54-ethoxyl-3-(5-methyl-4-oxy-7-n-propyl-4,7-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonyl chloride(7):

2-(2-ethxoylphenyl)-5-methyl-7-n-propyl-3,7-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidin-4-one(6) (1.25g, 4.01mmol) of preparation 4 was added into chlorosulfonic acid (4ml) that was dissolved in acetic ether (20ml), stirred at 0°C by two batches. The obtained solution was stirred at 0 °C for 30 minutes, and then reacted with agitation at room temperature for 3 hours. The resultant solution was poured into the a mixture of icy water (50ml) and acetic ether (50ml) . The organic layer was separated, washed with cold water (5ml), desiccated with anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to dryness to afford 1.33g of product as yellow foam. The yield was 81%. The product was used directly for the next reaction.

Compound 1:

BASE

2-[2-ethoxyl-5-(4-ethyl-piperazinyl-1-sulfonyl)phenyl]-5-methyl-7-n -propyl-3,7-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (8):

4-ethoxyl-3-(5-methyl-4-oxy-7-n-propyl-4,7-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d ]pyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonyl chloride(7) (1.00g, 2.44mmol) of Preparation 5 was dissolved into dichloromethane (20ml), stirred at 0 °C, into which 1-ethyl piperazine (0.78ml, 6.10mmol) was added slowly. Reactant solution was stirred at 0°C for 5 minutes, and then sequentially stirred at room temperature for 5 hours. The crude product was washed with water and dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate to give 1. 2g of product as yellow foam. Continuously, the product was refined by column chromatography (acetic ether: methanol=20:1) to afford 0.89g of product as a yellow solid with yield of 75%.

mp: 174~176°C (EtOAc);

IR (cm-1) : 3324, 2960, 2923, 2869, 2862, 2767, 1682, 1560, 1458, 1355, 1282, 1247, 1172, 1149, 739, 615, 588, 555;

1H NMR(CDCl3) : δ 0.89(t,J=7.4Hz, 3H), 0.99(t, J=7.2Hz, 3H), 1.61(t,J=7.0Hz,3H),1.77-1.86(m, 2H), 2.35(m, 2H), 2.41(s, 3H), 2.50(brs, 4H), 3.05(brs,4H), 4.08(t, J=7.0Hz, 2H), 4.29-4.37(q, 2H), 6.61(s, 1H), 7.11(d, J=8.8Hz,1H), 7.77(dd, J=8.7 and2.2Hz, 1H), 8.74(d, J=2.2, 1H), 10.63(brs, 1H);

13C NMR(CDCl3) : δ (CH3) 11.0, 11.3, 11.8, 14.3; (CH2)23.8, 45.9, 46.1, 51.6, 51.7, 65.8; (CH)112.9, 121.1, 130.6, 131.3;(C)105.7,114.6, 121.4, 127.8, 146.8, 147.3, 159.3, 159.6;MS(ES+): m/z 505(M+NH4).

Elemental analysis (C24H33N5O4S) : theoretical value C 59.12%; H 6.82%; N 14.36%; practically measured value C59.38%; H 7.10%; N 14.12%.

Compound 1-HCl:

2-[2-ethoxyl-5-(4-ethylpiperazinyl-1-sulfonyl)phenyl]-5-methyl-7-n-propyl-3,7-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one monohydrochloride (9) :

The free alkali (compound 1) (1.00g, 2.05mmol) was dissolved into ether (10ml) and dichloromethane (10ml), into which the solution of 4M hydrochloric acid (HC1)- dioxane (0.51ml, 2.04mmol) diluted with ethyl ether (10ml) was dropped with agitation. After completion, the resulting solution was continued to stir at room temperature for 20 minutes, filtrated and dried to give 1.01g of monohydrochloride with yield of 94%.

mp: 147~150°C;

IR(cm-1): 2964, 2931, 2675, 2599, 2462, 1668, 1574, 1456, 1348, 1167, 933, 588;

1H NMR(D2O): δ 0.72(m, 3H),1.24(t, J=7.3Hz, 3H), 1.45(m, 3H), 1.59(m, 2H), 2.04(s, 3H), 2.77-3.81(all brs, 8H), 3.20(q, 2H), 3.75(m, 2H), 4.20(m, 2H), 6.62(m, 1H), 7.17(m, 1H), 7.73(m, 1H), 8.22(s, 1H).

Elemental analysis (C24H33N5O4S. HCl) : theoretical value C 55.00%; H 6.54%; N 13.36%; practically measured value C55.28%; H 6.41%; N 13.07%.

 

PATENT

WO 2016095650

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016095650&redirectedID=true

Example 1:
At room temperature, preferably hydrochloride grams that non-B polymorph (1.0g, prepared as described in its comparative) and 95% by volume aqueous ethanol (6mL) added to the flask and stirred for 2h, isolated by filtration, and the resulting solid dried under reduced pressure to give hydrochloride gifted grams that non-A type polymorph (0.8g). Its X-RD diffraction as shown in Figure 1, as shown in Figure 2. DSC.

 

SEE

https://www.google.com/patents/CN1552714A?cl=en

 

Spectral Analysis

str2 STR3

STR3

 

13C NMR PREDICT

str2

str2

COSY PREDICT

str2

 

CN1552714A * Jun 6, 2003 Dec 8, 2004 天津倍方科技发展有限公司 2-substituted benzyl-5,7-dihydrocarbyl-3,7-dihydro pyrroline [2,3-d] pyromidine-4-one derivative ,its preparation and medicinal use
CN102970965A * Apr 4, 2011 Mar 13, 2013 Sk化学公司 Composition containing PDE5 inhibitor for relieving skin wrinkles
WO2007067570A1 * Dec 5, 2006 Jun 14, 2007 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Methods and compositions for the treatment of disease

//////////yonkenafil, Phase 2,  Erectile dysfunction , phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, Tasly Pharmaceutical Group; Yangtze River Pharmaceutical Group

Cc4cn(CCC)c1c4N/C(=N\C1=O)c2cc(ccc2OCC)S(=O)(=O)N3CCN(CC3)CC

Gisadenafil

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DSM 265 a promising Antimalarial

 phase 2, Uncategorized  Comments Off on DSM 265 a promising Antimalarial
May 232016
 

 

DSM265

DSM-265; PfSPZ

2-(1,1-difluoroethyl)-5-methyl-N-(4-(pentafluoro-l6-sulfanyl)phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-amine

2-(l,l-difluoroethyl)-5-methyl-N-[4-(pentafluoro- 6– sulfanyl)phenyl] [ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[ 1 ,5-a]pyrimidin-7-amine.

(OC-6-21)-[4-[[2-(1,1-Difluoroethyl)-5-methyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]amino]phenyl]pentafluorosulfur

1282041-94-4
Chemical Formula: C14H12F7N5S
Exact Mass: 415.0702

Board Of Regents, University Of Texas System, Monash University, Medicines For Malaria Venture

DSM265 is a long-duration, potent and selective dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)) inhibitor. DSM265 is potential useful for the prevention and treatment of malaria. DSM265 is the first DHODH inhibitor to reach clinical development for treatment of malaria. DSM265 is highly selective toward DHODH of the malaria parasite Plasmodium, efficacious against both blood and liver stages of P. falciparum, and active against drug-resistant parasite isolates. DSM265 has advantages over current treatment options that are dosed daily or are inactive against the parasite liver stage.

  • OriginatorMonash University; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; University of Washington
  • Developer Center for Infectious Disease Research; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; Medicines for Malaria Venture; Takeda; United States Department of Defense
  • Class Antimalarials; Pyrimidines; Small molecules; Triazoles
  • Mechanism of Action Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors
  • Phase II Malaria
  • Phase I Malaria

Most Recent Events

  • 25 Apr 2016 Medicines for Malaria Venture and AbbVie plan a phase I bioavailability trial in Healthy volunteers in USA (PO, Granule) (NCT02750384)
  • 01 Mar 2016 Phase-I clinical trials in Malaria prevention (In volunteers) in USA (PO) (NCT02562872)
  • 01 Jan 2016 Phase-II clinical trials in Malaria in Peru (PO) (NCT02123290)

Malaria is one of the most significant causes of childhood mortality, but disease control efforts are threatened by resistance of the Plasmodium parasite to current therapies. Continued progress in combating malaria requires development of new, easy to administer drug combinations with broad-ranging activity against all manifestations of the disease. DSM265, a triazolopyrimidine-based inhibitor of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), is the first DHODH inhibitor to reach clinical development for treatment of malaria. We describe studies profiling the biological activity, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties, and safety of DSM265, which supported its advancement to human trials. DSM265 is highly selective toward DHODH of the malaria parasite Plasmodium, efficacious against both blood and liver stages of P. falciparum, and active against drug-resistant parasite isolates. Favorable pharmacokinetic properties of DSM265 are predicted to provide therapeutic concentrations for more than 8 days after a single oral dose in the range of 200 to 400 mg. DSM265 was well tolerated in repeat-dose and cardiovascular safety studies in mice and dogs, was not mutagenic, and was inactive against panels of human enzymes/receptors. The excellent safety profile, blood- and liver-stage activity, and predicted long half-life in humans position DSM265 as a new potential drug combination partner for either single-dose treatment or once-weekly chemoprevention. DSM265 has advantages over current treatment options that are dosed daily or are inactive against the parasite liver stage.

 

 

A new single-dose malaria drug is offering promise as both a cure to malaria and also a way to prevent the disease according to researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center. The new drug, which is known as DSM265, kills the drug-resistant malaria parasites in the blood and liver by targeting the ability of the parasites to replicate.

 

malaria

Malaria is a very infectious disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes, and it kills about 600,000 people worldwide every year. Most of the people who are killed by malaria are under 5-years-old, and it’s more common in sub-Saharan Africa. Almost 200 million cases of malaria are reported every year, with about 3 billion people in 97 countries at risk for the disease. Lead author Dr. Margaret Phillips, who is a professor of Pharmacology at UT Southwestern said that this could be the first single-dose cure for malaria, and would be used in partnership with another drug. This drug could also be developed into a once-a-week preventive vaccination as well, and the results of the study were just published in Science Translational Medicine. Not only was UT Southwestern involved in the research study, but Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Australia, the University of Washington, and the not-for-profit Medicines for Malaria Venture was also involved.

 

 

 

Malaria is one of the most deadly infectious diseases in human history with 3.2 billion people in 97 countries at risk. An estimated 444,000 deaths from malaria were reported by the WHO in 2015 and ∼90% of these occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, mostly among children under the age of five. Human malaria, which is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito, can be caused by five species of Plasmodia; however, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the most signficant.P. falciparum is dominant in Africa and accounts for most of the deaths, while P. vivax has a larger global distribution.
To simplify treatment options it is desirable that new drugs be efficacious against all human infective species. Malaria is a treatable disease and malarial control programs depend on drug therapy for treatment and chemoprevention, and on insecticides (including insecticide impregnated bed nets) to prevent transmission.
A large collection of drugs has been used for the treatment of malaria, but many of the most important compounds have been lost to drug resistance (e.g., chloroquine and pyrimethamine).Artemisinin combination therapies (ACT) replaced older treatments, becoming highly effective, crucial tools in global efforts that have led to the decline in malaria deaths over the past decade. However, resistance to the artemisinin components (associated with Kelch13 propeller protein mutations has been found in Southeast Asia putting at risk malaria treatment programs. To combat drug resistance a significant effort is underway to identify new compounds that can be used for the treatment of malaria, with several new entities currently in clinical development.
The triazolopyrimidine DSM265  developed by the group is the first antimalarial agent that targets dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) to reach clinical development, validating this target for the treatment of malaria. DHODH is a mitochondrial enzyme that is required for the fourth step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzing the flavin-dependent oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotic acid with mitochondrially derived coenzyme Q (CoQ) serving as a second substrate. Pyrimidines are essential for both RNA and DNA biosynthesis, and because Plasmodia do not encode pyrimidine salvage enzymes, which are found in humans and other organisms, the de novo pyrimidine pathway and DHODH are essential to the parasite.
They identified the triazolopyrimidine DHODH inhibitor series by a target-based high throughput screen, and the initial lead DSM1 (2)  was shown to selectively inhibit P. falciparumDHODH and to kill parasites in vitro, but it was ineffective in vivo due to poor metabolic properties. The series was subsequently optimized to improve its in vivo properties resulting in the identification of DSM74 (3), which while metabolically stable lacked potencyX-ray structures of 2 and 3 bound to PfDHODH were then used to guide the medicinal chemistry program in the search for more potent analogues, resulting in the identification of 1.
 

SYNTHESIS

STR1
PAPER
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2012), 55(17)
Abstract Image

Plasmodium falciparum causes approximately 1 million deaths annually. However, increasing resistance imposes a continuous threat to existing drug therapies. We previously reported a number of potent and selective triazolopyrimidine-based inhibitors of P. falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that inhibit parasite in vitro growth with similar activity. Lead optimization of this series led to the recent identification of a preclinical candidate, showing good activity against P. falciparum in mice. As part of a backup program around this scaffold, we explored heteroatom rearrangement and substitution in the triazolopyrimidine ring and have identified several other ring configurations that are active as PfDHODH inhibitors. The imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines were shown to bind somewhat more potently than the triazolopyrimidines depending on the nature of the amino aniline substitution. DSM151, the best candidate in this series, binds with 4-fold better affinity (PfDHODH IC50 = 0.077 μM) than the equivalent triazolopyrimidine and suppresses parasites in vivo in the Plasmodium berghei model.

Scheme 3

Figure imgf000058_0001

Example 44: Synthesis of 2-(l,l-difluoroethyl)-5-methyl-N-[4-(pentafluoro- 6– sulfanyl)phenyl] [ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[ 1 ,5-a]pyrimidin-7-amine.

A suspension of Intermediate 3 (5.84 g, 25.09 mmol) and 4-aminophenylsulfur pentafluoride (MANCHESTER, 5.5 g, 25.09 mmol) in ethanol (150 mL) was heated at 50 °C for 1 h. Heating resulted in the precipitation of a solid. The reaction mixture was concentrated under vacuum, redissolved in DCM (300 mL) and washed with aq. Na2C03 (2 x 350 mL). The organic layer was dried over Na2S04 and filtered. Then 8 g of silica gel were added and the mixture was concentrated under vacuum to dryness. The residue was purified (silica gel column, eluting with Hexane/EtOAc mixtures from 100:0 to 50:50%) to afford the title compound as a white solid.

Figure imgf000058_0002

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm: 10.60 (bs, 1H), 7.97 (d, 2H), 7.67 (d, 2H), 6.79 (s, 1H), 2.47 (s, 3H), 2.13 (t, 3H); [ES+ MS] m/z 416 (MH)+.

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2011), 54(15), 5540-5561

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm200592f

Abstract Image

Drug therapy is the mainstay of antimalarial therapy, yet current drugs are threatened by the development of resistance. In an effort to identify new potential antimalarials, we have undertaken a lead optimization program around our previously identified triazolopyrimidine-based series of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitors. The X-ray structure of PfDHODH was used to inform the medicinal chemistry program allowing the identification of a potent and selective inhibitor (DSM265) that acts through DHODH inhibition to kill both sensitive and drug resistant strains of the parasite. This compound has similar potency to chloroquine in the humanized SCID mouse P. falciparum model, can be synthesized by a simple route, and rodent pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated it has excellent oral bioavailability, a long half-life and low clearance. These studies have identified the first candidate in the triazolopyrimidine series to meet previously established progression criteria for efficacy and ADME properties, justifying further development of this compound toward clinical candidate statu

 

PAPER

 

Abstract Image

Malaria persists as one of the most devastating global infectious diseases. The pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) has been identified as a new malaria drug target, and a triazolopyrimidine-based DHODH inhibitor 1 (DSM265) is in clinical development. We sought to identify compounds with higher potency against PlasmodiumDHODH while showing greater selectivity toward animal DHODHs. Herein we describe a series of novel triazolopyrimidines wherein the p-SF5-aniline was replaced with substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl or 2-indanyl amines. These compounds showed strong species selectivity, and several highly potent tetrahydro-2-naphthyl derivatives were identified. Compounds with halogen substitutions displayed sustained plasma levels after oral dosing in rodents leading to efficacy in the P. falciparum SCID mouse malaria model. These data suggest that tetrahydro-2-naphthyl derivatives have the potential to be efficacious for the treatment of malaria, but due to higher metabolic clearance than 1, they most likely would need to be part of a multidose regimen

Tetrahydro-2-naphthyl and 2-Indanyl Triazolopyrimidines TargetingPlasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Display Potent and Selective Antimalarial Activity

Departments of Chemistry and Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, United States
Departments of Pharmacology and Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 6001 Forest Park Blvd, Dallas, Texas 75390-9041, United States
§ Centre for Drug Candidate Optimisation, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
GSK, Tres Cantos Medicines Development Campus, Severo Ochoa, Madrid 28760 Spain
# Syngene International Ltd., Bangalore 560 099, India
Medicines for Malaria Venture, 1215 Geneva, Switzerland
J. Med. Chem., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00275
*Phone: 214-645-6164. E-mail: margaret.phillips@UTSouthwestern.edu., *Phone: 206-221-6069. E-mail:rathod@chem.washington.edu.

REFERENCES

1: Phillips MA, Lotharius J, Marsh K, White J, Dayan A, White KL, Njoroge JW, El
Mazouni F, Lao Y, Kokkonda S, Tomchick DR, Deng X, Laird T, Bhatia SN, March S,
Ng CL, Fidock DA, Wittlin S, Lafuente-Monasterio M, Benito FJ, Alonso LM,
Martinez MS, Jimenez-Diaz MB, Bazaga SF, Angulo-Barturen I, Haselden JN, Louttit
J, Cui Y, Sridhar A, Zeeman AM, Kocken C, Sauerwein R, Dechering K, Avery VM,
Duffy S, Delves M, Sinden R, Ruecker A, Wickham KS, Rochford R, Gahagen J, Iyer
L, Riccio E, Mirsalis J, Bathhurst I, Rueckle T, Ding X, Campo B, Leroy D, Rogers
MJ, Rathod PK, Burrows JN, Charman SA. A long-duration dihydroorotate
dehydrogenase inhibitor (DSM265) for prevention and treatment of malaria. Sci
Transl Med. 2015 Jul 15;7(296):296ra111. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaa6645.
PubMed PMID: 26180101; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4539048.

2: Held J, Jeyaraj S, Kreidenweiss A. Antimalarial compounds in Phase II clinical
development. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2015 Mar;24(3):363-82. doi:
10.1517/13543784.2015.1000483. Epub 2015 Jan 7. Review. PubMed PMID: 25563531.

3: Gamo FJ. Antimalarial drug resistance: new treatments options for Plasmodium.
Drug Discov Today Technol. 2014 Mar;11:81-88. doi: 10.1016/j.ddtec.2014.03.002.
Review. PubMed PMID: 24847657.

4: Coteron JM, Marco M, Esquivias J, Deng X, White KL, White J, Koltun M, El
Mazouni F, Kokkonda S, Katneni K, Bhamidipati R, Shackleford DM, Angulo-Barturen
I, Ferrer SB, Jiménez-Díaz MB, Gamo FJ, Goldsmith EJ, Charman WN, Bathurst I,
Floyd D, Matthews D, Burrows JN, Rathod PK, Charman SA, Phillips MA.
Structure-guided lead optimization of triazolopyrimidine-ring substituents
identifies potent Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors
with clinical candidate potential. J Med Chem. 2011 Aug 11;54(15):5540-61. doi:
10.1021/jm200592f. Epub 2011 Jul 14. PubMed PMID: 21696174; PubMed Central PMCID:
PMC3156099.

/////DSM-265,  PfSPZ, DSM-265,  DSM 265,  1282041-94-4, (OC-​6-​21)​-

FS(F)(F)(F)(C1=CC=C(NC2=CC(C)=NC3=NC(C(F)(F)C)=NN23)C=C1)F

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ORVEPITANT

 phase 2  Comments Off on ORVEPITANT
Apr 202016
 

Molecular Formula: C31H35F7N4O2
Molecular Weight: 628.624022 g/mol

CAS 579475-18-6

Orvepitant (GW823296)

(2R,4S)-4-[(8aS)-6-oxo-1,3,4,7,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazin-2-yl]-N-[(1R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl]-2-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-N-methylpiperidine-1-carboxamide

Orvepitant maleate

 

MALEATE

CAS [579475-24-4] MALEATE

MF C31H35F7N4O2.C4H4O4
MW 744.70

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01000493

  • Phase IICough; Pruritus
  • DiscontinuedAnxiety disorders; Major depressive disorder; Post-traumatic stress disorders

Most Recent Events

  • 19 Dec 2015NeRRe Therapeutics terminates a phase II trial in Pruritus in Italy and the United Kingdom (EudraCT2013-002763-25)
  • 16 Dec 2013No development reported – Phase-II for Post-traumatic stress disorder in USA (PO)
  • 16 Dec 2013No development reported – Phase-II for Major depressive disorder in Canada (PO)
Company NeRRe Therapeutics Ltd.
Description Neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist
Molecular Target Neurokinin 1 (NK1) substance P receptor (TACR1)
Mechanism of Action Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) (Substance P) receptor antagonist
Therapeutic Modality Small molecule
Latest Stage of Development Phase II
Standard Indication Itch
Indication Details Treat intense pruritus (itch) associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (EGFRi) anticancer therapies

Start of Phase II study of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist orvepitant for intense pruritus induced by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

First Clinical Trial for NeRRe Therapeutics

Stevenage, UK, 23 January 2014.

NeRRe Therapeutics Ltd, which is focused on the development of neurokinin (NK) receptor antagonists for a range of indications, is pleased to announce the start of a Phase II study of the novel NK-1 receptor antagonist orvepitant. The proof-of-concept study, results of which are expected in 2015, is investigating orvepitant’s effectiveness as a treatment for the intense pruritus (itch) associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (EGFRi) anticancer therapies. The itch intensity experienced by patients can be so severe that their EGFRi dose must be reduced or the treatment withdrawn; also pruritus along with rash has a significant effect on quality of life1.

The RELIEVE-1 trial is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of two daily dose levels of oral orvepitant on EGFRi-induced intense pruritus in oncology subjects. Its primary endpoint is the difference between orvepitant and placebo in reducing the intensity of pruritus over 4 weeks, as measured on a subject-recorded numerical rating scale. RELIEVE-1 is being undertaken in 15 clinical sites in Italy, with Dr Bruno Vincenzi from Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma as lead investigator. Dr Vincenzi and his colleagues at the centre have pioneered the use NK-1 antagonists as anti-pruritics in this setting2. Chemistry, manufacturing and control support for RELIEVE-1 is being provided by Aptuit (Verona) Srl, with clinical operations assistance from the CRO Cromsource.

Dermatologic adverse events such as pruritus are a common feature of targeted anti-cancer therapies, with incidence of this symptom induced by EGFRia drugs in clinical trials ranging from 14.6% to 54.9% depending on the specific agent3. Open-label studies in patients suffering from refractory chronic pruritus have indicated that NK-1 receptor antagonism can provide rapid and highly effective relief as well as significantly improving quality of life.2,4,5,6

 

Dr Mike Trower, Co-founder & Chief Operating Officer of NeRRe Therapeutics said: 

‘We are very pleased to announce the start of RELIEVE-1, NeRRe’s first clinical trial, in this important area of unmet medical need. There is a strong rationale and a growing body of clinical evidence supporting the potential of orvepitant as an anti-pruritic for this devastating symptom commonly associated with EGFRis. Given its known effects on mood and sleep, orvepitant may also provide additional benefits for patient well-being.’

 

Dr Emiliangelo Ratti, NeRRe Therapeutics Co-founder added:

The intense pruritus induced by EGFRis can lead to significant suffering and poor quality of life, and we believe that a treatment for this troubling side effect would be welcomed by cancer patients and supportive care doctors alike. A successful study of orvepitant in this indication would provide further evidence of the broad therapeutic potential of the NK-1 receptor antagonist mechanism which NeRRe is exploiting in its pipeline.’

–ENDS–

a This includes monoclonal antibodies that target the extracellular domain of EFGR, small molecule tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors, and small molecule dual TK inhibitors.

 

About NeRRe Therapeutics

NeRRe Therapeutics was formed in December 2012 and is focussed on the development of a portfolio of NK receptor antagonists acquired from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), which have therapeutic potential in a broad range of indications. NeRRe Therapeutics was co-founded by Drs Emiliangelo Ratti and Mike Trower, both of whom are both former senior leaders of neurosciences drug discovery at GSK with intimate knowledge of the transferred assets and the neurokinin receptor system field. In 2012 NeRRe Therapeutics raised £11.5 million ($18.4 million) in Series A financing from two leading European financial institutions, Novo A/S (www.novo.dk/ventures) and Advent Life Sciences (www.adventventures.com), who are represented by Dr Martin Edwards (Chairman) and Dr Kaasim Mahmood respectively on the company’s Board.

NeRRe (www.nerretherapeutics.com) is based at the state-of-the-art Stevenage Bioscience Catalyst (www.stevenagecatalyst.com), the UK’s first open innovation bioscience campus.

 

About Orvepitant

Orvepitant is a ‘novel generation’ brain penetrant, selective and potent, small molecule NK-1 receptor antagonist7 that features high receptor occupancy and full and long lasting (≥24hrs) central NK-1 receptor occupancy8. It has previously completed extensive safety and toxicology studies to support its clinical development; and it has already demonstrated a positive antidepressant effect in a Phase II clinical study together with beneficial effects on sleep8.

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/EP2297152A1?cl=en

NK1 antagonist compound orvepitant maleate, pharmaceutical formulations comprising this crystalline form, its use in therapy and processes for preparing the same. Background of the invention

WO03/066635 describes a number of diazabicycle derivatives having NK1 activity, including the 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro- pyrrolo[1 ,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl- phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (otherwise known as orvepitant).

The structure of the 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro- pyrrolo[1 ,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl- phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (otherwise known as orvepitant) is shown in formula (I) below:

Figure imgf000002_0001

Hereinafter any reference to orvepitant refers to the compound of formula (I).

Orvepitant may also be known as: CAS Index name

1-Piperidinecarboxamide, Λ/-[(1R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl]-2-(4-fluoro-

2-methylphenyl)-4-[(8aS)-hexahydro-6-oxopyrrolo[1 ,2-a]pyrazin-2(1 /-/)-yl]-Λ/-methyl-,

(2RAS) and IUPAC name :

(2R,4S)-Λ/-{(1 R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-2-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-

Λ/-methyl-4-[(8aS)-6-oxohexahydropyrrolo[1 ,2-a]pyrazin-2(1 /-/)-yl]-1- piperidinecarboxamide. A preferred salt of this compound is its hydrochloride salt which is otherwise known as orvepitant hydrochloride.

A further preferred salt of this compound is its maleate salt which is otherwise known as orvepitant maleate.

Particularly Example 1 1 C of WO03/066635 describes the synthesis of orvepitant maleate using substantially the same experimental conditions described in the Example 1 in the present patent application.

We have now found that orvepitant maleate can be obtained in a new crystalline form. In particular, we have discovered a form of orvepitant maleate which is anhydrous and crystalline and which surprisingly has particularly good pharmaceutical properties. This is particularly stable and essentially non hygroscopic. It also has good storage properties and can be readily formulated into pharmaceutical compositions such as tablets and capsules.

Example 1 : preparation of orvepitant maleate (Form 2) {(1 R)-1 -[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}methylamine – (2R)-2-hydroxybutanedioic acid (1.8 kg) was added to ethyl acetate (5.4 litres) and 15% w/w sodium carbonate solution (5.4 litres) and was stirred until all solids had dissolved. The organic phase was separated and was washed with water (5.4 litres). Fresh ethyl acetate (6.7 litres) was added and the solution was distilled to 5.4 litres under reduced pressure.

The solution was diluted with ethyl acetate (3.6 litres). The reactor was purged with carbon dioxide and a continuous steady stream of carbon dioxide was maintained. Triethylamine (810 ml) was added over 30 minutes and was rinsed in with ethyl acetate (250 ml). The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes. Chlorotrimethylsilane (850 ml) was added over 30 minutes with cooling to keep the temperature between 17°C and 23°C and was rinsed in with ethyl acetate (250 ml). The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes. Pyridine (720 ml) was added and was rinsed in with ethyl acetate (250 ml). Thionyl chloride (480 ml) was added over 10 minutes and then a rinse of ethyl acetate (500 ml). The reaction mixture was stirred at 200C for 16 hours under a carbon dioxide atmosphere.

28% w/w Racemic malic acid solution (5.3 litres) was added and the mixture was stirred for 15 minutes. The organic phase was separated, diluted with ethyl acetate (1.5 litres) and was washed with water (2 x 2.7 litres) and 20% w/w dibasic potassium phosphate solution (5.6 litres). The solution was distilled under reduced pressure to a total volume of 2.5 litres. Ethyl acetate (5 litres) was added and the solution was redistilled to 3 litres to give a solution of {(1 R)-1-[3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}methylcarbamic chloride.

(2R)-2-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-4-piperidinone – (2S)-hydroxy(phenyl)ethanoic acid (1.2 kg) was added to 15% w/w sodium carbonate solution (4.8 litres) and ethyl acetate (4.8 litres) and the mixture was stirred until solids dissolved. The organic phase was separated and was washed with 20% w/w sodium chloride solution (4 litres). Fresh ethyl acetate (4.8 litres) was added and the solution of (2R)-2-(4-fluoro- 2-methylphenyl)-4-piperidinone was distilled under reduced pressure to a volume of 3 litres. The solution of (2R)-2-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-4-piperidinone was charged to the solution of {(1 R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}methylcarbamic chloride followed by an ethyl acetate (300 ml) rinse. Triethylamine (857 g) was added followed by ethyl acetate (300 ml) and the mixture was boiled at reflux for 18 hours. The slurry was cooled to 200C and N-acetylpiperazine (240 g) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at 200C and was then charged with 28% w/w racemic malic acid solution (3.6 litres). The organic phase was separated and was washed with 20% w/w sodium chloride solution (4.8 litres). Ethyl acetate (4.8 litres) was added and the solution of (2R)-N-{(1 R)-1-[3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-2-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-N-methyl-4-oxo-1- piperidinecarboxamide was distilled under reduced pressure distillation to a total volume of 3 litres.

(8aS)-hexahydropyrrolo[1 ,2-a]pyrazin-6(2H)-one – (2S)-(acetyloxy)(phenyl)ethanoic acid (1.5 kg) was added to acetonitrile (11.4 litres) and triethylamine (450 g) was added. An acetonitrile (250 ml) rinse was added and the slurry was stirred at 200C for 30 min. Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (900 g) was added and the reaction was cooled to 100C. Formic acid (396 ml) was added to the mixture over 30 min, maintaining the temperature below 15°C. An acetonitrile (250 ml) rinse was added and the reaction was warmed to 200C. The solution of (2R)-N-{(1 R)-1-[3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-2-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-N-methyl-4-oxo-1- piperidinecarboxamide in ethyl acetate was added to the reaction mixture and was rinsed in with acetonitrile (1 litre). The reaction was stirred for 16 hours at 200C.

The slurry was distilled to 5 litres under reduced pressure. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (10 litres) and was washed with 13% w/w ammonia solution (2 x 4 litres), and 10% w/w sodium chloride solution (4 litres). The organic solution was distilled to 5 litres under reduced pressure. The solution was diluted with IPA (8 litres) and was distilled under reduced pressure to 5 litres. Further IPA (8 litres) was added and the solution was again distilled to 5 litres.

A solution of maleic acid (248.5 g) in IPA (2.5 litres) was added. The mixture was then seeded with orvepitant maleate A (1 g) and the mixture was aged for 1 hour. Iso-octane (10 litres) was added over 30 min. and the mixture further aged for 1 hour. The slurry was cooled to 7°C and was further aged for 90 minutes. The solid formed was filtered and washed with a 1 :1 mixture of IPA/iso-octane (2 x 3 litres). The resulting solid was dried at 40°C under reduced pressure to give the title compound (1.095kg, 44%). NMR (CD3OD) δ (ppm) 1.52-1.53 (d, 3H), 1.68-1.78 (m, 1 H), 1.82-1.91 (q, 1 H), 1.95- 2.05 (m, 1 H), 2.16-2.37 (m, 3H), 2.38-2.50 (m, 2H), 2.44 (s, 3H), 2.81-2.87 (t, 1 H),

2.83 (s, 3H), 2.90-2.99 (m, 2H), 3.1 1-3.18 (dt, 1 H), 3.48-3.60 (m, 3H), 3.66-3.69 (d, 1 H), 3.89-3.96 (m, 1 H), 4.15-4.19 (dd, 1 H), 4.33-4.36 (dd , 1 H), 5.40-5.45 (q, 1 H), 6.26 (s, 2H), 6.76-6.81 (dt, 1 H), 6.85-6.88 (dd, 1 H), 7.27-7.31 (dd, 1 H), 7.70 (s, 2H), 7.88 (s, 1 H). (M+H)+ Calcd for C3iH35F7N4O 629, found 629.

References:

  1. Rosen AC et al. Am J Clin Dermatol. (2013), 14(4):327-33
  2. Santini D et al. Lancet Oncol. (2012), 13(10):1020-4
  3. Ensslin CJ et al. J Am Acad Dermatol. (2013), 69(5):708-20
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2: Ratti E, Bettica P, Alexander R, Archer G, Carpenter D, Evoniuk G, Gomeni R, Lawson E, Lopez M, Millns H, Rabiner EA, Trist D, Trower M, Zamuner S, Krishnan R, Fava M. Full central neurokinin-1 receptor blockade is required for efficacy in depression: evidence from orvepitant clinical studies. J Psychopharmacol. 2013 May;27(5):424-34. doi: 10.1177/0269881113480990. Epub 2013 Mar 28. PubMed PMID: 23539641.

///////Orvepitant, GW823296, PHASE 2, Neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist

C[C@@H](N(C)C(=O)N1CC[C@@H](C[C@@H]1c1ccc(F)cc1C)N1CCN2[C@@H](CCC2=O)C1)c1cc(cc(c1)C(F)(F)F)C(F)(F)F

CC1=C(C=CC(=C1)F)C2CC(CCN2C(=O)N(C)C(C)C3=CC(=CC(=C3)C(F)(F)F)C(F)(F)F)N4CCN5C(C4)CCC5=O

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INCB24360 (epacadostat)

 phase 2, Uncategorized  Comments Off on INCB24360 (epacadostat)
Apr 182016
 

 ChemSpider 2D Image | epacadostat | C11H13BrFN7O4S

Epacadostat
(Z)-N-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-N’-hydroxy-4-[2-(sulfamoylamino)ethylamino]-1,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboxamidine
1,2,5-Oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide, 4-[[2-[(aminosulfonyl)amino]ethyl]amino]-N-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-N’-hydroxy-
1204669-58-8
INCB024360
N-(3-Brom-4-fluorphenyl)-N’-hydroxy-4-{[2-(sulfamoylamino)ethyl]amino}-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-carboximidamid
UNII 71596A9R13
(Z)-N-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-N’-hydroxy-4-(2-(sulfamoylamino)ethylamino)-1,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide
1,2,5-Oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide, 4-[[2-[(aminosulfonyl)amino]ethyl]amino]-N’-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-N-hydroxy-

Molecular Formula, C11H13BrFN7O4S

Average mass438.233 Da

cas 1204669-58-8 (or 1204669-37-3)

Synonym: IDO1 inhibitor INCB024360
indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase inhibitor INCB024360
Code name: INCB 024360
INCB024360
Chemical structure: 1,2,5-Oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide, 4-((2-((Aminosulfonyl)amino)ethyl)amino)-N-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-N’-hydroxy-, (C(Z))-
Company Incyte Corp.
Description Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitor
Molecular Target Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1)
Mechanism of Action Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (INDO) inhibitor
Therapeutic Modality Small molecule

 

  • OriginatorIncyte Corporation
  • DeveloperFred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; Incyte Corporation; Merck AG
  • ClassAmides; Antineoplastics; Imides; Oxadiazoles; Small molecules
    • Phase IIFallopian tube cancer; Malignant melanoma; Non-small cell lung cancer; Ovarian cancer; Peritoneal cancer; Solid tumours

    Most Recent Events

    • 15 Jan 2016Phase-II clinical trials in Solid tumours (Combination therapy, Late-stage disease, Second-line therapy or greater) in USA (PO)
    • 11 Jan 2016Phase-II clinical trials in Non-small cell lung cancer (Combination therapy, Late-stage disease, Second-line therapy or greater) in USA (PO)
    • 11 Jan 2016The US FDA and Health Canada approve IND application and Clinical Trial Application, respectively, for a phase Ib trial in Ovarian cancer (Combination therapy, Recurrent, Second-line therapy or greater)

In 2016, orphan drug designation was assigned to the compound in the US. for the treatment of stage IIB-IV melanoma

EpacadostatAn orally available hydroxyamidine and inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. epacadostat targets and binds to IDO1, an enzyme responsible for the oxidation of tryptophan into kynurenine. By inhibiting IDO1 and decreasing kynurenine in tumor cells, epacadostat increases and restores the proliferation and activation of various immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), NK cells, and T-lymphocytes, as well as interferon (IFN) production, and a reduction in tumor-associated regulatory T cells (Tregs). Activation of the immune system, which is suppressed in many cancers, may inhibit the growth of IDO1-expressing tumor cells. IDO1 is overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types and DCsINCB24360 (epacadostat), An Agent For Cancer Immunotherapy

Incyte and Merck Expand Clinical Collaboration to Include Phase 3 Study Investigating the Combination of Epacadostat with Keytruda® (pembrolizumab) as First-line Treatment for Advanced Melanoma

Pivotal study to evaluate Incyte’s IDO1 inhibitor in combination with Merck’s anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma

WILMINGTON, Del. and KENILWORTH, N.J. — October 13, 2015 — Incyte Corporation (Nasdaq: INCY) and Merck (NYSE:MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced the expansion of the companies’ ongoing clinical collaboration to include a Phase 3 study evaluating the combination of epacadostat, Incyte’s investigational selective IDO1 inhibitor, with Keytruda® (pembrolizumab), Merck’s anti-PD-1 therapy, as first-line treatment for patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma. The Phase 3 study, which is expected to begin in the first half of 2016, will be co-funded by Incyte and Merck.

“We are very pleased to expand our collaboration with Merck and to move the clinical development program for epacadostat in combination with Keytruda into Phase 3,” said Hervé Hoppenot, President and Chief Executive Officer of Incyte. “We believe the combination of these two immunotherapies shows promise and, if successfully developed, may help to improve clinical outcomes for patients with metastatic melanoma.”

“The initiation of this large Phase 3 study with Incyte in the first-line advanced melanoma treatment setting is an important addition to our robust immunotherapy clinical development program for Keytruda,” said Dr. Roger Dansey, senior vice president and therapeutic area head, oncology late-stage development, Merck Research Laboratories. “We continue to explore the benefit that Keytruda brings to patients suffering from advanced melanoma when used alone, and we are pleased to be able to add this important combination study with epacadostat to our Keytruda development program.”

Under the terms of the agreement Incyte and Merck have also agreed, for a period of two years, not to initiate new pivotal studies of an IDO1 inhibitor in combination with a PD-1/PD-L1 antagonist as first-line therapy in advanced or metastatic melanoma with any third party. During this time, the companies will each offer the other the opportunity to collaborate on any new pivotal study involving an IDO1 inhibitor in combination with a PD-1/PD-L1 antagonist for types of melanoma and lines of therapy outside of the current collaboration agreement.

The agreement is between Incyte and certain subsidiaries and Merck through its subsidiaries.

Epacadostat and Keytruda are part of a class of cancer treatments known as immunotherapies that are designed to enhance the body’s own defenses in fighting cancer; the two therapies target distinct regulatory components of the immune system. IDO1 is an immunosuppressive enzyme that has been shown to induce regulatory T cell generation and activation, and allow tumors to escape immune surveillance. Keytruda is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Preclinical evidence suggests that the combination of these two agents may lead to an enhanced anti-tumor immune response compared with either agent alone.

Safety and efficacy data from the ongoing Phase 1/2 study evaluating the combination of epacadostat with Keytruda in patients with advanced malignancies is scheduled to be highlighted as a late-breaking oral presentation (Abstract #142) at the upcoming Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer 30th Anniversary Annual Meeting & Associated Programs, November 4–8, 2015 at the Gaylord National Resort & Convention Center in National Harbor, MD.

Metastatic Melanoma

Melanoma, the most serious form of skin cancer, strikes adults of all ages and accounts for approximately five percent of all new cases of cancer in the United States each year. The number of new cases of melanoma continues to rise by almost three percent each year which translates to 76,000 new cases yearly in the U.S. alone.[i] The 5-year survival rate for late-stage or metastatic disease is 15 percent.[ii] 

About Epacadostat (INCB024360)

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is an immunosuppressive enzyme that has been shown to induce regulatory T cell generation and activation, and allow tumors to escape immune surveillance. Epacadostat is an orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of IDO1 that has nanomolar potency in both biochemical and cellular assays and has demonstrated potent activity in enhancing T lymphocyte, dendritic cell and natural killer cell responses in vitro, with a high degree of selectivity. Epacadostat has shown proof-of-concept clinical data in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma in combination with the CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab, and is currently in four proof-of-concept clinical trials with PD-1 and PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors in a variety of cancer histologies.

PATENT

WO 2014066834

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2014066834A1?cl=en

EXAMPLE 1

4-({2-[(Aminosulfonyl)amino]ethyl}amino)- V-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)- V -hydroxy- l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide

Figure imgf000055_0001

Step 1: 4-Amino-N’-hydroxy-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide

[00184] Malononitrile (320.5 g, 5 mol) was added to water (7 L) preheated to 45 °C and stirred for 5 min. The resulting solution was cooled in an ice bath and sodium nitrite (380 g, 5.5 mol) was added. When the temperature reached 10 °C, 6 N hydrochloric acid (55 mL) was added. A mild exothermic reaction ensued with the temperature reaching 16 °C. After 15 min the cold bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1.5 hrs at 16-18 °C. The reaction mixture was cooled to 13 °C and 50% aqueous hydroxylamine (990 g, 15 mol) was added all at once. The temperature rose to 26 °C. When the exothermic reaction subsided the cold bath was removed and stirring was continued for 1 hr at 26-27 °C, then it was slowly brought to reflux. Reflux was maintained for 2 hrs and then the reaction mixture was allowed to cool overnight. The reaction mixture was stirred in an ice bath and 6 N hydrochloric acid (800 mL) was added in portions over 40 min to pH 7.0. Stirring was continued in the ice bath at 5 °C. The precipitate was collected by filtration, washed well with water and dried in a vacuum oven (50 °C) to give the desired product (644 g, 90%). LCMS for C3H6N5O2

(M+H)+: m/z = 144.0. 13C MR (75 MHz, CD3OD): δ 156.0, 145.9, 141.3. Step 2: 4-Amino-N-hydroxy-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidoyl chloride [00185] 4-Amino-N,-hydroxy-l ,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide (422 g, 2.95 mol) was added to a mixture of water (5.9 L), acetic acid (3 L) and 6 Ν hydrochloric acid (1.475 L, 3 eq.) and this suspension was stirred at 42 – 45 °C until complete solution was achieved. Sodium chloride (518 g, 3 eq.) was added and this solution was stirred in an ice/water/methanol bath. A solution of sodium nitrite (199.5 g, 0.98 eq.) in water (700 mL) was added over 3.5 hrs while maintaining the temperature below 0 °C. After complete addition stirring was continued in the ice bath for 1.5 hrs and then the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to 15 °C. The precipitate was collected by filtration, washed well with water, taken in ethyl acetate (3.4 L), treated with anhydrous sodium sulfate (500 g) and stirred for 1 hr. This suspension was filtered through sodium sulfate (200 g) and the filtrate was concentrated on a rotary evaporator. The residue was dissolved in methyl i-butyl ether (5.5 L), treated with charcoal (40 g), stirred for 40 min and filtered through Celite. The solvent was removed in a rotary evaporator and the resulting product was dried in a vacuum oven (45 °C) to give the desired product (256 g, 53.4%). LCMS for C3H4CIN4O2 (M+H)+: m/z = 162.9. 13C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): 5 155.8, 143.4, 129.7.

Step 3: 4-Amino-N’-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyethyl)-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide [00186] 4-Amino-N-hydroxy-l ,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidoyl chloride (200.0 g, 1.23 mol) was mixed with ethyl acetate (1.2 L). At 0-5 °C 2-methoxyethylamine [Aldrich, product # 143693] (119.0 mL, 1.35 mol) was added in one portion while stirring. The reaction temperature rose to 41 °C. The reaction was cooled to 0 – 5 °C. Triethylamine (258 mL, 1.84 mol) was added. After stirring 5 min, LCMS indicated reaction completion. The reaction solution was washed with water (500 mL) and brine (500 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to give the desired product (294 g, 1 19%) as a crude dark oil.

LCMS for C6Hi2 503 (M+H)+: m/z = 202.3. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- ): δ 10.65 (s, 1 H), 6.27 (s, 2 H), 6.10 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 1 H), 3.50 (m, 2 H), 3.35 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 2 H), 3.08 (s, 3 H).

Step 4: N’-Hydroxy-4-[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide

[00187] 4-Amino-N-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyethyl)-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3- carboximidamide (248.0 g, 1.23 mol) was mixed with water (1 L). Potassium hydroxide (210 g, 3.7 mol) was added. The reaction was refluxed at 100 °C overnight (15 hours). TLC with 50% ethyl acetate (containing 1% ammonium hydroxide) in hexane indicated reaction completed (product Rf = 0.6, starting material Rf = 0.5). LCMS also indicated reaction completion. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 1 L). The combined ethyl acetate solution was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give the desired product (201 g, 81%) as a crude off-white solid. LCMS for C6H12N5O3 (M+H)+: m/z = 202.3 LH NMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6): δ 10.54 (s, 1 H), 6.22 (s, 2 H), 6.15 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.45 (t, J= 5.3 Hz, 2 H), 3.35 (m, 2 H), 3.22 (s, 3 H). Step 5: N-Hydroxy-4-[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidoyl chloride

[00188] At room temperature N’-hydroxy-4-[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]- 1 ,2,5- oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide (50.0 g, 0.226 mol) was dissolved in 6.0 M hydrochloric acid aqueous solution (250 mL, 1.5 mol). Sodium chloride (39.5 g, 0.676 mol) was added followed by water (250 mL) and ethyl acetate (250 mL). At 3-5 °C a previously prepared aqueous solution (100 mL) of sodium nitrite (15.0 g, 0.217 mol) was added slowly over 1 hr. The reaction was stirred at 3 – 8 °C for 2 hours and then room temperature over the weekend. LCMS indicated reaction completed. The reaction solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 200 mL). The combined ethyl acetate solution was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give the desired product (49.9 g, 126%) as a crude white solid. LCMS for

C6HioClN403 (M+H)+: m/z = 221.0. !H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 13.43 (s, 1 H), 5.85 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.50 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 2 H), 3.37(dd, J= 10.8, 5.6 Hz, 2 H), 3.25 (s, 3 H).

Step 6 : N-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-N’-hydroxy-4- [(2-methoxyethyl)amino] – 1 ,2,5- oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide [00189] N-Hydroxy-4-[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]- 1 ,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidoyl chloride (46.0 g, 0.208 mol) was mixed with water (300 mL). The mixture was heated to 60 °C. 3-Bromo-4-fluoroaniline [Oakwood products, product # 013091] (43.6 g, 0.229 mol) was added and stirred for 10 min. A warm sodium bicarbonate (26.3 g, 0.313 mol) solution (300 mL water) was added over 15 min. The reaction was stirred at 60 °C for 20 min. LCMS indicated reaction completion. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 300 mL). The combined ethyl acetate solution was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give the desired product (76.7 g, 98%) as a crude brown solid. LCMS for Ci2Hi4BrF503 (M+H)+: m/z = 374.0, 376.0. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- tf): δ 11.55 (s, 1 H), 8.85 (s, 1 H), 7.16 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.08 (dd, J= 6.1, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.75 (m, 1 H), 6.14 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.48 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 2 H), 3.35 (dd, J= 10.8, 5.6 Hz, 2 H), 3.22 (s, 3 H).

Step 7: 4-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-3-{4- [(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3- yl}-l,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one

[00190] A mixture of N-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-N’-hydroxy-4-[(2- methoxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide (76.5 g, 0.204 mol), 1,1 ‘- carbonyldiimidazole (49.7 g, 0.307 mol), and ethyl acetate (720 mL) was heated to 60 °C and stirred for 20 min. LCMS indicated reaction completed. The reaction was cooled to room temperature, washed with 1 N HC1 (2 x 750 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to give the desired product (80.4 g, 98%) as a crude brown solid. LCMS for

Figure imgf000058_0001

(M+H)+: m/z = 400.0, 402.0. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-c½): δ 7.94 (t, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (dd, J = 9.1, 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.42 (m, 1 H), 6.42 (t, J= 5.7 Hz, 1 H), 3.46 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 2 H), 3.36 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 2 H), 3.26 (s, 3 H).

Step 8: 4-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-3-{4-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3- yl}-l,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one

[00191] 4-(3-Bromo-4-fluoroplienyl)-3-{4-[(2-metlioxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol- 3-yl}-l,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one (78.4 g, 0.196 mol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (600 mL). At -67 °C boron tribromide (37 mL, 0.392 mol) was added over 15 min. The reaction was warmed up to -10 °C in 30 min. LCMS indicated reaction completed. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. At 0 – 5 °C the reaction was slowly quenched with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (1.5 L) over 30 min. The reaction temperature rose to 25 °C. The reaction was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 500 mL, first extraction organic layer is on the bottom and second extraction organic lager is on the top). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give the desired product (75 g, 99%) as a crude brown solid. LCMS for Ci2HioBrFN504 (M+H)+: m/z = 386.0, 388.0.

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^): δ 8.08 (dd, J = 6.2, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.70 (m, 1 H), 7.68 (t, J = 8.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.33 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.85 (t, J= 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.56 (dd, J= 10.6, 5.6 Hz, 2 H), 3.29 (dd, J= 11.5, 5.9 Hz, 2 H).

Step 9 : 2-({4- [4-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro- 1 ,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl] – l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl methanesulfonate

[00192] To a solution of 4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-3-{4-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]- l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}-l,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one (1.5 kg, 3.9 mol, containing also some of the corresponding bromo-compound) in ethyl acetate (12 L) was added methanesulfonyl chloride (185 mL, 2.4 mol) dropwise over 1 h at room temperature. Triethylamine (325 mL, 2.3 mol) was added dropwise over 45 min, during which time the reaction temperature increased to 35 °C. After 2 h, the reaction mixture was washed with water (5 L), brine (1 L), dried over sodium sulfate, combined with 3 more reactions of the same size, and the solvents removed in vacuo to afford the desired product (7600 g, quantitative yield) as a tan solid. LCMS for C HnBrFNsOeS a (M+Na)+: m/z = 485.9, 487.9. !H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- d6): δ 8.08 (dd, J = 6.2, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (m, 1 H), 7.58 (t, J = 8.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.75 (t, J = 5.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.36 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 2 H), 3.58 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.6 Hz, 2 H), 3.18 (s, 3 H).

Step 10: 3-{4-[(2-Azidoethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}-4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)- l,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one

To a solution of 2-({4-[4-(3-bromo-4-f uorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-l ,2,4- oxadiazol-3-yl]-l ,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl methanesulfonate (2.13 kg, 4.6 mol, containing also some of the corresponding bromo-compound) in dimethylformamide (4 L) stirring in a 22 L flask was added sodium azide (380 g, 5.84 mol). The reaction was heated at 50 °C for 6 h, poured into ice/water (8 L), and extracted with 1 : 1 ethyl acetate:heptane (20 L). The organic layer was washed with water (5 L) and brine (5 L), and the solvents removed in vacuo to afford the desired product (1464 g, 77%) as a tan solid. LCMS for CnHgBrFNsOs a

(M+Na)+: m/z = 433.0, 435.0. !H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6): δ 8.08 (dd, J = 6.2, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (m, 1 H), 7.58 (t, J= 8.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.75 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 1 H), 3.54 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 2 H), 3.45 (dd, J= 1 1.1 , 5.2 Hz, 2 H).

Step 11: 3-{4-[(2-Aminoethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}-4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-

1.2.4- oxadiazol-5(4H)-one hydrochloride

[00194] Sodium iodide (1080 g, 7.2 mol) was added to 3-{4-[(2-azidoethyl)amino]-

1.2.5- oxadiazol-3-yl}-4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-l ,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one (500 g, 1.22 mol) in methanol (6 L). The mixture was allowed to stir for 30 min during which time a mild exotherm was observed. Chlorotrimethylsilane (930 mL, 7.33 mol) was added as a solution in methanol (1 L) dropwise at a rate so that the temperature did not exceed 35 °C, and the reaction was allowed to stir for 3.5 h at ambient temperature. The reaction was neutralized with 33 wt% solution of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate in water (-1.5 L), diluted with water (4 L), and the pH adjusted to 9 carefully with solid potassium carbonate (250 g – added in small portions: watch foaming). Di-ieri-butyl dicarbonate (318 g, 1.45 mol) was added and the reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature. Additional potassium carbonate (200 g) was added in 50 g portions over 4 h to ensure that the pH was still at or above 9. After stirring at room temperature overnight, the solid was filtered, triturated with water (2 L), and then MTBE (1.5 L). A total of 11 runs were performed (5.5 kg, 13.38 mol). The combined solids were triturated with 1 : 1 THF:dichloromethane (24 L, 4 runs in a 20 L rotary evaporator flask, 50 °C, 1 h), filtered, and washed with dichloromethane (3 L each run) to afford an off- white solid. The crude material was dissolved at 55 °C tetrahydrofuran (5 mL/g), treated with decolorizing carbon (2 wt%) and silica gel (2 wt%), and filtered hot through celite to afford the product as an off-white solid (5122 g). The combined MTBE, THF, and dichloromethane filtrates were concentrated in vacuo and chromatographed (2 kg silica gel, heptane with a 0-100% ethyl acetate gradient, 30 L) to afford more product (262 g). The combined solids were dried to a constant weight in a convection oven (5385 g, 83%).

In a 22 L flask was charged hydrogen chloride (4 N solution in 1 ,4-dioxane, 4 L, 16 mol). tert-Butyl [2-({4-[4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-l ,2,4- oxadiazol-3-yl]-l ,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl]carbamate (2315 g, 4.77 mol) was added as a solid in portions over 10 min. The slurry was stirred at room temperature and gradually became a thick paste that could not be stirred. After sitting overnight at room temperature, the paste was slurried in ethyl acetate (10 L), filtered, re-slurried in ethyl acetate (5 L), filtered, and dried to a constant weight to afford the desired product as a white solid (combined with other runs, 5 kg starting material charged, 41 13 g, 95%). LCMS for

Ci2HnBrFN603 (M+H)+: m/z = 384.9, 386.9. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^): δ 8.12 (m, 4 H), 7.76 (m, 1 H), 7.58 (t, J = 8.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.78 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1 H), 3.51 (dd, J = 1 1.8, 6.1 Hz, 2 H), 3.02 (m, 2 H).

Step 12: tert-Butyl ({[2-({4-[4-(3-bromo-4-nuorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-l,2,4- oxadiazol-3-yl]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl]amino}sulfonyl)carbamate

A 5 L round bottom flask was charged with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate [Aldrich, product # 142662] (149 mL, 1.72 mol) and dichloromethane (1.5 L) and cooled using an ice bath to 2 °C. teri-Butanol (162 mL, 1.73 mol) in dichloromethane (200 mL) was added dropwise at a rate so that the temperature did not exceed 10 °C. The resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 30-60 min to provide tert-bvAy\ [chlorosulfonyl]carbamate.

A 22 L flask was charged with 3- {4-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]- 1 ,2,5-oxadiazol-3- yl}-4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one hydrochloride (661 g, 1.57 mol) and 8.5 L dichloromethane. After cooling to -15 °C with an ice/salt bath, the solution oi tert- Vmtvl i Vi 1 r>rosulfonyl]carbamate (prepared as above) was added at a rate so that the temperature did not exceed -10 °C (addition time 7 min). After stirring for 10 min, triethylamine (1085 mL, 7.78 mol) was added at a rate so that the temperature did not exceed -5 °C (addition time 10 min). The cold bath was removed, the reaction was allowed to warm to 10 °C, split into two portions, and neutralized with 10% cone HC1 (4.5 L each portion). Each portion was transferred to a 50 L separatory funnel and diluted with ethyl acetate to completely dissolve the white solid (-25 L). The layers were separated, and the organic layer was washed with water (5 L), brine (5 L), and the solvents removed in vacuo to afford an off- white solid. The solid was triturated with MTBE (2 x 1.5 L) and dried to a constant weight to afford a white solid. A total of 4113 g starting material was processed in this manner (5409 g, 98%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^): δ 10.90 (s, 1 H), 8.08 (dd, J = 6.2, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (m, 1 H), 7.59 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.58 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 1 H), 3.38 (dd, J= 12.7, 6.2 Hz, 2 H), 3.10 (dd, J= 12.1 , 5.9 Hz, 2 H), 1.41 (s, 9 H).

Step 13: N-[2-({4-[4-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]- l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl]sulfamide

[00198] To a 22 L flask containing 98:2 trifluoroacetic acid:water (8.9 L) was added tert-bvXyl ({[2-({4-[4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]- l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl]amino}sulfonyl)carbamate (1931 g, 3.42 mol) in portions over 10 minutes. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1.5 h, the solvents removed in vacuo, and chased with dichloromethane (2 L). The resulting solid was treated a second time with fresh 98:2 trifluoroacetic acid:water (8.9 L), heated for 1 h at 40- 50 °C, the solvents removed in vacuo, and chased with dichloromethane (3 x 2 L). The resulting white solid was dried in a vacuum drying oven at 50 °C overnight. A total of 5409 g was processed in this manner (4990 g, quant, yield). LCMS for C12H12BrFN705S (M+H)+: m/z = 463.9, 465.9. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- ): δ 8.08 (dd, J = 6.2, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (m, 1 H), 7.59 (t, J= 8.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.67 (t, J = 5.9 Hz, 1H), 6.52 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.38 (dd, J = 12.7, 6.3 Hz, 2 H), 3.11 (dd, J = 12.3, 6.3 Hz). Step 14: 4-({2-[(Aminosulfonyl)amino]ethyl}amino)-N-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-N’- hydroxy-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide

Figure imgf000063_0001

[00199] To a crude mixture of N-[2-({4-[4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5- dihydro-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl]sulfamide (2.4 mol) containing residual amounts of trifluoroacetic acid stirring in a 22 L flask was added THF (5 L). The resulting solution was cooled to 0 °C using an ice bath and 2 N NaOH (4 L) was added at a rate so that the temperature did not exceed 10 °C. After stirring at ambient temperature for 3 h (LCMS indicated no starting material remained), the pH was adjusted to 3-4 with concentrated HC1 (-500 mL). The THF was removed in vacuo, and the resulting mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (15 L). The organic layer was washed with water (5 L), brine (5 L), and the solvents removed in vacuo to afford a solid. The solid was triturated with MTBE (2 x 2 L), combined with three other reactions of the same size, and dried overnight in a convection oven to afford a white solid (3535 g). The solid was recrystallized (3 x 22 L flasks, 2:1 watenethanol, 14.1 L each flask) and dried in a 50 °C convection oven to a constant weight to furnish the title compound as an off-white solid (3290 g, 78%). LCMS for CnHnBrF yC S (M+H)+: m/z = 437.9, 439.9. i NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J^): δ 11.51 (s, 1 H), 8.90 (s, 1 H), 7.17 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.11 (dd, J= 6.1, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.76 (m, 1 H), 6.71 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.59 (s, 2 H), 6.23 (t, J= 6.1 Hz, 1 H), 3.35 (dd, J= 10.9, 7.0 Hz, 2 H), 3.10 (dd, J= 12.1, 6.2 Hz, 2 H).

PATENT

WO 2010005958

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2010005958A2?cl=en

EXAMPLES Example 1

4-({2-[(Aminosulfonyl)amino]ethyl}amino)-7V-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-iV’-hydroxy- l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide

Figure imgf000043_0001

Step A: 4-Amino-N’-hydroxy-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide

Figure imgf000043_0002

Malononitrile [Aldrich, product # M1407] (320.5 g, 5 mol) was added to water (7 L) preheated to 45 0C and stirred for 5 min. The resulting solution was cooled in an ice bath and sodium nitrite (380 g, 5.5 mol) was added. When the temperature reached 10 0C, 6 N hydrochloric acid (55 mL) was added. A mild exothermic reaction ensued with the temperature reaching 16 0C. After 15 min the cold bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1.5 hrs at 16-18 0C. The reaction mixture was cooled to 13 0C and 50% aqueous hydroxylamine (990 g, 15 mol) was added all at once. The temperature rose to 26 0C. When the exothermic reaction subsided the cold bath was removed and stirring was continued for 1 hr at 26-270C, then it was slowly brought to reflux. Reflux was maintained for 2 hrs and then the reaction mixture was allowed to cool overnight. The reaction mixture was stirred in an ice bath and 6 N hydrochloric acid (800 mL) was added in portions over 40 min to pH 7.0. Stirring was continued in the ice bath at 5 0C. The precipitate was collected by filtration, washed well with water and dried in a vacuum oven (50 0C) to give the desired product (644 g, 90%). LCMS for C3H6N5O2 (M+H)+: m/z = 144.0. 13C NMR (75 MHz, CD3OD): δ 156.0, 145.9, 141.3. Step B: 4-Amino-N-hydroxy-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidoyl chloride

Figure imgf000044_0001

4-Amino-N’-hydroxy-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide (422 g, 2.95 mol) was added to a mixture of water (5.9 L), acetic acid (3 L) and 6 Ν hydrochloric acid (1.475 L, 3 eq.) and this suspension was stirred at 42 – 45 0C until complete solution was achieved. Sodium chloride (518 g, 3 eq.) was added and this solution was stirred in an ice/water/methanol bath. A solution of sodium nitrite (199.5 g, 0.98 eq.) in water (700 mL) was added over 3.5 hrs while maintaining the temperature below 0 0C. After complete addition stirring was continued in the ice bath for 1.5 hrs and then the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to 15 0C. The precipitate was collected by filtration, washed well with water, taken in ethyl acetate (3.4 L), treated with anhydrous sodium sulfate (500 g) and stirred for 1 hr. This suspension was filtered through sodium sulfate (200 g) and the filtrate was concentrated on a rotary evaporator. The residue was dissolved in methyl f-butyl ether (5.5 L), treated with charcoal (40 g), stirred for 40 min and filtered through Celite. The solvent was removed in a rotary evaporator and the resulting product was dried in a vacuum oven (45 0C) to give the desired product (256 g, 53.4%). LCMS for C3H4ClN4O2(M+H)+: m/z = 162.9. 13c NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): δ 155.8, 143.4, 129.7.

Step C: 4-Amino-N’-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyethyl)- 1 ,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide

Figure imgf000044_0002

4-Amino-N-hydroxy-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidoyl chloride (200.0 g, 1.23 mol) was mixed with ethyl acetate (1.2 L). At 0-50C 2-methoxyethylamine [Aldrich, product # 143693] (119.0 mL, 1.35 mol) was added in one portion while stirring. The reaction temperature rose to 41 0C. The reaction was cooled to 0 – 5 °C. Triethylamine (258 mL, 1.84 mol) was added. After stirring 5 min, LCMS indicated reaction completion. The reaction solution was washed with water (500 mL) and brine (500 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to give the desired product (294 g, 119%) as a crude dark oil. LCMS for C6Hi2N5O3 (M+H)+: m/z = 202.3. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6): δ 10.65 (s, 1 H), 6.27 (s, 2 H), 6.10 (t, J= 6.5 Hz, 1 H), 3.50 (m, 2 H), 3.35 (d, J= 5.8 Hz, 2 H), 3.08 (s, 3 H).

Step D: N’-Hydroxy-4-[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-l ,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide

Figure imgf000045_0001

4-Amino-N’-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyethyl)-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidaniide (248.0 g, 1.23 mol) was mixed with water (1 L). Potassium hydroxide (210 g, 3.7 mol) was added. The reaction was refluxed at 100 0C overnight (15 hours). TLC with 50% ethyl acetate (containing 1% ammonium hydroxide) in hexane indicated reaction completed (product Rf= 0.6, starting material Rf = 0.5). LCMS also indicated reaction completion. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 1 L). The combined ethyl acetate solution was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give the desired product (201 g, 81%) as a crude off-white solid. LCMS for C6H12N5O3 (M+H)+: m/z = 202.3 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-Gk): δ 10.54 (s, 1 H), 6.22 (s, 2 H), 6.15 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.45 (t, J= 5.3 Hz, 2 H), 3.35 (m, 2 H), 3.22 (s, 3 H).

Step E: N-Hydroxy-4-[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidoyl chloride

Figure imgf000045_0002

Ν. ,Ν O

At room temperature N’-hydroxy-4-[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3- carboximidamide (50.0 g, 0.226 mol) was dissolved in 6.0 M hydrochloric acid aqueous solution (250 mL, 1.5 mol). Sodium chloride (39.5 g, 0.676 mol) was added followed by water (250 mL) and ethyl acetate (250 mL). At 3-5 0C a previously prepared aqueous solution (100 mL) of sodium nitrite (15.0 g, 0.217 mol) was added slowly over 1 hr. The reaction was stirred at 3 – 8 0C for 2 hours and then room temperature over the weekend. LCMS indicated reaction completed. The reaction solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 200 mL). The combined ethyl acetate solution was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give the desired product (49.9 g, 126%) as a crude white solid. LCMS for C6Hi0ClN4O3 (M+H)+: m/z = 221.0. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6): δ 13.43 (s, 1 H), 5.85 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.50 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 2 H), 3.37(dd, J= 10.8, 5.6 Hz, 2 H), 3.25 (s, 3 H).

Step F: N-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-N’-hydroxy-4-[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]- 1 ,2,5- oxadiazole-3 -carboximidamide

Figure imgf000046_0001

N-Hydroxy-4-[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidoyl chloride (46.0 g, 0.208 mol) was mixed with water (300 mL). The mixture was heated to 60 °C. 3-Bromo-4- fluoroaniline [Oakwood products, product # 013091] (43.6 g, 0.229 mol) was added and stirred for 10 nrnn. A warm sodium bicarbonate (26.3 g, 0.313 mol) solution (300 mL water) was added over 15 min. The reaction was stirred at 60 0C for 20 min. LCMS indicated reaction completion. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 300 mL). The combined ethyl acetate solution was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give the desired product (76.7 g, 98%) as a crude brown solid. LCMS for Ci2Hi4BrFN5O3 (M+H)+: m/z = 374.0, 376.0. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6): δ 11.55 (s, 1 H), 8.85 (s, 1 H), 7.16 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.08 (dd, J= 6.1, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.75 (m, 1 H), 6.14 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.48 (t, J= 5.2 Hz, 2 H), 3.35 (dd, J= 10.8, 5.6 Hz, 2 H), 3.22 (s, 3 H).

Step G: 4-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-3-{4-[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}- 1 ,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one

Figure imgf000046_0002

A mixture of N-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-N’-hydroxy-4-[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5- oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide (76.5 g, 0.204 mol), l,r-carbonyldiimidazole (49.7 g, 0.307 mol), and ethyl acetate (720 mL) was heated to 60 0C and stirred for 20 min. LCMS indicated reaction completed. The reaction was cooled to room temperature, washed with 1 Ν HCl (2 x 750 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to give the desired product (80.4 g, 98%) as a crude brown solid. LCMS for C13H12BrFN5O4 (M+H)+: m/z = 400.0, 402.0. 1H NMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6): δ 7.94 (t, J= 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (dd, J= 9.1, 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.42 (m, 1 H), 6.42 (t, J= 5.7 Hz, 1 H), 3.46 (t, J= 5.4 Hz, 2 H), 3.36 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 2 H), 3.26 (s, 3 H).

Step H: 4-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-3-{4-[(2-liydroxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}- 1 ,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one

Figure imgf000047_0001

4-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-3-{4-[(2-methoxyetliyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}-l,2,4- oxadiazol-5(4H)-one (78.4 g, 0.196 mol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (600 mL). At -67 0C boron tribromide (37 mL, 0.392 mol) was added over 15 min. The reaction was warmed up to -10 0C in 30 min. LCMS indicated reaction completed. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. At 0 – 5 0C the reaction was slowly quenched with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (1.5 L) over 30 min. The reaction temperature rose to 25 0C. The reaction was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 500 mL, first extraction organic layer is on the bottom and second extraction organic lager is on the top). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give the desired product (75 g, 99%) as a crude brown solid. LCMS for C12H10BrFN5O4 (M+H)+: m/z = 386.0, 388.0. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^6): δ 8.08 (dd, J= 6.2, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.70 (m, 1 H), 7.68 (t, J= 8.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.33 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.85 (t, J= 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.56 (dd, J= 10.6, 5.6 Hz, 2 H), 3.29 (dd, J= 11.5, 5.9 Hz, 2 H).

Step I: 2-({4-[4-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-l,2,5- oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl methanesulfonate

Figure imgf000047_0002

To a solution of 4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-3-{4-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol- 3-yl}-l,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one (1.5 kg, 3.9 mol, containing also some of the corresponding bromo-compound) in ethyl acetate (12 L) was added methanesulfonyl chloride (185 mL, 2.4 mol) dropwise over 1 h at room temperature. Triethylamine (325 mL, 2.3 mol) was added dropwise over 45 min, during which time the reaction temperature increased to 35 0C. After 2 h, the reaction mixture was washed with water (5 L), brine (I L), dried over sodium sulfate, combined with 3 more reactions of the same size, and the solvents removed in vacuo to afford the desired product (7600 g, quantitative yield) as a tan solid. LCMS for

Ci3HnBrFN5O6SNa (M+Na)+: m/z = 485.9, 487.9. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSCW6): δ 8.08 (dd, J= 6.2, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (m, 1 H), 7.58 (t, J= 8.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.75 (t, J- 5.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.36 (t, J= 5.3 Hz, 2 H), 3.58 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.6 Hz, 2 H), 3.18 (s, 3 H).

Step J: 3-{4-[(2-Azidoethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}-4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)- 1 ,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one

Figure imgf000048_0001

To a solution of 2-({4-[4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]- l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl methanesulfonate (2.13 kg, 4.6 mol, containing also some of the corresponding bromo-compound) in dimethylformamide (4 L) stirring in a 22 L flask was added sodium azide (380 g, 5.84 mol). The reaction was heated at 500C for 6 h, poured into ice/water (8 L), and extracted with 1 : 1 ethyl acetate:heptane (20 L). The organic layer was washed with water (5 L) and brine (5 L), and the solvents removed in vacuo to afford the desired product (1464 g, 77%) as a tan solid. LCMS for C12H8BrFN8O3Na (M+Na)+: m/z =

433.0, 435.0. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-*/*): δ 8.08 (dd, J= 6.2, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (m, 1 H), 7.58 (t, J= 8.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.75 (t, J= 5.7 Hz, 1 H), 3.54 (t, J= 5.3 Hz, 2 H), 3.45 (dd, J= 11.1, 5.2 Hz, 2 H).

Step K: 3-{4-[(2-Aminoethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}-4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)- 1 ,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one hydrochloride

Figure imgf000049_0001

Sodium iodide (1080 g, 7.2 mol) was added to 3-{4-[(2-azidoethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3- yl}-4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one (500 g, 1.22 mol) in methanol (6 L). The mixture was allowed to stir for 30 min during which time a mild exotherm was observed. Chlorotrimethylsilane (930 mL, 7.33 mol) was added as a solution in methanol (1 L) dropwise at a rate so that the temperature did not exceed 35 0C, and the reaction was allowed to stir for 3.5 h at ambient temperature. The reaction was neutralized with 33 wt% solution of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate in water (~1.5 L), diluted with water (4 L), and the pΗ adjusted to 9 carefully with solid potassium carbonate (250 g – added in small portions: watch foaming). Di-fe/t-butyl dicarbonate (318 g, 1.45 mol) was added and the reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature. Additional potassium carbonate (200 g) was added in 50 g portions over 4 h to ensure that the pΗ was still at or above 9. After stirring at room temperature overnight, the solid was filtered, triturated with water (2 L), and then MTBE (1.5 L). A total of 11 runs were performed (5.5 kg, 13.38 mol). The combined solids were triturated with 1 : 1 TΗF:dichloromethane (24 L, 4 runs in a 20 L rotary evaporator flask, 50 0C, 1 h), filtered, and washed with dichloromethane (3 L each run) to afford an off- white solid. The crude material was dissolved at 55 0C tetrahydrofuran (5 mL/g), treated with decolorizing carbon (2 wt%) and silica gel (2 wt%), and filtered hot through celite to afford the product as an off-white solid (5122 g). The combined MTBE, THF, and dichloromethane filtrates were concentrated in vacuo and chromatographed (2 kg silica gel, heptane with a 0-100% ethyl acetate gradient, 30 L) to afford more product (262 g). The combined solids were dried to a constant weight in a convection oven (5385 g, 83%).

In a 22 L flask was charged hydrogen chloride (4 N solution in 1,4-dioxane, 4 L, 16 mol). fert-Butyl [2-({4-[4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]- l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl]carbamate (2315 g, 4.77 mol) was added as a solid in portions over 10 min. The slurry was stirred at room temperature and gradually became a thick paste that could not be stirred. After sitting overnight at room temperature, the paste was slurried in ethyl acetate (10 L), filtered, re-slurried in ethyl acetate (5 L), filtered, and dried to a constant weight to afford the desired product as a white solid (combined with other runs, 5 kg starting material charged, 4113 g, 95%). LCMS for C12HnBrFN6O3 (M+H)+: m/z

= 384.9, 386.9. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6): δ 8.12 (m, 4 H), 7.76 (m, 1 H), 7.58 (t, J= 8.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.78 (t, J= 6.1 Hz, 1 H), 3.51 (dd, J= 11.8, 6.1 Hz, 2 H), 3.02 (m, 2 H).

Step L: tert-Butyl ({[2-({4-[4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-diliydro-l,2,4-oxadiazol- 3-yl]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl]amino}sulfonyl)carbamate

Figure imgf000050_0001

A 5 L round bottom flask was charged with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate [Aldrich, product #

142662] (149 mL, 1.72 mol) and dichloromethane (1.5 L) and cooled using an ice bath to 2 0C. tert-Butanol (162 mL, 1.73 mol) in dichloromethane (200 mL) was added dropwise at a rate so that the temperature did not exceed 10 0C. The resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 30-60 min to provide tert-butyl [chlorosulfonyljcarbamate.

A 22 L flask was charged with 3-{4-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}-4-(3- bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one hydrochloride (661 g, 1.57 mol) and 8.5 L dichloromethane. After cooling to -15 0C with an ice/salt bath, the solution of tert-butyl [chlorosulfonyl]carbamate (prepared as above) was added at a rate so that the temperature did not exceed -10 0C (addition time 7 min). After stirring for 10 min, triethylamine (1085 mL, 7.78 mol) was added at a rate so that the temperature did not exceed -5 0C (addition time 10 min). The cold bath was removed, the reaction was allowed to warm to 10 0C, split into two portions, and neutralized with 10% cone HCl (4.5 L each portion). Each portion was transferred to a 50 L separatory funnel and diluted with ethyl acetate to completely dissolve the white solid (~25 L). The layers were separated, and the organic layer was washed with water (5 L), brine (5 L), and the solvents removed in vacuo to afford an off-white solid. The solid was triturated with MTBE (2 x 1.5 L) and dried to a constant weight to afford a white solid. A total of 4113 g starting material was processed in this manner (5409 g, 98%). *Η NMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6): δ 10.90 (s, 1 H), 8.08 (dd, J= 6.2, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (m, 1 H), 7.59 (t, J= 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.58 (t, J= 5.7 Hz, 1 H), 3.38 (dd, J= 12.7, 6.2 Hz, 2 H), 3.10 (dd, J = 12.1, 5.9 Hz, 2 H), 1.41 (s, 9 H). Step M: N-[2-({4-[4-(3-Bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dmydro-l ,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]- l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl]sulfamide

Figure imgf000051_0001

To a 22 L flask containing 98:2 trifluoroacetic acid:water (8.9 L) was added tert-butyl ({[2- ({4-[4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-diliydro-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3- yl}amino)ethyl]amino}sulfonyl)carbamate (1931 g, 3.42 mol) in portions over 10 minutes. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1.5 h, the solvents removed in vacuo, and chased with dichloromethane (2 L). The resulting solid was treated a second time with fresh 98:2 trifluoroacetic acid:water (8.9 L), heated for 1 h at 40-50 0C, the solvents removed in vacuo, and chased with dichloromethane (3 x 2 L). The resulting white solid was dried in a vacuum drying oven at 50 0C overnight. A total of 5409 g was processed in this manner (4990 g, quant, yield). LCMS for C]2H12BrFN7O5S (M+H)+: m/z = 463.9, 465.9.

1H NMR (400 MHz, OM$>O-d6): δ 8.08 (dd, J= 6.2, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (m, 1 H), 7.59 (t, J= 8.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.67 (t, J= 5.9 Hz, IH), 6.52 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.38 (dd, J= 12.7, 6.3 Hz, 2 H), 3.11 (dd, J= 12.3, 6.3 Hz).

Step N: 4-( {2-[(Aminosulfonyl)amino]ethyl} amino)-N-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-N- hydroxy-l,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboximidamide

To a crude mixture of N-[2-({4-[4-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-l,2,4- oxadiazol-3-yl]-l,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl}amino)ethyl]sulfamide (2.4 mol) containing residual amounts of trifluoroacetic acid stirring in a 22 L flask was added THF (5 L). The resulting solution was cooled to 0 °C using an ice bath and 2 Ν NaOH (4 L) was added at a rate so that the temperature did not exceed 10 0C. After stirring at ambient temperature for 3 h (LCMS indicated no starting material remained), the pH was adjusted to 3-4 with concentrated HCl (-500 mL). The THF was removed in vacuo, and the resulting mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (15 L). The organic layer was washed with water (5 L), brine (5 L), and the solvents removed in vacuo to afford a solid. The solid was triturated with MTBE (2 x 2 L), combined with three other reactions of the same size, and dried overnight in a convection oven to afford a white solid (3535 g). The solid was recrystallized (3 x 22 L flasks, 2: 1 water: ethanol, 14.1 L each flask) and dried in a 50 0C convection oven to a constant weight to furnish the title compound as an off-white solid (3290 g, 78%). LCMS for CnH14BrFN7O4S (M+H)+: m/z = 437.9, 439.9. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6): δ 11.51 (s, 1 H), 8.90 (s, 1 H), 7.17 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.11 (dd, J= 6.1, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.76 (m, 1 H), 6.71 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.59 (s, 2 H), 6.23 (t, J= 6.1 Hz, 1 H), 3.35 (dd, J= 10.9, 7.0 Hz, 2 H), 3.10 (dd, J= 12.1, 6.2 Hz, 2 H).

The final product was an anhydrous crystalline solid. The water content was determined to be less than 0.1% by Karl Fischer titration.

 

 

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INCB24360
Company:Incyte Corp.
Target: IDO1
Disease: Cancer

Incyte’s Andrew P. Combs presented the company’s clinical candidate for cancer immunotherapy. The basic tenet of this burgeoning field is that the human body’s immune system is a tremendous resource for fighting disease; scientists just need to figure out how to unleash it. One target that’s proven to be particularly attractive for this purpose in recent years is indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1, or IDO1 (C&EN, April 6, page 10).

IDO1 plays a role in signaling the immune system to stand down from attacking foreign bodies it might otherwise go after, such as fetuses. Tumors also produce IDO1 to evade the immune system, so molecules that can inhibit this enzyme could bring the full force of the body’s defenses to bear on these deadly invaders.

Incyte’s search for an IDO1 inhibitor began with a high-throughput screen, which led to a proof-of-concept compound. But the compound had poor oral bioavailability. What’s more, the molecule and its analogs underwent glucuronidation during its metabolism: Enzymes tacked on a glucuronic acid group to the structure’s amidoxime, which was key to its activity.

The chemists reasoned they could block this metabolism by sterically hindering that position. Making such molecules proved to be more difficult than they expected. But then they unearthed a Latvian paper from 1993 that gave them the synthetic method they needed to make the series of compounds that would lead to their clinical candidate INCB24360 (epacadostat).

With its furazan core, as well as its amidoxime, bromide, and sulfuric diamide functional groups, INCB24360 is something of an odd duck, Combs acknowledged. “Some of you in the audience may be looking at this and saying, ‘That molecule does not look like something I would bring forward or maybe even make,’ ” he said, noting that the structure breaks many medicinal chemistry rules. “We’re a data-centric company, and we followed the data, not the rules,” Combs told C&EN.

The compound has completed Phase I clinical trials and is now being used in collaborative studies with several other pharmaceutical companies that combine INCB24360 with other cancer immunotherapy agents.

 

09338-scitech1-Incytecxd
TEAMWORK
Incyte’s team (from left): Andrew Combs, Dilip Modi, Joe Glenn, Brent Douty, Padmaja Polam, Brian Wayland, Rick Sparks, Wenyu Zhu, and Eddy Yue.
Credit: Incyte
WO2007113648A2 * Mar 26, 2007 Oct 11, 2007 Pfizer Products Inc. Ctla4 antibody combination therapy
US20070185165 * Dec 19, 2006 Aug 9, 2007 Combs Andrew P N-hydroxyamidinoheterocycles as modulators of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
US20100055111 * Feb 14, 2008 Mar 4, 2010 Med. College Of Georgia Research Institute, Inc. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, pd-1/pd-l pathways, and ctla4 pathways in the activation of regulatory t cells
US20120058079 * Nov 11, 2011 Mar 8, 2012 Incyte Corporation, A Delaware Corporation 1,2,5-Oxadiazoles as Inhibitors of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase

REFERENCES

1: Vacchelli E, Aranda F, Eggermont A, Sautès-Fridman C, Tartour E, Kennedy EP, Platten M, Zitvogel L, Kroemer G, Galluzzi L. Trial watch: IDO inhibitors in cancer therapy. Oncoimmunology. 2014 Dec 15;3(10):e957994. eCollection 2014 Nov. Review. PubMed PMID: 25941578; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4292223.

2: Liu X, Shin N, Koblish HK, Yang G, Wang Q, Wang K, Leffet L, Hansbury MJ, Thomas B, Rupar M, Waeltz P, Bowman KJ, Polam P, Sparks RB, Yue EW, Li Y, Wynn R, Fridman JS, Burn TC, Combs AP, Newton RC, Scherle PA. Selective inhibition of IDO1 effectively regulates mediators of antitumor immunity. Blood. 2010 Apr 29;115(17):3520-30. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-09-246124. Epub 2010 Mar 2. PubMed PMID: 20197554.

3: Koblish HK, Hansbury MJ, Bowman KJ, Yang G, Neilan CL, Haley PJ, Burn TC, Waeltz P, Sparks RB, Yue EW, Combs AP, Scherle PA, Vaddi K, Fridman JS. Hydroxyamidine inhibitors of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase potently suppress systemic tryptophan catabolism and the growth of IDO-expressing tumors. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 Feb;9(2):489-98. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0628. Epub 2010 Feb 2. PubMed PMID: 20124451.

//////////1204669-58-8 , INCB024360, INCB24360, epacadostat, PHASE 2, CANCER, orphan drug designation
Fc1ccc(cc1Br)N/C(=N\O)c2nonc2NCCNS(N)(=O)=O
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