AUTHOR OF THIS BLOG

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLDDRUGTRACKER

Copolymeric Micelles for Anticancer Drug Delivery

 cancer  Comments Off on Copolymeric Micelles for Anticancer Drug Delivery
Oct 072016
 

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Copolymeric Micelles for Anticancer Drug Delivery

Photo-activatable micelles with a platinum prodrug backbone

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http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/news/9914881/Copolymeric_Micelles_for_Anticancer_Drug_Delivery.html?elq_mid=12498&elq_cid=1558306

Abstract

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A simultaneously photo-cleavable and activatable prodrug-backboned block copolymer (BCP) micelle strategy is demonstrated. Without light treatment, the micelles stay silent and inactivated, being biocompatible to normal tissues. Concurrent chain cleavage of BCP micelles and the activation of Pt(IV) prodrug could be temporally and spatially triggered by UV or even visible light for precise anticancer drug delivery.

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New bicalutamide/enzalutamide derivatives as antiproliferative agents for the treatment of prostate cancer

 cancer  Comments Off on New bicalutamide/enzalutamide derivatives as antiproliferative agents for the treatment of prostate cancer
Jul 082016
 

STR1.jpg

3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-N-(4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-(((2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thio)methyl)propanamide

Cas 1929605-82-2

MF C18 H11 F9 N2 O4 S,  MW 522.34
New bicalutamide and enzalutamide derivatives as antiproliferative agents for the treatment of prostate cancer
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Redwood Building, King Edward VII Avenue, CF10 3NB, Cardiff, Wales, UK

Dr Marcella Bassetto

Dr Marcella Bassetto

Post Doctoral Research Associate

bassettom@cardiff.ac.uk
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marcella_Bassetto
http://marcellabassetto.blogspot.in/
Cardiff University

SYNTHESIS

Synthetic strategy used in the synthesis of 52. Reagents and conditions: (a) NaH ...

Scheme .

Synthetic strategy used in the synthesis of 52. Reagents and conditions: (a) NaH (1 equiv.), THF, 0 °C to RT, 3 h; (b) KCN (1.2 equiv.), 25% H2SO4, 0 °C to RT, 20 h; c) HCl, AcOH, reflux, 24 h; (d) 8, SOCl2(1.3 equiv.), DMA, RT, 72 h.

3-Bromo-1,1,1-trifluoroacetone (48) was coupled with thiophenol 47 to afford 49, which was then converted into cyano derivative 50 using potassium cyanide and 25% sulfuric acid [16]. Intermediate 51 was obtained after refluxing 50 in concentrated HCl and glacial acetic acid. Coupling of 51 with commercially available 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline 8yielded the desired amide 52.

 Synthesis of 1,1,1-rifluoro-3-((2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thio)propan-2-one (49)

To a mixture of NaH (10.47 mmol) in 10 mL anhydrous THF was added a solution of 2-(trifluoromethyl)benzenethiol (10.47 mmol) in 2mL anhydrous THF at 0 °C. This mixture was stirred for 20 min. 3-Bromo-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one was then added dropwise to the mixture at 0 °C, the reaction was warmed to r.t. and stirred for 12 h. The mixture was filtered trough celite, the filtered pad was washed with THF, and the filtrate was evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography eluting with n-hexane/EtOAc 100:0 v/v increasing to n-hexane/EtOAc 85:15 v/v to give a pale yellow oil in 93% yield. 1H-NMR (CDCl3): d 7.76-7.69 (m, 2H), 7.60-7.53 (m, 1H), 7.42-7.38 (m, 1H), 3.44 (s, 2H). 19F-NMR (CDCl3): d -59.91 (s, 3F), -85.26 (s, 3F). 13C-NMR (CDCl3): d 189.6, 137.7, 135.9, 134.5, 133.2, 130.6, 129.6 (q, J= 26.3 Hz), 127.0 (q, J= 3.8 Hz), 124.3 (q, J= 4.1 Hz), 124.0 (q, J= 3.7 Hz), 94.4 (q, J= 30.4 Hz), 40.4.

Synthesis of    3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-(((2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thio)methyl)propanenitrile (50)

A 20% aqueous solution of H2SO4 (3.4 mL) was added dropwise to a mixture of 49 (11.03 mmol) and KCN (13.24 mmol) in 5 mL H2O at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was warmed to r.t. and stirred for 20 h. The mixture was then diluted with water (50 mL) and extracted with Et2O (3 x 150 mL). The organic extracts were washed with sat. aq. NaHCO3 and brine, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography eluting with n-hexane/EtOAc 100:0 v/v increasing to n-hexane/EtOAc 95:5 v/v to give a pale yellow oil in 86% yield. 1H-NMR (CDCl3): d 7.80 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.77-7.76 (m, 1H), 7.72-7.59 (m, 1H), 7.52-7.49 (m, 1H), 4.36 (bs, 1H), 3.58 (d, J= 14.6 Hz, 1H), 3.44 (d, J= 14.6 Hz, 1H). 19F-NMR (CDCl3): d -57.08 (s, 3F), -79.51 (s, 3F). 13C-NMR (CDCl3): d 135.4, 132.8, 132.5 (q, J= 30.1 Hz), 129.1, 128.7 (q, J= 5.5 Hz), 126.7, 124.9, 124.6, 122.6, 122.4, 120.4, 114.0, 71.4 (q, J= 32.9), 40.75.

1.1.1        Synthesis         of         3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-(((2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thio)methyl)propanoic acid (51)

A mixture of 51 (6.89 mmol), concentrated HCl (23.4 mL) and AcOH (4.1 mL) was refluxed o.n. with vigorous stirring. The mixture was then diluted with water (100 mL) and extracted with Et2O (4 x 100 mL), which was in turn washed with sat. aq. NaHCO3 (4 x 100 mL). The water solution was acidified with concentrated HCl to pH 1 and extracted with Et2O (4x 150 mL). The Et2O extracts were dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to give a pale yellow waxy solid in 41% yield. 1H-NMR (CDCl3): d 9.57 (bs, 1H), 7.70 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.54-7.51 (m, 1H), 7.39-7.36 (m, 1H), 3.60 (s, 2H). 19F-NMR (CDCl3): d -60.10 (s, 3F), -77.7 (s, 3F). 13C-NMR (CDCl3): d 172.0, 134.1, 134.0, 131.2 (q, J= 30.1 Hz), 127.5, 126.7 (q, J= 5.6 Hz), 124.2 (q, J= 121.9 Hz), 121.9 (q, J= 126.7 Hz), 78.2 (q, J= 28.7 Hz), 37.7.

Synthesis of 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-N-(4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-(((2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thio)methyl)propanamide (52)

Thionyl chloride (1.16 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirring solution of 51 in anhydrous DMA at -10 °C under Ar atmosphere. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h, then a solution of 8 in 2 mL anhydrous DMA was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was warmed to r.t. and stirred for 72 h. The mixture was then diluted with sat. aq. NaHCO3 (40 mL) and extracted with Et2O (3 x 40 mL). The organic extracts were filtered trough celite, dried over Na2SO4 and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography eluting with n-hexane/EtOAc 100:0 v/v increasing to n-hexane/EtOAc 80:20 v/v to give a pale yellow solid in 13% yield.

1H-NMR (CDCl3): d 8.93 (bs, 1H), 7.94 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.87 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.69 (dd, J= 8.8 Hz, 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.50-7.47 (m, 2H), 7.26-7.23 (m, 1H), 4.41 (s, 1H), 4.19 (d, 14.7 Hz, 1H), 3.45 (d, J= 14.7 Hz, 1H).

19F-NMR (CDCl3): d -59.7 (s, 3F), -60.12 (s, 3F), -77.4 (s, 3F).

13C-NMR (CDCl3): d 164.6, 143.8, 140.0, 134.7, 132.6, 131.1 (q, J= 29.8 Hz), 130.5, 128.3, 126.8 (q, J= 5.5 Hz), 126.7, 125.2 (q, J= 36.3 Hz), 124.5, 123.9, 122.6, 122.4, 122.2, 121.7, 120.4, 118.2 (q, J= 5.8 Hz), 76.3 (q, J= 27.8 Hz), 38.5.

MS [ESI, m/z]: 523.0 [M+H]+.

EI-HMRS (M-H) found 521.0215, calculated for C18H0N2O4F9S 521.0218.

HPLC (method 1): retention time = 23.84 min.

 

clips

Prostate cancer (PC) is a leading cause of male death worldwide and it is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men aged 65–74 [1]. The prognosis varies greatly, being highly dependent on a number of factors such as stage of diagnosis, race and age. Currently, PC treatment includes androgen deprivation, surgery, radiation, endocrine therapy and radical prostatectomy.

PC cell growth is strongly dependent on androgens, therefore blocking their effect can be beneficial to the patient’s health. Such outcomes can be achieved by antagonism of the androgen receptor (AR) using anti-androgen drugs, which have been extensively explored either alone or in combination with castration [2]. Flutamide (Eulexin®) (1) (in its active form as hydroxyflutamide (2)), bicalutamide (Casodex®) (3), nilutamide (Niladron®) (4) and enzalutamide (previously called MDV3100) (Xtandi®) (5) are all non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonists approved for the treatment of PC (Fig. 1). In many cases, after extended treatment over several years, these anti-androgens become ineffective and the disease may progress to a more aggressive and lethal form, known as castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The major cause of this progressive disease is the emergence of different mutations on the AR, which cause the anti-androgen compounds to function as agonists, making them tumour-stimulating agents[3].

Structure of anti-androgen small molecules approved by FDA or in clinical ...

Fig. 1.

Structure of anti-androgen small molecules approved by FDA or in clinical development for the treatment of PC.

Among the drugs used for the treatment of PC, bicalutamide and enzalutamide selectively block the action of androgens while presenting fewer side effects in comparison with other AR antagonists [4], [5] and [6]. The structure of these molecules is characterised by the presence of a trifluoromethyl substituted anilide, which appears to be critical for biological activity (Fig. 1). As a means to improve the anti-proliferative activity of these compounds, and in order to exploit the well established potential of the fluorine atom in enhancing the pharmacological properties and drug-like physicochemical characteristics of candidate compounds [7], [8] and [9], a wide array of diverse new structures has been rationally designed and synthesised, through the introduction of fluoro-, trifluoromethyl- and trifluoromethoxy groups in diverse positions of both aromatic rings of the parent scaffolds. Our modifications resulted in a marked improvement of in vitro anti-proliferative activities on a range of human PC cell lines (VCap, LNCaP, DU-145 and 22RV1). In addition, we probed full versus partial AR antagonism for our new compounds.

Paper

Image for unlabelled figure

Volume 118, 8 August 2016, Pages 230–243

Research paper

Design and synthesis of novel bicalutamide and enzalutamide derivatives as antiproliferative agents for the treatment of prostate cancer

School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Redwood Building, King Edward VII Avenue, CF10 3NB, Cardiff, Wales, UK

This work is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Chris McGuigan, a great colleague and scientist, invaluable source of inspiration and love for research.

Highlights

•Synthesis of novel fluorinated bicalutamide and enzalutamide analogs.
•Anti-proliferative activity in four human prostate cancer cell lines improved up to 50 folds.
•Full AR antagonist effect exhibited by the new compounds.
•Activity switch from partial agonist to full AR antagonist for enobosarm scaffold.
•AR open conformation homology model and molecular modeling studies.

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the major causes of male death worldwide and the development of new and more potent anti-PC compounds is a constant requirement. Among the current treatments, (R)-bicalutamide and enzalutamide are non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonist drugs approved also in the case of castration-resistant forms. Both these drugs present a moderate antiproliferative activity and their use is limited due to the development of resistant mutants of their biological target.

Insertion of fluorinated and perfluorinated groups in biologically active compounds is a current trend in medicinal chemistry, applied to improve their efficacy and stability profiles. As a means to obtain such effects, different modifications with perfluoro groups were rationally designed on the bicalutamide and enzalutamide structures, leading to the synthesis of a series of new antiproliferative compounds. Several new analogues displayed improved in vitro activity towards four different prostate cancer cell lines, while maintaining full AR antagonism and therefore representing promising leads for further development.

Furthermore, a series of molecular modelling studies were performed on the AR antagonist conformation, providing useful insights on potential protein-ligand interactions.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0223523416303452

 

Top cancer scientist dies of the disease he spent his life trying to cure

Professor Chris McGuigan, 57, of Cardiff University, was trying to invent new drugs to use in the fight against the disease

Professor Chris McGuigan
A university spokesman described Prof McGuigan as ‘exceptionally gifted’

Professor Chris McGuigan, 57, was trying to invent new drugs to use in the fight against the disease.

But the tragic scientist, who was head of medicinal chemistry at Cardiff University’s School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, died after his own fight with cancer.

A spokesman for Cardiff University said: “Professor McGuigan had been at the heart of scientific research for more than 30 years. He was an exceptionally gifted inventor and chemist.

“His loss will be felt cross the university and the wider scientific community.

South Wales EchoPatricia Price
Prof McGuigan invented four new experimental drugs that were used in human clinical trials

“He had a strong drive to use his scientific ideas for social good, working tirelessly to address medical needs where they were unmet.

“Our thoughts are with his family, friends and close colleagues at this very sad time.”

Prof McGuigan’s research led him to try and develop new drugs for cancer, HIV, hepatitis B and C, shingles, measles, influenza and central nervous system (CNS) disease.

He also invented four new experimental drugs that were used in human clinical trials.

Prof McGuigan, who lived in Cardiff, is survived by wife Maria, 50, and his two young daughters Phoebe and Grace.

References

    • J. Ferlay, H.-R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, D.M. Parkin
    • Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008
    • Int. J. Cancer, 127 (2010), pp. 2893–2917
    • G.J.C.M. Kolvenbag, P. Iversen, D.W.W. Newling
    • Antiandrogen monotherapy: a new form of treatment for patients with prostate cancer
    • Urology, 58 (2001), pp. 16–22
    • H.I. Scher, W.K. Kelly
    • Flutamide withdrawal syndrome: its impact on clinical trials in hormone-refractory prostate cancer
    • J. Clin. Oncol., 11 (1993), pp. 1566–1572
    • P. Reid, P. Kantoff, W. Oh
    • Antiandrogens in prostate cancer
    • Investig. New Drugs, 17 (1999), pp. 271–284
    • J. Anderson
    • The role of antiandrogen monotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer
    • BJU Int., 91 (2003), pp. 455–461
    • M.P. Wirth, O.W. Hakenberg, M. Froehner
    • Antiandrogens in the treatment of prostate cancer
    • Eur. Urol., 51 (2007), pp. 306–313
    • D. O’Hagan, D.B. Harper
    • Fluorine-containing natural products
    • J. Fluor. Chem., 100 (1999), pp. 127–133
    • B.E. Smart
    • Fluorine substituent effects on bioactivity
    • J. Fluor. Chem., 109 (2001), pp. 3–11
    • J. Wang, M. Sánchez-Roselló, J.L. Aceña, C. del Pozo, A.E. Sorochinsky, S. Fustero, V.A. Soloshonok, H. Liu
    • Fluorine in pharmaceutical industry: fluorine-containing drugs introduced to the market in the last decade 2001–2011
    • Chem. Rev., 114 (2014), pp. 2432–2506
    • K.D. James, N.N. Ekwuribe
    • A two-step synthesis of the anti-cancer drug (R,S)-Bicalutamide
    • Synthesis, 7 (2002), pp. 850–852
    • B.-C. Chen, R. Zhao, S. Gove, B. Wang, J.E. Sundeen, M.E. Salvati, J.C. Barrish
    • Nucleohilic aromatic substitution of methacrylamide anion and its application to the synthesis of the anticancer drug bicalutamide
    • J. Org. Chem., 26 (2003), pp. 10181–10182
    • Pizzatti, E.; Vigano, E.; Lussana, M.; Landonio, E. Procedure for the synthesis of bicalutamide. U.S. Patent 0,041,161, February 23, 2006.
    • I.D. Cockshott
    • Bicalutamide: clinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism
    • Clin. Pharmacokinet., 13 (2004), pp. 855–878
    • Dalton, T.J.; Miller, D.D.; Yin, D.; He, Y. Selective androgen receptor modulators and methods of use thereof. U.S. Patent 6,569,896 B2 May 27, 2003.
    • H. Tucker, G.J. Chesterson
    • Resolution of the nonsteroidal antiandrogen 4′-cyano-3-[(4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3′-(trifluoromethyl)-propionanilide and the determination of the absolute configuration of the active enantiomer
    • J. Med. Chem., 31 (1988), pp. 885–887
    • Y. He, D. Yin, M. Perera, L. Kirkovsky, N. Stourman, W. Li, J.T. Dalton, D.D. Miller
    • Novel nonsteroidal ligands with binding affinity and potent functional activity for the androgen receptor
    • Eur. J. Med. Chem., 37 (2002), pp. 619–634

 

///////////1929605-82-2, bicalutamide and enzalutamide derivatives, antiproliferative agents,  treatment of prostate cancer,  School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Redwood Building, King Edward VII Avenue, CF10 3NB, Cardiff, Wales, UK

 

FC(F)(F)c1cc(ccc1[N+]([O-])=O)NC(=O)C(O)(CSc2ccccc2C(F)(F)F)C(F)(F)F

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Ombitasvir オムビタスビル水和物 For Hepatitis C (HCV)

 cancer, phase 2, Uncategorized  Comments Off on Ombitasvir オムビタスビル水和物 For Hepatitis C (HCV)
Jul 012016
 

 

STR1

Ombitasvir Hydrate, 1456607-70-7

Ombitasvir.svg

Ombitasvir 1258226-87-7

Ombitasvir; ABT-267; ABT 267; UNII-2302768XJ8; 1258226-87-7;

C50H67N7O8
Molecular Weight: 894.10908 g/mol

Anti-Viral Compounds [US2010317568]

Methyl ((R)-1-((S)-2-((4-((2S,5S)-1-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-5-(4-((R)-1-((methoxycarbonyl)-L-valyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamido)phenyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)phenyl)carbamoyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)carbamate,

Dimethyl (2S,2′S)-1,1′-((2S,2′S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2,1-diyl))bis(3-methyl-1-oxobutane-2,1-diyl)dicarbamate, 

methyl N-[(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-[[4-[(2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-[4-[[(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonyl]amino]phenyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl]phenyl]carbamoyl]pyrrolidin-1-yl]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]carbamate

オムビタスビル水和物
Ombitasvir Hydrate

C50H67N7O8.4 1/2H2O : 975.18
[1456607-70-7]

 

Abbvie Inc.  innovator

Phase II clinical development at AbbVie (previously Abbott) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection in combination with ABT-450/ritonavir and, in combination with peginterferon alpha-2a/ribavirin (pegIFN/RBV) in treatment naïve Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infected patients.

Ombitasvir is Dimethyl ([(2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl) pyrrolidine-2,5diyl]bis{benzene-4,1-diylcarbamoyl(2S)pyrrolidine-2,1-diyl[(2S)-3-methyl-1-oxobutane-1,2diyl]})biscarbamate hydrate. The molecular formula is C50H67N7O8•4.5H2O (hydrate) and the molecular weight for the drug substance is 975.20 (hydrate).

Ombitasvir is in phase II clinical development at AbbVie (previously Abbott) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection in combination with ABT-450/ritonavir and, in combination with peginterferon alpha-2a/ribavirin (pegIFN/RBV) in treatment naïve Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infected patients.

Ombitasvir is part of a fixed-dose formulation with ABT-450/ritonavir that is approved in the U.S. and the E.U.

In January 2013, Abbott spun-off its research-based pharmaceutical business into a newly-formed company AbbVie. In 2013, breakthrough therapy designation was assigned in the U.S. for the treatment of genotype 1 hepatitis C in combination with ABT-450, ritonavir and ABT-333, with and without ribavirin.

Ombitasvir (Viekira PakTM) (Technivie)

Ombitasvir is an antiviral drug for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In the United States, it is approved by theFood and Drug Administration for use in combination with paritaprevir, ritonavir and dasabuvir in the product Viekira Pak for the treatment of HCV genotype 1,[1][2] and with paritaprevir and ritonavir in the product Technivie for the treatment of HCV genotype 4.[3][4]

Ombitasvir acts by inhibiting the HCV protein NS5A.[5]

Ombitasvir is an orally available inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) replication complex, with potential activity against HCV. Upon oral administration and after intracellular uptake, ombitasvir binds to and blocks the activity of the NS5A protein. This results in the disruption of the viral RNA replication complex, blockage of HCV RNA production, and inhibition of viral replication. NS5A, a zinc-binding and proline-rich hydrophilic phosphoprotein, plays a crucial role in HCV RNA replication. HCV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family; HCV infection is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Ombitasvir.png
Ombitasvir hydrate is a NS5A non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor which is approved as part of a four drug combination for the
treatment of adults with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection including those with compensated cirrhosis.REF 6,7

The four drug combination treatment consists of ombitasvir, paritaprevir (XXVII), ritonavir, and dasabuvir (X). This combination treatment is marketed as Viekira PakTM and was developed by Abbvie as an all oral treatment that eliminates the need for pegylated interferon-a injections.

The synthesis of ombitasvir hydrate is shown in Scheme 34.REF 8   Alkylation of 1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethanone (209)
with 2-bromo-1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethanone (208) in the presence of zinc chloride produced diketone 210 in 61% yield.

Asymmetric reduction of the diketone using N,N-diethylaniline borane with (S)-()-a,a-diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinemethanol (211) and trimethoxyborate gave diol 212 in 61% yield and 99.3% ee.

The diol was then treated with methanesulfonic anhydride to generate the corresponding bis-mesylate which was reacted with 4-tert-butylaniline to give pyrrolidine 213 in 51% yield over the two steps.

Hydrogenolysis of the nitro groups was accomplished using Raney nickel catalyst to give bis-aniline 214.

Separately, (L)-valine (216,Scheme 35) was reacted with methyl chloroformate to give the corresponding methyl carbamate in 90% yield which was coupled to L-proline benzyl ester in the presence of EDC and HOBt to give the corresponding dipeptide in 90% yield.

Hydrogenolysis of the benzyl ester group of the protected dipeptide using Pd/alumina catalyst produced dipeptide acid 215. Aniline 214 was treated with two equivalents of acid 215 in the presence of 1-propanephosphonic acid cyclic anhydride (T3P). The crude product was recrystallized from ethanol and heptane to give ombitasvir hydrate (XXV). No yields were provided to the final steps of this synthesis.

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6 Gamal, N.; Andreone, P. Drugs Today (Barc) 2015, 51, 303.

7. DeGoey, D. A.; Randolph, J. T.; Liu, D.; Pratt, J.; Hutchins, C.; Donner, P.;Krueger, A. C.; Matulenko, M.; Patel, S.; Motter, C. E.; Nelson, L.; Keddy, R.;Tufano, M.; Caspi, D. D.; Krishnan, P.; Mistry, N.; Koev, G.; Reisch, T. J.;Mondal, R.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Gao, Y.; Beno, D. W.; Maring, C. J.; Molla, A.;Dumas, E.; Campbell, A.; Williams, L.; Collins, C.; Wagner, R.; Kati, W. M. J.
Med. Chem. 2014, 57, 2047.
8. DeGoey, D. A.; Kati, W. M.; Hutchins, C. W.; Donner, P. L.; Krueger, A. C.;Randolph, J. T.; Motter, C. E.; Nelson, L. T.; Patel, S. V.; Matulenko, M. A.;Keddy, R. G.; Jinkerson, T. K.; Soltwedel, T. N.; Liu, D.; Pratt, J. K.; Rockway, T.W.; Maring, C. J.; Hutchinson, D. K.; Flentge, C. A.; Wagner, R.; Tufano, M. D.;Betebenner, D. A.; Lavin, M. J.; Sarris, K.; Woller, K. R.; Wagaw, S. H.; Califano,
J. C.; Li, W.; Caspi, D. D.; Bellizzi, M. E. US Patent 2010317568A1, 2010.

CLIP

STR1

DeGoey, DA, Discovery of ABT-267, a Pan-genotypic Inhibitor of HCV NS5A,  J. Med. Chem., 2014, 57 (5), pp 2047-2057

 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jm401398x

Abstract Image

We describe here N-phenylpyrrolidine-based inhibitors of HCV NS5A with excellent potency, metabolic stability, and pharmacokinetics. Compounds with 2S,5S stereochemistry at the pyrrolidine ring provided improved genotype 1 (GT1) potency compared to the 2R,5Ranalogues. Furthermore, the attachment of substituents at the 4-position of the central N-phenyl group resulted in compounds with improved potency. Substitution with tert-butyl, as in compound 38 (ABT-267), provided compounds with low-picomolar EC50 values and superior pharmacokinetics. It was discovered that compound 38 was a pan-genotypic HCV inhibitor, with an EC50 range of 1.7–19.3 pM against GT1a, -1b, -2a, -2b, -3a, -4a, and -5a and 366 pM against GT6a. Compound 38 decreased HCV RNA up to 3.10 log10 IU/mL during 3-day monotherapy in treatment-naive HCV GT1-infected subjects and is currently in phase 3 clinical trials in combination with an NS3 protease inhibitor with ritonavir (r) (ABT-450/r) and an NS5B non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (ABT-333), with and without ribavirin.

Dimethyl (2S,2′S)-1,1′-((2S,2′S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2,1-diyl))bis(3-methyl-1-oxobutane-2,1-diyl)dicarbamate (38)…desired and Dimethyl (2S,2′S)-1,1′-((2S,2′S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2,1-diyl))bis(3-methyl-1-oxobutane-2,1-diyl)dicarbamate (39)…….undesired

…………….. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h. The mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, and the organic layer was washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3, brine (2×) and dried with Na2SO4. The drying agent was filtered off and the solution was concentrated in vacuo to give a crude product that was purified by column chromatography on silica gel, eluting with a solvent gradient of 2–8% methanol in dichloromethane to give a 1:1 mixture of trans-pyrrolidine isomers (290 mg, 96%). The mixture was separated on a Chiralpak AD-H column, eluting with a mixture of 1 part (2:1 isopropanol/ethanol) and 2 parts hexanes (0.1% TFA).

Compound 38 was the first of two stereoisomers to elute (101 mg, 99% ee by chiral HPLC). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 0.88 (d, J = 6.61 Hz, 6H), 0.93 (d, J = 6.72 Hz, 6H), 1.11 (s, 9H), 1.63 (d, J = 5.42 Hz, 2H), 1.80–2.04 (m, 8H), 2.09–2.19 (m, 2H), 2.44–2.47 (m, 2H), 3.52 (s, 6H), 3.59–3.66 (m, 2H), 3.77–3.84 (m, 2H), 4.02 (t, J = 8.40 Hz, 2H), 4.42 (dd, J = 7.86, 4.83 Hz, 2H), 5.14 (d, J = 6.18 Hz, 2H), 6.17 (d, J = 8.67 Hz, 2H), 6.94 (d, J = 8.78 Hz, 2H), 7.13 (d, J = 8.46 Hz, 4H), 7.31 (d, J= 8.35 Hz, 2H), 7.50 (d, J = 8.35 Hz, 4H), 9.98 (s, 2H).

MS (ESI) m/z 894.9 (M + H)+.

Compound39 was the second of two stereoisomers to elute. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 0.87 (d, J = 6.51 Hz, 6H), 0.92 (d, J = 6.72 Hz, 6H), 1.11 (s, 9H), 1.63 (d, J = 5.53 Hz, 2H), 1.82–2.04 (m, 8H), 2.09–2.18 (m, 2H), 2.41–2.47 (m, 2H), 3.52 (s, 6H), 3.58–3.67 (m, 2H), 3.75–3.84 (m, 2H), 4.02 (t, J = 7.26 Hz, 2H), 4.43 (dd, J = 7.92, 4.88 Hz, 2H), 5.14 (d, J = 6.18 Hz, 2H), 6.17 (d, J = 8.78 Hz, 2H), 6.94 (d, J = 8.67 Hz, 2H), 7.12 (d, J = 8.46 Hz, 4H), 7.31 (d, J = 8.35 Hz, 2H), 7.49 (d, J = 8.46 Hz, 4H), 9.98 (s, 2H). MS (ESI) m/z 895.0 (M + H)+.

PATENT

WO 2011156578

dimethyl (2S,2,S)-l,l ‘-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4’-((2S,5S)-l-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine- 2,5-diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3- methyl- l-oxobutane-2,l-diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000003_0001

PATENT

US 20100317568

Example 34

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate and

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-ter/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000133_0002

Example 34A l-(4-fer?-butylphenyl)-2,5-bis(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine The product from Example 1C (3.67 g, 7.51 mmol) and 4-tert-butylaniline (11.86 ml, 75 mmol) in DMF (40 ml) was stirred under nitrogen at 50 °C for 4 h. The resulting mixture was diluted into ethyl acetate, treated with IM HCl, stirred for 10 minutes and filtered to remove solids. The filtrate organic layer was washed twice with brine, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (5% to 30%) to give a solid. The solid was triturated in a minimal volume of 1 :9 ethyl acetate/hexane to give a light yellow solid as a mixture of trans and cis isomers (1.21 g, 36%).

Example 34B 4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline and 4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert- butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline To a solution of the product from Example 34A (1.1 g, 2.47 mmol) in ethanol (20 ml) and

THF (20 ml) was added PtC>2 (0.22 g, 0.97 mmol) in a 50 ml pressure bottle and stirred under 30 psi hydrogen at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture was filtered through a nylon membrane and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (20% to 60%). The title compound eluted as the first of 2 stereoisomers (trans isomer, 0.51 g, 54%).

Example 34C

(2S,2’S)-tert-Butyl 2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fer/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)dipyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate and (2S,2’S)-tert-Butyl 2,2′- (4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)dipyrrolidine-1-carboxylate To a mixture of the product from Example 34B (250 mg, 0.648 mmol), (S)-1-(tert- butoxycarbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (307 mg, 1.427 mmol) and HATU (542 mg, 1.427 mmol) in DMSO (10 ml) was added Hunig’s base (0.453 ml, 2.59 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture was partitioned with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (10% to 50%) to give the title compound (500 mg, 99%).

Example 34D

(2S,2’S)-N,N’-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-ter/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))dipyrrolidine-2-carboxamide and (2S,2’S)-N,N’-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-tert- butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l-phenylene))dipyrrolidine-2-carboxamide To the product from Example 34C (498 mg, 0.638 mmol) in dichloromethane (4 ml) was added TFA (6 ml). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was partitioned between 3: 1 CHCl3dsopropyl alcohol and saturated aq. NaHCO3. The aqueous layer was extracted by 3: 1 CHCl3:isopropyl alcohol again. The combined organic layers were dried over

Figure imgf000135_0001

filtered and concentrated to give the title compound (345 mg, 93%).

Example 34E Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate and

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-1, r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

The product from Example 34D (29.0 mg, 0.050 mmol), (S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3- methylbutanoic acid (19.27 mg, 0.110 mmol), EDAC (21.09 mg, 0.110 mmol), HOBT (16.85 mg,

0.110 mmol) and N-methylmorpholine (0.027 ml, 0.250 mmol) were combined in DMF (2 ml). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The mixture was partitioned with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was washed with brine twice, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (50% to 80%) to give a solid. The solid was triturated with ethyl acetate/hexane to give the title compound (13 mg, 29%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.85 – 0.95 (m, 12 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.59 – 1.65 (m, 2 H) 1.79 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.10 – 2.18 (m, 2 H) 2.41-2.46 (m, 2H) 3.52 (s, 6 H)

3.57 – 3.67 (m, 2 H) 3.76 – 3.86 (m, 2 H) 4.00 (t, J=7.56 Hz, 2 H) 4.39 – 4.46 (m, 2 H) 5.15 (d, J=7.00

Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=7.70 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=7.37 Hz, 4 H) 7.30 (d, J=8.20

Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.24 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H); (ESI+) m/z 895 (M+H)+. The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 35

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000135_0002………………desired

The product from Example 34E was purified by chiral chromatography on a Chiralpak AD-H semi-prep column eluting with a 2:1 mixture of hexane:(2: l isopropyl alcohol: EtOH). The title compound was the first of the 2 diastereomers to elute. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.88 (d, J=6.61 Hz, 6 H) 0.93 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.42 Hz, 2 H) 1.80 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.09 – 2.19 (m, 2 H) 2.44 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.59 – 3.66 (m, 2 H) 3.77 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02 (t, J=8.40 Hz, 2 H) 4.42 (dd, J=7.86, 4.83 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H). The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV Ib- Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 36 Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-1, r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000136_0001…….undesired

The product from Example 34E was purified by chiral chromatography on a Chiralpak AD-H semi-prep column eluting with a 2:1 mixture of hexane:(2: l isopropyl alcohol: EtOH). The title compound was the second of 2 diastereomers to elute. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.87

(d, J=6.51 Hz, 6 H) 0.92 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.53 Hz, 2 H) 1.82 – 2.04 (m, 8

H) 2.09-2.18 (m, 2 H) 2.41 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.58 – 3.67 (m, 2 H) 3.75 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02

(t, J=7.26 Hz, 2 H) 4.43 (dd, J=7.92, 4.88 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 7.12 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.49 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H)

9.98 (s, 2 H). The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 37 Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000136_0002……………desired

Example 37A (S)-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl 2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoate To a mixture of (S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid (19.66 g, 112 mmol) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (13.29g, 116 mmol) was added ethyl acetate (250 ml), and the mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C. Diisopropylcarbodiimide (13.88 g, 110 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 0-5 °C for about 1 hour. The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature. The solids (diisopropylurea by-product) were filtered and rinsed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to an oil. Isopropyl alcohol (200 ml) was added to the oil and the mixture was heated to about 50 °C to obtain a homogeneous solution. Upon cooling, crystalline solids formed. The solids were filtered and washed with isopropyl alcohol (3 x 20 ml) and dried to give the title compound as a white solid (23.2 g, 77% yield).

Example 37B

(S)- 1 -((S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid To a mixture of L-proline (4.44g, 38.6 mmol), water (20 ml), acetonitrile (20 ml) and DIEA (9.5 g, 73.5 mmol) was added a solution of the product from Example 37A (1Og, 36.7 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 inL) over 10 minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The solution was concentrated under vacuum to remove the acetonitrile. To the resulting clear water solution was added 6N HCl (9 ml) until pH ~ 2 .The solution was transferred to a separatory funnel and 25% NaCl (10 ml) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (75 ml), and then again with ethyl acetate (6 x 20 ml), and the combined extracts were washed with 25% NaCl (2 x 10ml). The solvent was evaporated to give a thick oil. Heptane was added and the solvent was evaporated to give a foam, which was dried under high vacuum. Diethyl ether was added and the solvent was evaporated to give a foam, which was dried under high vacuum to give the title compound (10.67g) as a white solid.

The compound of Example 37B can also be prepreared according to the following procedure: To a flask was charged L- valine (35 g, 299 mmol), IN sodium hydroxide solution (526 ml,

526 mmol) and sodium carbonate (17.42 g, 164 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 15 min to dissolve solids and then cooled to 15 °C. Methyl chloroformate (29.6 g, 314 mmol) was added slowly to the reaction mixture. The mixture was then stirred at rt for 30 min. The mixture was cooled to 15 °C and pH adjusted to -5.0 with concentrated HCl solution. 100 inL of 2-methytetrahydrofuran (2- MeTHF) was added and the adjustment of pH continued until the pH reached ~ 2.0. 150 mL of 2- MeTHF was added and the mixture was stirred for 15 min. Layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with 100 mL of 2-MeTHF. The combined organic layer was dried over anhyd Na2SC^ and filtered, and Na2SC^ cake was washed with 50 mL of 2-MeTHF. The product solution was concentrated to ~ 100 mL, chased with 120 mL of IPAc twice. 250 mL of heptanes was charged slowly and then the volume of the mixture was concentrated to 300 mL. The mixture was heated to 45 °C and 160 mL of heptanes charged. The mixture was cooled to rt in 2h, stirred for 30 min, filtered and washed with 2-MeTHF/heptanes mixture (1:7, 80 inL). The wetcake was dried at 55 °C for 24 h to give 47.1 g of Moc-L- VaI-OH product as a white solid (90%).

Moc-L- VaI-OH (15O g, 856 mmol), HOBt hydrate (138 g, 899 mmol) and DMF (1500 ml) were charged to a flask. The mixture was stirred for 15 min to give a clear solution. EDC hydrochloride (172 g, 899 mmol) was charged and mixed for 20 min. The mixture was cooled to 13

°C and (L)-proline benzyl ester hydrochloride (207 g, 856 mmol) charged. Triethylamine (109 g,

1079 mmol) was then charged in 30 min. The resulting suspension was mixed at rt for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 15 °C and 1500 mL of 6.7% NaHCO3 charged in 1.5 h, followed by the addition of 1200 mL of water over 60 min. The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min, filtered and washed with water/DMF mixture (1 :2, 250 mL) and then with water (1500 mL). The wetcake was dried at 55 °C for 24 h to give 282 g of product as a white solid (90%).

The resulting solids (40 g) and 5% Pd/ Alumina were charged to a Parr reactor followed by THF (160 mL). The reactor was sealed and purged with nitrogen (6 x 20 psig) followed by a hydrogen purge (6 x 30 psig). The reactor was pressurized to 30 psig with hydrogen and agitated at room temperature for approximately 15 hours. The resulting slurry was filtered through a GF/F filter and concentrated to approximately 135 g solution. Heptane was added (120 mL), and the solution was stirred until solids formed. After an addition 2 – 3 hours additional heptane was added drop-wise (240 mL), the slurry was stirred for approximately 1 hour, then filtered. The solids were dried to afford the title compound.

Example 37C

(lR,4R)-1,4-bis(4-nitrophenyl)butane-1,4-diyl dimethanesulfonate

The product from Example 32 (5.01 g, 13.39 mmol) was combined with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (70 mL) and cooled to -5 °C, and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (6.81 g, 52.7 mmol) was added over 30 seconds. Separately, a solution of methanesulfonic anhydride (6.01 g, 34.5 mmol) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (30 mL) was prepared and added to the diol slurry over 3 min., maintaining the internal temperature between -15 °C and -25 °C. After mixing for 5 min at -15 °C, the cooling bath was removed and the reaction was allowed to warm slowly to 23 °C and mixed for 30 minutes. After reaction completion, the crude slurry was carried immediately into the next step.

Example 37D

(2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-2,5-bis(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine

To the crude product solution from Example 37C (7.35 g, 13.39 mmol) was added 4-tert- butylaniline (13.4 g, 90 mmol) at 23 °C over 1 minute. The reaction was heated to 65 °C for 2 h. After completion, the reaction mixture was cooled to 23 °C and diluted with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (100 mL) and 1 M HCl (150 mL). After partitioning the phases, the organic phase was treated with 1 M HCl (140 mL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (50 mL), and 25 wt% aq. NaCl (100 mL), and the phases were partitioned. The organic phase was washed with 25 wt% aq. NaCl (50 mL), dried over MgSO/t, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to approximately 20 mL. Heptane (30 mL) and additional 2- methyltetrahydrofuran were added in order to induce crystallization. The slurry was concentrated further, and additional heptane (40 mL) was slowly added and the slurry was filtered, washing with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran:heptane (1:4, 20 mL). The solids were suspended in MeOH (46 mL) for 3 h, filtered, and the wet solid was washed with additional MeOH (18 mL). The solid was dried at 45 °C in a vacuum oven for 16 h to provide the title compound (3.08 g, 51% 2-step yield).

Example 37E

4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline

To a 160 ml Parr stirrer hydrogenation vessel was added the product from Example 37D (2 g, 4.49 mmol), followed by 60 ml of THF, and Raney Nickel Grace 2800 (1 g, 50 wt% (dry basis)) under a stream of nitrogen. The reactor was assembled and purged with nitrogen (8 x 20 psig) followed by purging with hydrogen (8 x 30 psig). The reactor was then pressurized to 30 psig with hydrogen and agitation (700 rpm) began and continued for a total of 16 h at room temperature. The slurry was filtered by vacuum filtration using a GF/F Whatman glass fiber filter. Evaporation of the filtrate to afford a slurry followed by the addition heptane and filtration gave the crude title compound, which was dried and used directly in the next step.

Example 37F dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4, l- phenylene)bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene))bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diy 1) die arb amate To a solution of the product from Example 37E (1.64 g, 4.25 mmol) in DMF (20 ml), the product from Example 37B (2.89 g, 10.63 mmol), and HATU (4.04 g, 10.63 mmol) in DMF (15OmL) was added triethylamine (1.07 g, 10.63 mmol), and the solution was stirred at room temperature for 90 min. To the reaction mixture was poured 20 mL of water, and the white precipitate obtained was filtered, and the solid was washed with water (3×5 mL). The solid was blow dried for Ih. The crude material was loaded on a silica gel column and eluted with a gradient starting with ethyl acetate/ heptane (3/7), and ending with pure ethyl acetate. The desired fractions were combined and solvent distilled off to give a very light yellow solid, which was dried at 45 °C in a vacuum oven with nitrogen purge for 15 h to give the title compound (2.3 g, 61% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- D6) δ ppm 0.88 (d, J=6.61 Hz, 6 H) 0.93 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.42 Hz, 2 H) 1.80 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.09 – 2.19 (m, 2 H) 2.44 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.59 – 3.66 (m, 2 H) 3.77 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02 (t, J=8.40 Hz, 2 H) 4.42 (dd, J=7.86, 4.83 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H).

Alternately, the product from example 37E (11.7 g, 85 wt%, 25.8 mmol) and the product from example 37B (15.45 g, 56.7 mmol) are suspended in EtOAc (117 mL), diisopropylethylamine (18.67 g, 144 mmol) is added and the solution is cooled to 0 °C. In a separate flask, 1-propanephosphonic acid cyclic anhydride (T3P®) (46.0 g, 50 wt% in EtOAc, 72.2 mmol) was dissolved in EtOAc (58.5 mL), and charged to an addition funnel. The T3P solution is added to the reaction mixture drop-wise over 3-4 h and stirred until the reaction is complete. The reaction is warmed to room temperature,and washed with IM HCl/7.5 wt% NaCl (100 mL), then washed with 5% NaHCO3 (100 mL), then washed with 5% NaCl solution (100 mL). The solution was concentrated to approximately 60 mL, EtOH (300 mL) was added, and the solution was concentrated to 84 g solution.

A portion of the EtOH solution of product (29 g) was heated to 40 °C, and added 134 g 40 w% EtOH in H2O. A slurry of seeds in 58 wt/wt% EtOH/H2O was added, allowed to stir at 40 °C for several hours, then cooled to 0 °C. The slurry is then filtered, and washed with 58wt/wt% EtOH/H2O. The product is dried at 40 – 60 °C under vacuum, and then rehydrated by placing a tray of water in the vacuum oven to give the title compound. The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

PATENT

Example 34

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate and

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-ter/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000133_0002

Example 34A l-(4-fer?-butylphenyl)-2,5-bis(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine The product from Example 1C (3.67 g, 7.51 mmol) and 4-tert-butylaniline (11.86 ml, 75 mmol) in DMF (40 ml) was stirred under nitrogen at 50 °C for 4 h. The resulting mixture was diluted into ethyl acetate, treated with IM HCl, stirred for 10 minutes and filtered to remove solids. The filtrate organic layer was washed twice with brine, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (5% to 30%) to give a solid. The solid was triturated in a minimal volume of 1 :9 ethyl acetate/hexane to give a light yellow solid as a mixture of trans and cis isomers (1.21 g, 36%).

Example 34B 4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline and 4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert- butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline To a solution of the product from Example 34A (1.1 g, 2.47 mmol) in ethanol (20 ml) and

THF (20 ml) was added PtC>2 (0.22 g, 0.97 mmol) in a 50 ml pressure bottle and stirred under 30 psi hydrogen at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture was filtered through a nylon membrane and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (20% to 60%). The title compound eluted as the first of 2 stereoisomers (trans isomer, 0.51 g, 54%).

Example 34C

(2S,2’S)-tert-Butyl 2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fer/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)dipyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate and (2S,2’S)-tert-Butyl 2,2′- (4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)dipyrrolidine-1-carboxylate To a mixture of the product from Example 34B (250 mg, 0.648 mmol), (S)-1-(tert- butoxycarbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (307 mg, 1.427 mmol) and HATU (542 mg, 1.427 mmol) in DMSO (10 ml) was added Hunig’s base (0.453 ml, 2.59 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture was partitioned with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (10% to 50%) to give the title compound (500 mg, 99%).

Example 34D

(2S,2’S)-N,N’-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-ter/’-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))dipyrrolidine-2-carboxamide and (2S,2’S)-N,N’-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-tert- butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l-phenylene))dipyrrolidine-2-carboxamide To the product from Example 34C (498 mg, 0.638 mmol) in dichloromethane (4 ml) was added TFA (6 ml). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was partitioned between 3: 1 CHCl3dsopropyl alcohol and saturated aq. NaHCO3. The aqueous layer was extracted by 3: 1 CHCl3:isopropyl alcohol again. The combined organic layers were dried over

Figure imgf000135_0001

filtered and concentrated to give the title compound (345 mg, 93%).

Example 34E Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate and

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-1, r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

The product from Example 34D (29.0 mg, 0.050 mmol), (S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3- methylbutanoic acid (19.27 mg, 0.110 mmol), EDAC (21.09 mg, 0.110 mmol), HOBT (16.85 mg,

0.110 mmol) and N-methylmorpholine (0.027 ml, 0.250 mmol) were combined in DMF (2 ml). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The mixture was partitioned with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was washed with brine twice, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate in hexane (50% to 80%) to give a solid. The solid was triturated with ethyl acetate/hexane to give the title compound (13 mg, 29%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.85 – 0.95 (m, 12 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.59 – 1.65 (m, 2 H) 1.79 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.10 – 2.18 (m, 2 H) 2.41-2.46 (m, 2H) 3.52 (s, 6 H)

3.57 – 3.67 (m, 2 H) 3.76 – 3.86 (m, 2 H) 4.00 (t, J=7.56 Hz, 2 H) 4.39 – 4.46 (m, 2 H) 5.15 (d, J=7.00

Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=7.70 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=7.37 Hz, 4 H) 7.30 (d, J=8.20

Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.24 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H); (ESI+) m/z 895 (M+H)+. The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 35

Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000135_0002………….desired

The product from Example 34E was purified by chiral chromatography on a Chiralpak AD-H semi-prep column eluting with a 2:1 mixture of hexane:(2: l isopropyl alcohol: EtOH). The title compound was the first of the 2 diastereomers to elute. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.88 (d, J=6.61 Hz, 6 H) 0.93 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.42 Hz, 2 H) 1.80 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.09 – 2.19 (m, 2 H) 2.44 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.59 – 3.66 (m, 2 H) 3.77 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02 (t, J=8.40 Hz, 2 H) 4.42 (dd, J=7.86, 4.83 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H). The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV Ib- Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 36 Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-1, r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2R,5R)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5- diyl)bis(4, 1 -phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 – oxobutane-2, 1 -diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000136_0001……….undesired

The product from Example 34E was purified by chiral chromatography on a Chiralpak AD-H semi-prep column eluting with a 2:1 mixture of hexane:(2: l isopropyl alcohol: EtOH). The title compound was the second of 2 diastereomers to elute. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ ppm 0.87

(d, J=6.51 Hz, 6 H) 0.92 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.53 Hz, 2 H) 1.82 – 2.04 (m, 8

H) 2.09-2.18 (m, 2 H) 2.41 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.58 – 3.67 (m, 2 H) 3.75 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02

(t, J=7.26 Hz, 2 H) 4.43 (dd, J=7.92, 4.88 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 7.12 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.49 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H)

9.98 (s, 2 H). The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Example 37 Dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-fert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4,l- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diyl)dicarbamate

Figure imgf000136_0002………………desired

Example 37A (S)-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl 2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoate To a mixture of (S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid (19.66 g, 112 mmol) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (13.29g, 116 mmol) was added ethyl acetate (250 ml), and the mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C. Diisopropylcarbodiimide (13.88 g, 110 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 0-5 °C for about 1 hour. The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature. The solids (diisopropylurea by-product) were filtered and rinsed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to an oil. Isopropyl alcohol (200 ml) was added to the oil and the mixture was heated to about 50 °C to obtain a homogeneous solution. Upon cooling, crystalline solids formed. The solids were filtered and washed with isopropyl alcohol (3 x 20 ml) and dried to give the title compound as a white solid (23.2 g, 77% yield).

Example 37B

(S)- 1 -((S)-2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-3-methylbutanoyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid To a mixture of L-proline (4.44g, 38.6 mmol), water (20 ml), acetonitrile (20 ml) and DIEA (9.5 g, 73.5 mmol) was added a solution of the product from Example 37A (1Og, 36.7 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 inL) over 10 minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The solution was concentrated under vacuum to remove the acetonitrile. To the resulting clear water solution was added 6N HCl (9 ml) until pH ~ 2 .The solution was transferred to a separatory funnel and 25% NaCl (10 ml) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (75 ml), and then again with ethyl acetate (6 x 20 ml), and the combined extracts were washed with 25% NaCl (2 x 10ml). The solvent was evaporated to give a thick oil. Heptane was added and the solvent was evaporated to give a foam, which was dried under high vacuum. Diethyl ether was added and the solvent was evaporated to give a foam, which was dried under high vacuum to give the title compound (10.67g) as a white solid.

The compound of Example 37B can also be prepreared according to the following procedure: To a flask was charged L- valine (35 g, 299 mmol), IN sodium hydroxide solution (526 ml,

526 mmol) and sodium carbonate (17.42 g, 164 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 15 min to dissolve solids and then cooled to 15 °C. Methyl chloroformate (29.6 g, 314 mmol) was added slowly to the reaction mixture. The mixture was then stirred at rt for 30 min. The mixture was cooled to 15 °C and pH adjusted to -5.0 with concentrated HCl solution. 100 inL of 2-methytetrahydrofuran (2- MeTHF) was added and the adjustment of pH continued until the pH reached ~ 2.0. 150 mL of 2- MeTHF was added and the mixture was stirred for 15 min. Layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with 100 mL of 2-MeTHF. The combined organic layer was dried over anhyd Na2SC^ and filtered, and Na2SC^ cake was washed with 50 mL of 2-MeTHF. The product solution was concentrated to ~ 100 mL, chased with 120 mL of IPAc twice. 250 mL of heptanes was charged slowly and then the volume of the mixture was concentrated to 300 mL. The mixture was heated to 45 °C and 160 mL of heptanes charged. The mixture was cooled to rt in 2h, stirred for 30 min, filtered and washed with 2-MeTHF/heptanes mixture (1:7, 80 inL). The wetcake was dried at 55 °C for 24 h to give 47.1 g of Moc-L- VaI-OH product as a white solid (90%).

Moc-L- VaI-OH (15O g, 856 mmol), HOBt hydrate (138 g, 899 mmol) and DMF (1500 ml) were charged to a flask. The mixture was stirred for 15 min to give a clear solution. EDC hydrochloride (172 g, 899 mmol) was charged and mixed for 20 min. The mixture was cooled to 13

°C and (L)-proline benzyl ester hydrochloride (207 g, 856 mmol) charged. Triethylamine (109 g,

1079 mmol) was then charged in 30 min. The resulting suspension was mixed at rt for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 15 °C and 1500 mL of 6.7% NaHCO3 charged in 1.5 h, followed by the addition of 1200 mL of water over 60 min. The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min, filtered and washed with water/DMF mixture (1 :2, 250 mL) and then with water (1500 mL). The wetcake was dried at 55 °C for 24 h to give 282 g of product as a white solid (90%).

The resulting solids (40 g) and 5% Pd/ Alumina were charged to a Parr reactor followed by THF (160 mL). The reactor was sealed and purged with nitrogen (6 x 20 psig) followed by a hydrogen purge (6 x 30 psig). The reactor was pressurized to 30 psig with hydrogen and agitated at room temperature for approximately 15 hours. The resulting slurry was filtered through a GF/F filter and concentrated to approximately 135 g solution. Heptane was added (120 mL), and the solution was stirred until solids formed. After an addition 2 – 3 hours additional heptane was added drop-wise (240 mL), the slurry was stirred for approximately 1 hour, then filtered. The solids were dried to afford the title compound.

Example 37C

(lR,4R)-1,4-bis(4-nitrophenyl)butane-1,4-diyl dimethanesulfonate

The product from Example 32 (5.01 g, 13.39 mmol) was combined with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (70 mL) and cooled to -5 °C, and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (6.81 g, 52.7 mmol) was added over 30 seconds. Separately, a solution of methanesulfonic anhydride (6.01 g, 34.5 mmol) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (30 mL) was prepared and added to the diol slurry over 3 min., maintaining the internal temperature between -15 °C and -25 °C. After mixing for 5 min at -15 °C, the cooling bath was removed and the reaction was allowed to warm slowly to 23 °C and mixed for 30 minutes. After reaction completion, the crude slurry was carried immediately into the next step.

Example 37D

(2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-2,5-bis(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine

To the crude product solution from Example 37C (7.35 g, 13.39 mmol) was added 4-tert- butylaniline (13.4 g, 90 mmol) at 23 °C over 1 minute. The reaction was heated to 65 °C for 2 h. After completion, the reaction mixture was cooled to 23 °C and diluted with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (100 mL) and 1 M HCl (150 mL). After partitioning the phases, the organic phase was treated with 1 M HCl (140 mL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (50 mL), and 25 wt% aq. NaCl (100 mL), and the phases were partitioned. The organic phase was washed with 25 wt% aq. NaCl (50 mL), dried over MgSO/t, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to approximately 20 mL. Heptane (30 mL) and additional 2- methyltetrahydrofuran were added in order to induce crystallization. The slurry was concentrated further, and additional heptane (40 mL) was slowly added and the slurry was filtered, washing with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran:heptane (1:4, 20 mL). The solids were suspended in MeOH (46 mL) for 3 h, filtered, and the wet solid was washed with additional MeOH (18 mL). The solid was dried at 45 °C in a vacuum oven for 16 h to provide the title compound (3.08 g, 51% 2-step yield).

Example 37E

4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)dianiline

To a 160 ml Parr stirrer hydrogenation vessel was added the product from Example 37D (2 g, 4.49 mmol), followed by 60 ml of THF, and Raney Nickel Grace 2800 (1 g, 50 wt% (dry basis)) under a stream of nitrogen. The reactor was assembled and purged with nitrogen (8 x 20 psig) followed by purging with hydrogen (8 x 30 psig). The reactor was then pressurized to 30 psig with hydrogen and agitation (700 rpm) began and continued for a total of 16 h at room temperature. The slurry was filtered by vacuum filtration using a GF/F Whatman glass fiber filter. Evaporation of the filtrate to afford a slurry followed by the addition heptane and filtration gave the crude title compound, which was dried and used directly in the next step.

Example 37F dimethyl (2S,2’S)-l,r-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(4,4′-((2S,5S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-diyl)bis(4, l- phenylene)bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene))bis(pyrrolidine-2, 1 -diyl))bis(3-methyl- 1 -oxobutane-2, 1 – diy 1) die arb amate To a solution of the product from Example 37E (1.64 g, 4.25 mmol) in DMF (20 ml), the product from Example 37B (2.89 g, 10.63 mmol), and HATU (4.04 g, 10.63 mmol) in DMF (15OmL) was added triethylamine (1.07 g, 10.63 mmol), and the solution was stirred at room temperature for 90 min. To the reaction mixture was poured 20 mL of water, and the white precipitate obtained was filtered, and the solid was washed with water (3×5 mL). The solid was blow dried for Ih. The crude material was loaded on a silica gel column and eluted with a gradient starting with ethyl acetate/ heptane (3/7), and ending with pure ethyl acetate. The desired fractions were combined and solvent distilled off to give a very light yellow solid, which was dried at 45 °C in a vacuum oven with nitrogen purge for 15 h to give the title compound (2.3 g, 61% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- D6) δ ppm 0.88 (d, J=6.61 Hz, 6 H) 0.93 (d, J=6.72 Hz, 6 H) 1.11 (s, 9 H) 1.63 (d, J=5.42 Hz, 2 H) 1.80 – 2.04 (m, 8 H) 2.09 – 2.19 (m, 2 H) 2.44 – 2.47 (m, 2 H) 3.52 (s, 6 H) 3.59 – 3.66 (m, 2 H) 3.77 – 3.84 (m, 2 H) 4.02 (t, J=8.40 Hz, 2 H) 4.42 (dd, J=7.86, 4.83 Hz, 2 H) 5.14 (d, J=6.18 Hz, 2 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H) 6.94 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.13 (d, J=8.46 Hz, 4 H) 7.31 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 2 H) 7.50 (d, J=8.35 Hz, 4 H) 9.98 (s, 2 H).

Alternately, the product from example 37E (11.7 g, 85 wt%, 25.8 mmol) and the product from example 37B (15.45 g, 56.7 mmol) are suspended in EtOAc (117 mL), diisopropylethylamine (18.67 g, 144 mmol) is added and the solution is cooled to 0 °C. In a separate flask, 1-propanephosphonic acid cyclic anhydride (T3P®) (46.0 g, 50 wt% in EtOAc, 72.2 mmol) was dissolved in EtOAc (58.5 mL), and charged to an addition funnel. The T3P solution is added to the reaction mixture drop-wise over 3-4 h and stirred until the reaction is complete. The reaction is warmed to room temperature,and washed with IM HCl/7.5 wt% NaCl (100 mL), then washed with 5% NaHCO3 (100 mL), then washed with 5% NaCl solution (100 mL). The solution was concentrated to approximately 60 mL, EtOH (300 mL) was added, and the solution was concentrated to 84 g solution.

A portion of the EtOH solution of product (29 g) was heated to 40 °C, and added 134 g 40 w% EtOH in H2O. A slurry of seeds in 58 wt/wt% EtOH/H2O was added, allowed to stir at 40 °C for several hours, then cooled to 0 °C. The slurry is then filtered, and washed with 58wt/wt% EtOH/H2O. The product is dried at 40 – 60 °C under vacuum, and then rehydrated by placing a tray of water in the vacuum oven to give the title compound. The title compound showed an EC50 value of less than about 0.1 nM in HCV lb-Conl replicon assays in the presence of 5% FBS.

Intermediates

Example 32

( 1 R,4R)- 1 ,4-bis(4-mtrophenyl)butane- 1 ,4-diol

Figure imgf000132_0002

To (S)-(-)-α,α-diphenyl-2-pyrrohdinemethanol (2 71 g, 10 70 mmol) was added THF (80 mL) at 23 °C The very thin suspension was treated with t11methyl borate (1 44 g, 13 86 mmol) over 30 seconds, and the resulting solution was mixed at 23 °C for 1 h The solution was cooled to 16-19 °C, and N,N-diethylanilme borane (21 45 g, 132 mmol) was added dropwise via syringe over 3-5 mm (caution vigorous H2 evolution), while the internal temperature was maintained at 16-19 °C After 15 mm, the H2 evolution had ceased To a separate vessel was added the product from Example IA (22 04 g, 95 wt%, 63 8 mmol), followed by THF (80 mL), to form an orange slurry After cooling the slurry to 11 °C, the borane solution was transferred via cannula into the dione slurry over 3-5 min During this period, the internal temperature of the slurry rose to 16 °C After the addition was complete, the reaction was maintained at 20-27 °C for an additional 2 5 h After reaction completion, the mixture was cooled to 5 °C and methanol (16 7 g, 521 mmol) was added dropwise over 5-10 mm, maintaining an internal temperature <20 °C (note vigorous H2 evolution) After the exotherm had ceased (ca 10 mm), the temperature was adjusted to 23 °C, and the reaction was mixed until complete dissolution of the solids had occurred Ethyl acetate (300 mL) and 1 M HCl (120 mL) were added, and the phases were partitioned The organic phase was then washed successively with 1 M HCl (2 x 120 mL), H2O (65 mL), and 10% aq NaCl (65 mL) The orgamcs were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo Crystallization of the product occurred during the concentration The slurry was warmed to 50 °C, and heptane (250 inL) was added over 15 min. The slurry was then allowed to mix at 23 °C for 30 min and filtered. The wet cake was washed with 3: 1 heptane:ethyl acetate (75 mL), and the orange, crystalline solids were dried at 45 °C for 24 h to provide the title compound (15.35 g, 99.3% ee, 61% yield), which was contaminated with 11% of the meso isomer (vs. dl isomer).

References

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  2. “FDA approves Viekira Pak to treat hepatitis C”. Food and Drug Administration. December 19, 2014.
  3. “TECHNIVIE™ (ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir) Tablets, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information” (PDF). AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL 60064. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  4. “FDA approves Technivie for treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 4”. Food and Drug Administration. July 24, 2015.
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Ombitasvir
Ombitasvir.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Methyl ((R)-1-((S)-2-((4-((2S,5S)-1-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-5-(4-((R)-1-((methoxycarbonyl)-L-valyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamido)phenyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)phenyl)carbamoyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)carbamate
Clinical data
Trade names Viekira Pak (with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir and dasabuvir), Technivie (with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir)
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability not determined
Protein binding ~99.9%
Metabolism amide hydrolysis followed by oxidation
Onset of action ~4 to 5 hours
Biological half-life 21 to 25 hours
Excretion mostly with feces (90.2%)
Identifiers
CAS Number 1258226-87-7
PubChem CID 54767916
ChemSpider 31136214
ChEBI CHEBI:85183 Yes
Synonyms ABT-267
Chemical data
Formula C50H67N7O8
Molar mass 894.11 g/mol

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/////Ombitasvir Hydrate, 1456607-70-7, Ombitasvir,  1258226-87-7, Viekira PakTM, Technivie, ABT-267, ABT 267, UNII-2302768XJ8, オムビタスビル 水和物 , phase II,  clinical development ,  AbbVie, Abbott,  chronic hepatitis C infection,  combination with ABT-450/ritonavir,  peginterferon alpha-2a/ribavirin (pegIFN/RBV), naïve Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infected patients.

O=C(Nc1ccc(cc1)[C@@H]5CC[C@@H](c3ccc(NC(=O)[C@@H]2CCCN2C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)OC)C(C)C)cc3)N5c4ccc(cc4)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H]6CCCN6C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)OC)C(C)C

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Motolimod, VTX-2337, 莫托莫德 , мотолимод , موتوليمود ,

 cancer, phase 2  Comments Off on Motolimod, VTX-2337, 莫托莫德 , мотолимод , موتوليمود ,
Jun 302016
 

ChemSpider 2D Image | Motolimod | C28H34N4O2

Motolimod

VTX-2337, 莫托莫德 , мотолимод , موتوليمود ,

2-amino-N,N-dipropyl-8-[4-(pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)phenyl]-3H-1-benzazepine-4-carboxamide
VTX-2337, VTX-378
UNII:WP6PY72ZH3

(1E,4E)-2-amino-N,N-dipropyl-8-(4-(pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)phenyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4-carboxamide,

3H-1-Benzazepine-4-carboxamide, 2-amino-N,N-dipropyl-8-[4-(1-pyrrolidinylcarbonyl)phenyl]- [ACD/Index Name]
 CAS 926927-61-9
  • C28H34N4O2
  • 458.595

Cancer; Lymphoma

Array Biopharma Inc.

George A. Doherty, C. Todd Eary, Robert D. Groneberg, Zachary Jones

Originator: Array BioPharma
Developer: VentiRx Pharmaceuticals
Class: Antineoplastics, immunomodulator
Mechanism of Action: Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist
WHO ATC code: L03A-X
EPhMRA code: L3A9

Useful for treating a toll-like receptor (TLR)-associated diseases eg cancer. VentiRx, under license from Array BioPharma, and collaborator Celgene are developing Motolimod

A TLR-8 agonist, for treating cancer. In June 2016, Motolimod was reported to be in phase 2 clinical development.

Clinical Trials:

Conditions Phases Interventions Recruitment
Epithelial Ovarian Cancer|Fallopian Tube Cancer|Primary Peritoneal Cancer Phase 2 Combination Active, not recruiting
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck Phase 2 Combination Active, not recruiting
Ovarian Cancer Phase 1|Phase 2 Combination Not yet recruiting
Low Grade B Cell Lymphoma Phase 1|Phase 2 Combination Terminated
 Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Squamous Cell Cancer of Head and Neck Phase 1 Combination Completed
Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Phase 1 Combination Completed
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Phase 1 Combination Recruiting
Advanced Solid Tumors|Lymphoma Phase 1 Alone Completed

 

Motolimod.png

Quality Control & MSDS

View current batch: S716101

COA NMR HPLC Datasheet MSDS

CLICK TO VIEW

Biological Activity

Description Motolimod (VTX-2337) is a selective and potent Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8 agonist with EC50 of 100 nM, > 50-fold selectivity over TLR7. Phase 2.
Targets TLR8 [1]
IC50 100 nM(EC50)
In vitro VTX-2337 stimulates the production of both TNFα with EC50 of 140 nM and IL-12 with EC50 of 120 nM in PBMCs. In monocytes and mDCs, VTX-2337 selectively induces the production of TNFα and IL-12 via NF-κB activation. VTX-2337 also stimulates IFNγ production from NK cells, augments the lytic function of NK cells and enhances ADCC. [1]
In vivo In an ovarian cancer mouse model, TX-2337 enhances the effect of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). [2]
Features

Protocol(Only for Reference)

Kinase Assay: [1]

Activity assay The activity of specific TLR agonists is assessed using the secretory embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene that is linked to NF-κB activation in response to TLR stimulation. Measurement of SEAP activity using the Quanti-blue substrate (InvivoGen) after TLR agonist treatment is carried out.

Cell Assay: [1]

Cell lines PBMCs or purified NK cells
Concentrations ~500 nM
Incubation Time 48 h
Method PBMCs or purified NK cells are prepared as previously described, and the purity of NK cells was approximately 99%. NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity is assessed by Calcein AM release from labeled target cells. In brief, PBMCs or purified NK cells are cultured for 48 hours in RPMI medium in the presence of VTX-2337 (167 or 500 nmol/L) before incubation with target cells.

Conversion of different model animals based on BSA (Value based on data from FDA Draft Guidelines)

Species Mouse Rat Rabbit Guinea pig Hamster Dog
Weight (kg) 0.02 0.15 1.8 0.4 0.08 10
Body Surface Area (m2) 0.007 0.025 0.15 0.05 0.02 0.5
Km factor 3 6 12 8 5 20
Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by  Animal B Km
Animal A Km

For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.

Rat dose (mg/kg) = mouse dose (22.4 mg/kg) × mouse Km(3)  = 11.2 mg/kg
rat Km(6)

 

References

[1] Lu H, et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2012, 18(2), 499-509.

[2] Monk BJ, et al. J Clin Oncol 31, 2013 (suppl; abstr 3077).

Clinical Trial Information( data from http://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2016-06-25)

NCT Number Recruitment Conditions Sponsor
/Collaborators
Start Date Phases
NCT02650635 Recruiting Colorectal Adenocarcinoma|Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma|Recurrent Breast Carcinoma|Recurrent Colorectal Carcinoma|Recurrent Melanoma of the …more Mayo Clinic|National Cancer Institute (NCI) February 2016 Phase 1
NCT02431559 Recruiting Ovarian Cancer Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research|MedImmune LLC|VentiR  …more November 2015 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT02124850 Recruiting Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck VentiRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. September 2014 Phase 1
NCT01836029 Active, not recruiting Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck VentiRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. July 2013 Phase 2
NCT01666444 Active, not recruiting Epithelial Ovarian Cancer|Fallopian Tube Cancer|Primary Peritoneal Cancer VentiRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.|Gynecologic Oncology Group October 2012 Phase 2

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Chemical Information

Download Motolimod (VTX-2337) SDF

Molecular Weight (MW) 458.6
Formula C28H34N4O2
CAS No. 926927-61-9
Storage 3 years -20℃powder
6 months-80℃in solvent
Synonyms N/A
Solubility (25°C) * In vitro DMSO 55 mg/mL warming (119.93 mM)
Ethanol 15 mg/mL (32.7 mM)
Water <1 mg/mL (<1 mM)
In vivo
* <1 mg/ml means slightly soluble or insoluble.
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

PATENT

WO-2016100302

formula (I).

((IE, 4E)-2-amino-N,N-dipropyl-8-(4-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4-carboxamide (“Compound A”)). The crystalline form can be an unsolvated or solvated crystalline form of the compound of formula (I).

Also provided herein are compositions including the crystalline forms of the compound of formula (I) described herein, methods of making the crystalline forms, and methods of using the crystalline forms for the treatment of diseases, including, for example, cancer.

Further provided herein are methods of agonizing a Toll-like receptor using the crystalline forms of the compound of formula (I) described herein. In one aspect the method includes agonizing a Toll-like receptor (TLR8) by contacting TLR8 with an effective amount of a crystalline form of the compound formula (I) described herein, wherein the effective amount agonizes the TLR8.

PATENT

WO2007024612

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2007024612A2?cl=en

Example 10

Synthesis of ClE, 4E)-2-ammo-N,N-dipropyl-8-(4-rpyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)-3H- benzorbiazepine-4-carboxamide C27)

Figure imgf000039_0001

Compound (27) was prepared from compound (24) by a method similar to that described in Example 2 to provide 49 mg (43%) of the desired compound. 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 0.93 (t, 6H), 1.63-1.71 (m, 4H), 1.89 (m, 2H), 1.98 (m, 2H), 2.83 (s, 2H), 3.40-3.51 (m, 6H), 3.67 (t, 2H), 6.83 (s, IH), 7.3 (dd, IH), 7.35 (d, IH), 7.49 (d, IH)5 7.64 (q, 4H).

EXAMPLE 2 CLIP, QUANTITIES MAY VARY USE YOUR DISCRETION

Trimethylaluminum (0.34 mL of a 2.0 M solution in toluene) was added to bis(2- methoxyethyl)amine (92 mg, 0.69 mmol) in DCE (3 mL). After 10 minutes solid COMPD 24, 0.23 mmol) was added and the vessel was sealed and heated to 75 0C for 16-20 hours. Upon cooling the reaction was quenched with saturated Rochelle’s salt (2 mL) and after 20 minutes the mixture was partitioned between CH2Cl2 (50 mL) and brine (50 mL). The phases were separated and the aqueous was extracted with CH2Cl2 (2 x 20 mL). The combined organics were dried and concentrated. The crude material was purified via preparative TLC (2, 0.5 mm plates, eluting with 5-10% MeOH/CH2Cl2 with 4-6 drops of NH4OH)

Synthesis of (IE, 4E)-ethyl 2-ammo-8-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)-3H-benzorb]azepine-4- carboxylate (24)

Figure imgf000036_0001

The reaction scheme for the synthesis of compound (24) is shown in Figure 4. Step A: Preparation of (E)-2-(4-bromo-2-nitrophenyl)-N,N-dimethylethenamine (18):

To a solution of l-methyl-2-nitro-4-bromobenzene (17) (29.86 g, 138.2 mmol) in toluene (200 niL) was added dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (17.52 g, 138.2 mmol). The mixture was heated to reflux for 14 hours. After cooling to room temperature the mixture was concentrated under vacuum and the resulting oil was immediately used in the next reaction. Step B: Preparation of 4-bromo-2-nitrobenzaldehyde (19): To a solution of crude (E)-

2-(4-bromo-2-nitrophenyl)-N,N-dimethylethenamine (35.5 g, 131 mmol) in THF (300 mL) and pH 7.2 phosphate buffer (300 mL) was added NaIO4 (56.0 g, 262 mmol). The solids were removed and the filter cake was washed with EtOAc (200 mL). The filtrate was washed with brine (2 X 100 mL), dried and concentrated. The concentrate was purified via flash chromatography (5% EtOAc/hexanes to 10% EtOAc/hexanes) to provide 4-bromo-2- nitrobenzaldehyde (8.41 g, 28% yield).

Step C: Preparation of (E)-ethyl 3-(4-bromo-2-nitrophenyl)-2-(cyanomethyl)acrylate (20): To a solution of 4-bromo-2-nitrobenzaldehyde (3.45 g, 15.0 mmol) in toluene (15 mL) was added α-cyanomethylcarboethoxyethylidene triphenylphosphorane (6.1O g, 15.7 mmol). The mixture was heated to 75 °C for 16 hours. The reaction was allowed to cool and the solvent was removed under vacuum. The concentrate was purified via flash chromatography (100% hexanes to 20% EtOAc) to yield (E)-ethyl 3-(4-bromo-2-nitrophenyl)-2- (cyanomethyl)acrylate (2.25 g, 44% yield) as an off white solid.

Step D: Preparation of (IE, 4E)-ethyl 2-ammo-8-bromo-3H-benzo|b1azepine-4- carboxylate (21): To a solution of (E)-ethyl 3-(4-bromo-2-nitrophenyl)-2- (cyanomethyl)acrylate (1.00 g, 2.9 mmol) in acetic acid (25 mL) was added iron powder (1.10 g, 19.0 mmol). The mixture was heated to 90 °C for 5 hours. Upon cooling the acetic acid was removed under vacuum and the resulting semisolid was dissolved in 50% K2CO3 (100 mL) and EtOAc (100 mL). The mixture was filtered to remove insoluble material and the phases were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organics were dried and concentrated. The concentrate was purified via flash chromatography (Biotage 40m, 5% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to yield (lE,4E)-ethyl 2-amino-8-bromo- 3H-benzo[b] azepine-4-carboxylate (0.52 g, 57%).

Step E: Preparation of (IE. 4E)-ethyl-8-bromo-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-3H- benzo FbI azepine-4-carboxylate (22) : To a CH2Cl2 (5 mL) solution containing (IE, 4E)-ethyl 2-amino-8-bromo-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4-carboxylate (198 mg, 0.640 mmol) was added Boc anhydride (140 mg, 0.640 mmol). The solution was stirred at room temperature for 72 hours. The reaction was concentrated to dryness and purified by column chromatography (Biotage 12m, 4:1 hexanes :EtO Ac) to provide (IE, 4E)-ethyl-8-bromo-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-3H- benzo[b] azepine-4-carboxylate (245 mg, 94% yield) as a white solid. Step F: Preparation of (IE, 4E)-ethyl-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-8-(pyrrolidine-l- carbonyl)-3H-benzo Fb] azepme-4-carboxylate (23) : To an ethanol solution (15 mL) containing K3PO4 (938 mg, 4.42 mmol), 4-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)phenylboronic acid (785 mg, 3.58 mmol), and (IE, 4E)-ethyl-8-bromo-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4- carboxylate (489 mg, 1.19 mmol), was added palladium acetate (80.5 mg, 0.358 mmol). The reaction was heated to 60 °C for 2 hours, then cooled to room temperature and concentrated to dryness. The brown oil was purified by preparative LC plate (100% EtOAc) to provide (lE,4E)-ethyl-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-8-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4- carboxylate (277 mg, 46% yield) as a tan oil.

Step G: Preparation of (IE, 4E)-ethyl 2-amino-8-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)-3H- benzoFbl azepine-4-carboxylate (24V (IE, 4E)-ethyl-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-8-(pyrrolidine-l- carbonyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4-carboxylate (110 mg, 0.218 mmol) was diluted with a 1:4 TFA:CH2C12 solution (4 mL). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour, and then diluted with CH2Cl2. The organic phase was washed with 10% K2CO3 and brine (30 mL). The CH2Cl2 solution was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to provide (IE, 4E)-ethyl 2-amino-8-(pyrrolidine-l-carbonyl)-3H-benzo[b]azepine-4-carboxylate (88 mg, 81% yield) as a yellow solid. 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 1.39 (t, 3H), 1.88-1.99 (m, 4H), 2.98 (s, 2H), 3.49-3.52 (m, 2H), 3.66-3.69 (m, 2H), 4.30-4.35 (m, 2H), 7.32 (d, IH), 7.46-7.49 (m, 2H), 7.60 (d, 2H) 7.67 (d, 2H), 7.84 (s, IH).

PATENT

WO2012045090

(assigned to VentiRx), claiming an aqueous composition comprising a TLR-8 agonist (ie motolimod) and an anti-cancer agent (eg doxorubicin, gemcitabine or cyclophosphamide), useful for treating cancer.

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2012082658 2012-04-05 Methods for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases
US2012003213 2012-01-05 Methods Of Enhancing Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity
 
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2016045502 2016-02-18 THERAPEUTIC BENEFIT OF SUBOPTIMALLY ADMINISTERED CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
US2015182490 2015-07-02 METHODS FOR TREATING TYROSINE-KINASE-INHIBITOR-RESISTANT MALIGNANCIES IN PATIENTS WITH GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS OR AHI1 DYSREGULATIONS OR MUTATIONS EMPLOYING DIANHYDROGALACTITOL, DIACETYLDIANHYDROGALACTITOL, DIBROMODULCITOL, OR ANALOGS OR DERIVATIVES THEREOF
US2014066432 2014-03-06 Substituted Benzoazepines As Toll-Like Receptor Modulators
US2013236449 2013-09-12 METHODS OF ENHANCING ANTIBODY-DEPENDENT CELLULAR CYTOTOXICITY
US2013018042 2013-01-17 Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Formulations and Their Use
US8304407 2012-11-06 8-substituted benzoazepines as toll-like receptor modulators
US2012219615 2012-08-30 Therapeutic Use of a TLR Agonist and Combination Therapy
US8242106 2012-08-14 TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR AGONIST FORMULATIONS AND THEIR USE
US8153622 2012-04-10 8-Substituted Benzoazepines as Toll-Like Receptor Modulators
US2012082658 2012-04-05 Methods for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases

//////Motolimod, VTX-2337, 莫托莫德 , мотолимод , موتوليمود , VTX 2337, VTX-378, 926927-61-9, phase 2, TLR-8 agonist

CCCN(CCC)C(=O)C1=CC2=C(C=C(C=C2)C3=CC=C(C=C3)C(=O)N4CCCC4)N=C(C1)N

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Metal Synergy in a Potential Anti-Cancer Drug

 cancer  Comments Off on Metal Synergy in a Potential Anti-Cancer Drug
Jun 202016
 

thumbnail image: Metal Synergy in a Potential Anti-Cancer Drug

Metal Synergy in a Potential Anti-Cancer Drug

Ruthenium teams up with platinum in a promising anticancer drug

Read more

http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/9407491/Metal_Synergy_in_a_Potential_Anti-Cancer_Drug.html?elq_mid=10181&elq_cid=1558306

/////////Ruthenium, anticancer drug, platinum

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CRD 1152, CURADEV PHARMA PRIVATE LTD

 cancer, Uncategorized  Comments Off on CRD 1152, CURADEV PHARMA PRIVATE LTD
Apr 052016
 

Several candidates……One is …..CRD1152

ONE OF THEM IS CRD 1152

Kynurenine pathway regulators (solid tumors)

Compound 2

CAS1638121-21-7

US159738837

N3-(3-Chloro-4- fluorophenyl) furo[2,3- c]pyridine-2,3- diamine

COMPD 190

CAS 1638118-99-6

US159738837

COMPD248

US159738837

7-Chloro-N3- (3-chloro-4- fluorophenyl) furo[2,3- c]pyridine-2,3- diamine,  166

DMSO-d6: δ 7.87 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.25 (s, 2H), 7.16-7.10 (m, 2H), 6.88 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 6.59 (dd, J′ = 6.2 Hz, J″ = 2.6 Hz, 1H), 6.48 (dt, J′ = 8.8 Hz, J″ = 6.7 Hz, J′′′ = 3.4 Hz, 1H) M + H] 312

US159738837

OR

N3-(3,4- difluorophenyl)- 7-(pyridin-4- yl)furo[2,3- c]pyridine-2,3- diamine, 184

CD3CN: δ 8.72 (s, 2H), 8.26 (s, 3H), 7.07-7.03 (m, 2H), 6.47-6.40 (m, 2H), 5.74 (s, 1H), 5.55 (s, 2H) M + H] 339

US159738837

OR

COMPD73

CAS 1638117-85-7

US159738837

Several candidates………..CRD1152

67

66

Company Curadev Pharma Pvt. Ltd.
Description Small molecule dual indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO1; IDO) inhibitor
Molecular Target Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (INDO) (IDO) ; Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) (TDO)
Mechanism of Action Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (INDO) inhibitor
Therapeutic Modality Small molecule
Latest Stage of Development Preclinical
Standard Indication Cancer (unspecified)
Indication Details Treat cancer
Regulatory Designation
Partner Roche

Hoffmann-La Roche partners with Curadev Pharma Ltd. for IDO1 and TDO inhibitors (April 20, 2015)

Curadev Pharma Pvt Ltd., founded in 2010 and headquartered in New Delhi, announced that it has entered into a research collaboration and exclusive license agreement with Roche for the development and commercialization of IDO1 and TDO inhibitors to treat cancer. The agreement covers the development of CRD1152, the lead preclinical immune tolerance inhibitor and a research collaboration with Roche’s research and early development organization to further explore the IDO and TDO pathways.

IDO1 (indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1) and TDO (tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase) are enzymes that mediate cancer-induced immune suppression. This mechanism is exploited by tumor cells as well as certain type of immune cells, limiting the anti-tumor immune response. Dual inhibition of the IDO1 and TDO pathways promises to maintain the immune response, prevent local tumor immune escape and potentially avoid resistance to other immunotherapies when used in combination, and could lead to new treatment options for cancer patients. Curadev’s preclinical lead-compound, a small-molecule that shows potent inhibition of the two rate-limiting enzymes in the tryptophan to kynurenine metabolic pathways, has the potential for mono therapy as well as combination with Roche’s broad oncology pipeline and portfolio.

Under the terms of agreement, which includes a research collaboration with Roche’s research and early development organization, Curadev will receive an upfront payment of $25 million and will be eligible to receive up to $530 million in milestone payments, as well as escalating royalties potentially reaching double digits for the first product from the collaboration developed and commercialized by Roche. Curadev is also eligible for milestones and royalties on any additional products resulting from the research collaboration.

Curadev Announces Research Collaboration and Licensing Agreement to Develop Cancer Immunotherapeutic

Curadev’s dual IDO and TDO immune tolerance inhibitor – a novel approach in cancer immunotherapy

Apr 20, 2015, 06:30 ET from Curadev

NEW DELHI, India, April 20, 2015 /PRNewswire/ —

Curadev Pharma Private Ltd. today announced that it has entered into a research collaboration and exclusive license agreement with Roche for the development and commercialization of IDO1 and TDO inhibitors. The agreement covers the development of the lead preclinical immune tolerance inhibitor and a research collaboration with Roche’s research and early development organization to further explore the IDO and TDO pathways.

IDO1 (indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase-1) and TDO (tryptophan-2, 3-dioxygenase) are enzymes that mediate cancer-induced immune suppression. This mechanism is exploited by tumor cells as well as certain type of immune cells, limiting the anti-tumor immune response.

Dual inhibition of the IDO1 and TDO pathways promises to maintain the immune response, prevent local tumor immune escape and potentially avoid resistance to other immunotherapies when used in combination, and could lead to new treatment options for cancer patients. Curadev’s preclinical lead-compound, a small-molecule that shows potent inhibition of the two rate-limiting enzymes in the tryptophan – to kynurenine metabolic pathways, has the potential for mono therapy as well as combination with Roche’s broad oncology pipeline and portfolio.

“We are very excited to be working with the global leader in oncology with their unrivalled expertise in clinical development,” said Arjun Surya, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer, Curadev. “The collaboration acknowledges our focused research efforts on patient-critical drug targets that have yielded a drug candidate that could make a significant difference in the development of novel treatments for patients suffering from cancer.”

Under the terms of agreement, which includes a research collaboration with Roche’s research and early development organization to further extend Curadev’s findings, Curadev will receive an upfront payment of $25 million and will be eligible to receive up to $530 million in milestone payments based on achievement of certain predetermined events and sales levels as well as escalating royalties potentially reaching double digits for the first product from the collaboration developed and commercialized by Roche. Curadev would also be eligible for milestones and royalties on any additional products resulting from the research collaboration. Roche will fund future research, development, manufacturing and commercialization costs and will also provide additional research funding to Curadev for support of the research collaboration.

About Curadev

Headquartered in New Delhi, India, Curadev Pharma Private Limited was founded in 2010 by a team of professionals from the pharmaceutical and biotech sectors with the mission to improve human health and enhance the quality of human life by accelerating the discovery and delivery of new drugs. Curadev focuses on the creation and out-licensing of pre-IND assets and IND packages for drug development.

For further information:

Curadev Partnering

Manish Tandon – VP and Chief Financial Officer, manish@curadev.in

PATENT

US20160046596) INHIBITORS OF THE KYNURENINE PATHWAY

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US159738837&recNum=2&maxRec=17&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=Pub+Date+Desc&queryString=FP%3A%28curadev%29&tab=PCTDescription

Monali Banerjee
Sandip Middya
Ritesh Shrivastava
Sushil Raina
Arjun Surya
Dharmendra B. Yadav
Veejendra K. Yadav
Kamal Kishore Kapoor
Aranapakam Venkatesan
Roger A. Smith
Scott K. Thompson

ONE ………….Example 2

Synthesis of N3-(3-Chloro-4-fluoro-phenyl)-furo[2,3-c]pyridine-2,3-diamine (Compound 2)


Step 1: 3-Methoxymethoxy-pyridine


      To a stirred solution of 3-hydroxypyridine (60 g, 662.9 mmol) in THF:DMF (120:280 mL) at 0° C. was added t-BuOK (81.8 gm, 729.28 mmol) portion-wise. After stirring the reaction mixture for 15 min, methoxymethyl chloride (52 mL, 696.13 mmol) was added to it at 0° C. and the resulting mixture was stirred for 1 hr at 25° C. Reaction mixture was diluted with water and extracted with ethyl acetate (4×500 mL). The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 100 g crude which was purified by column chromatography using silica (100-200 mesh) and 10% EtOAc-hexane as eluent to afford 3-methoxymethoxy-pyridine (54 g) as pale brown liquid. LCMS: 140 (M+H).

Step 2: 3-Methoxymethoxy-pyridine-4-carbaldehyde


      To a stirred solution of 3-methoxymethoxypyridine (2 g, 14.3885 mmol) in anhydrous THF (40 mL) was added TMEDA (1.83 g, 15.82 mmol) at 25° C. The reaction mixture was cooled to −78° C., n-BuLi (7.3 mL, 15.82 mmol, 2.17 M in hexane) was added dropwise manner maintaining the temperature −78° C. After stirring for 2 hr at −78° C., DMF (1.52 g, 20.86 mmol) was added to it and stirred for 2 hr at 25° C. Reaction mixture was cooled to −40° C. and saturated ammonium chloride solution was added drop wise. The reaction mass was extracted with ethyl acetate (250 mL×2), EtOAc part was washed with water followed by brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 3 g of crude product which was passed through a pad of silica (100-200 mesh) using 10% EtOAc-hexane as eluent to afford 1.6 g of 3-methoxymethoxy-pyridine-4-carbaldehyde as pale yellow liquid. GC-MS: 167 (m/z).

Step 3: 3-Hydroxy-pyridine-4-carbaldehyde


      To a stirred solution of 3-methoxymethoxypyridine-4-carbaldehyde (11 g, 65.83 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added 3N HCl (100 mL) and stirred at 60° C. for 1 hr. The reaction mixture was cooled under ice bath and pH was adjusted to 7 with solid K2CO3. Resulting mixture was extracted with EtOAc (250 mL×5). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 15 g of crude which was purified by column chromatography using silica gel (100-200 mesh) and 23% EtOAc/hexane as eluent to afford 4 g of 3-hydroxy-pyridine-4-carbaldehyde as pale yellow solid. GC-MS: 123 (m/z), 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 11.04 (bs, 1H), 10.37 (s, 1H), 8.46 (s, 1H), 8.20 (d, 1H, J=4.88 Hz), 7.46 (d, 1H, J=4.88 Hz). GC-FID: 99.51%.

Step 4: 4-{[3-Chloro-4-fluoro-phenylimino]-methyl}-pyridin-3-ol


      3-Hydroxypyridine-4-carbaldehyde (3 g, 24.39 mmol) was taken in mixed solvent (TFE (20 mL):MeCN (20 mL)) and 4-fluoro-3-chloroaniline (3.55 g, 24.39 mmol) was added to it at 25° C. The resulting mixture was stirred at this temperature for 1 hr. The reaction mass was concentrated and purified by triturating with n-pentane to afford 6 g of 4-{[3-chloro-4-fluoro-phenylimino]-methyl}-pyridin-3-ol). LCMS: 251.2 (M+H).

Step 5: N3-(3-Chloro-4-fluoro-phenyl)-furo[2,3-c]pyridine-2,3-diamine


      To a stirred solution of 4-{[3-chloro-4-fluoro-phenylimino]-methyl}-pyridin-3-ol (6 g, 24 mmol) in mixed solvent [DCM (10 mL):TFE (10 mL)] was added TMSCN (10.5 mL, 84 mmol) at 25° C. The reaction mixture was stirred 3 hr at 25° C., concentrated, and the crude material was triturated with n-pentane to provide 4.9 g (73% yield) of N3-(3-chloro-4-fluoro-phenyl)-furo[2,3-c]pyridine-2,3-diamine as pale pink solid. LCMS: 278 (M+H), HPLC: 98.65%, 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 8.41 (s, 1H), 8.06 (d, 1H, J=5.08 Hz), 7.14-7.10 (m, 2H), 6.91 (s, 2H), 6.86 (d, 1H, J=5.08 Hz), 6.56-6.54 (m, 1H), 6.48-6.45 (m, 1H).

 

 

Monali Banerjee – Director, R&D

Ms. Banerjee has more than 10 years of research experience, during which she has held positions of increasing responsibility. Her past organizations include TCG Lifesciences (Chembiotek) and Sphaera Pharma. Ms. Banerjee is a versatile scientist with a deep understanding of the fundamental issues that underlie various aspects of drug discovery. At Curadev, she has been responsible for target selection, patent analysis, pharmacophore design, assay development, ADME/PK and in vivo and in vitro pharmacology. Ms. Banerjee holds a Masters in Biochemistry and a Bachelors in Chemistry both from Kolkata University.

writeup

The essential amino acid Tryptophan (Trp) is catabolized through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. The initial rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway is performed by heme-containing oxidoreductase enzymes, including tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2). IDO1 and IDO2 share very limited homology with TDO at the amino acid level and, despite having different molecular structures, each enzyme has the same biochemical activity in that they each catalyze tryptophan to form N-formylkynurenine. IDO1, IDO2, and/or TDO activity alter local tryptophan concentrations, and the build-up of kynurenine pathway metabolites due to the activity of these enzymes can lead to numerous conditions associated with immune suppression.
      IDO1 and TDO are implicated in the maintenance of immunosuppressive conditions associated with the persistence of tumor resistance, chronic infection, HIV infection, malaria, schizophrenia, depression as well as in the normal phenomenon of increased immunological tolerance to prevent fetal rejection in utero. Therapeutic agents that inhibit IDO1, IDO2, and TDO activity can be used to modulate regulatory T cells and activate cytotoxic T cells in immunosuppressive conditions associated with cancer and viral infection (e.g. HIV-AIDS, HCV). The local immunosuppressive properties of the kynurenine pathway and specifically IDO1 and TDO have been implicated in cancer. A large proportion of primary cancer cells have been shown to overexpress IDO1. In addition, TDO has recently been implicated in human brain tumors.
      The earliest experiments had proposed an anti-microbial role for IDO1, and suggested that localized depletion of tryptophan by IDO1 led to microbial death (Yoshida et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1978, 75(8):3998-4000). Subsequent research led to the discovery of a more complex role for IDO1 in immune suppression, best exemplified in the case of maternal tolerance towards the allogeneic fetus where IDO1 plays an immunosuppressive role in preventing fetal rejection from the uterus. Pregnant mice dosed with a specific IDO1 inhibitor rapidly reject allogeneic fetuses through induction of T cells (Munn et al., Science, 1998, 281(5380): 1191-3). Studies since then have established IDO1 as a regulator of certain disorders of the immune system and have discovered that it plays a role in the ability of transplanted tissues to survive in new hosts (Radu et al., Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 2007 June, 119(7):2023-8). It is believed that increased IDO1 activity resulting in elevated kynurenine pathway metabolites causes peripheral and ultimately, systemic immune tolerance. In-vitro studies suggest that the proliferation and function of lymphocytes are exquisitely sensitive to kynurenines (Fallarino et al., Cell Death and Differentiation, 2002, 9(10):1069-1077). The expression of IDO1 by activated dendritic cells suppresses immune response by mechanisms that include inducing cell cycle arrest in T lymphocytes, down regulation of the T lymphocyte cell receptor (TCR) and activation of regulatory T cells (T-regs) (Terness et al., J. Exp. Med., 2002, 196(4):447-457; Fallarino et al., J. Immunol., 2006, 176(11):6752-6761).
      IDO1 is induced chronically by HIV infection and in turn increases regulatory T cells leading to immunosuppression in patients (Sci. Transl. Med., 2010; 2). It has been recently shown that IDO1 inhibition can enhance the level of virus specific T cells and concomitantly reduce the number of virus infected macrophages in a mouse model of HIV (Potula et al., 2005, Blood, 106(7):2382-2390). IDO1 activity has also been implicated in other parasitic infections. Elevated activity of IDO1 in mouse malaria models has also been shown to be abolished by in vivo IDO1 inhibition (Tetsutani K., et al., Parasitology. 2007 7:923-30.
      More recently, numerous reports published by a number of different groups have focused on the ability of tumors to create a tolerogenic environment suitable for survival, growth and metastasis by activating IDO1 (Prendergast, Nature, 2011, 478(7368):192-4). Studies of tumor resistance have shown that cells expressing IDO1 can increase the number of regulatory T cells and suppress cytotoxic T cell responses thus allowing immune escape and promoting tumor tolerance.
      Kynurenine pathway and IDO1 are also believed to play a role in maternal tolerance and immunosuppressive process to prevent fetal rejection in utero (Munn et al., Science, 1998, 281(5380):1191-1193). Pregnant mice dosed with a specific IDO1 inhibitor rapidly reject allogeneic fetuses through suppression of T cells activity (Munn et al., Science, 1998, 281(5380):1191-1193). Studies since then have established IDO1 as a regulator of immune-mediated disorders and suggest that it plays a role in the ability of transplanted tissues to survive in new hosts (Radu et al., Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 2007 June, 119(7):2023-8).
      The local immunosuppressive properties of the kynurenine pathway and specifically IDO1 and TDO have been implicated in cancer. A large proportion of primary cancer cells overexpress IDO1 and/or TDO (Pilotte et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2012, Vol. 109(7):2497-2502). Several studies have focused on the ability of tumors to create a tolerogenic environment suitable for survival, growth and metastasis by activating IDO1 (Prendergast, Nature, 2011, 478:192-4). Increase in the number of T-regs and suppression of cytotoxic T cell responses associated with dysregulation of the Kynurenine pathway by overexpression of IDO1 and/or TDO appears to result in tumor resistance and promote tumor tolerance.
      Data from both clinical and animal studies suggest that inhibiting IDO1 and/or TDO activity could be beneficial for cancer patients and may slow or prevent tumor metastases (Muller et al., Nature Medicine, 2005, 11(3):312-319; Brody et al., Cell Cycle, 2009, 8(12):1930-1934; Witkiewicz et al., Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 2008, 206:849-854; Pilotte et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2012, Vol. 109(7):2497-2502). Genetic ablation of the IDO1 gene in mice (IDO1−/−) resulted in decreased incidence of DMBA-induced premalignant skin papillomas (Muller et al., PNAS, 2008, 105(44):17073-17078). Silencing of IDO1 expression by siRNA or a pharmacological IDO1 inhibitor 1-methyl tryptophan enhanced tumor-specific killing (Clin. Cancer Res., 2009, 15(2). In addition, inhibiting IDO1 in tumor-bearing hosts improved the outcome of conventional chemotherapy at reduced doses (Clin. Cancer Res., 2009, 15(2)). Clinically, the pronounced expression of IDO1 found in several human tumor types has been correlated with negative prognosis and poor survival rate (Zou, Nature Rev. Cancer, 2005, 5:263-274; Zamanakou et al., Immunol. Lett. 2007, 111(2):69-75). Serum from cancer patients has higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, a higher number of circulating T-regs, and increased effector T cell apoptosis when compared to serum from healthy volunteers (Suzuki et al., Lung Cancer, 2010, 67:361-365). Reversal of tumoral immune resistance by inhibition of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase has been studied by Pilotte et al. (Pilotte et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2012, Vol. 109(7):2497-2502). Thus, decreasing the rate of kynurenine production by inhibiting IDO1 and/or TDO may be beneficial to cancer patients.
      IDO1 and IDO2 are implicated in inflammatory diseases. IDO1 knock-out mice don’t manifest spontaneous disorders of classical inflammation and existing known small molecule inhibitors of IDO do not elicit generalized inflammatory reactions (Prendergast et al. Curr Med Chem. 2011; 18(15):2257-62). Rather, IDO impairment alleviates disease severity in models of skin cancers promoted by chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated arthritis and allergic airway disease. Moreover, IDO2 is a critical mediator of autoantibody production and inflammatory pathogenesis in autoimmune arthritis. IDO2 knock-out mice have reduced joint inflammation compared to wild-type mice due to decreased pathogenic autoantibodies and Ab-secreting cells (Merlo et al. J. Immunol. (2014) vol. 192(5) 2082-2090). Thus, inhibitors of IDO1 and IDO2 are useful in the treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.
      Kynurenine pathway dysregulation and IDO1 and TDO play an important role in the brain tumors and are implicated in inflammatory response in several neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, amyotrophic lateral schlerosis, dementia (Kim et al., J. Clin. Invest, 2012, 122(8):2940-2954; Gold et al., J. Neuroinflammation, 2011, 8:17; Parkinson’s Disease, 2011, Volume 2011). Immunosuppression induced by IDO1 activity and the Kynurenine metabolites in the brain may be treated with inhibitors of IDO1 and/or TDO. For example, circulating T-reg levels were found to be decreased in patient with glioblastoma treated with anti-viral agent inhibitors of IDO1 (Soderlund, et al., J. Neuroinflammation, 2010, 7:44).
      Several studies have found Kynurenine pathway metabolites to be neuroactive and neurotoxic. Neurotoxic kynurenine metabolites are known to increase in the spinal cord of rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (Chiarugi et al., Neuroscience, 2001, 102(3):687-95). The neurotoxic effects of Kynurenine metabolities is exacerbated by increased plasma glucose levels. Additionally, changes in the relative or absolute concentrations of the kynurenines have been found in several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, stroke and epilepsy (Németh et al., Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 2007, 7:45-56; Wu et al. 2013; PLoS One; 8(4)).
      Neuropsychiatric diseases and mood disorders such as depression and schizophrenia are also said to have IDO1 and Kynurenine dysregulation. Tryptophan depletion and deficiency of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) leads to depression and anxiety. Increased IDO1 activity decreases the synthesis of 5-HT by reducing the amount of Tryptophan availability for 5-HT synthesis by increasing Tryp catabolism via the kynurenine pathway (Plangar et al. (2012) Neuropsychopharmacol Hung 2012; 14(4): 239-244). Increased IDO1 activity and levels of both kynurenine and kynurenic acid have been found in the brains of deceased schizophrenics (Linderholm et al., Schizophrenia Bulletin (2012) 38: 426-432)). Thus, inhibition of IDO1, IDO1, and TDO may also be an important treatment strategy for patients with neurological or neuropsychiatric disease or disorders such as depression and schizophrenia as well as insomnia.
      Kynurenine pathway dysregulation and IDO1 and/or TDO activity also correlate with cardiovascular risk factors, and kynurenines and IDO1 are markers for Atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular heart diseases such as coronary artery disease (Platten et al., Science, 2005, 310(5749):850-5, Wirlietner et al. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003 July; 33(7):550-4) in addition to kidney disease. The kynurenines are associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease (Pawlak et al., Atherosclerosis, 2009, (204)1:309-314). Studies show that kynurenine pathway metabolites are associated with endothelial dysfunction markers in the patients with chronic kidney disease (Pawlak et al., Advances in Medical Sciences, 2010, 55(2):196-203).

///////CRD1152, CRD-1152, CRD 1152, CURADEV PHARMA PRIVATE LTD, ROCHE, IDO1 and TDO inhibitors, COLLABORATION, CANCER, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1, Hoffmann-La Roche, kynurenine pathway regulators, solid tumors

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GDC 0853

 cancer, phase 1, Uncategorized  Comments Off on GDC 0853
Mar 252016
 

str1

 

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GDC 0853

GDC-0853; RG 7845

Molecular Formula: C37H44N8O4
Molecular Weight: 664.79646 g/mol

2-[3-(hydroxymethyl)-4-[1-methyl-5-[(7-methyl-6,8-dihydro-5H-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrazin-2-yl)amino]-6-oxo-3-pyridyl]-2-pyridyl]-3,4,6,7,8,9-hexahydropyrazino[1,2-a]indol-1-one

3-[3-(hydroxymethyl)-4-[1-methyl-5-[[5-[2-methyl-4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl]pyridin-2-yl]amino]-6-oxopyridin-3-yl]pyridin-2-yl]-7,7-dimethyl-1,2,6,8-tetrahydrocyclopenta[3,4]pyrrolo[3,5-b]pyrazin-4-one

3-[3-(hydroxymethyl)-4-[5-[[5-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-pyridyl]amino]-6-oxo-1H-pyridin-3-yl]-2-pyridyl]-7,7-dimethyl-1,2,6,8-tetrahydrocyclopenta[3,4]pyrrolo[3,5-b]pyrazin-4-one

2H-​Cyclopenta[4,​5]​pyrrolo[1,​2-​a]​pyrazin-​1(6H)​-​one, 2-​[1,​6-​dihydro-​3′-​(hydroxymethyl)​-​1-​methyl-​5-​[[5-​[(2S)​-​2-​methyl-​4-​(3-​oxetanyl)​-​1-​piperazinyl]​-​2-​pyridinyl]​amino]​-​6-​oxo[3,​4′-​bipyridin]​-​2′-​yl]​-​3,​4,​7,​8-​tetrahydro-​7,​7-​dimethyl-

s ISoMER 1434048-34-6

r iSoMER 1434048-57-3

Phase 1

Patients with Patients with Resistant B-Cell Lymphoma or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia..

‘s Btk inhibitor

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01991184

Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor

  • 01 Sep 2015 Phase-I clinical trials in Autoimmune disorders (In volunteers) in USA (PO, Capsule and Tablet) (NCT02699710)
  • 16 Oct 2014 Discontinued – Phase-I for Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Second-line therapy or greater) in USA (unspecified route)
  • 16 Oct 2014 Discontinued – Phase-I for Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (Second-line therapy or greater) in USA (unspecified route)

SCHEMBL14912984.png

BTK inhibitor GDC-0853 An orally available inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, GDC-0853 inhibits the activity of BTK and prevents the activation of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. This prevents both B-cell activation and BTK-mediated activation of downstream survival pathways, which leads to the inhibition of the growth of malignant B-cells that overexpress BTK. BTK, a member of the Src-related BTK/Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in B-cell malignancies; it plays an important role in B-lymphocyte development, activation, signaling, proliferation and survival.

Patent

WO 2013067274

https://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2013067274A1?cl=en

part

Example 271a (S)-tert-Butyl 4-(6-(5-Chloro-2-methoxypyridin-3-ylamino)pyridin-3-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate 271a

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A 100-mL single-neck round-bottomed flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer and a reflux condenser was charged with 1,4-dioxane (40 mL), (S)-tert-butyl 4-(6-amino pyridin-3-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate 101h (2.04 g, 7.0 mmol), 3-bromo-5-chloro-2-methoxypyridine (2.8 g, 12.6 mmol), Pd2(dba)3 (640 mg, 0.70 mmol), XantPhos (404.6 mg, 0.70 mmol), and cesium carbonate (4.56 g, 14.0 mmol). After three cycles of vacuum/argon flush, the mixture was heated at 100 °C for 4 h. After this time the reaction was cooled to room temperature. It was then filtered and the filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica-gel column chromatography eluting with 1:3 ethyl acetate/petroleum ether to afford 271a (1.7 g, 57%) as a yellow solid. MS-ESI: [M+H]+ 434.2

Example 271btert-Butyl (3S)-4-(6-{[5-(2-{4,4-Dimethyl-9-oxo-1,10-diazatricyclo[6.4.0.02,6]dodeca-2(6),7-dien-10-yl}-3-(hydroxymethyl)pyridin-4-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl] amino}pyridin-3-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate 271b

A 100-mL single-neck round-bottomed flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer and a reflux condenser was charged with 271a (650 mg, 1.50 mmol), {3-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-2-{4,4-dimethyl-9-oxo-1,10-diazatricyclo[6.4.0.02,6]dodeca-2(6),7-dien-10-yl}pyridin-4-yl}boronic acid 199e (1.79 g, 4.5 mmol), Pd2(dba)3 (137.2 mg, 0.15 mmol), P(cy)3(167.4 mg, 0.60 mmol), Cs2CO3 (978 mg, 3.0 mmol), dioxane (20 mL), and water (0.5 mL). After three cycles of vacuum/argon flush, the mixture was heated at 110°C for 16 h. After this time the reaction was cooled to room temperature. Lithium hydroxide monohydrate (1.89 g, 45 mmol) and water (2.0 mL) were added. The resulting mixture was stirred at 45°C for 4 h. It was then filtered and the filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica-gel column chromatography eluting with 3:1 ethyl acetate/petroleum ether to afford 271b (290 mg, 27%) as a yellow solid. MS-ESI: [M+H]+ 709.3

Example 271c 10-[3-(Hydroxymethyl)-4-[5-({5-[(2S)-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl]pyridin-2-yl}amino)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridin-3-yl]pyridin-2-yl]-4,4-dimethyl-1,10-diazatricyclo[6.4.0.02,6]dodeca-2(6),7-dien-9-one 271c

A solution of 271b (286.6 mg, 0.40 mmol) in dioxane/HCl (30 mL) was stirred at 50 °C for 2 h. It was evaporated under reduced pressure to afford 271c (450 mg, crude) as a black solid. MS-ESI: [M+H]+ 595.3

Example 271 3-[3-(hydroxymethyl)-4-[5-[[5-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-pyridyl]amino]-6-oxo-1H-pyridin-3-yl]-2-pyridyl]-7,7-dimethyl-1,2,6,8-tetrahydrocyclopenta[3,4]pyrrolo[3,5-b]pyrazin-4-one 271

To a solution of 271c (450 mg, 0.75 mmol) in methanol (10 mL) was added oxetan-3-one (162 mg, 2.25 mmol), NaBH3CN (141.8 mg, 2.25 mmol), and ZnCl2 (306 mg, 2.25 mmol). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The mixture was evaporated under reduced pressure and the residue was diluted with water (5 mL). It was then extracted with dichloromethane (3 X 10 mL) and the combined dichloromethane extract was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by reverse-phase prep-HPLC to afford 271 (23.0 mg, 8.8%, over two steps) as a yellow solid. MS-ESI: [M+H]+651.3. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 9.76 (s, 1H), 8.74 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.53 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.99 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1H), 7.84 (s, 1H), 7.73 (s, 1H), 7.41 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (dd, J = 2.5 Hz, 8.5 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (s, 1H), 6.85 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 5.16-5.13 (m, 1H), 4.72-4.69 (m, 5H), 4.54-4.53 (m, 1H), 4.36-4.35 (m, 1H), 4.19-4.17 (m, 2H), 3.89-3.87 (m, 1H), 3.56-3.49 (m, 2H), 3.11-3.09 (m, 2H), 2.60-2.48 (m, overlap, 7H), 2.24-2.21 (m, 1H), 1.29 (s, 6H), 1.02 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H)

Image loading...271

 

 

………………………..

syn of 191 j

is intermediateImage loading...not product, is acid

To a mixture of 4-chloro-2-{4,4-dimethyl-9-oxo-1,10-diazatricyclo[6.4.0.02,6]dodeca-2(6),7-dien-10-yl}pyridine-3-carbaldehyde 108a (500 mg, 1.46 mmol), tert-butyl alcohol (20 mL), and dichloromethane (5 mL) was added 2-methyl-2-butene (3066 mg, 43.8 mmol). An aqueous solution (8 mL) of NaClO2 (263 mg, 2.92 mmol) and NaH2PO4·2water (683 mg, 4.38 mmol) was added dropwise at -10°C and the reaction mixture was stirred at -10 °C for overnight. It was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue was extracted with ethyl acetate (4 × 20 mL). The combined organic extract was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified with reverse-phase prep-HPLC to afford 210a (315 mg, 60%) as a pale yellow solid. MS-ESI: [M+H]+ 360.1

Example 210b 2-{4,4-Dimethyl-9-oxo-1,10-diazatricyclo[6.4.0.02,6]dodeca-2(6),7-dien-10-yl} -4-[1-methyl-5-({5-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl]pyridin-2-yl}amino)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridin-3-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic Acid 210b

A 25-mL round-bottomed flask equipped with a reflux condenser was charged with 210a (400 mg, 1.1 mmol), (S)-1-methyl-3-(5-(2-methyl-4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-2-ylamino)-5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one 191j (536 mg, 1.1 mmol), PdCl2(dppf) (81 mg, 0.11 mmol), K3PO4 (466 mg, 2.2 mmol), sodium acetate (216 mg, 2.2 mmol), acetonitrile (10 mL), and water (0.2 mL). After three cycles of vacuum/argon flush, the mixture was heated at 100°C for 3 h. It was then filtered and the filtrate was evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica-gel column chromatography eluting with 1:3 petroleum/ethyl acetate to afford 210b as a yellow solid (306 mg, 41%). MS-ESI: [M+H]+ 679.3

construction, use your discretion

Example 130a (3S)-tert- utyl 3-methyl-4-(6-nitropyridin-3-yl)piperazine-l-carboxylate 130a

130a

Following the procedures as described for compound lOlg, reaction of 5-bromo-2-nitropyridine (10.5 g, 50 mmol), and (JS)-tert-butyl-3 -methylpiperazine- 1 -carboxylate (10.0 g, 50 mmol) afforded 130a as a yellow solid (8.05 g, 50%). LCMS: [M+H]+ 323

Example 130b (3 S)-tert-butyl-4-(6-aminopyridin-3 -yl)-3 -methylpiperazine- 1 -carboxylate 130b

130b

Following the procedures as described for compound lOlh, hydrogenation of 130a (5.8 g) afforded 130bas a brown solid (4.9 g, 96%). LCMS: [M+H]+ 293

Example 130c (3 S)-tert-Butyl-4-(6-(5 -bromo- 1 -methyl -2 -oxo- 1,2-dihydropyridin-3 -yl amino) pyridine-3 -yl)-3 -methylpiperazine- 1 -carboxylate 130c

N

Following the procedures as described for compound lOli, reaction of 130b (4.0 g) and 3,5-dibromo-l-methylpyridin-2(lH)-one (5.5 g) afforded 130c as a yellow solid (5.4 g, 83%). LCMS: [M+H]+ 478

Example 130d (3 S)-5 -Bromo- 1 -methyl-3 -(5 -(2-methylpiperazin- 1 -yl)pyridin- 2-ylamino)pyridine-2(lH)-one 130d

Following the procedures as described for compound lOlj, acidic hydrolysis of the Boc group of 130c (3.1 g) afforded 130d as a yellow solid (2.3 g, 95%). LCMS: [M+H]+ 380.

Example 130e (3 S)-5 -Bromo- 1 -methyl-3 -(5 -(2 -methyl-4-(ox etan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl) pyridine -2-ylamino)pyridin-2(lH)-one 130e

Following the procedures as described for compound 101k, reductive amination of 130d (2.35 g) with oxetan-3-one (0.4 mL) afforded 130e as a yellow solid (2.6 g, 98%). LCMS: [M+H]+ 434.

Example 13 Of (3S)-l-methyl-3-(5-(2-methyl-4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyridin-2-ylamino) -5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyridin-2(lH)-one 130f

check pyridine ring position

A 100 mL single-neck round-bottomed flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer and a reflux condenser was charged with 130e (1.0 g, 1.0 eq., 2.3 mmol), Pin2B2 (1.46 g, 2.50 eq., 5.75 mmol), Pd2(dba)3 (105 mg, 0.05 eq., 0.125 mmol), X-Phos (93 mg, 0.1 eq., 0.23 mmol), AcOK (676 mg, 3.0 eq., 6.9 mmol), and dioxane (50 mL). After three cycles of vacuum/argon flush, the mixture was heated at 90 °C for 4 hrs, then cooled to room temperature and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting residue was washed with 3: 1 PE/EA (80 mL) to afford 130f as yellow solid (1.0 g, 90%). MS: [M+H]+ 482.

 

check pyridine ring position, use your discretion

Example 191h ( 3S)-5 -Bromo- 1 -methyl-3 -(5 -(2-methylpiperazin- 1 -yl)pyridin- -ylamino)pyridine-2(lH)-one 191h

Following the procedure described for compound lOlj and starting with (3S)-tert-butyl 4-(6-(5 -bromo- 1 -methyl-2-oxo- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-3 -ylamino)pyridine-3 -yl)-3 -methyl-piperazine-l-carboxylate 191g (3.1 g, 6.5 mmol) afforded 191h as a yellow solid (2.3 g, 94%). MS-ESI: [M+H]+ 378.

Example 1 1 i (S)-5 -Bromo- 1 -methyl-3-(5-(2-methyl-4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pyridin-2-ylamino)pyridin-2(lH)-one 191i

A mixture of (5)-5-bromo-l-methyl-3-(5-(2-methylpiperazin-l-yl)pyridin-2-ylamino)pyridin-2(lH)-one 191h (40.0 g, 106 mmol), oxetan-3-one (1 1.4 g, 159 mmol), NaBH3CN (10.0 g, 159 mmol), and zinc chloride (21.3 g, 159 mmol) in methanol (700 mL) was stirred at 50°C for 5 hours. The mixture was added to water (100 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was extracted with dichloromethane (200 mL x 3). The combined organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by silica-gel column chromatography eluting with 40: 1 dichloromethane /methanol to afford 191i (35 g, 73%). MS: [M+H]+ 434.

Example 191j (J5)-l-Methyl-3-(5-(2-methyl-4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl)-pyridin- -ylamino) -5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyridin-2(lH)-one 191j

191 i 191j

A 100-mL single-neck round-bottomed flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer and a reflux condenser was charged with (5)-tert-butyl-4-(6-(5-bromo-l-methyl-2-oxo-l ,2-dihydropyridin-3-ylamino)pyridine-3-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate 191i (1.0 g, 1.0 eq., 2.3 mmol), Pin2B2 (1.46 g, 2.50 eq., 5.75 mmol), Pd2(dba)3 (105 mg, 0.05 eq., 0.125 mmol), X-Phos (93 mg, 0.1 eq., 0.23 mmol), potassium acetate (676 mg, 3.0 eq., 6.9 mmol), and dioxane (50 mL). After three cycles of vacuum/argon flush, the mixture was heated at 90°C for 4 h. It was then cooled to room temperature and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting residue was washed with 3 : 1 petroleum ether/ethyl acetate (80 mL) to afford 191j as yellow solid (1.0 g, 90%). MS: [M+H]+ 482.

 

 

pipeline

http://www.gene.com/medical-professionals/pipeline

Pictrelisib, GDC-0941, RG7321 and GNE0941

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US8921353 2014-12-30 Heteroaryl pyridone and aza-pyridone compounds
US2014378432 2014-12-25 HETEROARYL PYRIDONE AND AZA-PYRIDONE COMPOUNDS
US8716274 2014-05-06 Heteroaryl pyridone and aza-pyridone compounds

//////GDC 0853, Btk inhibitor, phase 1, Patients with Resistant B-Cell Lymphoma,  Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor,  GDC-0853,  RG 7845, 1434048-34-6

N1(CCN(CC1C)C2COC2)c3cnc(cc3)NC=4C(N(\C=C(/C=4)c5c(c(ncc5)N6CCn7c(C6=O)cc8CC(Cc78)(C)C)CO)C)=O

CC1CN(CCN1C2=CN=C(C=C2)NC3=CC(=CN(C3=O)C)C4=C(C(=NC=C4)N5CCN6C7=C(CC(C7)(C)C)C=C6C5=O)CO)C8COC8

 

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PF 06650808

 cancer, MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES, Uncategorized  Comments Off on PF 06650808
Mar 252016
 

=.

Picture credit….

PF 06650808

Phase 1

compound inspired by auristatins

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02129205

http://www.pfizer.com/sites/default/files/product-pipeline/8_7_2014_Pipeline_Update.pdf

ALL DATA COMING………

Notch-3 receptor antagonists

Neoplasms
Breast

Pfizer

 

 

Cancer

PF-06650808, is currently being examined in a Ph1 clinical trial (Protocol B7501001).

Notch3
Researchers are also exploring the use of Notch3 targeting. “The Notch pathway plays an important role in the growth of several solid tumours, including breast and ovarian cancer and melanoma,” explained Joerger. “In particular, Notch3 alterations such as gene amplification and upregulation are associated with poor patient survival. Research using Notch3 targeting as an innovative approach to treat solid malignancies included 27 patients unselected for Notch3 who received increasing doses of the anti-Notch3 antibody-drug conjugate PF-06650808. Responses were seen in two breast cancer patients (LBA 30). While preliminary, targeting Notch3 may become a new treatment approach in patients with selected solid tumours.”

The anti-Notch3 antibody-drug conjugate PF-06650808 is being developed by Pfizer.

  • 31 Jul 2014 Phase-I clinical trials in Solid tumours (Late-stage disease) in USA (Parenteral)
  • 30 Apr 2014 Preclinical trials in Solid tumours in USA (Parenteral)
  • 30 Apr 2014 Pfizer plans a phase I trial for Solid tumours (late-stage disease, second-line therapy or greater) in USA (NCT02129205)

 

 

251st Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (March 13-17, San Diego) 2016, Abst MEDI 262

 

str1 STR2

/////////PF 06650808, PF-06650808, PF-6650808, monoclonal antibody, pfizer, phase 1, Solid tumours , Notch-3 receptor antagonists

 

C1(C(N(C(C1)=O)CCCCCC(=O)NC([C@H](C)C)C(=O)NC(C(=O)Nc2ccc(cc2)COC(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)[N@](C)C(C(CC)C)[C@@H](OC)CC(=O)N3CCC[C@H]3C(OO)C(C)C(=O)N[C@H](c4nccs4)CC)CCCNC(=O)N)=O)SC

 

 

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Trioxacarcin A

 cancer  Comments Off on Trioxacarcin A
Mar 182016
 

Trioxacarcin A, DC-45A

CAS No. 81552-36-5

  • Molecular FormulaC42H52O20
  • Average mass876.850 Da
  • 17′-[(4-C-Acetyl-2,6-dideoxyhexopyranosyl)oxy]-19′-(dimethoxymethyl)-10′,13′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxy-3′-methyl-11′-oxospiro[oxirane-2,18‘-[16,20,22]trioxahexacyclo[17.2.1.02,15.05,14.07,12.017,21 ]docosa[2(15),3,5(14),6,12]pentaen]-8′-yl 4-O-acetyl-2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methylhexopyranoside
     (1S,2R,3aS,4S,8S,10S,13aS)-13a-(4-C-Acetyl-2,6-dideoxy-alpha-L-xylo-hexopyranosyloxy)-2-(dimethoxymethyl)-10,12-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-5-methyl-11-oxo-4,8,9,10,11,13a-hexahydro-3aH-spiro[2,4-epoxyfuro[3,2-b]naphtho[2,3-h]-1-benzopyran-1,2′-oxiran]-8-yl 4-O-acetyl-2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-alpha-L-xylo-hexopyranoside
  • Kyowa Hakko Kirin   INNOVATOR

Trioxacarcin B

Trioxacarcin B; Antibiotic DC 45B1; DC-45-B1; Trioxacarcin A, 14,17-deepoxy-14,17-dihydroxy-; AC1MJ5N1; 81534-36-3;

Molecular Formula: C42H54O21
Molecular Weight: 894.86556 g/mol

 

 

Trioxacarcin C

(CAS NO.81781-28-4):C42H54O20
Molecular Weight: 878.8662 g/mol
Structure of Trioxacarcin C :

 

The trioxacarcins are polyoxygenated, structurally complex natural products that potently inhibit the growth of cultured human cancer cells

Natural products that bind and often covalently modify duplex DNA figure prominently in chemotherapy for human cancers. The trioxacarcins are a new class of DNA- modifying natural products with antiproliferative effects. The trioxacarcins were first described in 1981 by Tomita and coworkers (Tomita et al. , J. Antibiotics, 34( 12): 1520- 1524, 1981 ; Tamaoki et al., J. Antibiotics 34( 12): 1525- 1530, 1981 ; Fujimoto et al. , J. Antibiotics 36(9): 1216- 1221 , 1983). Trioxacarcin A, B, and C were isolated by Tomita and coworkers from the culture broth of Streptomyces bottropensis DO-45 and shown to possess anti-tumor activity in murine models as well as gram-positive antibiotic activity. Subsequent work led to the discovery of other members of this family. Trioxacarcin A is a powerful anticancer agent with subnanmolar IC70 values against lung (LXFL 529L, H-460), mammary (MCF-7), and CNS (SF-268) cancer cell lines. The trioxacarcins have also been shown to have antimicrobial activity {e.g., anti-bacterial and anti-malarial activity) (see, e.g. , Maskey et al., J. Antibiotics (2004) 57:771 -779).

Figure imgf000002_0001

trioxacarcin A

An X-ray crystal structure of trioxacarcin A bound to N-7 of a guanidylate residue in a duplex DNA oligonucleotide substrate has provided compelling evidence for a proposed pathyway of DNA modification that proceeds by duplex intercalation and alkylation (Pfoh et al, Nucleic Acids Research 36( 10):3508-3514, 2008).

All trioxacarcins appear to be derivatives of the aglycone, which is itself a bacterial isolate referred to in the patent literature as DC-45-A2. U.S. Patent 4,459,291 , issued July 10, 1984, describes the preparation of DC-45-A2 by fermentation. DC-45-A2 is the algycone of trioxacarcins A, B, and C and is prepared by the acid hydrolysis of the fermentation products trioxacarcins A and C or the direct isolation from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces bottropensis.

Based on the biological activity of the trioxacarcins, a fully synthetic route to these compounds would be useful in exploring the biological and chemical activity of known trioxacarcin compounds and intermediates thereto, as well as aid in the development of new trioxacarcin compounds with improved biological and/or chemical properties.

PAPER

Component-Based Syntheses of Trioxacarcin A, DC-45-A1, and Structural Analogs
T. Magauer, D. Smaltz, A. G. Myers, Nat. Chem. 20135, 886–893. (Link)

 

Component-based syntheses of trioxacarcin A, DC-45-A1 and structural analogues

Nature Chemistry5,886–893(2013)
doi:10.1038/nchem.1746

PAPER

A schematic shows a trioxacarcin C molecule, whose structure was revealed for the first time through a new process developed by the Rice lab of synthetic organic chemist K.C. Nicolaou. Trioxacarcins are found in bacteria but synthetic versions are needed to study them for their potential as medications. Trioxacarcins have anti-cancer properties. Source: Nicolaou Group/Rice University

A schematic shows a trioxacarcin C molecule, whose structure was revealed for the first time through a new process developed by the Rice lab of synthetic organic chemist K.C. Nicolaou. Trioxacarcins are found in bacteria but synthetic versions are needed to study them for their potential as medications. Trioxacarcins have anti-cancer properties. Source: Nicolaou Group/Rice University

A team led by Rice University synthetic organic chemist K.C. Nicolaou has developed a new process for the synthesis of a series of potent anti-cancer agents originally found in bacteria.

The Nicolaou lab finds ways to replicate rare, naturally occurring compounds in larger amounts so they can be studied by biologists and clinicians as potential new medications. It also seeks to fine-tune the molecular structures of these compounds through analog design and synthesis to improve their disease-fighting properties and lessen their side effects.

Such is the case with their synthesis of trioxacarcins, reported this month in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

 

 

PAPER

 

 

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/EP2550285A1?cl=en

(S)-9-Hvdrox v- 10-methoxy-5-(4-methoxybenzylox v)- 1 -(methoxymethox y)-3- methyl-8-oxo-5,6.7.8-tetrahvdroanthracene-2-carbaldehvde. Potassium osmate dihydrate (29 mg, 0.079 mmol, 0.05 equiv) was added to an ice -cooled mixture of (S,£)-9-hydroxy- 10- methoxy-4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-8-(methoxymethoxy)-6-methyl-7-(prop- l -enyl)-3,4- dihydroanthracen-l -one (780 mg, 1.58 mmol, 1 equiv), 2,6-lutidine (369 μί, 3.17 mmol, 2.0 equiv), and sodium periodate ( 1.36 g, 6.33 mmol, 4.0 equiv) in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (20 mL) and water ( 10 mL). After 10 min, the cooling bath was removed and the reaction flask was allowed to warm to 23 °C. After 1.5 h, the reaction mixture was partitioned between water ( 100 mL) and ethyl acetate (150 mL). The layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with aqueous sodium chloride solution (50 mL) and the washed solution was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash-column chromatography (20% ethyl acetate- hexanes) to provide 498 mg of the product, (5)-9-hydroxy- 10-methoxy-5-(4- methoxybenzyloxy)- l -(methoxymethoxy)-3-methyl-8-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroanthracene-2- carbaldehyde, as an orange foam (65%). Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDC13): 15.17 (s, 1 H), 10.74 (s, 1 H), 7.66 (s, 1 H), 7.27 (d, 2H, 7 = 8.5 Hz), 6.86 (d, 2H, 7 = 8.6 Hz), 5.30-5.18 (m, 3H), 4.63 (d, 1H,7= 11.1 Hz), 4.52 (d, 1H,7 = 12.0 Hz), 3.86 (s, 3H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.62 (s, 3H), 3.22 (m, 1H), 2.75 (s, 3H), 2.63 (m, 1H), 2.54 (m, 1H), 2.08 (m, 1H). I3C NMR (125 MHz, CDC13): 204.9, 193.2, 163.2, 161.7, 159.2, 144.4, 141.7, 137.0, 130.1, 129.4, 120.7, 117.9, 113.8, 110.0, 102.8, 70.4, 67.2, 62.9, 58.3, 55.2, 32.3, 26.3, 22.2. FTIR, cm-1 (thin film): 2936 (m), 2907 (m), 1684 (s), 1611 (s), 1377 (s), 1246 (s). HRMS (ESI): Calcd for

(C27H2808+K)+: 519.1416; Found 519.1368. TLC (20% ethyl acetate-hexanes): R,= 0.17 (CAM).

Figure imgf000147_0001

86% yield

[00457] (S)-l,9-Dihvdroxy-10-methoxy-5-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-3-methyl-8-oxo-5,6,7,8- tetrahydroanthracene-2-carbaldehyde. A solution of B-bromocatecholborane (418 mg, 2.10 mmol, 2.0 equiv) in dichloromethane (15 mL) was added to a solution of (S)-9-hydroxy-10- methoxy-5-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-l-(methoxymethoxy)-3-methyl-8-oxo-5,6,7,8- tetrahydroanthracene-2-carbaldehyde (490 mg, 1.05 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (15 mL) at -78 °C. After 50 min, the reaction mixture was diluted with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (25 mL) and dichloromethane (100 mL). The cooling bath was removed, and the partially frozen mixture was allowed to warm to 23 °C. The biphasic mixture was diluted with 0.2 M aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (100 mL). The layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (100 mL). The organic layers were combined. The combined solution was washed sequentially with 0.1 M aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (100 mL), water (2 x 100 mL), then saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (100 mL) and the washed solution was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to provide 380 mg of the product, (S)-\ ,9- dihydroxy-10-methoxy-5-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-3-methyl-8-oxo-5,6,7,8- tetrahydroanthracene-2-carbaldehyde, as a yellow foam (86%). Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3):

15.89 (brs, 1H), 12.81 (br s, 1H), 10.51 (s, 1H), 7.27-7.26 (m, 3H), 6.86 (d, 2H, J = 9.2 Hz), 5.14 (app s, 1H),4.62 (d, \H,J= 11.0 Hz), 4.51 (d, 1H,7= 11.0 Hz), 3.85 (s, 3H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.21 (m, 1H), 2.73 (s, 3H), 2.62 (m, 1H), 2.54 (m, 1H), 2.07 (m, 1H). I3C NMR (125 MHz, CDCI3): 204.4, 192.7, 166.6, 164.3, 159.3, 144.4, 142.7, 137.9, 130.4, 130.2, 129.4, 114.9, 114.2, 113.9, 113.8, 109.4, 70.4, 67.1,62.8, 55.3, 31.8, 26.5. FTIR, cm-1 (thin film): 3316 (brw), 2938 (m), 1678 (m), 1610 (s), 1514 (m), 1393 (m), 1246 (s). HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C25H2407+Na)+ 459.1414; Found 459.1354. TLC (50% ethyl acetate-hexanes): R = 0.30 (CAM).

Figure imgf000148_0001

[00458] (5)-2,2-Di-/erf-butyl-7-methoxy-8-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-5-methyl- 1 1 -oxo- 8,9, 10, 1 1 -tetrahydroanthra[9, 1 -de \ 1 ,3,21dioxasiline-4-carbaldehyde. Όι-tert- butyldichlorosilane (342 μL·, 1.62 mmol, 1.8 equiv) was added to a solution of (5)-l ,9- dihydroxy- 10-methoxy-5-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-3-methyl-8-oxo-5,6,7,8- tetrahydroanthracene-2-carbaldehyde (380 mg, 0.90 mmol, 1 equiv), hydroxybenzotriazole (60.8 mg, 0.45 mmol, 0.50 equiv) and diisopropylethylamine (786 μί, 4.50 mmol, 5.0 equiv) in dimethylformamide (30 mL). The reaction flask was heated in an oil bath at 55 °C. After 2 h, the reaction flask was allowed to cool to 23 °C. The reaction mixture was partitioned between saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (100 mL) and ethyl acetate (150 mL). The layers were separated. The organic layer was washed sequentially with water (2 x 100 mL) then saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (100 mL) and the washed solution was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash-column chromatography (10% ethyl acetate- hexanes) to provide 285 mg of the product, (S)-2,2-di-/<?ri-butyl-7-methoxy-8-(4- methoxybenzyloxy)-5-methyl- 1 1 -oxo-8,9, 10, 1 1 -tetrahydroanthra[9, 1 -de] [ 1 ,3,2]dioxasiline-4- carbaldehyde, as a yellow foam (56%). The enantiomeric compound (/?)-2,2-di-½ri-butyl-7- methoxy-8-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-5-methyl- l 1 -oxo-8,9, 10, 1 1 -tetrahydroanthra[9, 1 – i/e][ l ,3,2]dioxasiline-4-carbaldehyde has been prepared using the same route by utilizing R- (4-methoxybenzyloxy)cyclohex-2-enone as starting material. Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3): 10.84 (s, 1 H), 7.37 (s, 1 H), 7.25 (d, 2H, J = 8.8 Hz), 6.85 (d, 2H, = 8.7 Hz), 5.20 (app s, 1 H), 4.62 (d, 1 H, 7 = 10.0 Hz), 4.51 (d, 1H, J = 1 1.4 Hz), 3.88 (s, 3H), 3.78 (s, 3H), 3.03 (m, 1H), 2.73 (s, 3H), 2.57-2.53 (m, 2H), 2.07 (m, 1H), 1.16 (s, 9H), 1.14 (s, 9H). 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): 195.6, 190.9, 160.5, 159.2, 150.4, 145.7, 140.4, 134.0, 133.9, 130.3, 129.4, 1 19.5, 1 16.6, 1 15.8, 1 15.3, 1 13.8, 70.4, 67.8, 62.9, 55.2, 34.0, 26.0, 26.0, 22.5, 21.3, 21.1. FTIR, cm“1 (thin film): 2936 (m), 2862 (m), 1682 (s), 1607 (s), 1371 (s), 1244 (s) 1057 (s). HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C33H4o07Si+H)+ 577.2616; Found 577.2584. TLC (10% ethyl acetate-hexanes): R/ = 0.19 (CAM). Alternative Routes to (4S,6S)-6-(½rt-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)-4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy) cyclohex-2-enone.

Alternative Route 1.

Figure imgf000149_0001

[00459] (25,45,55)-2,4-Bis(ferf-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-5-hvdroxycvclohexanone. Dess- Martin periodinane (6.1 1 g, 14.4 mmol, 1.1 equiv) was added to a solution of diol (5.00 g, 13.3 mmol, 1 equiv) in tetrahydrofuran (120 mL) at 23 °C (Lim, S. M.; Hill, N.; Myers, A. G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 5763-5765). After 40 min, the reaction mixture was diluted with ether (300 mL). The diluted solution was filtered through a short plug of silica gel (-5 cm) and eluted with ether (300 mL). The filtrate was concentrated. The bulk of the product was transformed as outlined in the following paragraph, without purification. Independently,

s

an analytically pure sample of the product was obtained by flash-column chromatography (20% ethyl acetate-hexanes) and was characterized by Ή NMR, l 3C NMR, IR, and HRMS. TLC: (17% ethyl acetate-hexanes) R = 0.14 (CAM); Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3) δ: 4.41 (dd, 1 H, 7 = 9.8, 5.5 Hz), 4.05 (m, l H), 4.00 (m, 1H), 2.81 (ddd, 1 H, 7 = 14.0, 3.7, 0.9 Hz), 2.52 (ddd, 1 H, 7 = 14.0, 5.3, 0.9 Hz), 2.29 (br s, 1 H), 2.18 (m, 1H), 1.98 (m, 1 H), 0.91 (s, 9H), 0.89 (s, 9H), 0.13 (s, 3H), 0.1 1 (s, 3H), 0.09 (s, 3H), 0.04 (s, 3H); l 3C NMR (125 MHz, CDCI3) δ: 207.9, 73.9, 73.3, 70.5, 43.3, 39.0, 25.7, 25.6, 18.3, 17.9, -4.7, -4.8, -4.9, -5.4; FTIR (neat), cm‘ : 3356 (br), 2954 (m), 2930 (m), 2857 (m), 1723 (m), 1472 (m). 1253 (s), 1 162 (m), 1 105 (s), 1090 (s), 1059 (s), 908 (s), 834 (s), 776 (s), 731 (s); HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C|8H3804Si2+H)+ 375. 2381 , found 375.2381.

Figure imgf000149_0002

[00460] (4 ,6 )-4.6-Bis(fcr/-butyldimethylsilyloxy)cvclohex-2-enone. Trifluoroacetic anhydride (6.06 mL, 43.6 mmol, 3.3 equiv) was added to an ice-cooled solution of the alcohol ( 1 equiv, see paragraph above) and triethylamine ( 18.2 mL, 131 mmol, 9.9 equiv) in dichloromethane (250 mL) at 0 °C. After 20 min, the cooling bath was removed and the reaction flask was allowed to warm to 23 °C. After 18 h, the reaction flask was cooled in an ice bath at 0 °C, and the product solution was diluted with water ( 100 mL). The cooling bath was removed and the reaction flask was allowed to warm to 23 °C. The layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 200 mL). The organic layers were combined. The combined solution was washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution ( 100 mL) and the washed solution was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash- column chromatography (6% ethyl acetate-hexanes) to provide 3.02 g of the product, (4S,65)-4,6-bis(/eri-butyldimethylsilyloxy)cyclohex-2-enone, as a colorless oil (64% over two steps). TLC: (20% ethyl acetate-hexanes) R = 0.56 (CAM); Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDC13) δ: 6.76 (dd, 1 Η, / = 10.1 , 3.6 Hz), 5.88 (d, 1 H, 7 = 10.1 Hz), 4.66 (ddd, 1 H, 7 = 5.6, 4.1 , 3.6 Hz), 4.40 (dd, 1 H, 7 = 8.1 , 3.7 Hz), 2.26 (ddd, 1 H, / = 13.3, 8.0, 4.1 Hz), 2.1 1 (ddd, 1 H, J = 13.2, 5.6, 3.8 Hz), 0.91 (s, 9H), 0.89 (s, 9H), 0.12 (s, 3H), 0. 1 1 (s, 3H), 0. 10 (s, 3H), 0.10 (s, 3H); 13C NMR ( 125 MHz, CDC13) δ: 197.5, 150.3, 127.0, 71 .0, 64.8, 41.6, 25.7, 25.7, 18.3, 18.1 , -4.7, -4.8, -4.8, -5.4; FTIR (neat), cm-1 : 3038 (w), 2955 (m), 2930 (m), 1705 (m), 1472 (m), 1254 (m), 1084 (m), 835 (s), 777 (s), 675 (s); HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C,8H3602Si2+Na)+ 379. 2095, found 379. 2080.

Figure imgf000150_0001

[00461] (4S,6S)-6-(/er/-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)-4-hydroxycvclohex-2-enone. Tetra- j- butylammonium fluoride ( 1 .0 M solution in tetrahydrofuran, 8.00 mL, 8.00 mmol, 1 .0 equiv) was added to an ice-cooled solution of the enone (2.85 g, 8.00 mmol, 1 equiv) and acetic acid (485 ί, 8.00 mmol, 1 .0 equiv) in tetrahydrofuran (80 mL) at 0 °C. After 2 h, the cooling bath was removed and the reaction flask was allowed to warm to 23 °C. After 22 h, the reaction mixture was partitioned between water ( 100 mL) and ethyl acetate (300 mL). The layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 300 mL). The organic layers were combined. The combined solution was washed sequentially with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution ( 100 mL) then saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution ( 100 mL) and the washed solution was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash- column chromatography (25% ethyl acetate-hexanes) to provide 760 mg of the product, (4S,6S)-6-(ferNbutyldimethylsilyloxy)-4-hydroxycyclohex-2-enone, as a white solid (39%). TLC: (20% ethyl acetate-hexanes) R/ = 0.20 (CAM); Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDC13) δ: 6.87 (dd, 1 Η, 7 = 10.2, 3.2 Hz), 5.95 (dd, 1H, J = 10.3, 0.9 Hz), 4.73 (m, 1 H), 4.35 (dd, 1 H, 7 = 7.6, 3.7 Hz), 2.39 (m, 1 H), 2. 13 (ddd, 1 H, J = 13.3, 6.2, 3.4 Hz), 1.83 (d, 1 H, J = 6.2), 0.89 (s, 9H), 0.10 (s, 3H), 0. 10 (s, 3H); 13C NMR ( 125 MHz, CDCb) δ: 197.3, 150.0, 127.5, 70.9, 64.2, 41 .0, 25.7, 18.2, -4.8, -5.4; FTIR (neat), cm“1 : 2956 (w), 293 1 (w), 2858 (w), 1694 (m); HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C |2H2203Si+H)+ 243.141 1 , found 243. 1412.

Figure imgf000151_0001

82″:.

[00462] (45.6S)-6-(fgrf-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)-4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)cvclohex-2- enone. Triphenylmethyl tetrafluoroborate ( 16 mg, 50 μπιοΐ, 0.050 equiv) was added to a solution of 4-methoxybenzyl-2,2,2-trichloroacetimidate (445 μΙ_, 2.5 mmol, 2.5 equiv) and alcohol (242 mg, 1 .0 mmol, 1 equiv) in ether ( 10 mL) at 23 °C. After 4 h, the reaction mixture was partitioned between saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution ( 15 mL) and ethyl acetate (50 mL). The layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (50 mL). The organic layers were combined. The combined solution was washed with water (2 x 20 mL) and the washed solution was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography (5% ethyl acetate-hexanes initially, grading to 10% ethyl acetate-hexanes) to provide 297 mg of the product, (4S,6S)-6-(im-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-4-(4- methoxybenzyloxy)cyclohex-2-enone, as a colorless oil (82%).

Alternative Route 2.

Figure imgf000151_0002

[00463] (5)-?erf-Butyl(4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)cvclohexa- 1.5-dienyloxy)dimethylsilane. rerr-Butyldimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (202 iL, 0.94 mmol, 2.0 equiv) was added to an ice-cooled solution of triethylamine (262 μί, 1.88 mmol, 4.0 equiv) and enone ( 109 mg, 0.47 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (5.0 mL). After 30 min, the reaction mixture was partitioned between saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution ( 10 mL), water (30 mL), and dichloromethane (40 mL). The layers were separated. The organic layer was washed sequentially with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution (20 mL) then saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (20 mL) and the washed solution was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash-column chromatography with triethylamine-treated silica gel (5% ethyl acetate-hexanes), to provide 130 mg of the product, (5)-ierr-butyl(4-(4- methoxybenzyloxy)cyclohexa- l ,5-dienyloxy)dimethylsilane, as a colorless oil (80%). Ή

NMR (500 MHz, CDC13): 7.27 (d, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz), 6.88 (d, 2H, J = 8.6 Hz), 5.96 (dd, 1 H, J = 9.9, 3.5 Hz), 5.87 (d, 1 H, 7 = 9.6 Hz), 4.94 (m, l H), 4.46 (s, 2H), 4.14 (m, 1 H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 2.49 (m, 2H), 0.93 (s, 9H), 0. 16 (s, 3H), 0.15 (s, 3H). , 3C NMR ( 125 MHz, CDC13): 159.1 , 147.5, 130.9, 129.2, 128.6, 128.1 , 1 13.8, 101.4, 70.2, 69.0, 55.3, 28.5, 25.7, 18.0, ^1.5, -4.5. FTIR, cm-1 (thin film): 2957 (m), 2931 (m), 2859 (m), 1655 (w), 1613 (w), 1515 (s), 1248 (s), 1229 (s), 1037 (m), 910 (s). HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C2oH3o03Si+H)+ 347.2037; Found 347.1912. TLC (20% ethyl acetate-hexanes): R = 0.74 (CAM).

OP B OPMB DM 00 ,,Α,,

c Ύ’ -ietone ii ·η- ) ‘”OH

OTBS 82 Q

[00464] (4S,6S)-6-Hvdroxy-4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)cvclohex-2-enone. A solution of dimethyldioxirane (0.06 M solution in acetone, 2.89 mL, 0.17 mmol, 1.2 equiv) was added to an ice-cooled solution of (S)-ieri-butyl(4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)cyclohexa- l ,5- dienyloxy)dimethylsilane (50 mg, 0.14 mmol, 1 equiv). After 10 min, the reaction mixture was partitioned between dichloromethane ( 15 mL) and 0.5 M aqueous hydrochloric acid ( 10 mL). The layers were separated. The organic layer was washed sequentially with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution ( 10 mL) then water ( 10 mL) and the washed solution was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash-column chromatography to provide 30 mg of the product, (4S,6S)-6-hydroxy-4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)cyclohex-2-enone, as a colorless oil (82%). Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDC13): 7.28 (d, 2H, J = 8.2 Hz), 6.89 (m, 3H), 6.09 (d, 1 H, J = 10.1 Hz), 4.64 (m, 2H), 4.53 (d, 1 H, 7 = 1 1 .4 Hz), 4.24 (m, 1 H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 3.39 (d, 1 H, 7 = 1.4 Hz), 2.67 (m, 1 H), 1 .95 (ddd, 1 H, 7 = 12.8, 12.8, 3.6 Hz). I 3C NMR ( 125 MHz, CDC13): 200.4, 159.5, 146.6, 129.7, 129.4, 127.8, 1 14.0, 71.6, 69.8, 68.9, 55.3, 35.1 . FTIR, cm-1 (thin film): 3474 (br), 2934 (m), 2864 (m), 1692 (s), 1613 (m), 1512 (s), 1246 (s), 1059 (s), 1032 (s). HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C,4Hl6O4+Na)+ 271.0941 ; Found 271.0834. TLC (50% ethyl acetate-hexanes): R/ = 0.57 (CAM).

Figure imgf000153_0001

[00465] (45,65)-6-(½rt-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)-4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)cvclohex-2- enone. rerr-Butyldimethychlorosilane (26 mg, 0.18 mmol, 1.5 equiv) was added to an ice- cooled solution of (45,65)-6-hydroxy-4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)cyclohex-2-enone (29 mg, 0.12 mmol, 1 equiv) and imidazole (24 mg, 0.35 mmol, 3 equiv) in dimethylformamide (0.5 mL). After 45 min, the reaction mixture was partitioned between water (15 mL), saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (15 mL), and ethyl acetate (20 mL). The layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water (2 x 20 mL) and the washed solution was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash-column chromatography to provide 29 mg of the product, (4S,6S)-6-(rm-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)cyclohex-2- enone, as a colorless oil (87%).

Glycosylation experiments

[00466] Glycosylation experiments demonstrate that the chemical process developed allows for the preparation of synthetic, glycosylated trioxacarcins. Specifically, the C4 or CI 3 hydroxyl group may be selectively glycosylated with a glycosyl donor (for example, a glycosyl acetate) and an activating agent (for example, TMSOTf), which enables preparation of a wide array of trioxacarcin analogues.

Selective Glycosylation of the C4 Hydroxyl Group

Figure imgf000153_0002

[00467] 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone ( 19.9 mg, 88 μιτιοΐ, 1.1 equiv) was added to a vigorously stirring, biphasic solution of differentially protected trioxacarcin precursor (60 mg, 80 μιτιοΐ, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane ( 1.1 mL) and pH 7 phosphate buffer (220 μί) at 23 °C. The reaction flask was covered with aluminum foil to exclude light. Over the course of 3 h, the reaction mixture was observed to change from myrtle green to lemon yellow. The product solution was partitioned between water (5 mL) and dichloromethane (50 mL). The layers were separated. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by preparatory HPLC (Agilent Prep-C 18 column, 10 μιτι, 30 x 150 mm, UV detection at 270 nm, gradient elution with 40→90% acetonitrile in water, flow rate: 15 mL/min) to provide 33 mg of the product as a yellow-green powder (65%).

[00468] Trimethylsilyl triflate ( 10% in dichloromethane, 28.3 μί, 16 μπιοΐ, 0.3 equiv) was added to a suspension of deprotected trioxacarcin precursor (33 mg, 52 μπιοΐ, 1 equiv), 1 -0- acetyltrioxacarcinose A ( 14.1 mg, 57 μιτιοΐ, 1.1 equiv), and powdered 4- A molecular sieves (-50 mg) in dichloromethane (1 .0 mL) at -78 °C. After 5 min, the mixture was diluted with dichloromethane containing 10% triethylamine and 10% methanol (3 mL). The reaction flask was allowed to warm to 23 °C. The mixture was filtered and partitioned between

dichloromethane (40 mL) and saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (5 mL). The layers were separated. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by preparatory HPLC (Agilent Prep-C 18 column, 10 μπι, 30 x 150 mm, UV detection at 270 nm, gradient elution with 40→90% acetonitrile in water, flow rate: 15 mL/min) to provide 20 mg of the product as a yellow-green powder (47%). TLC: (5% methanol-dichloromethane) R = 0.40 (CAM); Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDC13) δ: 7.47 (s, 1H), 5.38 (d, 1H, J = 3.6 Hz), 5.35 (app s, 1 H), 5.26 ppm (d, 1 H, 7 = 4.0 Hz), 4.84 (d, 1 H, J = 4.0 Hz), 4.78 (dd, 1 H, 7 = 12.3, 5.2 Hz), 4.75 (s, 1H), 4.71 (s, 1 H), 4.52 (q, 1H, J = 6.6 Hz), 3.86 (s, 1 H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 3.62 (s, 3H), 3.47 (s, 3H), 3.15 (d, l H, y = 5.3 Hz), 3.05 (d, 1 H, 7 = 5.3 Hz), 2.60 (s, 3H), 2.58 (m, 1H), 2.35 (m, 1 H), 2.14 (s, 3H), 1.96 (dd, 1 H, 7 = 14.6, 4.1 Hz), 1.62 (d, 1 H, 7 = 14.6 Hz), 1.26 (s, 1 H), 1.23 (d, 3H, J = 6.6 Hz), 1.08 (s, 3H), 0.95 (s, 9H), 0.24 (s, 3H), 0.16 (s, 3H); ‘3C NMR ( 125 MHz, CDC13) 6: 202.8, 170.5, 163.2, 151.8, 144.4, 142.4, 135.2, 126.6, 1 16.8, 1 15.2, 1 15.1 , 108.3, 104.0, 100.3, 98.6, 98.3, 74.6, 73.4, 69.8, 69.5, 69.5, 68.9, 69.5, 69.5, 68.9, 68.4, 62.9, 62.7, 57.2, 56.8, 50.7, 38.8, 36.8, 26.0, 25.9, 21.1 , 20.6, 18.6, 17.0, -4.2, -5.3; FTIR (neat), cm‘ : 2953 (w), 2934 (w), 2857 (w), 1749 (w), 1622 (m), 1570 (w), 1447 (w), 1391 (m), 1321 (w), 1294 (w), 1229 (m), 1 159 (m), 1 121 (s), 1084 (s), 1071 (m), 1020 (m), 995 (s), 943 (s), 868 (m), 837 (m), 779 (m); HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C4oH540i6Si+Na)+ 841.3073, found

841.3064.

Glycosylation of a Cycloaddition Coupling Partner

Figure imgf000155_0001

[00469] 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone ( 14.3 mg, 63 μπιοΐ, 1.2 equiv) was added to a vigorously stirring, biphasic solution of differentially protected aldehyde (37 mg, 52 μιτιοΐ, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (870 μί) and water (175 μί) at 23 °C. The reaction flask was covered with aluminum foil to exclude light. Over the course of 2 h, the reaction mixture was observed to change from myrtle green to lemon yellow. The product solution was partitioned between water (5 mL) and dichloromethane (40 mL). The layers were separated. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash-column chromatography (5% ethyl acetate-hexanes initially, grading to 10% ethyl acetate-hexanes) to provide 28 mg of the product as a yellow powder (91 %). TLC: (20% ethyl acetate-hexanes) R/ = 0.37 (CAM); Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDC13) δ: 10.83 (s, 1H), 7.30 (s, 1 H), 5.45 (m, 1H), 4.68 (dd, 1H, / = 10.3, 4.2 Hz), 3.97 (s, 3H), 3.31 (brs, 1H), 2.72 (s, 3H), 2.51-2.45 (m, 1H), 2.41-2.37 (m, 1H), 1.15 (s, 9H), 1 , 13 (s, 9H), 0.88 (s, 9H), 0.15 (s, 3H), 0.1 1 (s, 3H); l 3C NMR (125 MHz, CDCI3) δ: 194.6, 191 , 160.5, 150.2, 146, 140.8, 135.8, 134, 1 19.6, 1 16.2, 1 15.4, 1 14.7, 72.7, 63.7, 62.4, 38.8, 29.9, 62.4, 38.8, 63.7, 62.4, 38.8, 63.7, 62.4, 38.8, 29.9, 26.2, 26.1 , 26, 22.7, 21.4; FTIR (neat), cm“1 : 3470 (br, w), 2934 (w), 2888 (w), 1684 (s), 1607 (s), 1560 (w), 1472 (m), 1445 (w), 1392 (m), 1373 (s), 1242 (s), 1 153 (s), 1 1 19 (w), 1074 (m), 1044 (s), 1013 (s), 982 (w), 934 (m), 907 (w), 870 (m), 827 (s), 795 (s), 779 (s), 733 (s), 664 (s); HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C3iH4607Si2+H)+ 587.2855, found 587.2867.

[00470] Trimethylsilyl triflate (10% in dichloromethane, 25.9 μί, 14 μπιοΐ, 0.3 equiv) was added to a suspension of deprotected aldehyde (28 mg, 48 μηιοΐ, 1 equiv), 1-0- acetyltrioxacarcinose A (12.9 mg, 52 μπιοΐ, 1.1 equiv), and powdered 4-A molecular sieves (-50 mg) in dichloromethane ( 1.0 mL) at -78 °C. After 5 min, the mixture was diluted with dichloromethane containing 10% triethylamine and 10% methanol (3 mL). The reaction flask was allowed to warm to 23 °C. The mixture was filtered and partitioned between dichloromethane (40 mL) and saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (5 mL). The layers were separated. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate. The dried solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by preparatory HPLC (Agilent Prep-C 18 column, 10 μπι, 30 x 150 mm, UV detection at 270 nm, gradient elution with 80→98% acetonitrile in water, flow rate: 15 mL/min) to provide 15 mg of the product as a yellow powder (41 %). TLC: (20% ethyl acetate-hexanes) R/ = 0.29 (CAM); Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDC13) δ: 10.83 (s, 1 H), 7.32 (s, 1 H), 5.43 (d, 1 H, J = 3.9 Hz), 5.32 (m, 1H), 4.74 (s, 1 H), 4.67 (dd, 1 H, J = 12.3, 5.0 Hz), 4.54 (q, 1H, J = 6.6 Hz), 3.91 (s, 1H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 2.72 (s, 3H), 2.59 (ddd, 1 H, J = 13.8, 5.0, 3.2 Hz), 2.34 (m, 1H), 2.14 (s, 3H), 1.97 (dd, 1H, J = 14.2, 4.2 Hz), 1.71 (d, 1 Η, / = 14.6 Hz), 1.22 (d, 3H, J = 6.3 Hz), 1.15 (s, 9H), 1.15 (s, 9H), 1.08 (s, 3H), 0.93 (s, 9H), 0.23 (s, 3H), 0.13 (s, 3H); 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDC13) δ: 193.9, 191.0, 170.5, 146.4, 140.9, 134.0, 132.4, 1 19.8, 1 16.8, 1 15.8, 1 15.0, 1 10.8, 99.6, 74.6, 71.5, 70.4, 68.9, 62.9, 62.7, 39.1 , 36.9, 26.2, 26.1 , 26.1 , 25.9, 24.1 , 22.7, 21.5, 21.3, 21.1 , 18.7, 16.9, -4.1 , -5.3; FTIR (neat), cm-1 : 3524 (br, w), 2934 (m), 2861 (m), 1749 (m), 1686 (s), 1607 (s), 1560 (m), 1474 (m), 1447 (m), 1424 (w), 1375 (s), 1233 (s), 1 159 (s), 1 1 17 (m), 1080 (m), 1049 (s), 1015 (s), 997 (s), 937 (m), 883 (m), 872 (m), 827 (s), 797 (m), 781 (m), 737 (w), 677 (w), 667 (m); HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C40H60O, ,Si2+H)+773.3747, found 773.3741.

General Glycosylation Procedure of the C13 Hydroxyl Group

Figure imgf000156_0001

[00471] Crushed 4-A molecular sieves (-570 mg / 1 mmol sugar donor) was added to a stirring solution of the sugar acceptor (1 equiv.) and the sugar donor (30.0 equiv.) in dichloromethane ( 1.6 mL / 1 mmol sugar donor) and diethylether (0.228 mL / 1 mmol sugar donor) at 23 °C. The bright yellow mixture was stirred for 90 min at 23 °C and finally cooled to -78 °C. TMSOTf (10.0 equiv.) was added over the course of 10 min at -78 °C. After 4 h, a second portion of TMSOTf (5.0 equiv.) was added at -78 °C and stirring was continued for 1 h. The last portion of TMSOTf (5 equiv.) was added. After 1 h, triethylamine (20 equiv.) was added and the reaction the product mixture was filtered through a short column of silica gel deactivated with triethylamine (30% ethyl acetate-hexanes initially, grading to 50% ethyl acetate-hexanes). H NMR analysis of the residue showed minor sugar donor remainings and that the sugar acceptor had been glycosylated. The residue was purified by preparatory HPLC (Agilent Prep-C 18 column, 10 μπι, 30 x 150 mm, UV detection at 270 nm, gradient elution with 40→100% acetonitrile in water, flow rate: 15 mL/min) to provide the glycosylation product as a bright yellow oil

Three Specific Compounds Prepared by the General Glycosylation Procedure for the CI 3 Hydroxyl Group:

Figure imgf000157_0001

[00472] 10% yield; TLC: (50% ethyl acetate-hexane) R = 0.58 (UV, CAM); Ή NMR (600 MHz, CDC13) δ: 7.43 (s, 1 H), 5.84 (t, J = 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 5.29 (d, J = 4.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.19 (d, J = 4.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.01 (q, J = 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.75 (t, J = 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.73 (s, 1 H), 3.88 (s, OH), 3.77 (s, 3H), 3.63 (s, 3H), 3.47 (s, 3H), 3.03 (app q, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 2.84 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.77 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.72 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 2.58 (s, 3H), 2.36 (s, 3H), 2.33 (t, J = 3.0 Hz, 2H), 2.23 (s, 3H), 2.1 1 -2.06 (m, 2H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H).

Figure imgf000157_0002

[00473] 81 % yield, TLC: (50% ethyl acetate-hexane) R = 0.30 (UV, CAM); Ή NMR (600 MHz, CDCI3) δ: 7.46 (s, 1 H), 7.28 (d, J = 9 Hz, 2H), 6.87 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2 H), 5.83 (dd, J = 3.6, 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.30 (d, J = 4.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.19 (d, J = 4.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.19 (m, 1 H), 5.00 (q, J = 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.96 (dd, J = 12.0, 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.75 (t, J = 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.74 (s, l H), 4.70 (d, y = 10.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.59 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.86 (s, OH), 3.83 (s, 3H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.63 (s, 3H), 3.47 (s, 3H), 2.81 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.73-2.68 (m, 1 H), 2.70 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.59 (s, 3H), 2.35 (s, 3H), 2.33-2.28 (m, 2H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 2.19- 2.1 3 (m, 1 H), 1 .08 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.97 (s, 9H), 0.25 (s, 3H), 0.17 (s, 3H); HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C49H62018Si+H)+ 967.3778, found 967.3795; HRMS (ESI): Calcd for (C ¾20,8Si+Na)+ 989.3598, found 989.3585.

Figure imgf000158_0001

[00474] Compound Detected by ESI Mass Spectrometry: Calculated Mass for

[C52H7| N302i Si-Hrl = 1 100.4277, Measured Mass = 1 100.4253.

PATENT

US 4511560

https://www.google.com/patents/US4511560

The physico-chemical characteristics of DC-45-A and DC-4-5-B2 according to this invention are as follows:

(1) DC-45-A

(1) Elemental analysis: H:5.74%, C:55.11%

(2) Molecular weight: 877

(3) Molecular formula: C42 H52 O20

(4) Melting point: 180° C.±3° C. (decomposed)

(5) Ultraviolet absorption spectrum: As shown in FIG. 1 (in 50% methanol)

(6) Infrared absorption spectrum: As shown in FIG. 2 (KBr tablet method)

(7) Specific rotation: [α]D 25 =-15.3° (c=1.0, ethanol)

(8) PMR spectrum (in CDC]3 ; ppm): 1.07 (3H,s); 1.10 (3H, d, J=6.8); 1.24 (3H,d, J=6.5); many peaks between 1.40-2.30; 2.14 (3H,s); 2.49 (3H,s); 2.63 (3H,s); many peaks between 2.30-2.80; 2.91 (1H,d, J=5.6); 3.00 (1H,d, J=5.6); 3.49 (3H,s); 3.63 (3H,s); 3.85 (3H, s); many peaks between 3.60-4.00; 4.18 (1H,s); 4.55 (1H,q, J=6.8); many peaks between 4.70-4.90; 5.03 (1H, q, J=6.5); 5.25 (1H,d, J=4.0); 5.39 (1H, d, J=4.0); 5.87 (1H, m); 7.52 (1H,s); 14.1 (1H,s)

(9) CMR spectrum (in CDCl3 ; ppm): 210.9; 203.8; 170.3; 162.1; 152.5; 145.2; 142.3; 135.3; 126.7; 117.0; 114.2; 108.3; 105.3; 99.7; 97.2; 93.7; 85.1; 79.0; 74.6; 71.1; 69.6; 69.3; 68.8; 67.9; 66.3; 64.0; 62.8; 57.3; 55.9; 36.5; 32.2; 28.0; 25.7; 20.9; 20.2; 17.0; 14.7

(10) Solubility: Soluble in methanol, ethanol, water and chloroform; slightly soluble in acetone and ethyl acetate, and insoluble in ether and n-hexane

(2) DC-45-B2

(1) Elemental analysis: H: 6.03%, C: 54.34%

(2) Molecular weight: 879

(3) Molecular formula: C42 H54 O20

(4) Melting point: 181°-182° C. (decomposed)

(5) Ultraviolet absorption spectrum: As shown in FIG. 5 (in 95% ethanol)

(6) Infrared absorption spectrum: As shown in FIG. 6 (KBr tablet method)

(7) Specific rotation: [α]D 25 =-10° (c=0.2, ethanol)

(8) PMR spectrum (in CDCl3 ; ppm): 1.07 (3H,s); many peaks between 1.07-1.5; many peaks between 1.50-2.80; 2.14 (3H,s); 2.61 (3H, broad s); 2.86 (1H, d, J=5.7); 2.96 (1H, d, J=5.7); 3.46 (3H,s); 3.63 (3H, s); 3.84 (3H, s); many peaks between 3.65-4.20; many peaks between 4.40-5.00; many peaks between 5.10-5.50; 5.80 (1H, broad s); 7.49 (1H, d, J=1.0); 14.1 (1H, s)

(9) CMR spectrum (in CDCl3 ; ppm): 202.8; 170.2; 163.1; 151.8; 144.8; 142.9; 135.4; 126.5; 116.8; 114.9; 107.3; 104.6; 101.5; 99.6; 98.0; 94.4; 74.4; 72.5; 71.4; 70.4; 69.1; 68.8; 68.3; 67.9; 67.5; 66.4; 62.9; 62.7; 56.8; 56.5; 48.0; 36.7; 32.3; 25.7; 20.8; 20.3; 18.2; 16.9; 15.5

(10) Solubility: Soluble in methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and chloroform; slightly soluble in benzene, ether and water; and insoluble in n-hexane.

 

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CC1C(C(CC(O1)OC2CC(C(=O)C3=C(C4=C5C(=C(C=C4C(=C23)OC)C)C6C7C(O5)(C8(CO8)C(O6)(O7)C(OC)OC)OC9CC(C(C(O9)C)(C(=O)C)O)O)O)O)(C)O)OC(=O)C

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Cheap and sensitive test for a key prostate cancer marker

 cancer  Comments Off on Cheap and sensitive test for a key prostate cancer marker
Sep 162015
 

The cavitand-coated micro-beads are able to sweep up the amino acid sarcosine from urine samples

Cheap and sensitive test for a key prostate cancer marker

Supramolecular-coated magnetic beads offer a cheap alternative to current early-stage monitoring techniques

Scientists in Italy have developed a cheap and disposable sensor that can detect the presence of the prostate cancer biomarker sarcosine in urine.

http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2015/09/cheap-sensor-prostate-cancer

////////////Cheap and sensitive test,   key prostate cancer marker

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